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Lecture : Mr, kawar Abid

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of
a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often
used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although
the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is
defined as mass divided by volume.

. ρ=m/v

where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume.

Specific gravity
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to
the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the
ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference
substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific
gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance
to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance.
The reference substance is nearly always water at its
densest (4°C) for liquids; for gases it is air at room
temperature (21°C). Nonetheless, the temperature and
pressure must be specified for both the sample and the
reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).
Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from
industry to industry. In British beer brewing, the practice for
specific gravity as specified above is to multiply it by 1000.[1]
Specific gravity is commonly used in industry as a simple
means of obtaining information about the concentration of
solutions of various materials such as brines, hydrocarbons,
sugar solutions (syrups, juices, honeys, brewers wort, must

SG= ρsubstance/ ρH2o

Experiment purpose
1-calculate the density of a substance from measurements
of its mass amd volume.

2-calulate the specific gravity of a liquid from its density.

experimental procedures
A density of a solid

1-metal object

2-string or thread
3-graduated cylinder

1-First we bring the material (100-250-

2-then we tied it with a string and then we
put it inside the graduated cylinder of know the volume of the solid by
Volume of solid=final water level – initial water level

4- density of solid=mass of solid/volume of solid.

B. density of liquid
1-Graduated cylinder

2-electronic balance

1-first we take the weight of the breaker by putting it on

the balance .
2-then we put 300ml of water inside the breaker and
put it again on the balance to know it mass;just like that
Then we repeat the same procedure for salty water.

C/ specific gravity for liquid

Calculate the specific gravity of each liquid used in B. by
dividing density of liquid to density of water standard .


1- What property of oil makes it float on

A/The density of oil is less than the density of water.

2- Why would heating the gas in an air

balloon make the balloon rise ?
A/ when the gas is heated the movement molecular of this gas will
be increase. So the gas will rise into the wall of the balloon and
make a balloon rise too.

3- What is the different between density and

specific gravity ?
A/ to determine the density of a liquid we need the mass of the
liquid and the volume of the liquid, but specific gravity is a
comparison of the density of that liquid with a density of water.

4- How does a graph help us interpret

scientific data ?
A/ the graph can show us a relation between mass and volume.
5- An object made aluminum has a mass
8.37g. when it was placed in graduated
cylinder containing 20m of water, the water
level rise to 23.1 ml. calculate the density
and specific gravity of the object?
A/ Mass (aluminum) = 8.37g
Volume (water)1 = 20ml density = ?
Volume (water)2 = 23.1 specific gravity =?

Volume of object = V2 – V1
Volume of object = 23.1 – 20 = 3.1ml

D= mass / volume
D= 8.37 / 3.1 = 2.7 g/ml = 2700 kg/m3
SG= 2700/1000 = 2.7

6-what is the mass of solution that has a

density of
0.775 g/ml and a volume of 50ml?
A/ D=0.77 g/ml
V=50ml M=?
M=D x V = 770 kg/m3 x 0.000005 m3
M=0.0385 kg

7- what is the volume of a solution that has a

specific gravity of 1.2 and a mass of 185 g ?
A/ D= SG x D of water
D= 1.2 x 1000= 1200 kg/m3
V= M / D =0.185/1200
V= 0.000154 m3

8- if we have salt water and fresh water in

one container, which one of them is float
above the other ?
A/ fresh water is float above the salt water because its density is
less than the density of salt water.
9- if we heated the fresh water to 80 C, is the
density is becomes higher or lower than it
value at standard conditions?
A/ the density is not change when the temperatures change.

10- if we heated the liquid, is the specific

gravity is increased or decreased with
temperature rise ?
A/ The specific gravity of a liquid decreases with a rise in