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Homework #1

S7.1 Step-down converter


Armature inductance La = 0.2 mH.
Armature resistance: neglected.
The armature current is 5A.
fs = 30 kHz.
D = 0.8

(a) The output voltage, Vo, equals 200V. Calculate the input voltage, Vd

Vo
Duty Cycle: D 
Vd

200
Vd   250[V]
0.8

(b) Find the ripple in the armature current.

Vd  Vo   D   250  200   0.8  6.67[A]


Inductor Ripple Current: I a 
f s  La 30000  0.0002

(c) Calculate the maximum and the minimum value of the armature
Current

I a
Maximum output current: armature current   5  3.33  8.33[A]
2
I
Minimum output current: armature current  a  5  3.33  2.67[A]
2
(d) Sketch the armature current, ia(t), and the dc current, id(t).
(Assume : Resistance Load 40 Ω)

<6[A]
ia

<5[A]
id

(e) The load on the machine is reduced. Calculate Ia when the converter is on the boundary
between continuous and discontinuous mode
1 D 1
Minimum output current : I o (min)  I o  Vo  
2 La fs
Condition of boundary mode: I o (min)  0

1 D 1 0.1
In boundary mode: I a  Vo    200   3.333  3.34[A]
2 La fs 6

(f) The load on the dc machine gives Ia = 2A. The current is now discontinuous. What is the
back-emf voltage, Ea?

Assume
- Linear Load Condition & initial current is 5A & resistance load is 40Ω

The output current change to the 2A, then

80[V]
I o  2[A] 
40[]

So, the back-emf voltage is 120[V]

(g) Sketch waveforms of (f) similar to Fig. 7-7.


iL
<0[A]

VL <0[V]

Load side capacitor: 5u


Load resistor: 140Ω

(h) Calculate maximum armature current, ia,max

In discontinuous mode, the output voltage is not same as continuous mode

Vo D

Vd DA

The Armature current waveform

Ia

DT DAT T

From the waveform the Armature current at DAT is


1 DAT
ia (t  DA T)   ( Vo ) dt  I MAX
L DT

So,
La I MAX
DA  D 
TVo
The output current is same as average inductor current.

Then,
I a _ MAX
Io   DA
2
Io
 I a _ MAX  2
DA
(i) Find D1Ts
La I MAX
DA  D 
TVo
La I MAX
1Ts  ( DA  D )T  T
TVo
S7.2 Step-down converter characteristics

A step-down dc-dc converter like the one shown in Fig. 7-4a is to be analyzed.

The input voltage Vd = 48 V.


The output filter inductance L = 0.1 mH
Series resistor (with L) R = 0.2
Assume in all calculations constant voltage over the series resistor R.
The output capacitor C is large; assume no ripple in the output voltage.
Rated output is 20 V and 25 A
The switching frequency for this converter is 10 kHz.

(a) Calculate rated output power.

Output power = Rated output voltage × Rated output current = 500 [W]

(b) Calculate equivalent load resistance

20[V]
 0.8[]
25[A]

(c) Calculate duty ratio D for rated output. The voltage across the series resistor R must be
taken into consideration.

In steady state
- iL = io
- Series resistor R + equivalent load resistance = 1 Ω

DVd  Vo  I o R

The desired output voltage is 25[V]

So, the duty ratio D = 25/48 ≈ 0.521


(d) Keep this duty ratio constant and increase the load resistance, or reduce the load in W.
Find the load current, voltage, watt and the equivalent load resistance RB at the boundary
to discontinuous conduction.

The average inductor current (Io) is half of the inductor peak current (iL)

- Switch closed condition


di 2I
L L  L o  Vd  Vo  I o R
dt DT
Io 
 d Vo  DT
V 
1  RDT /  2 L 

- Switch open condition


di 2Io
L L L  Vo  I o R
dt (1  D)T
2Io
Io 
2 L  (1  D) RT

Using tow output current equations, the output voltage Vo is

 (1  D) RT 
Vo  DVd 1    25[V]
 2L

Then, Output current at the Switch open condition is 1.2 [A]

And, power is Vo  I o  25 1.2  30[W]

The equivalent load resistance is 20.8[Ω] which from the output voltage and current

(e) Sketch the inductor current and the inductor voltage for this operation.

- The load current is 1.2[A] means that Peak inductor current is 2.4[A]
- The output voltage is 25[V]

1.2[A]
0[A]
t

Vd-Vo

-Vo
(f) Still keep this duty ratio constant and increase the load resistance, or reduce the load in W
until there is only 1 W power to the load. Find the load current, voltage, watt and the
equivalent load resistance RB for this operation.

- Duty ratio: 0.521


- Discontinuous mode

Discontinuous mode condition waveform (without series resistor) is

From the waveform

IL 
Vd  Vo  I o R  DT
L
Vd  Vo  I o R  DT  1Ts Vo  I o R 
 DTs  1Ts  I L  D  1  Po
IL
Io    

Ts 2  2 Vo
Po
 Io 
 D  1   Vd  Vo  I o R  DT
Vo 2 L
2 Po L
Vo 2  VdVo  Po R  0
 D  1  DT
Vd 1  2L 
Vo   Vd 2  4 Po R 1  
2 2   D  1  RDT 

So, load voltage and current is

48 1  2  0.110 
Vo   482  4  0.2  1   47.84181[V]
 0.2  0.521 
2
2 2
1[W]
Io   20.90222 103  21[mA]
47.84181[V]

Equivalent load resistance is

47.84181[V]
 2278.181
21[mA]
(g) Sketch the inductor current and the inductor voltage for this operation..

IL

t
DTs Ts

VL

Vd-Vo-IoR

-(Vo+IoR)
Δ1Ts

(h) Use the output voltage from (f) and make an accurate calculation of the inductor current.
(Do not assume that the voltage over the series resistor R is constant.)

Maximum inductor current is 46.5 mA

(i) Sketch the inductor current for this accurate calculation.


- PSIM simulation

Output Voltage

<47[V]

Inductor current

<0.5[A]

Inductor Voltage

<1.5[V]

<-48.14[V]

52us t
1us
100us

(j) Compare (g) and (i).


The inductor current waveform (g) and (i) are almost same.