0 Voti positivi0 Voti negativi

0 visualizzazioni16 pagine.knkj

Apr 10, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

.knkj

© All Rights Reserved

0 visualizzazioni

.knkj

© All Rights Reserved

- Off-Road Catalogue Sommaire 2012 WEB En
- Composite Materials 1
- Literature Review format for pg project
- 1556_3486 (Composites)
- Composite Materials
- Resin Infusion Molding
- Lightweights Carbon Fiber Rolls
- 40207_42
- Materials Team Technical Roadmap
- Inverse Algorithm for Optical Processing of Composite Materials
- Material and Processes-Question_ Ans
- Composite Laminate Guidelines
- 105
- 090 Comprehensive Li
- Materi Komposit - Prof. Anne Zulfia
- Engineering Mathematics
- 8. FRP
- Uyttersprot Bryan(1)
- Design and Fabrication of Clutch Plate Using Styrene Based Open Moulding Process
- Teuwen E and P Composites Wind Turbines

Sei sulla pagina 1di 16

Composite

Particulate Fibrous

Oriented Oriented Layer

and Long and Short Laminated Laminate

Fiber Fiber d

In a class of synthetic composites, numerous advantages occur such as high strength, high

stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficients, and high heat resistance. Glass, carbon,

graphite, and aramid synthetic fibers are generally used in the synthetic composite. These

synthetic fibers possess high stiffness and structural properties as low thermal expansion

coefficients, high heat resistance, and high stiffness. High-performance engineering

structures usually made of synthetic composites. Glass fiber is most commonly used fiber

having advantages including low cost, high chemical resistance, and high strength.

The advantages of graphite fiber include low coefficient of thermal expansion, high

fatigue strength, high specific strength, and modulus. Graphite fibers are commonly used

in high strength and high-modulus applications such as aircraft components.

2

Chapter 1 Introduction

Luffa is a suitable natural fiber and has been successfully used in bio-sorption of heavy

metal from waste water. Sponge Guard is being used as a shock absorber, utensils

cleaning, packaging industry. Very limited information was available in literatures

regarding its structure and properties. The fruit of luffa cylindrica is also used for medical

purpose.

composition presented, such as strength and stiffness varies based on cellulose present in

the fiber, the presence of hemicellulose controls moisture absorption and thermal

degradation while lignin influence the thermal stability. There are three different

mechanisms by which moisture absorption in natural composites can be happen, one is

diffusion in which water molecules diffuse through the micro-gaps in the polymer chain,

second is capillary transport due to the incomplete wettability and impregnation and last is

the capillary transport by micro cracks in the matrix formed during the compounding

process.

Despite of many advantages of natural fibers, their hydrophilic nature is one of the main

disadvantages. Natural fibers also show poor dimensional stability when it is exposed to

the environment, hence before using these natural composites in outdoor applications, it is

necessary to investigate their mechanical and physical behaviour under different

weathering conditions like saline water, sunlight, and humidity. These natural fibers

absorb moisture whenever they exposed to the humid environment, this moisture had an

adverse effect on composites reinforced with natural fibers and decrease their properties.

For example, moisture absorption by natural fiber reinforced in composite decreases its

5

Chapter 4

Fabrication of Composite

Luffa fiber reinforced epoxy composite has been prepared by using hand lay-up technique.

Hand lay-up technique is one of the simplest and labor intensive techniques Fibers used in

this study was collected from Rourkela, Odisha, India and shown in Figure 4.1. Firstly the

outer surface of luffa cylindrica was removed as shown in Figure 4.2 after that luffa fibers

were cut carefully to separate inner core from the outer core.

Luffa cylindrica has to be chemically treated before using because of their hydrophilic

nature. For this treatment purpose, alkaline treatment was used. Prior to treatment mats

were washed in purified tap water and then dried at room temperature to remove any

foreign impurities and dirt. In alkaline treatment, fiber mat was soaked in a 5% NaOH

solution for 4 hours, after that these mats were washed in tap water three to four times

followed by washing with distilled water. Than these fibers were dried under room

20

Chapter 4 Fabrication of Composite

temperature for 24 hours and 3 hours under sun light. These fibers were chopped in size of

2-5 mm after all above mentioned processes and these chopped fibers were used for

making the composite plate.

Alkaline treatment is one of the most widely used fiber treatment process in which

fibers were soaked in concentrated NaOH solution of specific concentration for a

particular time period. In this treatment certain amount of lignin, wax and oil covering to

the external surface of fiber cells are removed. The most important modification done by

alkaline treatment is the dispersion of hydrogen bonding present in the fiber structure,

thereby decreasing the hydrophilic nature of fibers. The addition of aqueous sodium

hydroxide (NaOH) to natural fiber promotes the ionization of the hydroxyl group to the

alkoxide.

Material required for composite preparation are epoxy resin, hardener, and natural

fiber. The type of epoxy resin used in this study is L-12. The main advantages of epoxy is

that it produce low shrinkage during curing and can be partially cured and stored in that

state. Epoxy resin have high thermal and mechanical properties such as it has high glass

transition temperature, high thermal stability, and good moisture resistance. Epoxy resin

has density of 1.2 g/cm3 and viscosity of 11000-14000 MPs-s.

A composite plate of dimension 27cm x 27cm x 5mm is prepared shown in Figure 4.4

with a various weight ratio of fiber and epoxy. For composite preparation, a mold is

prepared as shown in Figure 4.5. A mold releasing sheet is placed on the surface of the

mold, and a mold releasing spray is also applied on the inner surface of the mold for the

21

Chapter 4 Fabrication of Composite

easy removal of the composite plate. A corresponding hardener is also mixed in the epoxy

resin in a ratio of 1:10 by weight.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 4.4 Prepared composite plate with different weight fraction (a) 3.2 % weight fraction, (b)

6.4 % weight fraction, and (c) 9.6 % weight fraction

22

Chapter 5

5.1 Evaluation of mechanical properties

Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON) as shown in Figure 5.1. The specimens used was

prepared according to ASTM standards and shown in Figure 5.2. Testing for four different

weight fraction is done using three samples of each as shown in Figure 5.3. It is observed

that as the increase in weight fraction results increase in tensile modulus.

Fiber content and fiber strangth are the main contributers to the strength of composite.

It is observed that as the increase in weight fraction results increase in tensile modulus. It

is also seen that, there is a gradual increment in the tensile modulus of the luffa fiber

composite.

23

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

5 5.56

Tensile modulus

4.95

4.71

4

4.27

3

0

0 3.2 6.4 9.6

Weight fraction

This section contains convergence and validation study of present developed model.

Results of the current model are compared with those available published results to

validate the present model. The material property and boundary condition are taken same

and results from (Reddy and Phan, 1985) are compared with current results as shown in

Table 5.1. For convergence study, the size of the element is varied and non-dimensional

fundamental frequency is computed. The convergence study of vibration behaviour is

presented in Figure 5.4 for all edges simply supported (SSSS) and Figure 5.5 for one edge

24

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

clamped and other edges free support (CFFF) conditions of an isotropic plate. In Figure

5.4 the non-dimensional fundamental frequency response is computed for plate having

(Wf= 9.6, and a/h =10) for different aspect ratio (a/b= 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5). The frequency

parameters are non-dimensionalized as

a2

Eh2

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency

a/b=1 a/b=1.5

250 a/b=2 a/b=2.5

200

150

100

50

2 4 6 8 10 12

Mesh size

Figure 5.4 Convergence study of simply supported composite plate (Wf= 9.6, and a/h =10)

Similarly, study is done for (a/b= 1 and a/h =10) by varying weight fraction and shown

in Figure 5.5. It is observed from this study that (10×10) mesh size gives desired response

effectively for both the cases. Hence, (10×10) mesh size is used for all computational

study in this work.

25

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

Wf = 0 Wf= 3.4

12.6 Wf= 6.5 Wf= 9.4

12.4

12.2

12.0

11.8

11.6

11.4

11.2

11.0

10.8

2 4 6 8 10 12

Mesh size

Figure 5.5 Convergence study of simply supported composite plate (a/b= 1 and a/h =10)

four different weight fraction (Wf =0, 3.2, 6.4, 9.6) and four different aspect ratio (a/b= 1,

1.5, 2, 2.5) in Figure 5.6 (a)-(d). The non-dimensional fundamental frequency behaviour is

plotted for four different boundary conditions CFCF, CCCC, CFFF, and SSSS in

Figureure 5.6 (a)-(d) respectively. From Figure 5.6 it is observed that in CFCF and CFFF

support condition the non-dimensional fundamental frequency decreases as aspect ratio

increases while for CCCC and SSSS support conditions non-dimensional fundamental

frequency increases as aspect ratio increases. This behaviour of frequency is because of

that fact, in CFCF and CFFF boundary conditions stiffness decreases and for CCCC and

SSSS boundary conditions stiffness increases as aspect ratio decreases or increases

respectively. It is also observed that as the weight fraction increases non-dimensional

fundamental frequency response also increases for all boundary conditions.

26

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

80

a/h=10, CFCF

500 a/h=10, CCCC

78 Wf=0 Wf=3.2

Wf=0 Wf=3.2

Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6

76 Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6

400

74

300

72

70

200

68

66 100

Aspect ratio Aspect ratio

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency

13.0 a/h=10, CFFF

240 a/h=10, SSSS

Wf=0 Wf=3.2

Wf=0 Wf=3.2

12.5 Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6

200 Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6

12.0

160

11.5 120

11.0 80

10.5 40

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Aspect ratio Aspect ratio

Figure 5.6 Effect of aspect ratio on non-dimensional fundamental frequency for different boundary

conditions

for different thickness ratio by considering same material property and boundary

conditions is studied. The non-dimensional fundamental frequency response for varying

thickness ratio (a/h = 5, 10, 20, 40, 80) under four different support conditions CFCF,

CCCC, CFFF, SSSS is shown in Figure 5.7 (a)-(d) respectively for various weight

fractions. It is observed that as the thickness ratio increases non-dimensional fundamental

frequency also increases for all support conditions. It is also observed that as 9.6 weight

fraction shows the maximum non-dimensional fundamental frequency and pure epoxy

shows minimum non-dimensional fundamental frequency.

27

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

85

130

80

120

75

70 110

Wf=0 Wf=3.2 a/b=1, CCCC

Wf=0 Wf=3.2

60 Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6 90

Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6

55 80

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Thickness ratio Thickness ratio

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency

12.5

72

70

12.0

68

11.5 66

64

11.0 62

60 a/b=1, SSSS

a/b=1, CFFF

10.5 Wf=0 Wf=3.2 58 Wf=0 Wf=3.2

Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6 56 Wf=6.4 Wf=9.6

10.0 54

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Thickness ratio Thickness ratio

Figure 5.7 Effect of thickness ratio on non-dimensional fundamental frequency for different

boundary conditions

The non-dimensional fundamental frequency response for isotropic plate under different

support conditions is studied in Figure 5.8 and 5.9. In Figure 5.8 the effect of support

condition is examined for four aspect ratios (a/b = 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) under (Wf =9.6 and a/h

=10). It is observed from the Figure 5.8 that as the aspect ratio increases the non-

dimensional fundamental frequency also increases considerably for CCCC and SSSS

support conditions while the increment in non-dimensional fundamental frequency for

CFFF and CFCF support conditions is negligible. It is also observed, CCCC support

condition gives maximum non-dimensional fundamental frequency and CFFF gives

minimum non-dimensional fundamental frequency. This is because of the fact that, as

aspect ratio increases in CCCC boundary condition width (b) of plate decreases keeping

28

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

length (a) fixed for increasing aspect ratio the two opposite supports comes closer to each

other, this results in increasing the stiffness of the plate.

a/h=10, Wf= 9.6

500 SSSS CFFF

CCCC CFCF

400

300

200

100

0

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Aspect ratio

Figure 5.8 Effect of support conditions on non-dimensional fundamental frequency for varying

aspect ratio

5, 10, 20, 40, 80) is plotted. It is concluded from the Figure that CCCC support condition

shows the maximum non-dimensional fundamental frequency and CFFF support condition

shows minimum non-dimensional fundamental frequency for increasing thickness ratio. It

is also observed from the Figure 5.9 that non-dimensional fundamental frequency for

CCCC, SSSS and CFCF support condition increases considerably while the non-

dimensional fundamental frequency for CFFF support condition remains approximately

constant as thickness ratio increases. This is due to the fact that, as the thickness ratio

increases the plate will become thinner and thinner hence this will decrease the stiffness of

the plate result in incresing the displacement and decreasing in the natural frequency but

due to non-dimensionalization of natural frequency responces are reversed and non-

dimensional fundamental frequency increases as thickness ratio increases.

29

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

140

SSSS CFFF

100

CCCC CFCF

80

60

40

20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Thickness ratio

Figure 5.9 Effect of support conditions on non-dimensional fundamental frequency for varying

thickness ratio

discussed as shown in Figure 5.10 and 5.11. In Figure 5.10 the effect of weight fraction on

non-dimensional fundamental frequency for different aspect ratio (a/b = 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) and

two different support conditions CCCC and SSSS is shown. It is observed from the Figure

5.10 that non-dimensional fundamental frequency increases for both support conditions

and all aspect ratios as weight fraction increases. It is also observed that more the aspect

ratio more will be the non-dimensional fundamental frequency for both support

conditions. The non-dimensional fundamental frequency for CCCC support condition is

more as compared to SSSS support condition for same aspect ratio. The aspect ratio of 2.5

of CCCC boundary condition shows maximum non-dimensional fundamental frequency

and aspect ratio of 1 of SSSS boundary condition shows minimum non-dimensional

fundamental frequency.

30

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

500

a/h=10

CCCC SSSS

450

a/b= 1 a/b= 1.5 a/b= 1 a/b= 1.5

a/b= 2 a/b= 2.5 a/b= 2 a/b= 2.5

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0 2 4 6 8 10

Weight fraction

Figure 5.10 Effect of weight fraction on non-dimensional fundamental frequency for varying

aspect ratio under CCCC and SSSS support conditions

different thickness ratio (a/h = 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) and two different support conditions CCCC

and SSSS is shown in Figure 5.11. It is observed from the Figure 5.11 that non-

dimensional fundamental frequency increases for both support conditions and all thickness

ratios as weight fraction increases. The thickness ratio of 80 of CCCC boundary condition

shows maximum non-dimensional fundamental frequency and thickness ratio of 5 of

SSSS boundary condition shows minimum non-dimensional fundamental frequency. It is

also observed that more the thickness ratio more will be the non-dimensional fundamental

frequency for both support conditions. The non-dimensional fundamental frequency for

CCCC support condition is more as compared to SSSS support condition for same

thickness ratio.

31

Chapter 5 Results and Discussion

a/b=1

CCCC SSSS

200 a/h=5 a/h=5

a/h=10 a/h=10

a/h=20 a/h=20

160 a/h=40 a/h=40

a/h=80 a/h=80

120

80

40

0 2 4 6 8 10

Weight fraction

Figure 5.11 Effect of weight fraction on non-dimensional fundamental frequency for varying

thickness ratio under CCCC and SSSS support conditions

32

CHAPTER 6

Closure

6.1 Conclusion Remark

Free vibration behaviour of natural fiber composite is computed in this work including the

development of an environmental chamber to analyse the mechanical behaviour of

composites under different environmental conditions. A mathematical model base on first

order shear deformation theory is also developed taking into account the thermal and

moisture coefficients. Composite plate having different weight fractions are prepared

using natural fiber (Luffa cylindrica) and tensile test of specimens cutted from these plates

are also done.

The effect of various geometrical parameters such as aspect ratio, thickness ratio,

boundary conditions, and weight fraction of fiber is investigated using finite element

package ANSYS APDL 17.0.

The general and more detailed conclusion of results obtained from current study are as

follows:

From above study it is concluded that for luffa fiber composite increases in aspect

ratio results in increase in non-dimensional fundamental frequency for CCCC and

SSSS support conditions because of the fact that, as thickness ratio increases

keeping length constant stiffness also increases, while non-dimensional

fundamental frequency decreases for CFFF and CFCF support conditions because

stiffness decreases.

As thickness ratio increases fundamental frequency decreases for all support

conditions because plate become thinner results in decrease of stiffness, but due to

non-dimensional terms the effect of thickness ratio reversed and non-dimensional

fundamental frequency increases as thickness ratio increases.

Increase in the constraint degree of freedome results in increases of natural

frequency of composit plate.

33

- Off-Road Catalogue Sommaire 2012 WEB EnCaricato daLazer Helmets
- Composite Materials 1Caricato daKiruba Shanker
- Literature Review format for pg projectCaricato daM.Saravana Kumar..M.E
- 1556_3486 (Composites)Caricato daKarishma Prabhu
- Composite MaterialsCaricato daPradeepkumar Chikkamath
- Resin Infusion MoldingCaricato daAnkitChoudhary
- Lightweights Carbon Fiber RollsCaricato dasakthimani1973
- 40207_42Caricato dasupriyo1970
- Materials Team Technical RoadmapCaricato dad_winarto680
- Inverse Algorithm for Optical Processing of Composite MaterialsCaricato daJinsoo Kim
- Material and Processes-Question_ AnsCaricato daprashanth_an
- Composite Laminate GuidelinesCaricato daMike DeSpenza
- 105Caricato daIJAR Journal
- 090 Comprehensive LiCaricato dadraganug
- Materi Komposit - Prof. Anne ZulfiaCaricato daMuhammad Thohari
- Engineering MathematicsCaricato daT Hari Prasad
- 8. FRPCaricato daAditya Vardhan
- Uyttersprot Bryan(1)Caricato dajaymin patel
- Design and Fabrication of Clutch Plate Using Styrene Based Open Moulding ProcessCaricato dak eswari
- Teuwen E and P Composites Wind TurbinesCaricato daalexrferreira
- raju Resume.docxCaricato daRaju Reddy Nmr
- paper 1 main file.pdfCaricato daPavan Kishore
- IJ-5 (JNF).pdfCaricato daKumarVirendra
- Scott Bader composites handbbookCaricato damaged_abdnagho
- Effect of Chemical Treatment on Alpaca Fleece Reinforced Polymer CompositesCaricato daABRAHAM EBEN ANDREWS
- T Manufacturing ProcessesCaricato dacaaad
- t28Caricato daHuynh Phuc Phung
- 2-67-1380635000-8. Mechanical properties.full.pdfCaricato dajraman24
- Application of Composites for Centrifugal PumpsCaricato daravide76
- ChemicalTreatments-NaturalFiberCaricato daindraj

- 33. Banker's Discount Important Concepts Banker's Discount : Suppose ACaricato daz1y2
- BW1.pdfCaricato daAnurag Jasti
- satish.pdfCaricato daAnurag Jasti
- Windows Upgrade Offer - Registration ConfirmationCaricato daAnurag Jasti
- 21. Simple InterestCaricato daz1y2
- 17. Time and Distance Important Facts and FormulaeCaricato daz1y2
- How to Create a Transparent Background in PhotoshopCaricato daAnurag Jasti
- 39.Line GraphsCaricato daz1y2
- 34. Heights and DistancesCaricato daz1y2
- 27. CalendarCaricato daz1y2
- This Section Comprises of Questions in Which the Data CollectedCaricato daz1y2
- 36. TabulationCaricato daz1y2
- 18. Problems on TrainsCaricato daz1y2
- 14. Chain Rule _important Facts and FormulaeCaricato daz1y2
- 32. True Discount Important Concepts Suppose a Man Has ToCaricato daz1y2
- ProbabilityCaricato daz1y2
- 24 .Area Fundemental ConceptsCaricato daz1y2
- 30. Permutations and CombinationsCaricato daz1y2
- 29. Stocks and SharesCaricato daz1y2
- IMPORTANT FACTS the Face or Dial of a Watch IsCaricato daz1y2
- 23. LogarithmsCaricato daz1y2
- 22.Compound InterestCaricato daz1y2
- 26. Races and Games Important Facts Races: A Contest OfCaricato daz1y2
- 25.Volume and Surface AreaCaricato daz1y2
- 15. Time and Work Iimportant Facts and FormulaeCaricato daz1y2
- 13. PartnershipCaricato daz1y2
- 20. Alligation or MixtureCaricato daz1y2
- 19.Boats and Streams Important Facts and FormulaeCaricato daz1y2
- 16. Pipes and CisternsCaricato daz1y2

- nnriapril19.pdfCaricato daMd asrar ali
- Robot Localization Ias13 RevisedCaricato daaureliokta
- Optimizing Keyscape for Live PerformanceCaricato daDavid Kaeser
- Analytical-scale microwave-assisted extraction.pdfCaricato daElis
- vibauthorCustomizing VIBs with VIB AuthorCaricato daAnders Hogrelius
- Chemical Engineering Mathematics Lecture NotesCaricato dafarukh jamil
- khan2018.pdfCaricato daRao Umar
- DVClub UVM RegistersCaricato dajagdish
- NCL UPVC Windows Tech CatalougeCaricato daVengadapathy Perumal
- UMTS Network Optimization and Trouble Shooting v2.401 TOCCaricato daMuhd Azizul Ab Aziz
- bnwas_e_1Caricato dasajujohny
- 2GCS212019A0070_Manual Power Quality Filter PQFMCaricato daAdriano Reis
- OBD 1Caricato dajevelezsoft
- Helicopter AerodynamicsCaricato daSatyavinaykumar Tokala
- Common Rail Injection System Pressure ControlCaricato daAshish Agarwal
- ResumeCaricato daWaleed Abdulhayee
- (Final) Engineers Cafe MEEEECaricato daS M Hasan Shahriar
- WORK-problem SolvingCaricato daNanay Gi
- AlfaOBD HelpCaricato daThiago
- FA602 Cynergy FAQ 31Jan12 WebCaricato darpcsp
- Hame Router Compatibility ChartCaricato daC@9959836560
- Earthquake Resistant Design Of Open Ground Storey Framed BuildingCaricato daravikumar4101
- APS(GL220_820)-UM-151Caricato daTaha Bintahir
- datasheetCaricato daSoumit Biswas
- ourglass.pdfCaricato daYsharath Chandramouli
- Test Case TemplateCaricato daTarun Jain
- bcn-b62005-702_aCaricato daRafael Gago
- Investigation on Edge Joints of Inconel 625 Sheets Processed With Laser WeldingCaricato daSyarief Nahdi
- Www.problemtolerance.com_HOW to USE PICMONKEYCaricato daRomel Agunos Andoy
- IPS Global Directory and Addons DatasheetCaricato datelisca

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.