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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

Lab HEAT CONDUCTION (LINEAR)


01
Prepared By
Mohammad Khalid Bin Wahid

Edited By
Mohd Tarmizy Bin Che Kar

Lab Location
ET-L -23 Thermodynamics

Lab Outcomes
By the end of this lab, students should be able to:
To investigate Fourier's Law for the linear conduction of heat
along a homogeneous bar

20
Student
Student Name Section
ID

1
0
0
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1.0 Introduction

Thermal conduction is the mode of heat transfer, which occurs in a material by virtue
of a temperature gradient. A solid is chosen for the demonstration of pure conduction
since both liquids and gases exhibit excessive convective heat transfer. In a practical
situation, heat conduction occurs in three dimensions, a complexity which often
requires extensive computation to analyze. In the laboratory, a single dimensional
approach is required to demonstrate the basic law that relates rate of heat flow to
temperature gradient and area.

Figure 1: Unit Assembly for Heat Conduction Study Bench (Model: HE 105)

1. Control Panel 6. Thermocouple Connectors


2. Heater Power Indicator 7. Thermocouples
3. Heater Power Regulator 8. Radial Module
4. Temperature Indicator 9. Linear Module
5. Temperature Selector

1.1 Specification

i) Linear Module
Consists of the following sections:

a) Heater Section
Material: Brass
Diameter: 25 mm

b) Cooler Section
Material: Brass
Diameter: 25 mm

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c) Interchangeable Test Section


Insulated Brass Test Section with Temperature Sensors Array
(Diameter = 25mm, Length = 30 mm)

Insulated Brass Test Section


(Diameter = 13mm, Length = 30 mm)

Insulated Stainless Steel Test Section


(Diameter = 25mm, Length = 30 mm)

ii) Instrumentations
Linear module consists of a maximum of 9 type K thermocouple temperature sensors
at 10 mm interval. Each test modules are installed with a 100 Watt heater.

iii) Control Panel

Either of the heat-conduction modules may be connected to a control panel which


allows the heater input power to be set and the temperature at any of the sensors to be
shown in °C on the computer. Heater power is controlled by a variable
autotransformer and displayed on a digital indicator. Power outputs from 0 to 100
watts may be obtained.

Note:
The insulation material of the test modules can withstand up to 100 °C only. Reduce
the heater power immediately if the temperature nearest to the heater is too high.

2.0 Linear Conduction Heat Transfer

Figure 2: Linear temperature distribution

dT It is often necessary to evaluate the heat flow through a solid when the flow is not steady e.g.
through the wall of a furnace that is being heated or cooled. To calculate the heat flow under
these conditions it is necessary to find the temperature distribution through the solid and how
the distribution varies with. Using the equipment set-up already described, it is a simple
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matter to monitor the temperature profile variation during either a heating or cooling cycle
thus facilitating the study of unsteady state conduction.

Figure 3: Linear temperature distribution of different materials

Fourier’s Law states that:


dT
Q  kA (1)
dx
where,

Q = heat flow rate, [W]


W 
k = thermal conductivity of the material, 
 Km 
A = cross-sectional area of the conduction, [m 2]
dT = changes of temperature between 2 points, [K]
dx = changes of displacement between 2 points, [m]

From continuity the heat flow rate (Q) is the same for each section of the conductor. Also the thermal
conductivity (k) is constant (assuming no change with average temperature of the material).

Hence,
AH (dT ) AS (dT ) AC (dT )
  (2)
(dx H ) (dx S ) (dx C )
i.e. the temperature gradient is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area.

Figure 4: Temperature distribution with various cross-sectional areas

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3.0 Experimental Procedure


3.1 General Start-up Procedures
3.1.1 Linear Conduction Module
1. Make sure that the main switch if off. Insert an intermediate section into the linear
module and clamp together.
Note: Apply thermal conductive compound on both connecting surfaces to
improve the thermal contact between the metals.
2. Connect the cooling water supply and drain on to the test modules.
3. Connect the heater supply lead for the linear conduction module to the power
supply socket on the control panel.
4. Install the temperature sensors to the linear test module according to the numbers.
Connect the temperature sensors to the panel.
5. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the
water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.
6. Turn the heater power control knob on the control panel to 0 Watt position by
turning the knob fully anti-clockwise.
7. Switch on the main switch and the digital readouts will be illuminated.
8. Switch on the heater and set the heater power indicator shows a reading of
approximately 20 watts. Temperature along the linear module should start to
increase after a few minutes.
9. Make sure that the temperature reading decreases towards the water-cooled end
for the entire temperature sensor.

3.2 Procedures

1. Make sure that the main switch initially off. Then Insert a brass conductor (25mm
diameter) section intermediate section into the linear module and clamp together.
2. Install the temperature sensors T1 until T9 to the test module and connect the
sensor leads to the panel.
3. Connect the heater supply lead for the linear conduction module to the power
supply socket on the control panel.
4. Turn on the water supply and ensure that water is flowing from the free end of the
water pipe to drain. This should be checked at intervals.

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5. Turn the heater power control knob control panel to the fully anticlockwise position.
6. Switch on the power supply and main switch; the digital readouts will be
illuminated.
7. Switch on the heater and turn the heater power control to 5 Watts and allow
sufficient time (about 10 minutes) to achieve steady state condition before
recording the temperature at all temperature points as well as the input power
reading on the wattmeter (Q). This procedure can be repeated for other input
power between 0 to 20 watts. After each change, sufficient time must be allowed to
achieve steady state conditions again.
8. Plot of the temperature, T versus distance, x. Calculate the thermal
conductivity, k of the test section.

Note:
i) When assembling the sample between the heater and the cooler sections,
care should be taken to match the shallow shoulders in the housings.
ii) Ensure that the temperature measurement points are aligned along the
longitudinal axis of the unit.
iii) The insulation material of the test modules can withstand up to 100 °C only.
Reduce the heater power immediately if the temperature nearest to the heater
is too high.

4.0 Result

Specimens' Material =
Specimen's Diameter, D = m
Cross Sectional Area = m2

Power, Q TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 TT5 TT6 TT7 TT8 TT9 k
(W) (°C) (°C) (°C) (°C) (°C) (°C) (°C) (°C) (°C) (W/mK)
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
Distance
from
heater end,
x (m)

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Sample Calculation:
x 4  6  Q
k
T  4  6  A
0.02  5.0

1.6  0.000491
 127.32W / mK

5.0 Discussion
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6.0 Conclusion
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7.0 Reference
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