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Chemistry and Society Chapter 0 notes

Renewable resources are those that are replenished more quickly over time than they are being
consumed. Ie: solar energy, trees and agricultural crops

Nonrenewable resources are those that have a limited supply or are consumed more quickly
than they are produced. Ie: metal ores and fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas)

Sustainability is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs

4 targets identified the ensure environmental sustainability

1.) Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs
and reverse the loss of environmental resources
2.) Reverse biodiversity loss achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
3.) Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe
drinking water and basic sanitation
4.) Achieve, by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum

The triple bottom line is a three-way measure of the success of a business based on its benefits
to the economy, to society,and to the environment

A sustinable society is one that is far-seeing enough, flexible enough,and wise enough not to
undermine either its physical or its social systems. – Donella Meadows

Cradle-to-Grave is an approach to analyzing the life cycle of an item, starting with the raw
materials from which it came and ending with its ultimate disposal someplace, presumably on
Earth. Cradle-to-grave incorporates thinking about every step.

Cradle-to-cradle is a term that emerged in the 1970s that refers to a regenerative approach to
the use of things in which the end of the life cycle of one item dovetails with the beginning of
the life cycle of another, so that everything is reused rather than disposed of as waste.

The ecological footprint is a means of estimating the amount of biologically productive space
(land and water) necessary to support a particular standard of living or lifestyle

For the average US citizen their estimated ecological footprint was estimated to be 8.0 hectares
(20 acres). That means if you live in the United States, on average it requires 20 acres of land to
provide you with the resources to feed you, clothe you, transport you, and give you a dwelling
with the creature comforts to which you are accustomed.
Green Chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the
use and generation of hazardous substances. The desired outcome is to produce less waste,
especially toxic waste, and to fewer resources.

Green chemistry leads to cleaner air, water, and land, and the consumption of fewer resources.

Key Ideas in Green Chemistry (Every innovation doesn’t have to achieve all of the ideas, but
hitting on a few helps sustainability):

1.) It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed
2.) It is better to minimize the amount of materials used in the production of a product
3.) It is better to use and generate substances that are not toxic
4.) It is better to use less energy
5.) It is better to use renewable resources when it make technical and economic sense
6.) It is better to design materials that degrade into innocuous products at the end of their
useful life