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# 23-05-2017

## Assessment & Optimization of Power &

Utility Boiler Performance

## Ansuman Sen Sharma

India Boiler dot Com

What is our
objective?

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Identification of performance
improving opportunities in
our system

Corrective measures to
optimize performance

## Diagnostic Technique in Boiler System

Separate Steam Generating System into its various
sub-system and take a close look at each
components

## For each component the engineer should ask the

following questions.

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## The engineer should know his system good enough

to understand the limitations

has gone wrong.

## If you have the capability to

associate this deviation with the field
condition, you can diagnose the
problem with reasonable accuracy
and take necessary corrective
actions.

But First
we need to change the way
we look at things

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HP IP / LP

GEN
comer
Down

Deaerator
Economizer

HP Heater

LP Heater

Condenser

## FROM FUEL HANDLING

SYSTEM

ID Fan
ESP

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Various Sub-Systems:

Fuel System :

Steam System :

## Ash Handling System :

Performance Assessment

Performance Optimization

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Parameters Measured:

Pressure

Temperature

Flow

Level

PT
PT LT TE
LT

Economizer

SH-1 SH-2
TE

TE

TE Deaerator
LP Heater
Down comer
Riser

Riser

FT
HP Heater

PT

TE
TE

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TE TE

AT
PT FT

ID Fan

ESP

FD Fan

APH

TE PT

PT

TE

PT

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requires

##  a unit - representing “of what”

Physical Measurements

Velocity
Pressure
Energy

mass

Density

Temperature
Power Mole

Volume

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1 kg = 2.205 lb
1 kgf = 9.81N (Newton)
1 kg/ cm2 = 0.981 bar; 1 bar = 1.0197 kg/ cm2
1 bar = 105 N/ m2 (Pa) = 102 kPa = 0.1 Mpa
1 atm = 760 mm of Hg = 1.033 kg/ cm2 = 1.013 bar
750 mm of Hg = 1 bar
Absolute Pressure = Actual pressure in the system
Gauge Pressure = differential pressure with respect to
atmospheric
1 kg/ cm2g = 2.033 kg/ cm2 absolute (ata)
1 ata = 1 kg/ cm2 abs
1 mm of water column = 1 kg/ m2
10 m of water column = 1 kg/ cm2
1 kg-m = 9.81 N-m = 9.81 J
1 kcal = 4.187 kJ = 3.969 BTU
1kg-m/s = 9.81 W
1 HP (British) = 33000 ft pound/min = 746 Watt ≈ 0.75 kW
1 kWh = 3600 kJ = 860 kcal

## 1 kmol = 6.023 x 1026 numbers of molecules

Mass of 1kmol of any substance = Molecular weight in kg
1 Nm3 / Sm3 of gas = 1 m3 at 273 K Temperature and 101.3
kPa pressure
Density of air at NTP = 1.293 kg/ m3
Density of any gas at NTP = molar mass/ 22.4 kg/ nm3
Pressure exerted by liquid column (Head) = h x ρ mmWC;
h x ρ x 10-4 kg/ cm2 ; h x ρ x g Pa, h in m and ρ in kg/ m3
Velocity head = 10-4 x ρv2/ 2g, in kg/ cm2 ; v in m/ s
Specific heat of water = 1 kcal/ kg oC
Specific heat of air = 0.24 kcal/ kg oC
Specific heat of superheated steam = 0.50 kcal/ kg oC
Specific heat of ash = 0.20 kcal/ kg oC
Hydraulic Power of Pump/ Fan (kW) = pressure (kPa) x
discharge (m3/ s)
Power Consumption by electrical equipment = √3VICosΦ

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Boiler

## The steam generator performance depends

on two aspects

Combustion
Conversion of Heat Energy from Chemical
energy of fuel (Fuel and Air System)

## Transfer of Heat energy into water &

Steam (Flue Gas system)

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Fuel Characteristics
Combustion Mechanism
Combustion Systems

Combustion assessment

## Combustion Performance Optimization

Fuel
The primary source of heat in boiler system is
considered to be ‘Fossil’ fuels.

## Two major ingredients of these fuels are

Carbon and Hydrogen.

## Carbon, Hydrogen and Sulphur are the three

ingredients in fuel which gives away heat
during an exothermic reaction with Oxygen.

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Fuel Analysis:

Proximate
Ultimate analysis:
analysis:  Moisture
Carbon – C kg
 Hydrogen – H kg
 Volatile
Sulfur – Matter
S kg
Nitrogen – N kg
 Ash
 Oxygen – O kg
 Fixed
H2O – Carbon
M kg
 Ash – A kg
Total: 1 kg

VM
Volatile Matter is a complex mixture of
organic materials, which volatilizes quickly
on heating at appx. 300°C and burns in
suspension in a furnace.

combustion speed

## Increases chance of spontaneous

combustion
Increases Mill o/l temperature in PF

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Coal Ash

## Ash is the incombustible mineral matter (MM)

left behind when coal is burnt. In the
laboratory, it is the residue left on complete
combustion at 700–750°C in a muffle furnace
performed in a carefully controlled and
specified manner

Moisture 5.98%

Ash 38.63%

Total 100%

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Carbon 41.11%

Hydrogen 2.76%

Sulphur 0.41%

Nitrogen 1.22%

Oxygen 9.89%

Moisture 5.98%

Moisture 24%

Ash 5%

Sulphur 0.17%

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Nitrogen 1.09%

Carbon 69.40%

Hydrogen 5.69%

Sulphar 0.17%

Oxygen 23.65%

Carbon 86.35%
Hydrogen 2.41 %
Sulphur 4.27 %
Oxygen 4.58 %

Nitrogen 0.54 %
Ash 0.91 %

## Fixed Carbon 85.49%

VM 12.74 %
Moisture 0.94 %
Ash 0.83 %
GCV 8408 kcal/ kg
NCV 8280 kcal/ kg

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## Proximate to Ultimate Analysis:

%C = 0.97C+ 0.7(VM+0.1A) - M(0.6 - 0.01M)
%H2 = 0.036C + 0.086 (VM - 0.1xA) - 0.0035M2 (1-
0.02M)
%N2 = 2.10 - 0.020 VM

Where
C = % of fixed carbon
A = % of ash
VM = % of volatile matter
M = % of moisture

Combustion Mechanism

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## S + O2 = SO2 + 2224 kcal/ kg

Oxidation of 1 kg of Carbon:

## 2430 kcal 5654 kcal

2C + O2 = 2CO + O2 = 2CO2

## Incomplete Combustion Complete Combustion

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Combustion mechanism:

C N2 N2
H2 O2 CO2
S SO2
N2 CO
O2 O2
H2O H2O
Ash

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## Component Molecular Wt. Molar mass

C 12 12 kg/ kmol
H2 2 2 kg/ kmol
N2 28 28 kg/ kmol
O2 32 32 kg/ kmol
S 32 32 kg/ kmol
CO2 44 44 kg/ kmol
CO 28 28 kg/ kmol
SO2 64 64 kg/ kmol
H2 O 18 18 kg/ kmol

C + O2 = CO2
1 kmol
121kg
kg ++
+32
2.67
1 kmol
kg kg ==
=44
1
3.67
kmol
kg kg

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
124kg
kg ++ 8
kmol kg
+321kg = 9
kmol= kg
=362kg
kmol

S + O2 = SO2
11
kg
32kmol
kg
+ 1++
kg32
1 kmol
=kg2 kg
== 64
1 kmol
kg

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## C kg of Carbon + 2.67C kg of O2 = 3.67 C kg of CO2

H kg of Hydrogen + 8H kg of O2 = 9H kg of H2O

S kg of Sulfur + S kg of O2 = 2S kg of SO2

Ultimate analysis:
 Carbon – C kg 2.67 x C kg/ kg of fuel
 Hydrogen – H kg 8 x H kg / kg of fuel
 Sulfur – S kg S kg/ kg of fuel
Nitrogen – N kg
Oxygen – O kg O kg of O2 not required
H 2O – M kg
Ash – A kg

## For comb calculation air is consider as a mixture of O2 and

N2.Their proportions being,
On mass basis: O2 -23%, N2 - 77%
On volume basis: O2 -21%, N2 - 79%
Minimum Theoretical Air required for complete
combustion
= [2.67C + 8H - O + S] x 100/23

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3 T of Combustion

Time

Temperature

Turbulence

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## Reaction Time of coal particle in PF Boiler:

From HPT
To HPT

To IPT

FSH

HRH

PSH CRH

volatiles LTSH

Char
coal particle ECO
d=30-70m

APH

## Ignition Temperatures of different combustible

Sulphur 250oC
Fixed Carbon 400oC
C2H2 (Acetylene) 480oC
C2H6 (Ethane) 540oC
C2H4 (Ethylene) 550oC
Hydrogen 610oC
CH4 (Methane) 650oC
CO 655oC

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Delayed To HPT
From HPT

Secondary
Combustion

~ 650 - 700oC
FSH

HRH

PSH CRH
~ 900 - 950oC

ECO

APH

~ 130 - 140oC

Drum

400oC

ECO 1
480oC
Evaporator
ECO 2

SH-1
300oC

SH-2
APH

SH-3 145oC

Screen

850oC

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Drum SCW

700oC

791oC FSH

LTSH
870oC 690oC

421oC

ECO
850oC

252oC

APH

138oC

## % Excess air supplied (on O2 basis)

= (O2 x 100) / (21 - O2)

 Primary Air

 Secondary Air

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Fuel System

Fuel Circuit:

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fuels:

PF Furnace:

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Corner
Fire Ball:
Fired:

75 - 100 ~ 10%

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## Fluidized Bed Combustion :

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FBC

Velocity 1 to 3 m/ s

CFB Boiler:

Velocity 4 to 7 m/ s

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Drum SCW

FSH

LTSH

ECO

APH

Drum

ECO 1

Evaporator
ECO 2

SH-1

SH-2
APH

SH-3

Screen

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## 800°C for fuels with low-melting compounds

in ash such as lignite

## 900°C for difficult to burn low-volatile fuels

with more FC and ashy bituminous coals

## Fuel Size for BFB / CFB Boiler

Size : 0 to 8 mm,
less then 1mm not allowed more then 10%

5 to 8mm – 20%
0 to 1mm – 10%

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## Sulfur removal in FBC:

Calcination: CaC03 → CaO + C02 + 425.5 kcal/ kg
Sulfaction: CaO + S02 + ½ 02 + 3740.5 kcal/ kg
→ CaS04

Combustion Optimization

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## Increase in loss of sensible heat carried away by

flue gas
Increase in auxiliary power (FD & ID fan)
Limitation on boiler load due to exhaustion of ID
fan capacity
Increase in NOx and SO3 formation
Increase in erosion due to increase in flue gas
velocity
Shift in heat transfer from furnace to convection
pass resulting in heating up of down stream
components

Combustion Optimization

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Draught System

+ 450 - 450

## Eva SH1 SH2 Eco APH

+ 100 - 350

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For PF Boilers
Parameters/ data needed

## Platen SH inlet and boiler exit temperature

Furnace-wind box DP

## PA & FD mass flow

Mill reject

Fuel flow

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Optimization Steps
Identify and stop Furnace Ingress

## Increase SA through WB by the same margin to

increase furnace DP

to optimize LOI in FA and BA

## Use burner tilt to bring FG temp. to FSH inlet near

design value and reduce spray

optimum

## Combustion is optimized when the difference between

Actual excess air and theoretical excess air is minimum

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Loss

Air

## Transfer of Heat energy into

water & Steam (Flue Gas system)

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FS
H
SH 2

SH 1

ECO

APH

~ 800 - 850oC

FS
H ~ 650 -
SH 2
700oC
~ 900 - 950oC
SH 1

~ 450 - 480oC

1200oC

APH

~ 130 - 140oC

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Gas convection

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

## Heat transfer through Radiation process is

much higher as compared to Convection

## Radiation Heat Transfer depends on :

 Available Surface Area of the tubes
 Presence of more tri-atomic gases like CO2 and H2O
 Fly ash
 Gas temperature

## Convection Heat Transfer depends on :

 Available Surface Area of the tubes
 Available heat load (gas temperature)
 Mass velocity of flue gas

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Sensible heat

## Heat in Water & Steam

Latent heat

Sensible heat: H = m C Δt

Atmospheric
Temperature

100oC

Enthalpy

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J
Pabs = 220.9 bar
G
Tsat 373.14oC
K
L
D

H
I

E
F

B
C

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Tsup 538oC

Tsat 358oC

DA out 173oC
LPH out 139oC

## Diagnosis of Performance from

Boiler Parameters

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Flow

## At full load ID is getting saturated and

furnace becomes positive

## Super heater and Re-heater metal

temperature and attemperation spray is
increasing

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Eco out
HPH out

DA out
LPH out

CEP out

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Eco out
HPH out

DA out
LPH out

CEP out

## check CV of fuel (decreasing)

check Mill saturation
check Platen SH inlet temperature (decreasing)
check super heater attemperation (decreasing)
check Eco outlet water temperature (minor increasing)
check exit temperature (increasing)

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

## This could be due to poor CV of fuel, or high excess air, or

combination of both

priority

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## Let us assume it is a case of high exit

temperature in a 210 MW Pulverized Coal
fired boiler
Let us also assume the exit temperature has
increased at the base load during the last
couple of months

## There is no significant change in fuel

characteristics during this period

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## First take a close look at the Gas side

temperature profile of your system across
each heat exchanging element
Also refer the water and steam temperature
across each heat exchanger

## One should have a clear idea about the mode

of heat transfer from the flue gas to the tube
at various boiler section

Check exit O2

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~ 800 - 850oC

FSH
~ 650 - 700oC
SH 2 CRH HRH
~ 900 - 950oC

SH 1

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

APH

~ 130 - 140oC

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

## Check Eco outlet temperature (APH inlet)

Check:
If Eco outlet temperature is unchanged; then the problem lies in
 heat transfer
Passing across APH
 Fouling of APH

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~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC

~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

If Eco outlet temperature has increased; then check Eco inlet temp.

## If temperature has not changed, then the problem could be across

Check:
 Economizer heat
Economizer transfer
fouling

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC

~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC

~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

If Eco inlet temperature has increased; then check LTSH inlet temp.

## If temperature has not changed, then the problem could be across

Check:
 LTSH
LTSHheat transfer
fouling

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~ 800 - 850oC

√ ~ 650 - 700oC

~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

## If LTSH inlet temperature has also increased; then the problem is in

Check:
If PSH inlet temperature is unchanged, it could be the time to
 operate LRSBs inspray
Attemperation that region.
decrease
 PSH inlet temperature

~ 800 - 850oC

√ ~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

## If LTSH inlet temperature has also increased; then the problem is in

If PSH
PSH inlet
inlettemperature
temperaturehas
is decreased,
unchanged, then
it could
it could
bebethe
because
time to
of
operate dilution;
furnace LRSBs in optimize
that region.
air/ fuel ratio

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## Fusing of ash take place,

If furnace temperature exceeds Initial Deformation range of
ash
• Reducing atmosphere lowers the Initial Deformation
Temperature
• Ferrous iron content (Fe2) increases and act as catalyst in
substantially lowering IDT of ash
• When ratio of SiO2 to total oxides is high, slagging is less.
At < 0.6 slagging high
• Delay in evacuation of bottom ash, results in build up of
slag
• Design features of boiler furnace and bottom hopper

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## When percentage Iron Oxide - Fe2O3 in Ash by weight is:

• 3 to 8 -- Non- slagging
• 8 to 15 -- Slagging to some extent
• 15 to 23 -- High slagging property

## when slagging index of Ash is in the range of:

• 1230 to 1340 deg C -- Medium slagging property
• 1050 to 1230 deg C -- High slagging property
• < 1050 deg C -- Severe slagging property

## 4 IDT + HT IDT - Initial Deformation

Slagging Index Fs is ------------------ Temperature
5 HT - Hemisphere
Temperature

Boiler
In
Power Plant Cycle

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## Effect of Boiler & Condenser

Parameters on Power Cycles

RANKINE CYCLE

T 4
3
2

g
1 5
S

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boiler
T1
1
Q1

P
turbine Wt
Q2

T2 2

## Q1= m (h1-h4) condenser

Q2= m (h2-h3) Wnet = Wt-Wp
Wt= m (h1-h2)
Wp=m (h4-h3) 3
η = P/Q1
4 pump Wp

Power Cycle

## Effect Turbine Exit Pressure

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W = Qin – Qout
1 = W/Qin
Boiler
Qout = Condenser heat duty
Qin
and other losses.
Suppose at the same load if Qout
W
Turbine increases by  then Qin is also
increases by  so that W is the
Qout same. Hence W = (Qin-+ ) -
(Qout + )
Condenser
2 = W/(Qin + )

## Thus if the losses are increased

by  then the input also increases
by the same amount.

Power Cycle

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Power Cycle

## Effect Boiler Pressure

Re-Heating

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Regenerative Heating

## Let x is the bleed steam per

kg of the main steam from 1
the extraction point 7 and
T
this steam is used to
increase the condensate •7
5
temperature from 3 to 5. 
Then 4 x
3
2

## (h1-h7) + (1-x) (h7-h2) S

=
(h1 – h5)
As x increases  also
Since x (h7- h5) =(1-x)(h5-h3) increases. Therefore
 increases with
(h1-h2) - x (h7-h2) bleed steam
=
(h1 – h3) - x (h7 – h3)

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## Hence for the same power output the

more the regenerative steam is drawn
the less is the heat rejected at the
condenser. Thus if

1 = W/ Qin 2 = W/ (Qin - )

Then 2 > 1

## Therefore it is necessary to ensure the

maximum temperature to the feed
water leaving the HP heater train.

Calculations

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PGEN (MW)
IP LP

HP

## Turbine Cycle Heat Rate =

M1 (HMS - HFWO) + M2 (HHRH - HCRH)
PGEN

Heat Rate

## Gross Heat Rate; kcal/ kWh

= Coal Consumption per hour x GCV/ Gross
Generation

## Net Heat Rate; kcal/ kWh

= Coal Consumption per hour x GCV/ PG - PAux

## Heat Rate; kcal/ kWh

= Turbine Cycle Heat Rate x 100/ Boiler
Efficiency

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## For a 210 MW Plant with 95% PLF, considering

cost of coal as Rs.2300/- per MT, with CV of
3300 kcal/ kg, effect of deviation in heat rate
by 1 kcal/ kWh for YEARLY generation of 1 unit
= Rs. 12.35 lacs

Benchmark

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## Steam Generator Performance

& Efficiency Improvement

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 Direct Method

## It is calculated as the percentage of heat utilized by feed

water in converting it to steam, to the heat released by
complete combustion of the fuel used in the same time.
ma ( H - h )
η boiler = --------------- x 100
C
Where, ma = Actual evaporation
H = Enthalpy of steam
h = Enthalpy of Feed Water
C = Calorific value of fuel in kcal/ kg

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x (Tg - Ta)

## 2. Heat loss due to moisture formed by combustion of

Hydrogen in fuel = 9H x {584 + 0.45 x (Tg - Ta)}
kcal/ kg of fuel

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CO2%)} x C]

(Tg - Ta)

x (Tash - Ta)

## 0.548 x [(Ts / 55.55)4 - (Ta / 55.55)4] + 1.957 x (Ts -

Ta)1.25 x √[(196.85 Va + 68.9) / 68.9] W/ m2

## η boiler = 100% (GCV) – 100 x (H1 + H2 + H3 + H4 + H5…..)

------------------------------
GCV of Fuel

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## Heat loss due to equipment

Performance

LP / HP Heaters Performance

## LP / HP heater performance is monitored by

monitoring following performances indices:

## • Terminal temp difference ( TTD)

TTD= Ts-FW outlet temp

## • Drain Cooler Approach ( DCA)

DCA = Drip Temp - FW inlet temp

## • Temp Rise = (FW outlet temp- FW inlet temp )

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LP / HP Heaters Performance

 TTD High:

• Air blanketing

## • Mixing of water through parting plane of Water

Box ( Short Circuiting)

## • High level of heater i.e. Poor cascading system

LP / HP Heaters Performance

 High DCA:
Heater level too low due to poor cascading
system

##  Low Temp Rise:

• Low extraction steam pressure
– Isolating valve not fully open
• Fouling in side tube
• Scale outside of tube
• Air blanketing
• Mixing of water through parting plane of Water
Box ( Short Circuiting)
• One or more previous heater/s out of service
• High level of heater ie Poor cascading system

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APH Performance:
Performance Indicators
 Air-in-Leakage
 Gas Side Efficiency
 X - ratio
 Gas & Air side pressure drops

AH Performance Monitoring
 O2 & CO2 in FG at AH Inlet
 O2 & CO2 in FG at AH Outlet
 Temperature of gas entering / leaving air
heater
 Temperature of air entering / leaving air heater
 Diff. Pressure across AH on air & gas side

## Empirical relationship using the change in

concentration of O2 in the flue gas

## AL % = O2out - O2in x 0.9 x 100

(21 - O2Out)

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APH Performance:
Gas Side Efficiency:

## Ratio of Gas Temperature drop across the air

heater, corrected for no leakage, to the
= (Temp drop / Temperature head) x 100

## Tgas out (no leakage)

= Tgas out + AL x Cpa x (Tgas out - Tair in)/ Cpg x 100

APH Performance:
X – Ratio:
Ratio of heat capacity of air passing through the
air heater to the heat capacity of flue gas passing
through the air heater.
= Wair out x Cpa/ (Wgas in x Cpg)

## = Tgas in - Tgas out (no leakage)/ (Tair out - Tair in)

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APH Performance:
X-Ratio depends on:
Air infiltration, air & gas mass flow rates
X-ratio does not provide a measure of thermal
performance of the air heater, but is a measure
of the operating conditions.

## A low X-ratio indicates either excessive gas

weight through the air heater or that air flow is
by-passing the air heater.

## A lower than design X-ratio leads to a higher than

design gas outlet temperature & can be used as
an indication of excessive temp

## Losses in Steam Utilization

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Insulation Loss :

Insulation Loss :

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Insulation Loss :

Insulation Loss :

## Equivalent lengths of pipe for valves and fittings can be

taken as:
Pair of mating flanges - 0.5 m
Line size valve - 1.0 m

As per CP – EE guideline:
S = [10 + (Ts – Ta) / 20] x (Ts – Ta)
Where, S = Surface heat loss (kcal/hr/m2)
Ts = Hot surface temperature (°C)
Ta = Ambient temperature (°C)
Total heat loss/hr (Hs) = S x A

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## A Periodic inspection of the steam traps will reveal

when one or more steam traps is operating in failure
mode.

Open Mode

Close Mode

Flush Steam

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23-05-2017

Live Steam

be recovered

## Steam loss through an orifice can be estimated using a

variant of the Napier formula.

## Where: Pa = Pguage + Patmospheric

Pa = Absolute Pressure, kg/cm2
Patmospheric = Atm Pressure = 1.033 kg/cm2
D = Diameter of Orifice in cm

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23-05-2017

## Bw x (hf – h) x 24 x C/ (BE x CV)

Where,
Bw = Blow down quantity per hour
hg = Enthalpy of 1 kg of saturated steam
produced under working pressure,
h = Enthalpy of 1 kg of feed water entering the
boiler.

THANK YOU

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