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23-05-2017

Assessment & Optimization of Power &


Utility Boiler Performance

Ansuman Sen Sharma


India Boiler dot Com

What is our
objective?

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Identification of performance
improving opportunities in
our system

Corrective measures to
optimize performance

Diagnostic Technique in Boiler System


Separate Steam Generating System into its various
sub-system and take a close look at each
components

For each component the engineer should ask the


following questions.

1. What is its objective?

2. Which basic engineering principle it follows?

3. What are the ideal conditions?

4. What are the field limitations in their system?

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The engineer should know his system good enough


to understand the limitations

Deviation in the parameters would indicate what


has gone wrong.

If you have the capability to


associate this deviation with the field
condition, you can diagnose the
problem with reasonable accuracy
and take necessary corrective
actions.

But First
we need to change the way
we look at things

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You should see:

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Coal to Power Process

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Power Boiler Flow Diagram

HP IP / LP

GEN
comer
Down

Deaerator
Economizer

HP Heater

LP Heater

Condenser

Boiler Feed Pump

PA / FD Fan Cond. Extraction Pump

FROM FUEL HANDLING


SYSTEM

ID Fan
ESP

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Various Sub-Systems:

Feed Water System:

Circulating Water & Steam System :

Fuel System :

Combustion Air System :

Flue Gas System :

Steam System :

Ash Handling System :

Performance Assessment

Performance Optimization

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Parameters Measured:

Pressure

Temperature

Flow

Level

O2, CO, CO2

Boiler Feed Water System:

PT
PT LT TE
LT

Economizer

SH-1 SH-2
TE

TE

TE Deaerator
LP Heater
Down comer
Riser

Riser

FT
HP Heater

PT

TE
TE

Boiler Feed Pump

Cond. Extraction Pump

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Air and Gas System


TE TE

AT
PT FT

ID Fan

ESP

FD Fan

APH

TE PT

PT

TE

PT

Basics of Physical Measurement

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Measurement of any physical quantities


requires

 a value - a number representing “how much”

 a unit - representing “of what”

Physical Measurements

Velocity
Pressure
Energy

mass

Density

Temperature
Power Mole

Volume
Head

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1 kg = 2.205 lb
1 kgf = 9.81N (Newton)
1 kg/ cm2 = 0.981 bar; 1 bar = 1.0197 kg/ cm2
1 bar = 105 N/ m2 (Pa) = 102 kPa = 0.1 Mpa
1 atm = 760 mm of Hg = 1.033 kg/ cm2 = 1.013 bar
750 mm of Hg = 1 bar
Absolute Pressure = Actual pressure in the system
Gauge Pressure = differential pressure with respect to
atmospheric
1 kg/ cm2g = 2.033 kg/ cm2 absolute (ata)
1 ata = 1 kg/ cm2 abs
1 mm of water column = 1 kg/ m2
10 m of water column = 1 kg/ cm2
1 kg-m = 9.81 N-m = 9.81 J
1 kcal = 4.187 kJ = 3.969 BTU
1kg-m/s = 9.81 W
1 HP (British) = 33000 ft pound/min = 746 Watt ≈ 0.75 kW
1 kWh = 3600 kJ = 860 kcal

1 kmol = 6.023 x 1026 numbers of molecules


Mass of 1kmol of any substance = Molecular weight in kg
1 Nm3 / Sm3 of gas = 1 m3 at 273 K Temperature and 101.3
kPa pressure
Density of air at NTP = 1.293 kg/ m3
Density of any gas at NTP = molar mass/ 22.4 kg/ nm3
Pressure exerted by liquid column (Head) = h x ρ mmWC;
h x ρ x 10-4 kg/ cm2 ; h x ρ x g Pa, h in m and ρ in kg/ m3
Velocity head = 10-4 x ρv2/ 2g, in kg/ cm2 ; v in m/ s
Specific heat of water = 1 kcal/ kg oC
Specific heat of air = 0.24 kcal/ kg oC
Specific heat of superheated steam = 0.50 kcal/ kg oC
Specific heat of ash = 0.20 kcal/ kg oC
Hydraulic Power of Pump/ Fan (kW) = pressure (kPa) x
discharge (m3/ s)
Power Consumption by electrical equipment = √3VICosΦ

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Factors influencing Performance of


Boiler

The steam generator performance depends


on two aspects

Combustion
Conversion of Heat Energy from Chemical
energy of fuel (Fuel and Air System)

Transfer of Heat energy into water &


Steam (Flue Gas system)

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Fuel Characteristics
Combustion Mechanism
Combustion Systems

Combustion assessment

Combustion Performance Optimization

Fuel
The primary source of heat in boiler system is
considered to be ‘Fossil’ fuels.

Two major ingredients of these fuels are


Carbon and Hydrogen.

Carbon, Hydrogen and Sulphur are the three


ingredients in fuel which gives away heat
during an exothermic reaction with Oxygen.

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Fuel Analysis:

Proximate
Ultimate analysis:
analysis:  Moisture
Carbon – C kg
 Hydrogen – H kg
 Volatile
Sulfur – Matter
S kg
Nitrogen – N kg
 Ash
 Oxygen – O kg
 Fixed
H2O – Carbon
M kg
 Ash – A kg
Total: 1 kg

VM
Volatile Matter is a complex mixture of
organic materials, which volatilizes quickly
on heating at appx. 300°C and burns in
suspension in a furnace.

The higher the VM, the greater the


combustion speed

Increases Flame length

Increases chance of spontaneous


combustion
Increases Mill o/l temperature in PF

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Coal Ash

Ash is the incombustible mineral matter (MM)


left behind when coal is burnt. In the
laboratory, it is the residue left on complete
combustion at 700–750°C in a muffle furnace
performed in a carefully controlled and
specified manner

Typical proximate analysis result of Indian Coal

Moisture 5.98%

Ash 38.63%

Volatile Matter 20.70%

Fixed Carbon 34.69%

Total 100%

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Typical ultimate analysis of Indian Coal:

Carbon 41.11%

Hydrogen 2.76%

Sulphur 0.41%

Nitrogen 1.22%

Oxygen 9.89%

Moisture 5.98%

Mineral Matter (1.1 x Ash) 38.63

Typical proximate analysis result of Indonesian Coal

Moisture 24%

Inherent Moisture 13%

Ash 5%

Volatile Matter 41%

Fixed Carbon 39%

Sulphur 0.17%

GCV (Kcal/Kg) 5400

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Typical ultimate analysis result of Indonesian Coal

Nitrogen 1.09%

Carbon 69.40%

Hydrogen 5.69%

Sulphar 0.17%

Oxygen 23.65%

Typical Ultimate analysis of Pet Coke (ADB):

Carbon 86.35%
Hydrogen 2.41 %
Sulphur 4.27 %
Oxygen 4.58 %

Nitrogen 0.54 %
Ash 0.91 %

Typical Proximate analysis of Pet Coke (ADB):

Fixed Carbon 85.49%


VM 12.74 %
Moisture 0.94 %
Ash 0.83 %
GCV 8408 kcal/ kg
NCV 8280 kcal/ kg

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Proximate to Ultimate Analysis:


%C = 0.97C+ 0.7(VM+0.1A) - M(0.6 - 0.01M)
%H2 = 0.036C + 0.086 (VM - 0.1xA) - 0.0035M2 (1-
0.02M)
%N2 = 2.10 - 0.020 VM

Where
C = % of fixed carbon
A = % of ash
VM = % of volatile matter
M = % of moisture

Combustion Mechanism

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Combustion is a chemical reaction of:

C + O2 = CO2 + 8084 kcal/ kg

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + 34500 kcal/ kg

S + O2 = SO2 + 2224 kcal/ kg

Oxidation of 1 kg of Carbon:

2430 kcal 5654 kcal

2C + O2 = 2CO + O2 = 2CO2

Incomplete Combustion Complete Combustion

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Combustion mechanism:

Fuel + Air Flue Gas + Heat

C N2 N2
H2 O2 CO2
S SO2
N2 CO
O2 O2
H2O H2O
Ash

Assessing Air Requirement

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Some molecular weight we should know:

Component Molecular Wt. Molar mass


C 12 12 kg/ kmol
H2 2 2 kg/ kmol
N2 28 28 kg/ kmol
O2 32 32 kg/ kmol
S 32 32 kg/ kmol
CO2 44 44 kg/ kmol
CO 28 28 kg/ kmol
SO2 64 64 kg/ kmol
H2 O 18 18 kg/ kmol

Molar reaction to mass reaction:

C + O2 = CO2
1 kmol
121kg
kg ++
+32
2.67
1 kmol
kg kg ==
=44
1
3.67
kmol
kg kg

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
124kg
kg ++ 8
kmol kg
+321kg = 9
kmol= kg
=362kg
kmol

S + O2 = SO2
11
kg
32kmol
kg
+ 1++
kg32
1 kmol
=kg2 kg
== 64
1 kmol
kg

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Combustion reaction on mass basis

C kg of Carbon + 2.67C kg of O2 = 3.67 C kg of CO2

H kg of Hydrogen + 8H kg of O2 = 9H kg of H2O

S kg of Sulfur + S kg of O2 = 2S kg of SO2

Ultimate analysis:
 Carbon – C kg 2.67 x C kg/ kg of fuel
 Hydrogen – H kg 8 x H kg / kg of fuel
 Sulfur – S kg S kg/ kg of fuel
Nitrogen – N kg
Oxygen – O kg O kg of O2 not required
H 2O – M kg
Ash – A kg

Total O2 required per kg of fuel = [2.67C + 8H - O + S] kg

For comb calculation air is consider as a mixture of O2 and


N2.Their proportions being,
On mass basis: O2 -23%, N2 - 77%
On volume basis: O2 -21%, N2 - 79%
Minimum Theoretical Air required for complete
combustion
= [2.67C + 8H - O + S] x 100/23

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3 T of Combustion

Time

Temperature

Turbulence

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Reaction Time of coal particle in PF Boiler:

From HPT
To HPT

To IPT

FSH

HRH

PSH CRH

volatiles LTSH

Char
coal particle ECO
d=30-70m

APH

tdevolatile=1-5ms tvolatiles=50-100ms tchar=1-2sec

Ignition Temperatures of different combustible

Sulphur 250oC
Fixed Carbon 400oC
C2H2 (Acetylene) 480oC
C2H6 (Ethane) 540oC
C2H4 (Ethylene) 550oC
Hydrogen 610oC
CH4 (Methane) 650oC
CO 655oC

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Flue Gas Temperature Profile in PF Boiler:


Delayed To HPT
From HPT

Combustion ~ 800 - 850oC To IPT


Secondary
Combustion

~ 650 - 700oC
FSH

HRH

PSH CRH
~ 900 - 950oC

LTSH ~ 450 - 480oC

~ 1100 - 1200oC ~ 350 - 380oC

ECO

APH

~ 130 - 140oC

Drum

400oC

ECO 1
480oC
Evaporator
ECO 2

SH-1
300oC

SH-2
APH

SH-3 145oC

Screen

850oC

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Drum SCW

700oC

791oC FSH

LTSH
870oC 690oC

421oC

ECO
850oC

252oC

APH

138oC

% Excess air supplied (on O2 basis)


= (O2 x 100) / (21 - O2)

Total air supplied as:

 Primary Air

 Secondary Air

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Coal Combustion Systems

Pulverized Coal Fired Furnace:

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Fuel System

Fuel Circuit:

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The usual safe mill outlet temperatures for various


fuels:

PF Furnace:

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Corner
Fire Ball:
Fired:

Coal size distribution For PF Boiler.

70% < 200 mesh (75 micron)

Size Distribution : 100 – 150 ~ 30%


75 - 100 ~ 10%

Retention in 50 mesh should be less than 1%

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Fluidized Bed Combustion :

Fluidized Bed Combustion :

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FBC

Velocity 1 to 3 m/ s

CFB Boiler:

Velocity 4 to 7 m/ s

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Hot Cyclone CFB:

Drum SCW

FSH

LTSH

ECO

APH

Drum

ECO 1

Evaporator
ECO 2

SH-1

SH-2
APH

SH-3

Screen

Cold Cyclone CFB:

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Bed Temp. / Furnace Temperature

800°C for fuels with low-melting compounds


in ash such as lignite

850°C for fuels needing sulfur removal

900°C for difficult to burn low-volatile fuels


with more FC and ashy bituminous coals

Fuel Size for BFB / CFB Boiler

Size : 0 to 8 mm,
less then 1mm not allowed more then 10%

Distribution : 1 to 5mm – 70%


5 to 8mm – 20%
0 to 1mm – 10%

For Pet Coke; top Size : 4.5 mm to 6 mm

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Sulfur removal in FBC:


Calcination: CaC03 → CaO + C02 + 425.5 kcal/ kg
Sulfaction: CaO + S02 + ½ 02 + 3740.5 kcal/ kg
→ CaS04

Combustion Optimization

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Negative aspects of high excess air

Increase in loss of sensible heat carried away by


flue gas
Increase in auxiliary power (FD & ID fan)
Limitation on boiler load due to exhaustion of ID
fan capacity
Increase in NOx and SO3 formation
Increase in erosion due to increase in flue gas
velocity
Shift in heat transfer from furnace to convection
pass resulting in heating up of down stream
components

Combustion Optimization

Combustion condition (3T) optimization

Combustion Air optimization

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Draught System

ΔP across the furnace = 450 mmwc

+ 450 - 450

Eva SH1 SH2 Eco APH

+ 100 - 350

75

For PF Boilers
Parameters/ data needed

Ultimate Analysis of coal

O2, CO and CO2 at exit gas

LOI in Fly ash and Bottom ash

Platen SH inlet and boiler exit temperature

Furnace-wind box DP

PA & FD mass flow

Mill reject

Fuel flow

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Optimization Steps
Identify and stop Furnace Ingress

Calculate min. theo. Air from ultimate analysis

Measure FD and PA flow as per actual

Measure fuel flow and calculate air to fuel ratio

Calculate actual excess air

Check O2 and calculate theoretical excess air

Try to reduce PA flow by little margin

Check Mill reject and Fuel pipe chocking

Check Furnace Temperature and Boiler Pressure

Increase SA through WB by the same margin to


increase furnace DP

Adjust classifier setting / spring load to control fines


to optimize LOI in FA and BA

Use burner tilt to bring FG temp. to FSH inlet near


design value and reduce spray

Continue reducing PA and increasing SA to reach


optimum

Combustion is optimized when the difference between


Actual excess air and theoretical excess air is minimum

Calculate CO loss, Dry gas loss

Reduce total air by delta to draw loss curve

Select optimum air zone

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Loss

Air

Transfer of Heat energy into


water & Steam (Flue Gas system)

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Flue Gas System

FS
H
SH 2

SH 1

ECO

APH

Mode of heat transfer in furnace


~ 800 - 850oC

FS
H ~ 650 -
SH 2
700oC
~ 900 - 950oC
SH 1

~ 450 - 480oC

~ 1100 - ECO ~ 350 - 380oC


1200oC

APH

~ 130 - 140oC

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Heat Transfer mode:


Luminous & Non-luminous Gas Radiation
Gas convection

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

Heat transfer through Radiation process is


much higher as compared to Convection

Radiation Heat Transfer P = eσA(Th4 – Tc4)

Radiation Heat Transfer depends on :


 Available Surface Area of the tubes
 Presence of more tri-atomic gases like CO2 and H2O
 Fly ash
 Gas temperature

Convection Heat Transfer q = hc A dT

Convection Heat Transfer depends on :


 Available Surface Area of the tubes
 Available heat load (gas temperature)
 Mass velocity of flue gas

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Sensible heat

Heat in Water & Steam


Latent heat

Sensible heat: H = m C Δt

Latent heat: From Steam Table

When Pressure is more


Atmospheric
Temperature

100oC

Enthalpy

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Enthalpy vs Temperature Diagram

BC >> EF >> HI >> KL M

J
Pabs = 220.9 bar
G
Tsat 373.14oC
K
L
D

H
I

E
F

B
C

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Enthalpy vs Temperature at Rosa Power


Tsup 538oC

Tsat 358oC

Eco out 320oC

HPH out 275oC

DA out 173oC
LPH out 139oC

CEP out 46oC

Diagnosis of Performance from


Boiler Parameters

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Diagnosis of cause of Inadequate Steam


Flow

The boiler is not able to generate steam even


if we try to increase loading manually

At full load ID is getting saturated and


furnace becomes positive

Super heater and Re-heater metal


temperature and attemperation spray is
increasing

Mill output gets saturated

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Water & Steam Temperature Profile

Eco out
HPH out

DA out
LPH out

CEP out

SH/ RH temperature is increasing

Check Eco out temperature first

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Water & Steam Temperature Profile

Eco out
HPH out

DA out
LPH out

CEP out

At full load ID is getting saturated

check CV of fuel (decreasing)


check Mill saturation
check Platen SH inlet temperature (decreasing)
check super heater attemperation (decreasing)
check Eco outlet water temperature (minor increasing)
check exit temperature (increasing)

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

This could be due to poor CV of fuel, or high excess air, or


combination of both

We can think of fuel blending, but air optimization should be


priority

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Diagnosis of High Boiler Exit Temperature

Let us assume it is a case of high exit


temperature in a 210 MW Pulverized Coal
fired boiler
Let us also assume the exit temperature has
increased at the base load during the last
couple of months

There is no significant change in fuel


characteristics during this period

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Pulverized Coal Fired 210 MW Boiler:

First take a close look at the Gas side


temperature profile of your system across
each heat exchanging element
Also refer the water and steam temperature
across each heat exchanger

One should have a clear idea about the mode


of heat transfer from the flue gas to the tube
at various boiler section

Check Attemperator spray quantity

Check exit O2

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Typ. Flue Gas Temp. Profile in 210 MW PF Boiler:


~ 800 - 850oC

FSH
~ 650 - 700oC
SH 2 CRH HRH
~ 900 - 950oC

SH 1

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

ECO ~ 350 - 380oC

APH

~ 130 - 140oC

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

Check Eco outlet temperature (APH inlet)

Check:
If Eco outlet temperature is unchanged; then the problem lies in
 heat transfer
Passing across APH
of CAD
 Fouling of APH

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~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC

~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

If Eco outlet temperature has increased; then check Eco inlet temp.

If temperature has not changed, then the problem could be across


Check:
 Economizer heat
Economizer transfer
fouling

~ 800 - 850oC

~ 650 - 700oC

~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC

~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

If Eco inlet temperature has increased; then check LTSH inlet temp.

If temperature has not changed, then the problem could be across


Check:
 LTSH
LTSHheat transfer
fouling

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~ 800 - 850oC

√ ~ 650 - 700oC

~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

If LTSH inlet temperature has also increased; then the problem is in


the radiant SH/ RH.
Check:
If PSH inlet temperature is unchanged, it could be the time to
 operate LRSBs inspray
Attemperation that region.
decrease
 PSH inlet temperature

~ 800 - 850oC

√ ~ 650 - 700oC
~ 900 - 950oC

~ 450 - 480oC
~ 1100 - 1200oC

~ 350 - 380oC

~ 130 - 140oC

If LTSH inlet temperature has also increased; then the problem is in


the radiant SH/ RH.
If PSH
PSH inlet
inlettemperature
temperaturehas
is decreased,
unchanged, then
it could
it could
bebethe
because
time to
of
operate dilution;
furnace LRSBs in optimize
that region.
air/ fuel ratio

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Fouling & Slagging:

Fouling & Slagging:

Fusing of ash take place,


If furnace temperature exceeds Initial Deformation range of
ash
• Reducing atmosphere lowers the Initial Deformation
Temperature
• Ferrous iron content (Fe2) increases and act as catalyst in
substantially lowering IDT of ash
• When ratio of SiO2 to total oxides is high, slagging is less.
At < 0.6 slagging high
• Delay in evacuation of bottom ash, results in build up of
slag
• Design features of boiler furnace and bottom hopper

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Fouling & Slagging:

When percentage Iron Oxide - Fe2O3 in Ash by weight is:


• 3 to 8 -- Non- slagging
• 8 to 15 -- Slagging to some extent
• 15 to 23 -- High slagging property

when slagging index of Ash is in the range of:


• 1230 to 1340 deg C -- Medium slagging property
• 1050 to 1230 deg C -- High slagging property
• < 1050 deg C -- Severe slagging property

4 IDT + HT IDT - Initial Deformation


Slagging Index Fs is ------------------ Temperature
5 HT - Hemisphere
Temperature

Boiler
In
Power Plant Cycle

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Effect of Boiler & Condenser


Parameters on Power Cycles

VAPOUR POWER CYCLE

RANKINE CYCLE

T 4
3
2

g
1 5
S

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VAPOUR POWER CYCLE : RANKINE CYCLE

boiler
T1
1
Q1

P
turbine Wt
Q2

T2 2

Q1= m (h1-h4) condenser


Q2= m (h2-h3) Wnet = Wt-Wp
Wt= m (h1-h2)
Wp=m (h4-h3) 3
η = P/Q1
4 pump Wp

Power Cycle

Effect Turbine Exit Pressure

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W = Qin – Qout
1 = W/Qin
Boiler
Qout = Condenser heat duty
Qin
and other losses.
Suppose at the same load if Qout
W
Turbine increases by  then Qin is also
increases by  so that W is the
Qout same. Hence W = (Qin-+ ) -
(Qout + )
Condenser
2 = W/(Qin + )

Thus if the losses are increased


by  then the input also increases
by the same amount.

Power Cycle

Effect of Super Heat

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Power Cycle

Effect Boiler Pressure

Re-Heating

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Regenerative Heating

Let x is the bleed steam per


kg of the main steam from 1
the extraction point 7 and
T
this steam is used to
increase the condensate •7
5
temperature from 3 to 5. 
Then 4 x
3
2

(h1-h7) + (1-x) (h7-h2) S


=
(h1 – h5)
As x increases  also
Since x (h7- h5) =(1-x)(h5-h3) increases. Therefore
 increases with
(h1-h2) - x (h7-h2) bleed steam
=
(h1 – h3) - x (h7 – h3)

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Hence for the same power output the


more the regenerative steam is drawn
the less is the heat rejected at the
condenser. Thus if

1 = W/ Qin 2 = W/ (Qin - )

Then 2 > 1

Therefore it is necessary to ensure the


maximum temperature to the feed
water leaving the HP heater train.

Heat Rate, Efficiency & Performance


Calculations

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PGEN (MW)
IP LP

HP

M1, HMS M2, HHRH

Turbine Cycle Heat Rate =


M1 (HMS - HFWO) + M2 (HHRH - HCRH)
PGEN

Boiler Efficiency = 100% - % losses on GCV

Heat Rate

Gross Heat Rate; kcal/ kWh


= Coal Consumption per hour x GCV/ Gross
Generation

Net Heat Rate; kcal/ kWh


= Coal Consumption per hour x GCV/ PG - PAux

Heat Rate; kcal/ kWh


= Turbine Cycle Heat Rate x 100/ Boiler
Efficiency

Boiler Efficiency = 100% - % losses on GCV

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For a 210 MW Plant with 95% PLF, considering


cost of coal as Rs.2300/- per MT, with CV of
3300 kcal/ kg, effect of deviation in heat rate
by 1 kcal/ kWh for YEARLY generation of 1 unit
= Rs. 12.35 lacs

Benchmark

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Impact of parameters on Heat Rate

Steam Generator Performance


& Efficiency Improvement

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Steam Generator efficiency or thermal efficiency:

 Direct Method

 Indirect Losses Method

Thermal efficiency by Direct Method:

It is calculated as the percentage of heat utilized by feed


water in converting it to steam, to the heat released by
complete combustion of the fuel used in the same time.
ma ( H - h )
η boiler = --------------- x 100
C
Where, ma = Actual evaporation
H = Enthalpy of steam
h = Enthalpy of Feed Water
C = Calorific value of fuel in kcal/ kg

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Indirect Losses Method

η boiler = 100 (GCV) - Heat Losses as % of GCV

Various heat losses in Steam Generation Plant

1. Heat lost with dry flue gas through chimney = mg x Cg


x (Tg - Ta)

2. Heat loss due to moisture formed by combustion of


Hydrogen in fuel = 9H x {584 + 0.45 x (Tg - Ta)}
kcal/ kg of fuel

3. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel

= Mw x {584 + 0.45 x (Tg - Ta)} kcal/ kg of fuel

4. Heat loss due to moisture present in combustion air

= Ma x FH x 0.45 x (Tg - Ta)} kcal/ kg of fuel

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5. Heat Lost due to incomplete combustion

= MCO x 5654 kcal/ kg of fuel [MCO = {CO% / (CO% +


CO2%)} x C]

6. Heat lost due to un-burnt = Mash x GCV of ash

7. Sensible Heat lost due to fly ash = 0.9 x Mash x 0.2 x


(Tg - Ta)

8. Sensible Heat lost due to bottom ash = 0.1 x Mash x 0.2


x (Tash - Ta)

9. Heat Lost due to radiation and convection =

0.548 x [(Ts / 55.55)4 - (Ta / 55.55)4] + 1.957 x (Ts -


Ta)1.25 x √[(196.85 Va + 68.9) / 68.9] W/ m2

Based on ABMA curve, radiation losses is assumed as:

0.4% for power station boiler

η boiler = 100% (GCV) – 100 x (H1 + H2 + H3 + H4 + H5…..)


------------------------------
GCV of Fuel

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23-05-2017

Heat loss due to equipment


Performance

LP / HP Heaters Performance

LP / HP heater performance is monitored by


monitoring following performances indices:

• Terminal temp difference ( TTD)


TTD= Ts-FW outlet temp

• Drain Cooler Approach ( DCA)


DCA = Drip Temp - FW inlet temp

• Temp Rise = (FW outlet temp- FW inlet temp )

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LP / HP Heaters Performance

 TTD High:

• Fouling in side tube

• Scale outside of tube

• Air blanketing

• Mixing of water through parting plane of Water


Box ( Short Circuiting)

• One or more previous heater/s out of service

• High level of heater i.e. Poor cascading system

LP / HP Heaters Performance

 High DCA:
Heater level too low due to poor cascading
system

 Low Temp Rise:


• Low extraction steam pressure
– Isolating valve not fully open
• Fouling in side tube
• Scale outside of tube
• Air blanketing
• Mixing of water through parting plane of Water
Box ( Short Circuiting)
• One or more previous heater/s out of service
• High level of heater ie Poor cascading system

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23-05-2017

APH Performance:
Performance Indicators
 Air-in-Leakage
 Gas Side Efficiency
 X - ratio
 Gas & Air side pressure drops

AH Performance Monitoring
 O2 & CO2 in FG at AH Inlet
 O2 & CO2 in FG at AH Outlet
 Temperature of gas entering / leaving air
heater
 Temperature of air entering / leaving air heater
 Diff. Pressure across AH on air & gas side

Air Heater Leakage – Calculation

Empirical relationship using the change in


concentration of O2 in the flue gas

AL % = O2out - O2in x 0.9 x 100


(21 - O2Out)

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APH Performance:
Gas Side Efficiency:

Ratio of Gas Temperature drop across the air


heater, corrected for no leakage, to the
temperature head.
= (Temp drop / Temperature head) x 100

Where Temp drop = Tgas in - Tgas out (no leakage)

Temp head = Tgas in - T air in

Tgas out (no leakage)


= Tgas out + AL x Cpa x (Tgas out - Tair in)/ Cpg x 100

APH Performance:
X – Ratio:
Ratio of heat capacity of air passing through the
air heater to the heat capacity of flue gas passing
through the air heater.
= Wair out x Cpa/ (Wgas in x Cpg)

= Tgas in - Tgas out (no leakage)/ (Tair out - Tair in)

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23-05-2017

APH Performance:
X-Ratio depends on:
Air infiltration, air & gas mass flow rates
X-ratio does not provide a measure of thermal
performance of the air heater, but is a measure
of the operating conditions.

A low X-ratio indicates either excessive gas


weight through the air heater or that air flow is
by-passing the air heater.

A lower than design X-ratio leads to a higher than


design gas outlet temperature & can be used as
an indication of excessive temp

Losses in Steam Utilization

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Insulation Loss :

Insulation Loss :

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23-05-2017

Insulation Loss :

Insulation Loss :

Equivalent lengths of pipe for valves and fittings can be


taken as:
Pair of mating flanges - 0.5 m
Line size valve - 1.0 m

As per CP – EE guideline:
S = [10 + (Ts – Ta) / 20] x (Ts – Ta)
Where, S = Surface heat loss (kcal/hr/m2)
Ts = Hot surface temperature (°C)
Ta = Ambient temperature (°C)
Total heat loss/hr (Hs) = S x A

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23-05-2017

Heat Loss through leaky traps

A Periodic inspection of the steam traps will reveal


when one or more steam traps is operating in failure
mode.

The trap can fail in

Open Mode

Close Mode

When traps are working

Flush Steam

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When trap fails in open mode

Live Steam

The steam that escapes is wasted energy that cannot


be recovered

Steam loss through an orifice can be estimated using a


variant of the Napier formula.

Steam Flow (kg/hr) W = 11x Pa x D²

Where: Pa = Pguage + Patmospheric


Pa = Absolute Pressure, kg/cm2
Patmospheric = Atm Pressure = 1.033 kg/cm2
D = Diameter of Orifice in cm

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23-05-2017

Blow Down Losses

Money down the drain =

Bw x (hf – h) x 24 x C/ (BE x CV)


Where,
Bw = Blow down quantity per hour
hg = Enthalpy of 1 kg of saturated steam
produced under working pressure,
h = Enthalpy of 1 kg of feed water entering the
boiler.

THANK YOU

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