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NeW For the computer-based exam By wi Jolene Gear © Robert Gear Complete test preparation all in one book! Seven complete TOEFL?-format practice tests on CD-ROM A TOFFL®-format diagnostic test tN Eee Te Rd ea fully updated for the new exam Renee aa nd An answer key explaining correct and incorrect answers UR eee on Audio Cassette or Audio CD* eee an in-depth mini writing course ‘Test-taking strategies THIRD EDITION le) RS Ta Te ing information ar TOEFL® is a regis endorsed or approved by ETS. CAMBRIDGE pW UNIVERSITY PRESS ‘PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE ‘The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom ‘CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS ‘The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Suet, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA. 4477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarc6n 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Aftica upsoverw cambridge org © Cambridge University Press 2002 This book isin copyright. Subject to statutory exception and tothe provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, ‘no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First edition published 1993 Second edition published 1996 ‘Third edition published 2002 ‘6th printing 2004 Printed in the United States of America Typeface Times 10/12 ‘System QuarkXPrese® Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication date Gear, Jolene. Cambridge preparation for the TOEFL test / Jolene Gear and Robert Gear. 3rd ed. P. om. ISBN 0-521-78401-8 (book and CD-ROM) ISBN 0-521-78396-8 (book, CD-ROM, ‘and audio CDs) ISBN 0-521-78397-6 (book, CD-ROM, and audio cassettes) ISBN (0-521-78399-2 (audio CDs) ISBN 0-521-78400-X (audio cassettes) ISBN 0-521-78398-4 (CD-ROM) _ISBN 0-521-95103-8 (CD-ROM demo) 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language Study guides. 2. English language Textbooks for foreign speakers. 3 English language Examinations Study ‘guides. I Gear, Robert. I. Tile PEN28.G35 2002 428.0076 dea 00-031217 ISBN 0-521-78401-8 BookiCD-ROM ISBN 0-521-78399.2 Audio CDs ISBN 0-521-78400-X Audio Caseetes ISBN 0-521-78396-8 _Book/CD-ROM/Audio CD Pack ISBN 0-521-78397-6 _Book/CD-ROM/Audio Cassete Pack ISBN 0-521-78398-4 CD-ROM Book design: MeNally Graphic Design Layouts and text composition: Dewey Puk ishing Services ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ‘We would lke to thank those people who made the publication of the Third Edition of this book possible, Our deepest appreciation goes to Sylvia Bloch, Patti Brecht, Liane Carita, Jeff Chen, Tiinde Dewey, Susan Dodson, Laura Dorfman, Deborah Goldblatt, Arley Gray, Nadia Kalman, Andrew Libby, Kathy Niemezyk, Bill Paulk, Howard ‘Siegelman, and Jennifer Wilkin of Cambridge University Press for their combined efforts ‘and painstaking care in helping to bring the Third Edition into print. A special word of thanks also goes to our colleagues and students at the University of Oulu, Finland, and ‘Arron Grow and his students and colleagues at Pierce College, Lakewood, Washington, for their help with field-testing the Third Edition. ‘We would also like to express our gratitude to those people who helped with the First and Second Editions: These include Sandra Graham of Cambridge University Press who assisted us throughout the preparation of the First Edition; John Haskell, ‘our ETS consultant, who read and commented on the early drafts of the First Fit William Gear for his continuous support and encouragement throughout the preparation ‘of both editions; Ahmed Gomaa and our colleagues and students at the University of Kuwait for intial piloting and suggestions: Ted Quock for his helpful comments in the pilot study; Karen Davy who assisted us in the preparation of the Second Edition; our colleagues and students atthe University of Bahrain for piloting material for the Second Edition; and those teachers and students from the following institutions who took part in the intial field-testing of the book and cassettes: American Language and Culture Institute — CSU, California, USA. Cambridge Centre for Languages, Cambridge, England CES Inc., New York, USA Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France Ecole des Cadtes, Paris, France ESARC-ESSIGE, St. Clément, France D.B. Hood Community School, Toronto, Canada Instituto Americano, Florence, Italy ISMRA, Caen, France Kyoto YMCA English School, Japan ‘Mohawk College, Hamilton, Canada Nichibei Kaiwa Gakuin, Tokyo, Japan ‘San Jose State University, California, USA Sankei International College, Toyko, Japan Sheridan College, Mississauga, Canada Simul Academy, Tokyo, Japan ‘Temple University, Tokyo, Japan ‘Trident College, Hiroshima, Japan Université Paris — Dauphine, France University of Arkansas at Little Rock, USA University of California Extension — Davis, USA University of Florida, USA University of Washington, USA. Vincennes University, Indiana, USA ‘We gratefully acknowledge permission to use the following materials: ages 50-53; CD-ROM Test I, reading passage for questions I-11. The reading on interviewing is adapted from Stuart Sutherland, frrationality: Why We Don't Think Straight, copyright © 1992 Sutherland, Printed by permission of Rutgers University Press and Constable Publishers. Pages 159, 582; CD-ROM Test 2, lecture for questions 35-40, The talk about the “War of the Worlds” radio ‘broadcast is used by permission of the Skeptical Inquirer magazine. Page 304, Exercise R3, reading passage for example on screen, Article about mounties was originally published on the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Internet site. RCMP/GRC © 1996-1999, Pages 305-306, Exercise R4, reading passage for questions 1-4, This article was adapted from the Web site of the Rubber Pavements Association and used with its permission. ages 379-382; CD-ROM Test 2, reading passage for questions 28-39, The reading on resolutions is adapted from Stuart Sutherland, [rrationality: Why We Don't Think Straight, copyright © 1992 by Stuart Sutherland, Printed by permission of Rutgers University Press and Constable Publishers. Pages 462, 588-589; CD-ROM Test 4, lecture for questions 34-38. The talk about the fossil record is used by permission of the Skeptical Inquirer magazine. CD-ROM Test 5, lecture for questions 39-45. The talk in an economics class is a summary of Chapter 2 in Richard J. Maybury, Whatever Happened to Penny Candy? published by Bluestocking Press, PO Box 2030, Dept. TL, Placerville, CA 95667-1014, USA, and is used with permission of the author and publisher. w othe user xiii Tothe teacher xvii Introduction to the TOEFL® Test 1 ‘Reasons for taking the TOEFL® Test 1 ‘The TOEFL® Information Bulletins 1 Information about the Computer-Based TOEFL® Test 2 Computer-Based TOEFL® Test format 2 Information about computer-adaptive tests 3 Scoring information 3 Writing scoring information 6 Information about the Paper-Based TOEFL® Test 7 Paper-Based TOEFL® Test format 7 Information about the answer sheet 8 Scoring information 8 How to take the TOEFL® Test successfully 10 ‘Tutorial for the Computer-Based TOEFL® Test 13 Diagnostic Test 35 Section 1 Listening 73 PARTA 73 Strategies to use for Listening, Part A 73 Practice with sounds 76 Exercise LI Exercise L2 Exercise L3 Exercise 14 Exercise LS Exercise L6 Exervise 17 Exercise L8 entifying the correct sound 76 Recognizing questions and statements 77 {dentifying words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings 77 ‘Identifying the meaning of the word in the conversation 78 Identifying which meaning is correct 78 Identifying multiple meanings 80 Matching words 80 Practice with conversations 8/ wi Contents Practice with idioms and phrasal verbs 83 Exercise L9 Understanding idiomatic expressions 84 Exercise L10_ Identifying the correct idiom or phrasal verb 86 Exercise LI] Identifying the correct meaning of expressions 88 Check your progress 90 Exercise LIZ. Mini-test 91 Practice with various structures 94 Exercise L13,_ Practice with time, quantity, and comparisons 97 Exercise LI4 Understanding causatives 100 Exercise LIS Understanding negative meaning 102 Exercise LI6- Understanding modals 104 Exercise L17 Identifying conditions 106 Exercise L18 Identifying causes and results 109 Check your progress 111 Exercise LI9/ Mini-test 17 Practice with understanding meaning from context 114 Exercise 120 Ientifying the purpose 115 Exercise L21 Understanding responses 15 Exercise L22 Wentfying what people are doing 116 Exercise 123 Drawing conclusions 17 Exercise L24 Making inferences based on context 1/8 Check your progress 119 Exercise L25. Mini-test_ 119 PARTB 123 Strategies to use for Listening, Part B 123 Practice with topics 124 Exercise L26 Predicting the topic from the first statement 125 Exercise L27 Identifying the topic from the first statement 125 Exercise L28 Determining if the topic is stated in the first sentence of the passage 126 Exercise 129 Identifying a change in topic 127 Check your progress 127 Exercise 130 Mini-test 127 Practice with details 129 Exercise L31 Understanding referents in a conversation or talk 137 Exercise L32 Understanding restatements 132 Exercise 133 Getting all the facts 133 Exercise L34 Organizing details 134 Exercise 135. Focusing on details 136 Exercise L36 Using details 139