Sei sulla pagina 1di 188

Solutions to Introduction to Analytic Number Theory Tom M. Apostol

Greg Hurst

Preface

This is a solution manual for Tom Apostol’s Introduction to Analytic Number Theory. Since graduating, I decided to work out all solutions to keep my mind sharp and act as a refresher. There are many problems in this book that are challenging and worth doing on your own, so I recommend referring to this manual as a last resort. The most up to date manual can be found at gregoryhurst.com. Please report any errors you may ﬁnd.

Clearly some problems are harder than others so I used the following markers to indicate exercises I found hard:

(+) denotes problems I found particularly challenging. (++) denotes what I considered to be the most challenging problem of the chapter.

Furthermore I kept track of the exercises from which I learned the most, which are naturally the ones I recommend the most:

 Exercise 1.24 Exercise 1.30 Exercise 2.8 Exercise 3.12 Exercise 4.24 Exercise 4.25 Exercise 4.26 Exercise 4.27 Exercise 4.28 Exercise 4.29 Exercise 4.30 Exercise 5.13 Exercise 5.18 Exercise 5.19 Exercise 5.20 Exercise 6.18 Exercise 10.8 Exercise 10.9 Exercise 10.13 Exercise 11.15 Exercise 11.16 Exercise 12.12 Exercise 12.19 Exercise 13.10 Exercise 14.5

ii

Contents

 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii 1 The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 1 2 Arithmetical Functions and Dirichlet Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3 Averages of Arithmetical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4 Some Elementary Theorems on the Distribution of Prime Numbers 51 5 Congruences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6 Finite Abelian Groups and Their Characters 84 7 Dirichlet’s Theorem on Primes in Arithmetic Progressions 92 8 Periodic Arithmetic Functions and Gauss Sums 96 9 Quadratic Residues and the Quadratic Reciprocity Law 107 10 Primitive Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 11 Dirichlet Series and Euler Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 12 The Functions ζ(s) and L(s, χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 13 Analytic Proof of the Prime Number Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 14 Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 iii

Chapter 1 The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

In there exercises lower case latin letters a, b, c,

Prove each of the statements in Exercises 1 through 6.

Exercise 1.1. If (a, b) = 1 and if c | a and d | b, then (c, d) = 1.

Proof. Since a and b are relatively prime, there are integers x and y such that ax + by = 1.

Also because c | a and d | b, we have a = cn and b = dm for some integers n and m. c(nx) + d(my) = 1, which implies (c, d) = 1.

Exercise 1.2. If (a, b) = (a, c) = 1, then (a, bc) = 1.

Proof. Since a is relatively prime to both b and c, there are integers x 1 , x 2 , y 1 , y 2 such that

, x, y, z represent integers.

Thus

ax 1 + by 1 = 1

and

ax 2 + cy 2 = 1.

Multiplying gives

 (ax 1 + by 1 )(ax 2 + cy 2 ) = 1 =⇒ a 2 x 1 x 2 + acx 1 y 2 + abx 2 y 1 + bcy 1 y 2 = 1 =⇒ a(ax 1 x 2 + cx 1 y 2 + bx 2 y 1 ) + (bc)(y 1 y 2 ) = 1 =⇒ (a, bc) = 1.

Exercise 1.3. If (a, b) = 1, then (a n , b k ) = 1 for all n 1, k 1.

Proof.

Suppose p | a n and p | b k for some prime p.

Then p | a and p | b, as p is prime.

This

 implies p | (a, b), a contradiction. Exercise 1.4. If (a, b) = 1, then (a + b, a − b) is either 1 or 2. Proof. Since (a, b) = 1, there are integers x and y such that ax + by = 1. Then (a + b)(x + y) + (a − b)(x − y) = (ax + bx + ay + by) + (ax − bx − ay + by) = 2ax + 2by = 2. Thus (a + b, a − b) ≤ 2, i.e. (a + b, a − b) is either 1 or 2.

1

2

Chapter 1 Solutions

Exercise 1.5.

If (a, b) = 1, then (a + b, a 2 ab + b 2 ) is either 1 or 3.

Proof. Let g = (a + b, a 2 ab + b 2 ). Since (a + b) 2 (a 2 ab + b 2 ) = 3ab, we have g | 3ab. This means each prime factor p of g must divide 3, a, or b. However without loss of generality , if p | a then p | (a + b) a = b. This contradicts (a, b) = 1, and so p ab. Therefore (g, ab) = 1,

which means g | 3, i.e.

g = 1 or g = 3.

Exercise 1.6.

If (a, b) = 1 and if d | a + b, then (a, d) = (b, d) = 1.

Proof.

for some integer n, and so g | b. shows (b, d) = 1.

Let g = (a, d), which means g | a and g | d. Additionally, d | a + b implies b = nd a

Thus g | (a, b), which forces g = 1. The same argument

Exercise 1.7. A rational number a/b with (a, b) = 1 is called a reduced fraction. If the sum of two reduced fractions in an integer, say (a/b) + (c/d) = n, prove that |b| = |d|.

Proof. Since n = (ad + bc)/(bd), both b and d divide ad + bc. This means b | ad and d | bc,

but since (a, b) = (c, d) = 1 we must have b | d and d | b.

Therefore |b| = |d|.

Exercise 1.8. An integer is called squarefree if it is not divisible by the square of any prime. Prove that for every n 1 there exist uniquely determined a > 0 and b > 0 such that n = a 2 b, where b is squarefree.

Proof. Suppose n 1 and n = p α 1 ··· p α k . Deﬁne

1

k

a = p

α 1 /2

1

··· p

α k /2

k

and

b = p α 1

1

mod 2

··· p α k mod 2 k

.

We then have n = a 2 b since α i = 2 α i /2 + (α i mod 2). Moreover, b is square free.

c 2 d. This

forces a = c as they are both positive. Substituting a = c into a 2 b = c 2 d shows b = d. Hence

>

However, d is squarefree so it follows that a 2 | c 2 . Similarly c 2 | a 2 , thus |a 2 | = |c 2 |.

Now suppose n =

c 2 d for

c

>

0 and

d

0.

Then a 2 b = c 2 d which means a 2

|

this decomposition is unique.

Exercise 1.9. For each of the following statements, either give a proof or exhibit a counter example.

 (a) If b 2 | n and a 2 | n and a 2 ≤ b 2 , then a | b. (b) If b 2 is the largest square divisor of n, then a 2 | n implies a | b. Solution. (a) False: Let n = 36, a = 2, and b = 3.

(b)

If n = p α 1 ··· p α k

1

k

and b 2 is the largest square divisor of n, then by Exercise 1.8,

b = p

α 1 /2

1

··· p

α k /2 k

.

If a 2 | n, then a = p β 1 ··· p β k , where β i α i /2 .

1

k

Thus a | b.

Exercise 1.10. Given x and y, let m = ax + by, n = cx + dy, where ad bc = ±1. Prove that (m, n) = (x, y).

3

Proof. Observe m and n are expressed as linear combinations of x and y. This means (x, y) | m and (x, y) | n, which implies (x, y) | (m, n). Treating m = ax + by and n = cx + dy as a system of linear equations, solving gives

x = dm bn ad bc

and

y = an cm ad bc .

Furthermore, since ad bc = ±1, then x = ±(dm bn) and y = ±(an cm). So applying the exact argument from above, we conclude (m, n) | (x, y). This can only happen when

 |(x, y)| = |(m, n)|, and since gcd’s are positive, (x, y) = (m, n). Exercise 1.11. Prove that n 4 + 4 is composite if n > 1. Proof. Factoring shows n 4 + 4 = (n 4 + 4n 2 + 4) − 4n 2 = (n 2 + 2) 2 − (2n) 2 = (n 2 + 2n + 2)(n 2 − 2n + 2). Observe for n > 1, both factors are larger than 1 and so n 4 + 4 is composite.

In Exercises 12, 13, and 14, a, b, c, m, n denote positive integers.

Exercise 1.12. For each of the following statements, either give a proof or exhibit a counter example.

 (a) If a n | b n then a | b. (b) If n n | m m then n | m. (c) If a n | 2b n and n > 1, then a | b.

Solution.

(a) True: Suppose a = p α 1 ··· p α k . Then a n | b n implies b n = p nα 1 ··· p nα k · q nβ 1 ··· q

means b = p α 1 ··· p α k · q β 1 ··· q

1

1

k

β

l

1

k

1

l

, i.e.

a | b.

1

k

l

l

. This

 (b) False: Let n = 8 and m = 12. (c) True: If a is odd then (a, 2) = 1 and a n | b n , hence (a) implies a | b.

Now suppose a = 2 s d where s > 0 and d is odd.

Since a n | 2b n ,

2b n = 2 ns d n m

for some integer m. Thus

b n = 2 n(s1)+(n1) d n m.

Since n 1 > 0, 2 n(s1)+(n1) is not an nth power, which means m must be even. Therefore

b n = 2 ns d n (m ) n = a n (m ) n ,

and so a | b.

Exercise 1.13. If (a, b) = 1 and (a/b) m = n, prove that b = 1. If n is not the mth power of a positive integer, prove that n 1/m is irrational.

4

Chapter 1 Solutions

Proof.

If (a/b) m = n, then a m /b m n/1 = 0.

Thus by Exercise 1.7, |b m | = 1, and so b = 1.

Next suppose n 1/m = a/b where (a, b) = 1. Then n = (a/b) m , which we now know implies

b = 1. Therefore n = a m , i.e. n is an mth power.

Exercise 1.14.

[Hint : Consider d = (a, c).]

If (a, b) = 1 and ab = c n , prove that a = x n and b = y n for some x and y.

Proof. Suppose a = p a 1 ··· p a k

1

k

and so

and b = q

b

1

1

··· q

b

l

l

where all p i and q j are distinct. Then

c n = p a 1 ··· p a k · q

1

k

b

1

1

··· q

b

l

l

,

c = p a 1 /n ··· p a k /n · q

1

k

b 1 /n

1

··· q

b l /n l

.

Since each p i and q j are distinct, n | a i and n | b j . Therefore a and b are nth powers.

Exercise 1.15. Prove that every n 12 is the sum of two composite numbers.

Proof.

odd, then n = 9 + (n 9) and n 9 > 2 is even.

If n is even, then n = 4 + (n 4) and n 4 > 2 is even.

On the other hand, if n is

Exercise 1.16. Prove that if 2 n 1 is prime, then n is prime.

Proof. Suppose n is composite and n = ab for some a > 1 and b > 1. Then

2 n 1 = (2 a ) b 1 = (2 a 1)(2 a(b1) + 2 a(b2) + ··· + 2 a + 1).

Since both factors are greater than one, 2 n 1 must be composite.

Exercise 1.17. Prove that if 2 n + 1 is prime, then n is a power of 2.

Proof. Suppose n = 2 s d where d is odd and d > 1. Then

2 n + 1 = (2 2 s ) d + 1 = (2 2 s

Furthermore since d > 1 is odd,

+ 1)(2 2 s (d1) 2 2 s (d2) + ··· + 2 2 s ·2 2 2 s + 1).

(2 2 s (d1) 2 2 s (d2) ) + · · · + (2 2 s ·2 2 2 s ) + 1 > 0 + ··· + 0 + 1 = 1.

Hence both factors are larger than 1 and so 2 n + 1 is composite. Thus if 2 n + 1 is prime,

then d = 1, i.e.

n is a power of 2.

Exercise 1.18. If m

= n compute the gcd (a 2 m + 1, a 2 n + 1) in terms of a.

[Hint : Let

A n = a 2 n + 1 and show that A n | (A m 2) if m > n.]

5

Solution. Let g = (A m , A n ), where m > n and deﬁne A k = a 2 k + 1. Now

A m 2 = a 2 m 1

= (a 2 n ) 2 mn 1

= (a 2 n + 1)(a 2 n (2 mn 1) a 2 n (2 mn 2) + ··· + a 2 n 1)

= A n · (a 2 n (2 mn 1) a 2 n (2 mn 2) + ··· + a 2 n 1),

and hence A n | (A m 2).

is even, then A k is odd and hence g = 1. giving g = 2.

Exercise 1.19.

with a 1

sion formula a n+1

This shows g | A m 2 and g | A m , thus by linearity g | 2.

If a

On the other hand, if a is odd, then A k is even,

The Fibonacci sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,

=

a n + a n1 ,

= a 2

=

1.

is deﬁned by the recur-

1 for each

Prove that (a n , a n+1 ) =

 n. Proof. Induct on n. It’s clear (a 1 , a 2 ) = 1. Let n > 1 and assume (a n−1 , a n ) = 1. Then

(a n , a n+1 ) = (a n , a n + a n1 ) = (a n , a n1 ) = 1.

Exercise 1.20. Let d = (826, 1890). Use the Euclidean algorithm to compute d, then express d as a linear combination of 826 and 1890.

Solution. Applying the Euclidean algorithm,

1890 = 2 · 826 + 238

 826 = 3 · 238 + 112 238 = 2 · 112 + 14 112 = 8 · 14 + 0,

hence d = 14. Through back substitution,

 14 = 238 − 2 · 112 = (1890 − 2 · 826) − 2(826 − 3 · 238) = (1890 − 2 · 826) − 2(826 − 3 · (1890 − 2 · 826)) = 7 · 1890 − 16 · 826.

Exercise 1.21. The least common multiple (lcm) of two integers a and b is denoted by [a, b] or by aM b, and is deﬁned as follows.

[a, b] = |ab|/(a, b)

[a, b] = 0

if a

= 0 and b

= 0

if a = 0 or b = 0.

Prove that the lcm has the following properties:

(a) If a =

(b)

(c)

(D and M are distributive with respect to each other.)

a

i

and b =

b

i=1 p i

i=1 p i

i

then [a, b] =

i=1 p i

c

i

, where c i = max{a i , b i }.

6

Chapter 1 Solutions

Proof.

(a) If c i = max{a i , b i } and m i = min{a i , b i }, then by deﬁnition [a, b] =

it’s easy to see a i + b i = c i + m i , and hence [a, b] =

i=1 p

c

i

i

.

a i +b i m i i=1 p i

For the next parts assume a =

i=1 p i

a

i

, b =

b

i=1 p i

i

, and c =

i=1 p

c

i

i

.

 (b) We have and

[(a, b), c] = p

min{a i ,b i }

i

, p

c

i

i

= p

max{min{a i ,b i },c i }

i

([a, c], [b, c]) = p

max{a i ,c i }

i

, p

max{b i ,c i }

i

= p

min{max{a i ,c i },max{b i ,c i }} i

.

. Now

To show these exponents are equal, we will compare the two in a table.

 ordering max{min{a i , b i }, c i } min{max{a i , c i }, max{b i , c i }} a i ≥ b i ≥ c i b i b i a i ≥ c i ≥ b i b i b i b i ≥ a i ≥ c i b i b i b i ≥ c i ≥ a i a i a i c i ≥ a i ≥ b i b i b i c i ≥ b i ≥ a i a i a i

This shows max{min{a i , b i }, c i } = min{max{a i , c i }, max{b i , c i }} and the result follows.

(c) We have

and

([a, b], c) = p

max{a i ,b i }

i

, p

c

i

i

= p

min{max{a i ,b i },c i }

i

[(a, c), (b, c)] = p

min{a i ,c i }

i

, p

min{b i ,c i }

i

= p

max{min{a i ,c i },min{b i ,c i }}

i

.

To show these exponents are equal, we will compare the two in a table.

 ordering min{max{a i , b i }, c i } max{min{a i , c i }, min{b i , c i }} a i ≥ b i ≥ c i c i c i a i ≥ c i ≥ b i b i b i b i ≥ a i ≥ c i c i c i b i ≥ c i ≥ a i b i b i c i ≥ a i ≥ b i b i b i c i ≥ b i ≥ a i b i b i

This shows min{max{a i , b i }, c i } = max{min{a i , c i }, min{b i , c i }} and the result follows.

Exercise 1.22. Prove that (a, b) = (a + b, [a, b]).

Lemma 1.22. If (c, d) = 1, then (c + d, cd) = 1.

Proof of Lemma.

generality p | c, and so p | (c + d) c = d. This means p | (c, d), a contradiction.

Suppose p |

c + d

and p

|

cd for some prime p.

Then without loss of

7

Proof of Exercise. Note by Theorem 1.4 (c) if c > 0, then (ac, bc) = c(a, b). Now if g = (a, b), then a = gn and b = gm for some integers n and m. By Lemma 1.22,

(a + b, [a, b]) = (a + b, |ab|/g)

= (g(n + m), ±gnm)

= g(n + m, nm)

= g.

Exercise 1.23. The sum of two positive integers is 5264 and their least common multiple is 200 340. Determine the two integers.

Solution. We have a + b = 5264 and [a, b] = 200 340. So by Exercise 1.22,

200 340 = ab/(5264, 200 340) = ab/28,

and therefore

a + b = 5264

and

ab = 5 609 520.

Assuming a < b, solving the system gives a = 1484 and b = 3780.

Exercise 1.24.(++) Prove the following multiplicative property of the gcd:

(ah, bk) = (a, b)(h, k)

a

(a, b) ,

(h, k) (a, b) ,

k

b

(h, k) .

h

In particular this shows that (ah, bk) = (a, k)(b, h) whenever (a, b) = (h, k) = 1.

Lemma 1.24. If n, m, and g > 0 are integers, then g = (n, m) if and only if (n/g, m/g) = 1.

Proof of Lemma. By Theorem 1.4 (c),

(n, m) = g ⇐⇒ (g(n/g), g(m/g)) = g ⇐⇒ g(n/g, m/g) = g ⇐⇒ (n/g, m/g) = 1.

Proof of Exercise. Let a 1 = a/(a, b), b 1 = b/(a, b), h 1 = h/(h, k), k 1 = k/(h, k). Then apply- ing Lemma 1.24,

Now deﬁne α =

(ah, bk) = (a, b)(h, k)

a

(a, b) ,

(h, k) (a, b) ,

k

b

(h, k)

h

⇐⇒ (a 1 h 1 , b 1 k 1 ) = (a 1 , k 1 )(b 1 , h 1 )

⇐⇒

a

1

h

1

(a 1 , k 1 ) (b 1 , h 1 ) ,

b

1

k

k 1 ) = 1.

1

(b 1 , h 1 ) (a 1 ,

,k 1 ) , γ =

(a

1

a

1

h

,h 1 ) , β =

1

(b

1

b

,h 1 ) , δ =

1

(b

1

(α, δ) = 1

and

k

,k 1 ) . Then by Lemma 1.24,

1

(a

1

(γ, β) = 1.

8

Chapter 1 Solutions

α =

a

d 1 (a, b)

and

β =

b

d 2 (a, b)

for some d 1 and d 2 , so Lemma 1.24 shows (α, β) = 1 and similarly (γ, δ) = 1. This means

αγ and βδ can share no positive divisors other than 1, that is (αγ, βδ) = 1.

Prove each of the following statements in Exercises 25 through 28. All integers are positive.

Exercise 1.25.

If (a, b) = 1 there exist x > 0 and y > 0 such that ax by = 1.

Proof. If a = 1 then take x = b + 1 and y = 1, so we can assume a > 1 and b > 1. Since (a, b) = 1, there are x and y such that ax+by = 1. If x > 0 and y < 0, we’re done. Otherwise we make a few quick observations.