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# CHAPTER 11

Feedback

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Feedback idea

## Figure 11.1 General structure of the feedback amplifier. This is a signal-flow

diagram, and the quantities x represent either voltage or current signals.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Bandwidth increase

Figure 11.4 Application of negative feedback reduces the midband gain, increases fH, and
reduces fL, all by the same factor, (1 + AMβ), which is equal to the amount of feedback.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Noise reduction
𝑆𝑆 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠
=
𝑁𝑁 𝑉𝑉𝑛𝑛

## 𝐴𝐴1 𝐴𝐴2 𝐴𝐴1

𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜 = 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠 + 𝑉𝑉𝑛𝑛
1 + 𝐴𝐴1 𝐴𝐴2 𝛽𝛽 1 + 𝐴𝐴1 𝐴𝐴2 𝛽𝛽

𝑆𝑆 𝑉𝑉𝑠𝑠
= 𝐴𝐴2
pre-amplifier: good 𝑁𝑁 𝑉𝑉𝑛𝑛
because small signal
Use 𝛽𝛽 ≈ 1/𝐴𝐴1 for
the same gain

Figure 11.5 Illustrating the application of negative feedback to improve the signal-to-interference ratio in amplifiers.
Reduction in nonlinear distortion
Voltage amplifier

Figure 11.7 Block diagram of a feedback voltage amplifier. Here the appropriate feedback topology is series–shunt.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Current amplifier

## Figure 11.25 The feedback current amplifier (shunt–series).

Transconductance amplifier

## Figure 11.18 The feedback transconductance amplifier (series–series).

Transresistance amplifier

## Figure 11.22 The feedback transresistance amplifier (shunt–shunt).

Voltage amplifier

Figure 11.7 Block diagram of a feedback voltage amplifier. Here the appropriate feedback topology is series–shunt.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Example of feedback voltage amplifier

𝑅𝑅1
𝛽𝛽 =
𝑅𝑅1 + 𝑅𝑅2

Figure 11.3 (a) A noninverting op-amp circuit for Example 11.1. (b) The circuit in (a) with
the op amp replaced with its equivalent circuit.
Examples of feedback voltage amplifier

𝑅𝑅1
𝛽𝛽 = 𝑅𝑅1
𝑅𝑅1 + 𝑅𝑅2 𝛽𝛽 =
𝑅𝑅1 + 𝑅𝑅2

Figure 11.8 Examples of a feedback voltage amplifier. All these circuits employ series–shunt feedback.
Note that the dc bias circuits are only partially shown.
One more example of feedback voltage amplifier

𝑅𝑅1
𝛽𝛽 =
𝑅𝑅1 + 𝑅𝑅2

Figure E11.8

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Voltage amplifier (series-shunt feedback)

Figure 11.12 The series–shunt feedback amplifier: (a) ideal structure; (b) equivalent circuit.
Figure 11.13 Determining the output resistance of the feedback amplifier of Fig. 11.12(a): Rof = Vx/Ix.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Transconductance amplifier (series-series feedback)

## Figure 11.18 The feedback transconductance amplifier (series–series).

Transresistance amplifier (shunt-shunt feedback)

## Figure 11.22 The feedback transresistance amplifier (shunt–shunt).

Current amplifier (shunt-series feedback)

## Figure 11.25 The feedback current amplifier (shunt–series).

Calculation of loop gain 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴

Figure 11.9 Breaking the conceptual feedback loop in (a) to determine the loop gain requires the
termination of the loop as shown in (b), to ensure that the loop conditions do not change.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Example of calculation of loop gain (Example 11.2)

Fig. 11.8(b)

1
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 𝑔𝑔𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑅𝑅𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑔𝑔𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑅𝑅𝐷𝐷𝐷 Figure 11.10 Determining: (a) the feedback factor β;
𝑔𝑔𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑅𝑅1
𝑅𝑅1 and (b) the loop gain Aβ for the feedback voltage
×
𝑅𝑅𝐷𝐷𝐷 + 𝑅𝑅2 + (𝑅𝑅1 ∥ 1/𝑔𝑔𝑚𝑚𝑚 ) amplifier of Fig. 11.8(b).
Stability of feedback
Plot 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 on complex
plane for changing 𝜔𝜔

## Figure 11.28 The Nyquist plot of an unstable amplifier.

Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press
Microelectronic Circuits, Seventh Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright © 2015 by Oxford University Press