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Bearing Basics

Bearings are machine elements

Bearings are designed to

 reduce friction
 carry loads
 guide moving parts
W hat is Friction ?

Friction is resistance to m ovem ent

 it opposes sliding
 it assists rotation
What is friction?
Plain bearings
sliding friction


Rolling bearings
rolling friction


How did a bearing evolve ?
Bearing history - a never-ending story

1794

1869

1100 B.C.
40 A.D.

3500 B.C.
1995
How did a bearing evolve ?
How did a bearing evolve ?

* Invention of wheel
* Wheel rotates on axle
* Wear Plate + Rollers
* Inner ring + Outer ring
+ Rollers
* With introduction of
cage Rolling Bearing
was created
CLASSIFICATION OF BEARINGS
 Based on the Direction of Load
1. Radial Bearing

Load acting perpendicular to the


direction of motion of moving element
2. Thrust Bearing

Load acts along the axis of rotation


B e a r in g lo a d s
R a d ia l lo a d
Fr C o m b in e d
lo a d

A x ia l lo a d
Fa
 Based on Nature of Contact
1. Sliding Contact Bearing

Sliding takes place between the fixed


and moving element of bearing and its also
known as plain bearing
2.Rolling Contact Bearings
Balls or rollers introduced between
moving and fixed elements and it is also
known as anti-friction bearings
SLIDING CONTACT BEARING/JOURNAL BEARING

 Types of Journal Bearings


Types of Journal Bearings Based on
Lubrication

Journal
Bearing

Hydrodynamic Hydrostatic
Bearing Bearing
 Hydrodynamic Bearing

It is a lubricated journal bearing that uses fluid, liquid


or gas lubricants to separate the moving surfaces
completely without an external pressure supply,
required pressure to support journal inside the bearing
is generated from wedging action inside the journal
Journal (Sleeve) Bearings
Load is transferred through a lubricant in
sliding contact
JOURNAL (SLEEVE) BEARINGS
Thick-film lubrication (hydrodynamic), pressure
distribution, and film thickness.
hmin = minimum film thickness, c = radial clearance, e
= eccentricity

17
 Hydrostatic Bearings
It is also known as externally pressurized
lubrication in which the pressurized lubricant pumped
into clearance of bearing and journal hence it can
support higher loads even at stationary conditions with
very low starting friction resulting very low tear an
wear. But they are very expensive
Rolling Contact Bearings

Rolling contact bearings are also known as antifriction bearings.


The load, speed, and operating viscosity of the lubricant affect
the friction characteristics of a rolling bearing.
These bearings provide coefficients of friction between 0.001 and
0.002.
The designer must deal with such matters as fatigue, friction,
heat, lubrication, kinematics problems, material properties,
machining tolerances, assembly, use and cost
CONSTRUCTION OF BEARING

The rolling contact bearings are


composed of four elements.

i. Outer race
ii. Inner race
iii.Rolling element
iv.Cage of retaining ring
Construction Diagram :

Roller contact bearing


With its parts

i. Outer ring (or) Outer race


ii. Inner ring (or) inner race
iii. Rolling elements
iv. Cage or retaining ring
The components of a bearing

Seal Rolling elements Inner ring


Outer ring Cage Seal
Classification of rolling bearings
Classified into two types

i. Ball Bearing
• Deep groove (Conrad) bearing
• Filling notch ball bearing
• Angular contact bearings (AC)

ii. Roller Bearing


• Cylindrical bearings
• Needle bearings
• Tapered bearings
• Spherical bearings
Radial rolling bearings

Ball bearings Roller bearings


Deep groove Angular Self-aligning Cylindrical Taper Needle Spherical
ball bearing contact ball bearing roller roller roller roller
ball bearing bearing bearing bearing bearing
Thrust bearings

Ball bearings Roller bearings


Angular Taper Spherical Cylindrical
Thrust Contact Roller Roller / Needle
ball bearing Ball Thrust Thrust Thrust Roller
bearing bearing bearing Thrust
bearing
Ball Bearings
Deep groove bearing

 Single row
of deep groove ball bearing can combinational
of radial and thrust load.
Load capacity is limited by the number of balls
Primarily designed to support radial loads, the thrust
capacity is about 70% of radial load capacity
Filling notch ball bearings

Bearings have the same


basic radial construction as
Conrad type. However, a
filling notch (loading
groove) permits more balls
to be used.
Radial load capacity is 20
– 40% higher than Conrad
type.
Thrust load capacity
drops to 20% (2 directions)
of radial load capacity.
Angular contact Ball bearings (AC)

The centerline of contact between the balls and the


raceway is at an angle to the plane perpendicular to the
axis of rotation.
Used for high radial and thrust load applications
RADIAL AND ANGULAR
BEARING
Standardization of bearings
Roller Bearings
Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball
bearings, load is transmitted through line contact instead
of point contact.
Helical rollers are made by winding rectangular
material into roller. Due to inherent flexibility they are
capable of taking considerable misalignment.
A roller with length much larger than diameter is
known as needle roller and are used where radial space is
limited. Cage nay be absent in needle roller bearings.
ROLLER BEARINGS
Characteristics
B a ll b ea r in g s Point Contact :
D e e p g ro o v e A n g u la r S e lf-a lig n in g
b a ll b e a rin g c o n ta c t b a ll b e a rin g
b a ll b e a rin g

* Less area of contact


* Less friction
* More speed
* Less load

R oller bearings
C ylin drica l Ta pe r N ee d le S ph eric a l Line Contact :
rolle r ro lle r ro ller ro ller
be a rin g be a ring b ea ring b ea ring

* More area of contact


* More friction
* Less speed
* More load
Rolling elements name the bearing
Ball Spherical roller Spherical roller
(symmetrical) (asymmetrical)

Cylindrical roller Taper roller

Needle roller
Misalignment
Parallel or offset misalignment Angular misalignment

Misalignments
produce additional stresses
shorten bearing life
increase seal wear
increase vibration
increase noise
increase energy consumption
which will be avoided by proper
shaft alignment or the use of a
self-aligning bearing
Self Aligning Ball Bearing
Bearing Basics
Double Row Angular Contact Ball Bearing
Ball bearing properties
Deep groove Angular contact Self-aligning ball bearing
ball bearing ball bearing

radial load axial load speed can accommodate


carrying capacity carrying capacity capability misalignment
Bearing Basics
Bearing Basics
Bearing Basics
Bearing Basics
Spherical roller bearings

Symmetrical rollers
for maximum life under
any conditions

Floating guide ring


gives minimum friction
and ensures reliable
operation

Window-type steel cages


strong and tolerant to
high temperatures
Taper roller bearings

Taper rollers
for perfect rolling contact

Logarithmic profiled rollers


for protection from edge loading

Specially designed flange


gives minimum friction and
ensures reliable operation

Window-type steel cages


strong and tolerant to high
temperatures
Single row and paired single row
taper roller bearings

Single row Face-to-face Back-to-back


arrangement arrangement
suffix DF suffix DB
Compact Aligning Roller Bearings
TM
CARB
Safer, more optimized design
Increased service life

Lower running temperature


Lower vibration and noise level
Extended maintenance interval

Higher axial clearence


No internal Friction force

Longer life
Higher speed
Downsizing possibility
TM
CARB - Bearing
Compact Aligning Roller Bearing

 Self-aligning as spherical roller bearing


 Permits axial displacements like a cylindrical roller bearing
 Compact as a needle roller bearing
Thrust bearings
Thrust ball bearing Thrust ball bearing Thrust ball bearing
single direction single direction with double direction
sphered housing washer

Thrust ball bearing Cylindrical roller Spherical roller


double direction with thrust bearing thrust bearing
sphered housing washers single direction
Spherical roller thrust bearings

Combined load carrying capacity


Can take 55% of thrust load as
radial load
Logarithmic profiled rollers
for protection from edge loading

Specially designed flange


gives minimum friction and
ensures reliable operation

Window-type steel cages


strong and tolerant to high
temperatures
Compact Aligning Roller Bearings
TM
CARB
Safer, more optimized design
Increased service life

Lower running temperature


Lower vibration and noise level
Extended maintenance interval

Higher axial clearence


No internal Friction force

Longer life
Higher speed
Downsizing possibility
Bearings are precision products

How much is a m

Example:
Tolerances for A
bore diameter
75 mm human
hair
Normal Precision High precision
bearing bearing 1

Standard P6 P5 P4A PA9A Tolerance


SP UP PA9B classes 0,06 mm

0/-2,5 m
0/-12  m 0/-9 m 0/-7 m
0/-15 m
Materials for rolling bearings
Bearing rings and rolling elements
1. Through-hardening steels
Carbon chromium steel containing approximately
1 % carbon and 1,5 % chromium

2. Case-hardening steels
– Chromium-nickel alloyed steel
appr. 0,20 % carbon
– Manganese-chromium alloyed steel

SKF bearing steels have very high cleanliness


– the content of macro and microinclusions is
extremely low.