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The method is similar to L.T.H.W. pipe sizing except that the pressure available is not from a pump but from the head available

from the tank.

The higher the tank is above the outlets the more head will be available to force the water through the outlets and overcome

pipework resistances.

Head Available

Cold Water Storage

Tank

Available

Outlet

The Head Available develops water pressure and this water pressure is used up in overcoming the frictional resistance of the pipe

and in creating the velocity pressure for water flow at the outlet.

or,

h1 - h2 = head loss in pipe due to friction + velocity head

h = head (m)

In practice, to avoid additional velocity pressure calculations, it is usual to calculate the available pressure by considering the

difference in levels between the bottom of the storage tank and the height of the draw-off points.

The pressure losses in the system are frictional pipe losses and velocity pressure loss through sanitary fittings such as taps, cistern

ball valves and shower heads.

Pillar tap 1m

Shower head 1.5m

Ball valve 1m

Cold water flow rates for sanitary appliances for small installations may be found from the table below.

Flow rate (l/s)

water demand

Basin (spray tap) 0.05

Basin (tap) 0.15

Bath (private) 0.30

Bath (public) 0.60

Flushing cistern 0.10

Shower (nozzle) 0.15

Shower (100mm rose) 0.40

Sink (15mm tap) 0.20

Sink (20mm tap) 0.30

Wash fountain 0.40

In larger more complex buildings where many sanitary appliances are installed simultaneous demand should be considered from

tables CIBSE Guide B (1986) B4.20 and B4.21

Pipe Size Procedure

1. Divide system into sections.

8. Determine pressure loss due to friction for pipe from CIBSE guide tables.

Subtract pressure loss in section from static pressure available.

Notes:-

1. Keep velocity below 2.0 m/s for noise reduction see Table 2.19 in CIBSE Guide G (2004) Public Health Engineering.

2. An alternative method of pipe sizing is to use a nomogram.

This can be found in CIBSE Guide G (2004) Public Health Engineering Figure 2.21.

Example 1

Determine a suitable pipe size for the system shown below.

DATA

Fittings include the following; exit from tank or large vessel, 3No. bends, 1No. gate valve, 1No. 15mm tap,

Length of pipe run is 8 metres and copper pipe is to be used.

The flow rate for a 15mm Sink Tap from above Table is 0.2 l/s.

2 metres Tank

head

The pressure available to force the water through the pipework and tap comes from the head of water above the tap.

The formula below gives the relationship between pressure and head.

P = x g x h

Where;

P = pressure (N/m2)

= density (1000 kg/m3 for water)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)

h = head (m)

3m

Cold Water

The resistance to flow is from the fittings and pipework.

Storage

Tank

Example 2

Determine suitable pipe sizes for the system shown below.

4

The building is a three-storey Nursing Home. A m

DATA 4m

Copper pipe is to be used.

Flow rates are to be obtained from above Table.

Bath

(Private)

3m

D 3

m

B Bath

3

(Private)

m

3m

E 3

Bath m

C 3 (Private)

m

4m

Answer:

From above Table the flow rate for a private bath is 0.3 l/s.

The pipe sizes, flow rates and pressures are indicated on the drawing below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Ref Deman Flow Estimated Measured Length of Effective Pipe Pressure Total Pressure Final

d Rate Pipe Dia. Pipe Run Pipe Equal to Resistance’s Pipe Length Pressur Consumed Pressure Available at End of Pipe

Units if Col . 5 + 6 e Loss Col. 7 x 8 Consumed Section Size

require (l/s) (mm) (m) (m) (m) (kPa/m) (kPa) (kPa) (Pa)

d (mm)

A 0.9 28 7.0 Factors for fittings: 7 + 2.09 = 1.250 11.362 11.362 Static pressure = 28

1No.Exit large vessel = 0.4 9.09 m

1No.Gate Valve = 0.3 4m x 9.810 = 39.24

1 No. Bend = 1.0 Press. Available =

1 No.28 x 28 x 22 tee = 0.2 32.79 kPa=

----------- 39.24+4.91-11.362

Total 1.9

T.E.L. = Total x le

= 1.9 x 1.1

= 2.09 m

B 0.6 28 3.0 1No.28 x 22 x 22 tee = 0.20 3.0 + 0.45 = 0.600 2.070 2.070 Static pressure = 28

with 28 x 22 reducer: 3.45 m 3m x 9.810 = 29.43

A2 / A1 = x 0.0112 / x 0.0142. kPa,

= 0.617 gives = 0.25 Press. Available =

----------- 32.79 – (2.07-29.43) =

Total 0.45 60.15 kPa

T.E.L. = Total x le

= 0.45 x 1.0

= 0.45m

C 0.3 22 8.0 1No.Bend = 1.0 8.0 + 4.2 0.625 7,625 7,625 Static pressure = 22

1No. Angle valve bath tap = 5.0 = 12.2 m 2 m x 9.810 = 19.6 kPa

----------- Press. Available =

Total 6.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

T.E.L. = Total x le 60.15 – (7,625-19.6) =

= 6.0 x 0.7 72.125 kPa

= 4.2 m

D 0.3 22 4.0 1No. Angle valve bath tap = 5.0 4.0 + 3.5 = 0.625 4,69 kPa 4.69 kPa Static pressure = 22* add

T.E.L. = Total x le 7.5 m pump or

= 5.0 x 0.7 1m x 9.810 = 9.81

raise the

= 3.5 m Press. Available = cistern

32.79 – ( 4,69 + 9.81)= 1m

18.29 kPa above or

use

circular

tank

with 2m

height

E 0.3 22 3.0 1No. Angle valve bath tap = 5.0 3.0 + 3.5 = 625 4,063 4,063 Static pressure = 24

T.E.L. = Total x le 6.5 m 6m x 9810 = 58,860

= 5.0 x 0.7 Press. Available =

= 3.5 m 58,860 – 14,683 =

44,177 Pa – 4,063 =

40,114 Pa

Re-calculate pipe ref. C for 15mm pipe

C 0.3 15 7.0 1No. 28 x 15 x 22 tee (already 7.0 + 3.47 4000 41,880 41,880 + Static pressure = 15

included) = 10.47 m estimated 14,683 = 9 m x 9810 = 88,290

with 2 No.28 x 15 reducers: 56,563 Press. Available =

A2 / A1 = x 0.00752 / x 0.0142. 88,290 – 56,563 =

= 0.287 gives = 0.47 31,727 Pa

2No. Reducers = 0.94

1No.Bend = 1.0

1No. Angle valve bath tap = 5.0

-----------

Total 6.94

T.E.L. = Total x le

= 6.94 x 0.5

= 3.47 m

Cold Water

Storage Tank

A

28mm

0.9 l/s

12,754 Pa

16,817 Pa

Bath

22mm

28mm

44,177 Pa B

0.6 l/s Bath

22mm

C

Bath

15mm

0.3 l/s

Example 3

Determine suitable pipe sizes for the system shown below.

The building is a three-storey hotel.

DATA

Copper pipe is to be used.

Flow rates and simultaneous demand data are to be obtained from the

CIBSE guide.

3m

Cold Water

Storage Tank

6m

7m

1m 2m 7m 7m 2 1m

m

3m

3m

Hot and Cold Water Pipe Sizing Table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Ref Demand Flow Estimated Measured Length of Effective Pipe Pressure Total Pressure Final

Units if Rate Pipe Dia. Pipe Run Pipe Equal to Pipe Pressure Consumed Pressure Available at Pipe

required Resistance’s Length Loss Col. 7 x 8 Consumed End of Size

(l/s) (mm) (m) Col . 5 + (Pa/m) (Pa) (Pa) Section

(m) 6 (Pa) (mm)

(m)

Mains Water Pipe Sizing

Pipe Sizing Procedure

1. Reference the pipe section.

2. Calculate flow rates from Table below.

3. Estimate flow rates in each section.

Keep velocity below 2 m/s. See also CIBSE Guide G

(2003) part 2, Table 2.19.

4. Estimate pipe diameter from pipe sizing tables in CIBSE

Guide C.

5. Measure the pipe run from drawings.

6. Calculate length of pipe equal to resistance of fittings.

The Total equivalent length of a fitting = Equivalent

Length x Pressure Loss factor (Zeta).

8. Determine pressure loss due to friction from CIBSE

Tables.

9. Calculate pressure consumed due to friction

(Pa) = effective pipe length (m) x pressure loss due to

friction (Pa/m)

10. Calculate total pressure consumed = Friction loss +

Static pressure loss

11. Determine pressure at start of section.

12. Calculate pressure available at end of section = Pressure

at start of section - Total pressure consumed

If pressure available at end of section is less than the

maximum allowable pressure drop then we can accept this

pipe size.

13. Determine pressure required at end of section, this can be

the minimum pressure that is required for terminal

equipment.

14. If the pressure available at the end of the section is more

than or equal to the pressure required at the end of the section

then the pipe size is correct.

Cold water flow rates for sanitary appliances for small installations may be

found from the table below.

Flow rate (l/s)

water demand

Basin (spray tap) 0.05

Basin (tap) 0.15

Bath (private) 0.30

Bath (public) 0.60

Flushing cistern 0.10

Shower (nozzle) 0.15

Shower (100mm rose) 0.40

Sink (15mm tap) 0.20

Sink (20mm tap) 0.30

Wash fountain 0.40

installed simultaneous demand should be considered from tables CIBSE

Guide B (1986) B4.20 and B4.21.

Notes:-

An alternative method of pipe sizing is to use a nomogram.

This can be found in CIBSE Guide G (2004) Public Health Engineering

Figure 2.21.

Pipe Sizing table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Ref Demand Flow Estimated Measured Length of Effective Pipe Pressure Friction Pressure Pressure Pressure Final

Units if Rate Pipe Dia. Pipe Run Pipe Equal Pipe Pressure Consumed loss + at Start Available Required Pipe

required to Fittings Length Loss due to Static of at End of at End of Size

(l/s) (mm) (m) Resistance’s Col . 5 + (kPa/m) Friction pressure Section Section Section

(m) 6 Col. 7 x 8 loss = (kPa) (mm)

(m) (kPa) Total (kPa) (Pa)

Pressure

Consumed

(kPa)

Example 1

Use Copper Table X pipework for water at 10oC..

Answer

The maximum allowable pressure drop along the length of pipe = 300,000

Pa – 250,000 Pa = 50,000 Pa

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Ref Demand Flow Estimated Measured Length of Effective Pipe Pressure Friction Pressure Pressure Pressure Final

Units if Rate Pipe Dia. Pipe Run Pipe Equal Pipe Pressure Consumed loss + at Start Available Required Pipe

required to Fittings Length Loss due to Static of at End of at End of Size

(l/s) (mm) (m) Resistance’s Col . 5 + (Pa/m) Friction pressure Section Section Section

(m) 6 From Col. 7 x 8 loss = (Pa) (mm)

(m) CIBSE (Pa) Total (Pa) (Pa)

Tables Pressure

Consumed

(Pa)

A none 0.8 22 50 none 50 3500 175,000 175,000 300,000 125,000 250,000 Too

small

Pipe Sizing Procedure

1. Reference the pipe section - section A.

2. Calculate demand units or loading units from Tables in CIBSE guide

(attached). – not required, see No.3 below.

3. Estimate flow rates in each section. Keep velocity below 2 m/s. -

given

4. Estimate pipe diameter from pipe sizing tables in CIBSE Guide C. –

22mm (velocity too high at approx 2.4 m/s) or 28mm (velocity is 1.5 m/s).

5. Measure the pipe run from drawings. – 50m

6. Calculate length of pipe equal to resistance of fittings. – no fittings

7. Calculate effective pipe length. - 50m

8. Determine pressure loss due to friction from CIBSE Tables. See Table

4.18 in Guide C (CD version).

9. Calculate pressure consumed due to friction (Pa) = effective pipe

length (m) x pressure loss due to friction (Pa/m). Column 7 x 8 in Pipe

Sizing Table.

10. Calculate total pressure consumed = Friction loss + Static pressure

loss. There are no vertical pipe sections and therefore no static pressure loss.

11. Determine pressure at start of section. Given in drawing as 300,000

Pa.

12. Calculate pressure available at end of section = Pressure at start of

section - Total pressure consumed.

300,000 – 175,000 = 125,000 Pa. (22mm) …………..300,000 –

50,000 = 250,000 Pa (22mm).

If pressure available at end of section is less than the maximum

allowable pressure drop then we can accept this pipe size.

13. Determine pressure required at end of section, this can be the

minimum pressure that is required for terminal equipment. Given in drawing

as 250,000 Pa.

14. If the pressure available at the end of the section is more than or equal

to the pressure required at the end of the section then the pipe size is correct.

28mm pipe is correct, 22mm is too small since there is not enough pressure

available at the end of the section and the water velocity is also too high.

Example 2

Use Copper Table X pipework for water at 10oC..

Answer

The maximum allowable pressure drop along the length of pipe = 120,000

Pa – 90,000 Pa = 30,000 Pa

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Ref Demand Flow Estimated Measured Length of Effective Pipe Pressure Friction Pressure Pressure Pressure Final

Units if Rate Pipe Dia. Pipe Run Pipe Equal Pipe Pressure Consumed loss + at Start Available Required Pipe

required to Fittings Length Loss due to Static of at End of at End of Size

(l/s) (mm) (m) Resistance’s Col . 5 + (Pa/m) Friction pressure Section Section Section

(m) 6 From Col. 7 x 8 loss = (Pa) (mm)

(m) CIBSE (Pa) Total (Pa) (Pa)

Tables Pressure

Consumed

(Pa)

A none 0.5 22 14 1.6 15.6 1500 23,400 23,400 120,000 96,600 90,000 22

1. Reference the pipe section - section A.

2. Calculate demand units or loading units from Tables in CIBSE guide

(attached). – not required

3. Estimate flow rates in each section. Keep velocity below 2 m/s. -

given

4. Estimate pipe diameter from pipe sizing tables in CIBSE Guide C. –

22mm (velocity is 1.5 m/s).

5. Measure the pipe run from drawings. – 14m

6. Calculate length of pipe equal to resistance of fittings. – 2 bends.

The Total equivalent length of a fitting = Equivalent Length x

Pressure Loss factor (Zeta).

See Pipe Sizing Heating Section - page 4 - pipe fitting losses.

Copper pipe elbow (Zeta) = 1.0 x 2 bends = 2.0

Determine equivalent length from CIBSE table C4.18, le =

0.8

Total equivalent length of fittings = 0.8 x 2.0 = 1.6 metres.

8. Determine pressure loss due to friction from CIBSE Tables. See

Table 4.18 in Guide C (CD version).

9. Calculate pressure consumed due to friction (Pa) = effective pipe

length (m) x pressure loss due to friction (Pa/m). Column 7 x 8 in Pipe

Sizing Table.

10. Calculate total pressure consumed = Friction loss + Static pressure

loss. There are no vertical pipe sections and therefore no static pressure loss.

11. Determine pressure at start of section. Given in drawing as 120,000

Pa.

12. Calculate pressure available at end of section = Pressure at start of

section - Total pressure consumed. 120,000 – 23,400 = 96,600 Pa.

allowable pressure drop then we can accept this pipe size.

13. Determine pressure required at end of section, this can be the

minimum pressure that is required for terminal equipment. Given in drawing

as 90,000Pa.

14. If the pressure available at the end of the section is more than or

equal to the pressure required at the end of the section then the pipe size is

correct.

22mm pipe is correct.

Pipe Sizing for Heating Systems

All pipe sizing in building services is based on the D'Arcy equation, where:

H = 4 . f . l . v2 / 2 .g . d

f = friction coefficient

l = length of pipe (m)

d = diameter (m)

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

The object of pipe sizing is to obtain the smallest diameter of pipe without too

high a water velocity or too high a pressure drop and therefore large pumps.

It is more convenient to use pipe sizing tables when sizing pipes rather than the

D'Arcy equation.

This is because the water velocity and head loss (or pressure loss) are unknown

at the time of pipe sizing,

and the friction coefficient (f) varies with Reynolds number which in turn

varies with velocity and diameter.

The CIBSE guide provide pipe sizing tables in sections C4.11 to C4.45.

When sizing pipes for heating systems the water velocity should not exceed 1.0

m/s. (Except for large diameters - see CIBSE guide tables B1.17 & B1.18).

The pressure drop should not exceed 300 Pascals per metre run of pipework to

keep pumps down to a reasonable size.

This means that for every metre of pipework the resistance to water flow

should be no more than 300 Pa which is about 30 mm head.

The table below shows pipe sizes for 15mm to 76mm diameter copper pipe.

To find a suitable pipe size for a heating circuit the flow rate is used to find an

appropriate diameter.

If the flow rate of water is known then look down under any pipe diameter

column to ascertain the corresponding pressure drop and velocity.

If the pressure drop and velocity exceed the criteria in the previous section then

try the next pipe size up.

If the pressure drop and velocity are within the criteria then the pipe is sized

correctly

EXAMPLE 1

Determine the smallest pipe which will carry 0.4 kg/s of water at 75oC using

Copper, Table 'X'.

The pipe diameters are written in bold type across the top of the table.

The pressure loss per unit length (Pa/m) and velocity (m/s) are written down

the LHS of the table.

A red horizontal line is drawn across the table below 300 Pa/m.

This means that suitable pipe sizes will be found above this line.

The velocity follows a stepped line the lower blue line is the

A 22 mm pipe will carry 0.4 kg/s but the pressure loss per unit length is below

the red horizontal line and outside the table.

The pressure loss is in fact (790 Pa/m) and is too high since the maximum

should be 300 Pa/m.

The velocity is also too high at about 1.3 m/s, the optimum being 1.0 m/s.

If this is the case then look at the next pipe size up, at 28 mm.

The flow rates closest to 0.4 are 0.394 and 0.414 kg/s.

A 28 mm pipe will carry 0.4 kg/s with a pressure loss of about 230 Pa/m and a

velocity of 0.7 m/s.

This meets the design criteria and therefore 28 mm would be a suitable pipe

size.

EXAMPLE 2

Determine a suitable pipe size for L.T.H.W. copper pipe for a flow rate of 1.0

kg/s.

Answer:

A 42 mm pipe gives a flow rate of 1.0 kg/s with a pressure loss of 160 Pa/m

and velocity of about 0.9 m/s.

EXAMPLE 3

Choose a pipe diameter for a heating system (L.T.H.W.) with a heat output of

32 kW.

A 35 mm pipe will give a flow rate of 0.76 kg/s with a pressure loss of 250

Pa/m and a velocity of 0.95 m/s.

EXAMPLE 4

Size the flow and return pipework to a 1.6 kW radiator.

A 15 mm pipe will give a flow rate of 0.038 kg/s with a pressure loss of 80

Pa/m and a velocity of about 0.25 m/s.

Pipework fittings such as bends, tees, reducers etc., cause pressure loss or

resistance in a heating system. When making approximate calculations 10%,

15%, 20% or more may be added to the pressure loss in straight pipe runs.

For accurate calculations the fitting loss should be determined separately for

each fitting.

The concept of equivalent length is used and is defined as the length of straight

pipe which would give a friction pressure loss equivalent to one velocity head.

H = 4 . f . l . v2 / 2 .g . d

f = friction coefficient

l = length of pipe (m)

d = diameter (m)

v = velocity of fluid (m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

2.g

f = friction coefficient for pipe

l = length of pipe (m)

d = diameter of pipe (m)

v = water velocity (m/s)

= density of water (kg/m3)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)

Velocity pressure = ( ½ . . v2 )

The length (l) is now called equivalent length (le) and by rearranging

the above formula we get;

1.0 x d = 4 . f . le

le = d / 4 .f

TABLE for water at 75oC, see CIBSE guide C (2001) section 4 , Flow of

Fluids in Pipes and Ducts, Tables 4.9 to 4.33 for various types of pipes.

The correction factors of Velocity pressure loss factors are called (Zeta)

factors.

e.g. a bend may have a resistance equivalent to 1.2 metres of straight pipe.

Pressure Loss factor (Zeta).

factor).

See CIBSE guide C (2001) section 4.9 for more details of fittings zeta factors.

The following are some examples of pressure loss ( zeta) factors for pipe

fittings:

PIPE SIZING TABLE

The pipe sizing table shown below is an aid to sizing more complicated

circuits.

EXAMPLE 5

Size the pipework for section (B) of a heating system shown below.

Section B is in red.

The total length of the section is 8 metres (includes flow and return)

Index Circuit

The Index Circuit is the circuit with the highest resistance.

This only applies to systems where the circuits are divided.

The Index Circuit needs to be identified so that the pump can be sized.

Example 1

The system shown below is divided into two sub-circuits A & B.

Sub-Circuit A Sub-Circuit B

Heat Emitters

No.1 No.3 No.4

No.2

Pump

No.5

BOILER

A pipe sizing calculation would determine which of the two sub-circuits had

the most resistance and therefore which was the Index Circuit.

The reason for finding the Index Circuit is to size the pump.

The pressure developed by the pump should be capable of overcoming the

resistance in the Index Circuit.

If the pump pressure can overcome the resistance in the Index Circuit, then

it can overcome the resistance in other circuits of lesser resistance.

If it was found that the Index Circuit was Circuit (B) in the above diagram

then we would include the flow of water through radiators No. 3, 4 and 5.

If we examine Circuit (B) then the Index Circuit flows past Radiator No.3

and No.4 and through Radiator No.5.

This would be the circuit with the highest resistance.

If the pump is capable of forcing water through the pipework to Radiator

No.5 then there will be enough pressure to force the water through

Radiators No.3 & No.4 since they are closer to the pump.

This is the reason why only one radiator is included in the calculations for

resistance in the Index Circuit.

Sub-Circuit B is

Heat Emitters

No.1 No.3 No.4

No.2

Pump

No.5

BOILER

Radiator No.5

Included in Index

Circuit

Example 2

A heating system is shown below.

There are seven radiators and seven pipe sections.

The pipe sections under the radiators are from tee to tee.

Radiator Radiator Radiator Radiator Radiator Radiator Radiator

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7

Section 1

BOILER

This is normally the longest run to the radiator that is at the greatest

distance from the pump. The first six radiators are not included in the Index

circuit. The index circuit below includes all seven sections but only includes;

the boiler and fittings around the boiler in section 1, tees in sections No.1

to No.6 and the last radiator and radiator valves in the section 7.

Radiator Nos.1 to 6 are not rad., together with the rad.

included in the Index Run valves is included in the

Index Run.

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7

Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7

Section

BOILER 1

Index Circuit;

Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.

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