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07/12/2017 Plastics - Manufacturing Methods - Molding, Derived, Reaction, and Polymer - JRank Articles

Plastics - Manufacturing Methods


molding derived reaction polymer

At some stage in their processing, both thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics are sufficiently fluid to be molded and
formed. The manufacture of most plastics is determined by their final shape.

Many cylindrical plastic objects are made by a process called extrusion. The extrusion of thermoplastics

TABLE 3. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS


Type Chemical basis Uses

Polyesters derived from the reaction of acids Moldings, finishes; applications requiring high durability,
Alkyd
with two acid groups, and alcohols with three excellent pigment dispersion, toughness, good adhesion, and good
polyesters
alcoholic groups per molecule flowing properties

Polyesters derived form the reaction of esters of Electrical insulation, applications requiring high resistance to
Allyls
allyl alcohol with dibasic acids heat, humidity, and corrosive chemicals

Generally prepared by the reaction of a diamine


Bismaleimides Printed wire boards; high performance structural composites
with maleic anhydride

Derived from the reaction of epichlorohydrin with Encapsulation, electrical insulations, laminates, glass-
Epoxies
hydroxylcontaining compounds reinforced plastics, floorings, coatings adhesives

Derived from the reaction of formaldehyde and


Melamines Molded plates, dishes, and other food containers
amino compounds containing NH2 groups

Derived from the reaction of phenols and


Phenolics Cements, adhesives
formaldehydes

Moldings, laminating resins, coatings, cast-liquid and formed-


Consist of polyethylene with a cross-link at
Polybutadienes sheet products; applications requiring outstanding electrical
every other carbon in the main chain
properties and thermal stability

Polyesters Derived from reactions of dicarboxylic acids with Moldings, laminated or reinforced structures, surface gel

(thermosetting) dihydroxy alcohols coatings, liquid castings, furniture products, structures

Derived from reactions of polyisocyanates and


Polyurethanes Rigid, semi-flexible, and flexible foams; elastomers
polyols

consists of melting and compressing plastic granules by rotating them in a screw conveyor in a long barrel, to which heat may
be applied if necessary. The screw forces the plastic to the end of the barrel where it is pushed through a screen on its way to
the nozzle. The nozzle determines the final shape of the extruded form. Thermosets may also be extruded if the screw in the
conventional extruder is replaced with a plunger-type hydraulic pump.

Plastic powders are directly converted into finished articles by molding. Two types of molding processes are compression
molding and injection molding. In compression molding, which is used with thermosetting materials, steam is first circulated
through the mold to raise it to the desired temperature; then a plastic powder or tablets are introduced into the mold; and the
mold is closed under high pressure and the plastic is liquefied so that it flows throughout the mold. When the mold is
reopened,

TABLE 3. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS (cont'd)


Type Chemical basis Uses

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07/12/2017 Plastics - Manufacturing Methods - Molding, Derived, Reaction, and Polymer - JRank Articles

Type Chemical basis Uses

Consist of alternating silicon


Applications requiring uniform properties over a wide temperature range; low surface
and oxygen atoms in a polymer
tension; high degree of lubricity; excellent release properties; extreme water
Silicones backbone, usually with organic
repellency; excellent electrical properties over a wide range of temperature and
side groups attached to the
frequency; inertness and compatibility; chemical inertness; or weather resistance
chain

Derived from the reaction of

Ureas formaldehyde and amino compounds Dinnerware, interior plywood, foams, insulation

containing NH2 groups

the solid molded unit is ejected. Injection molding differs from compression molding in that plastic material is rendered fluid
outside the mold, and is transferred by pressure into the cooled mold. Injection molding can be used with practically every
plastic material, including rubbers.

Sheets, blocks, and rods may be made in a casting process that in effect involves in situ, or in-place, polymerization. In the
case of acrylics, sheets are cast in glass cells by filling cells with a polymer solution. The polymer solution solidifies and the
sheet is released by separating the glass plates after chilling the assembly in cold water. Blocks can be made in the same way
using a demountable container; and rods can be made by polymerizing a polymer syrup under pressure in a cylindrical metal
tube.

Plastic foams are produced by compounding a polymer resin with a foaming agent or by injecting air or a volatile fluid into
the liquid polymer while it is being processed into a finished product. This results in a finished product with a network of gas
spaces or cells that makes it less dense than the solid polymer. Such foams are light and strong, and the rigid type can be
machined.

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