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Leah Taylor.

Unit 59, Assignment 1:


terminology:
authoring-
HTML editors and web authoring tools can range from being simple text editors to high
powered content management systems and graphical tools. It’s possible to write a web
page by just using the text editor which is already on your computer, but HTML editors do
make it much easier to write web pages, and a lot of web designers find it much more
efficient to use a HTML editor. HTML editors give you many more features that aren’t
normally available in the plain text editors.
sites-
A web page is suitable for the World Wide Web and is an information resource or
document. It is able to be displayed on a mobile device or on a monitor. The information on
this is usually in XHTML or HTML format, and some of them provide you with navigation
through hypertext links which will take you to another web page. Web pages often subsume
different resources these include scripts, images into their final presentation and style
sheets. Web page’s cab be retrieved from a remote web server or a local computer. The
web server could restrict access to only a private network, for example: it could publish
pages on the World Wide Web or a corporate intranet
uploading-
The definition of uploading is “transfer (data) from one computer to another, typically to
one that is larger or remote from the user or functioning as a server.”

Form a network user’s point of view, when you upload a file it is sent to a different
computer what is already set up to receive the uploaded file. When people share images
with other people they put it on a bulletin board services (BBS) and they upload the file to
the BBS.

file transfer protocol (FTP)-


FTP (file transfer protocol) this is the standard internet protocol and is used for transmitting
files between different computers on the internet. This is a little bit like HTTP (hypertext
transfer protocol), and this transfer related files and displayable web pages. SMTP (simple
mail transfer protocol), this is the transfer of e-mails. Normally FTP is used to transfer web
page files to the computer form a creator, and this acts like their server for everyone on the
internet. Also, it can be used to download other files to your computer from other servers
and programs. Most web browsers are able to make FTP requests and it can download
programs what you have selected form a web page. You are also able to update (rename,
move, copy and delete) files at a server. Using an anonymous FTP you can easily access
publicly available. FTP basic support is normally provided as part of a suite of programmes
that come with IP/TCP.
web page:
web page construction-
Every little part of the making of a web page need to have a logical reason for them being
there. Each little aspect what go into the different web page need to complement each
other, and should be consistent throughout and should have uniformity in both content
when viewed as a whole and appearance.
text-
You can edit the text on a web page such as adding different effects, you can do this by
using things called tags. These are basically html coding which is an instruction to change a
piece of information that is inside them. An example of this is if you wanted a word to be
bold you would have to write <B> and that would be directly before the work and then </B>
right after it. This opens and then closed the tag, if you just do the opening of the tag then
all of the words will be bold.
<U> This tag underlines the text </U>
<EM> This tag makes the text italic </EM>
<P> This tag starts a new paragraph </P>
<BR> This tag creates a break before the new text </BR>
<SUB> This tag aligns the text at the bottom of the line </SUB>
<SUP> This tag aligns the text to the top of the line </SUP>
<STRONG> This tag makes the writing bold </STRONG>
<DEL> This tag creates text with a line through it </DEL>
< This tag means that the text does not show up when shown online
fonts-
The different HTML codes with font determines the different colour, size and the font used
in the text. All you need to do is add font tags in order to change these things so it isn’t too
hard.
<font size=“5”> Here is your paragraph of text in the middle </font>
“This has now changed the font within the tags to the size 5. Try experimenting with the
number used and see what happens to the font size. Try now adding another tag which
refers to the colour of font being used.”
<font size=“5” color=“green”> Here is your paragraph of text in the
middle </font>
This now changes the font’s colour to whatever colour is written in the font colour tag.
Experiment with different colours to see what happens to the font when saved and viewed
through a browser. Try now adding another tag which refers to the specific font being used.
colour-
We have to use hex colour codes when using colours in a web page or online. Each different
shade and colour has its own hex code. Hex codes contain either letters, numbers or a
mixture of the both of them, these are always 6 digits long. Very common hex codes are
black (#000000) and white (#FFFFFF), if you had a very complex colour then the hex code
would be complex as well.
images-
When putting images into web pages, they need to have a HTML coding and an image tag.
This will tell the web page to show the picture and it will be in the right place and the place
where you wanted the picture to show up.
The way you can display an image on a web page, is you need to use the src attribute. Src
stands for ‘source’. The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you would like to
display on the web page <img src=”url”>
The alt attribute is used to define an ‘alternate text’ for an image. The value of the alt
attribute is an author-defined text:
<img scr=”boat.gif alt=”Big Boat”>
hyperlinks-
When you add a hyperlink into a webpage, this is done by using HTML coding but this is
quite simple piece of code that creates these links.
metadata-
Matadata is one of the harder things relating to web pages
which you will have to try to understand. It’s basically data
about data/different assets within a webpage (or some
other form of media). For example, metadata is often
saved within photo files. This data gives information about
what date the photo was taken and possibly at what time
etc. This data is saved within the main photo file as an
added extra; this is called metadata. Metadata within web pages is made up within the
HTML coding. It offers extra information about what data the site is showing by using meta
tags etc. These are basically small tags or added extra pieces of coding within a website
which enables search engines to find out information about what is on the website very
quickly. Search engines (like Google) will be able to, very quickly, search through a website’s
coding and look at meta tags and metadata to see what information is included. This is
much quicker than the search engine having to look at the coding as a whole and therefore
sites tend to rank higher (appear nearer page 1 of Google) if they include metadata.
<meta name="description" content="Learn HTML the easy way with tutorials and exercises
"> <meta name="keywords" content="HTML, CSS, XHTML"> <meta name="author"
content="Roger Sears" /> <meta name="revised" content="09/02/2012" />
HTML:
Nature of HTML and XHTML-
When looking at the nature of HTML and XHTML, when you think about the coding of both,
they are actually very similar and look nearly identical. However, the nature of them is
slightly different. Due to XHTML being much more strict and not working even if there’s only
a slight fault or problem with the coding, this means that most people prefer to use simple
HTML. If you forget to close a tag with HTML then chances are, the site will still work just
fine, however, with XHTML, this would not work at all due to it having a problem. Therefore,
this coding type tends to be only used by people who really know what they are doing, in
terms of coding, since it just won’t work if there are even slight problems. Both coding types
produce the same end result, only XHTML is slightly cleaner and is probably preferred by
servers and search engines due to it eliminating any problems. The site simply will not work
with any if it’s been written in this coding form. For people who are just learning about
HTML and coding, or even for average websites etc, HTML coding works just fine. The
majority of sites don’t even touch XHTML since it’s not necessary and doesn’t actually hold
that many main advantages over working with HTML.
Features of HTML-
The features of HTML documents are to create web pages and to write a language which
servers and the internet can understand and display as a working web page. HTML is
basically instructions for the different browsers to show specific content for a web site. The
only difference between HTML and XHTML, is that with XHTML, the coding is a lot stricter,
which means that you can’t make mistakes with it and expect it to still work. With HTML,
there’s some flexibility if, for example, you don’t close one of the tags correctly etc. it will
probably still work. Whereas, using XHTML, this coding type needs you to be extremely
accurate and therefore doesn't work even if the slightest thing is wrong. XHTML gives the
feature of making sure that coding is perfect and that sites are very functional whilst being
much better in terms of search engine ranking etc.
How to use HTML and XHTML-
How to use HTML is very similar to looking at using XHTML. The only difference is how the
coding works in the sense that when you use HTML coding, there’s some flexibility for you
to get some of the coding slightly wrong, whereas, with XHTML it’s much more strict and
everything needs to be 100% correct for it to work.
Example.. This code would work fine for HTML.. Not for XHTML:
<html>
<head>
<title>This will work...</title>
<body>
<h1>This is the line with the bad html.. notice i don't the close the h1 or
the head
</body>
Example.. This code would work fine for XHTML.. :
<html>
<head>
<title>This will work...</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Now i have closed all the tags properly.. now it is NESTED
correctly</h1>
</body>
</html>
Cascading style sheets:
Nature of cascading style sheets-
CSS (cascading style sheet), it allows you to have creative control over how your web page
layout looks. When using this you can do many different things these include borders, eye
catching headings and drop caps, this is much like the different things what you see on
glossy magazines. You are able to do you can create banners and columns, arrange images
with precision, you can also highlight text links you have created with a dynamic rollover
effect. The main purpose is cascading style sheets (CSS) is that the process of styling web
pages is more streamline.
Features of CSS-
The word cascading describes many of the features of CSS. Firstly, it means that many
stylesheets can be used and will be merged by the browser to provide a computed style for
each element. If styles defined for one element oppose each other, the later one will be
used, unless another one more specifically refers to the element (for example, if all
paragraphs are made red, but a paragraph that is in a <div> is made blue, the blue will
override the red for paragraphs in a div, as it more specifically refers to the desired
element). Cascading also means that each object inherits some styles from its parent object
or parent class. The parents are not the same as the parent objects in JavaScript but use a
similar idea. The objects are referred to by their element tag. The highest object in the
structure is the html element. If any elements do not have their own CSS defined but the
html element does, then the cascading behaviour means they will inherit from the html
element. So, if in the html element we define the text colour to be white, then any tables
will also have white writing in them. One of the features of CSS is that if the browser does
not understand something, it will ignore it and move on to the next attribute. It will not
display warnings. This can make things easier in some circumstances, since you can apply
styles without having to worry that a browser might ignore the entire stylesheet, because it
should only ignore the parts it does not understand (although there are a few exceptions).
However, it also means that it can be difficult to work out if a browser will correctly apply a
rule or not. For example, you may want to apply display: table cell; width:25% to an element
if it understands it, and width:100% if not. Unfortunately, CSS does not provide any way to
test for support of a property.
How to use CSS-
In terms of actually using CSS coding, it works similarly to HTML coding, in the sense that
there are tags, different functions (colours, sizes etc.). For example, if you wanted to edit
and properly use the code which we just pasted into a document, we can simply change the
code slightly. The colours which are written in the code, can be changed to any colours
which you want. The name of each colour simply needs to be deleted and another colour
needs to be written in its place. CSS tends to be used in most (if not all) websites to make
the coding clearer and to avoid excess duplicating if some of the formatting is the same. The
coding for this will always be inside the basic tags for CSS coding.