Sei sulla pagina 1di 78

Assignment Brief

BTEC Level 4-5 HNC/HND Diploma (QCF)

To be filled by the
Learner
Name of the Learner :

Edexcel No : Centre No : Batch:


Date of Submission :

Unit Assessment Information

Qualification : HND Diploma in Computing and Systems Development

Unit Code & Title : Unit 1–Business Skills for E commerce

Assessment Title & No’s : E-commerce Consultancy Report for Ocean Market (pvt) Limited

Learning outcomes and grading opportunities:


LO 01: Understand the structure and aims of business organizations
Learning Outcomes LO1.1 LO1.2
LO 02: Understand the impact of e-Commerce
Learning Outcomes LO2.1 LO2.2
LO 03: Be able to design e-Commerce solutions
Learning Outcomes LO3.1 LO3.2 LO3.3 LO3.4 LO3.5

Merit and Distinction Descriptor


M3. D1. D2. D2. D3.
M1.3 M2.3 3 1 1 3 5

Assessor : Miss. Dinithi Roshani Internal Examiner (IE) : Miss. Shahana Nadarajah
Date of
Date Reviewed : IE :

Date Issued : Date Due :

All rights reserved ©ESOFT Metro Campus, Sri Lanka Page 1 of 7


Assignment Brief

Retail Industry is a highly growing industry in the Sri Lankan Business Environment where
Ocean Market (pvt) Limited is holding a fair share of it and is operating as an in-store Super
Market business of retail items specially focusing on textiles, cosmetics, accessories, computer
accessories, baby items, stationery items and a variety of food products.
Due to the high growth of the E-business in the industry, the management of Ocean Market
understand that their customers are giving up on them and move to other competitors due to
the unavailability of e-commerce facility in the organisation.
Therefore they decided to get their customers back in and develop their business which matches
the present context of electronic business.
Assume that you have been hired by Ocean Market (pvt) Limited as an E-commerce Consultant
to provide an e-commerce solution to achieve higher business results. Therefore, you are
required to write a professional management consultancy report addressing the aspects
mentioned below with relevant judgments wherever it is appropriate by critically evaluating
the context.
Chapter 1 – Organization Profile

1.1 Core Business Functions of the Organization


Provide your understanding on the nature of Ocean Market (pvt) Ltd by assessing its core
business functions (LO 1.1)

1.2 Evaluation of Business aims and Stakeholders


Evaluate the selected organization’s business aims by showing how those aims would
relate to different stakeholders internal and external (LO 1.2) (M1.3)

Chapter 2 – Background of e-Commerce and its impact to the Society

2.1 The Impact of e-Commerce to an Organization and Society


Provide the background of e-commerce and functionality and analyze the impact of e
commerce by evaluating its’ benefits and the risks while discussing how introducing an e-
Commerce system to an organization would provide better business outcomes. (LO 2.1)

2.2 Global Impact of e-Commerce on society


Discuss the global impact of e-Commerce on society by taking different examples with
appropriate references (LO 2.2)

Note: Your overall chapter must reflect the background of e commerce and its wider impact
to the society through a range of sources of information with appropriate references.
Please avoid using unreliable data sources such as wikis, answer web sites, blogs etc.
(M2.3)

Chapter 3 – Market Potential and Different e-Commerce Solutions

3.1. Market Potential of e commerce


Investigate market potential of Ocean Market (pvt) Ltd for an e-Commerce opportunity
(LO3.1)

3.2. Different e-Commerce Systems in the World


Critically evaluate few e-Commerce systems currently in use by organizations realistically for
similar purposes (LO 3.2) (e.g. you can provide screen shots of such systems in your
appendices)

Note: While critically evaluating e-commerce systems currently in use for similar business
purposes in the world, you must justify the market potential for an e commerce solution for
the selected organization through an effective SWOT and PESTEL analysis while synthesizing
your own ideas in to an effective conclusion on why this organization must select e-commerce
solutions. (D1.1)

All rights reserved ©ESOFT Metro Campus, Sri Lanka Page 2 of 7


Chapter 4 – Proposed e-Commerce solution

4.1. Proposed e-Commerce solution


Based on the above justification on the market potential and the varieties of e-commerce
solutions available in the world design, propose a best fit e commerce solution for Ocean
Market (pvt) Ltd to achieve their business advantage. (LO 3.4)

4.2. Capitalizing an E commerce solution


You must discuss the financial implications of the above proposed e-Commerce solution (LO
3.3)

4.3. Feasibility of the E-commerce solution


Critically evaluate the suitability of the above proposed e-Commerce solution to Ocean Market
(pvt) Ltd based on different feasibility criteria. (LO 3.5)

Note: The above proposed e commerce solution must be creative and innovative in
terms of applicability to the organization that you have selected. (D3.5)

Your overall report must be word processed within 2000-2500 words, created by using Times
New Roman font (12-body, 14-sub headings, 16-headings, 18-titles) with 1.5 line spacing,
justified, uniform while written in report writing using appropriate Harvard referencing (both
in text citations and end text reference list) wherever appropriate. It must contain appropriate
Executive Summary, Table of Contents, Body, Conclusion, References and Appendices in
accurate page numbers. The report must be printed single sided and bound along with the
completed assignment brief on the top as the cover page. (M3.3)

You must manage your study and submit the report within the assigned time duration (D2.3)
You must demonstrate your autonomy/independence through the report by crafting an
individual documentation. (D 2.1)

All rights reserved ©ESOFT Metro Campus, Sri Lanka Page 3 of 7


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... v

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................. viii

CONTENT OF THE FIGURES ................................................................................................ x

ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................. xi

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................................................... xii

1.1 Core Business Functions of the Organization .................................................................... 13

1.1.1 Procurement ........................................................................................................... 13

1.1.2 Sales ....................................................................................................................... 14

1.1.3 Finance Function ......................................................................................................... 15

1.1.4 Marketing Function ..................................................................................................... 16

1.1.5 Logistics ...................................................................................................................... 17

1.1.6 Information Technology (IT) Function ....................................................................... 18

1.2 Evaluation of Business aims and Stakeholders .................................................................. 19

1.2.1 Business Aims of OM ................................................................................................. 19

1.2.2 Relation of Business Aims to the Stakeholders .......................................................... 20

2.1 The Impact of e-Commerce to an Organization and Society ............................................. 22

2.1.1 Background of e-commerce ........................................................................................ 22

2.1.2 Functionality of e-commerce ...................................................................................... 23

2.1.3 Impact of e-commerce on Business and Society......................................................... 25

2.2 Global Impact of e-Commerce on society ......................................................................... 28

2.2.1 Positive Impacts of e-commerce on society ................................................................ 28

2.2.2 Negative Impact of e-commerce on Society ............................................................... 30

3.1 Market Potential (MP) of e-commerce .............................................................................. 33

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 v


3.1.1 Analyzing of data to investigate the Market Potential ................................................ 34

3.1.2 Conclusion for Ocean Market ..................................................................................... 36

3.2 Different e-commerce systems in the world ...................................................................... 37

3.2.1 Classification According to Types of Goods Sold ...................................................... 37

3.2.2 Classification According to the Nature of Participants ............................................... 38

4.1 Proposed e-Commerce solution ......................................................................................... 40

4.1.1 Selecting a Suitable System ........................................................................................ 40

4.1.2 Designing the System.................................................................................................. 41

4.2 Capitalizing an E-commerce solution ................................................................................ 50

4.3 Feasibility of the E-commerce solution ............................................................................. 53

4.3.1 Technological Feasibility ............................................................................................ 53

4.3.2 Economic Feasibility................................................................................................... 54

4.3.3 Legal Feasibility .......................................................................................................... 55

4.3.4 Operational Feasibility ................................................................................................ 56

4.3.5 Schedule Feasibility .................................................................................................... 58

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 59

Appendices ............................................................................................................................... 60

Appendix A: e-Commerce system of Urbanladder.com ...................................................... 60

Appendix B: e-commerce system of Kobobooks.com ......................................................... 61

Appendix C: e-Commerce system of Odel .......................................................................... 62

Appendix D: e-Commerce system for Keells Super ............................................................ 63

Appendix E: e-Commerce system of Lanka Tronics ........................................................... 64

Appendix F: Other features of OceanMarket.com ............................................................... 65

Appendix G: Management of Work..................................................................................... 68

References ................................................................................................................................ 70

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 vi


Bibliography............................................................................................................................. 77

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 vii


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Functions of finance department ................................................................................ 15


Table 2 : Application of the Marketing mix to the OM ........................................................... 16
Table 3: How aims affect objectives ........................................................................................ 19
Table 4: SMART characteristics of a goal ............................................................................... 19
Table 5: Relating business aims to stakeholders ...................................................................... 21
Table 6: Major players in Srilankan e-commerce industry ...................................................... 22
Table 7: Functions of an e-Commerce solution ....................................................................... 23
Table 8 : Comparison of benefits and risks for properties of e-commerce for an organization
.................................................................................................................................................. 25
Table 9: Comparison of benefits and risks in e-commerce properties for consumers ............. 27
Table 10: Positive impacts of e-commerce on society ............................................................. 28
Table 11: Benefits of e-commerce in Health care industry...................................................... 29
Table 12: Negative impacts of e-commerce on society ........................................................... 30
Table 13: Analysis for MP for an e-commerce solution .......................................................... 33
Table 14: PESTLE analysis for Ocean Market ........................................................................ 35
Table 15: SWOT analysis for Ocean Market ........................................................................... 36
Table 16: Classification by goods sold .................................................................................... 37
Table 17: Categories of B2B model ......................................................................................... 39
Table 18: Criteria's to be checked when implementing an e-commerce system ..................... 40
Table 19: Tabs in the system.................................................................................................... 42
Table 20: Features of the store ................................................................................................. 43
Table 21: Features on selected products .................................................................................. 45
Table 22: Features of the shopping cart ................................................................................... 47
Table 23: Features of the footer ............................................................................................... 49
Table 24: Sources of funds....................................................................................................... 50
Table 25: Rejected options for funding.................................................................................... 52
Table 26: Process requirements of the proposed System ......................................................... 53
Table 27: Cost-Benefit Analysis of the solution ...................................................................... 54
Table 28: Legal feasibility of the solution ............................................................................... 56

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 viii


Table 29: Operational feasibility of the solution...................................................................... 57
Table 30: Proving the deadlines are reasonable ....................................................................... 58

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 ix


CONTENT OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1: Objectives of Procurement ....................................................................................... 13


Figure 2: Sales Cycle Management ......................................................................................... 14
Figure 3: Supply Chain Flow ................................................................................................... 17
Figure 4: IT Services ................................................................................................................ 18
Figure 5: Stakeholders of the company.................................................................................... 20
Figure 6: Comparison of e-Commerce to in-store metrics....................................................... 32
Figure 7: Process of a B2B e-Commerce System .................................................................... 38
Figure 8: Homepage of OceanMarket.com .............................................................................. 41
Figure 9: Store of OceanMarket.com ....................................................................................... 43
Figure 10: A sub-category of OceanMarket.com ..................................................................... 44
Figure 11: A product on OceanMarket.com ............................................................................ 45
Figure 12: Shopping cart of OceanMarket.com ....................................................................... 47
Figure 13: Guest details form................................................................................................... 48
Figure 14: Payment method ..................................................................................................... 48
Figure 15: Footer of OceanMarket.com ................................................................................... 49

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 x


ABBREVIATIONS

OM: Ocean Market


IT: Information Technology
SL: Sri Lanka
US: United States
PESTLE: Political Economical Social Technological Legal Environmental
SWOT: Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
B2B: Business to Business
B2C: Business to Consumer
C2C: Consumer to Consumer
MP: Market Potential
SSL: Secure Sockets Layer
CA: Certificate Authority
SEO: Search Engine Optimization
TELOS: Technological Economical Legal Operational Schedule
USP: Unique Selling Proposition

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 xi


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report is a generalization of the research done for assessing the feasibility and applicability
of an e-commerce solution for Ocean Market Pvt Ltd. The aim of this report is to analyze,
compare, and evaluate the best fit solution for Ocean Market to help them hold its potential
customers by means of e-commerce. The report describes key areas of e-commerce, and
business aspects giving detailed information on the nature of e-commerce and its impact.

The analysis done for investigating the market potential of Ocean Market and the feasibility
criteria’s in chapter 4 of this report shows that such a system is viable and is capable of
achieving the aim of this report by providing positive results that promotes the proposed
solution. The report goes further up to show that, while such e-commerce systems could help
the company on their business problem, there is a wider impact from e-commerce to the society.
But, it proves that the majority of the impact is positive for the society, customers, and for the
business.
However, the outcomes of the business depends on the design and features of the system that
this report promotes, so the final parts of this report addresses the features and functionalities
of the proposed solution to meet the business needs.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 xii


Chapter 1: Profile for the Organization

1.1 Core Business Functions of the Organization

1.1.1 Procurement

Procurement function in an organization is associated with the process of ‘buying materials, goods
and services needed to run a business’ (Esoft 2015: p.17). Procurement consider many other
aspects as shown in the process below.

Understand Business Requirements

• At the right price


• From the right source
Buy Products and • At the right specification
Services • In the right quantity
• For delivery at the right time
• To the right internal customer

Figure 1: Objectives of Procurement


Source: Author’s work adopted from Handfield (2011).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 13


1.1.2 Sales

The main objective of the sales department would be to apply strategies to sell the products that
was purchased for resale, and maximize the profit for the company (Chand 2015) as shown in the
diagram below.

Figure 2: Sales Cycle Management


Source: Pipedrive (2015)

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 14


1.1.3 Finance Function

The duty of financial department is to manage finance activities (Jasmith 2011). The table 1 below
explains 5 of the functions that must be carried in Ocean Market (OM).

Table 1: Functions of finance department


Function Description

The finance department must estimate the capital that would be required
Estimation of
for the company for maximizing its profit.
capital
Things like future programs, expected costs and policies should be taken
requirements
into consideration in the estimation process.

Determination of The capital structure is the company’s debt-to-equity ratio. Therefore, the
capital finance function must analyze short-term and long-term debt equity.

composition

When in times the company requires additional funds, the financial


department must decide which action to take out of various options such

Choice of sources as:

of funds  Issuing of shares and debentures


 Loans to be taken
 Public deposits to be withdrawn

Investment of The investment of funds to profitable ventures is the decision of the


funds finance manager which enables the company to acquire regular returns.

The finance function also deals with management of cash in paying of


Management of salaries, expenditures, bills and etc. So the financial managers take critical
cash decisions on situations where the company is at risk to maintain a good
cash flow to the company.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Management Study Guide (2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 15


1.1.4 Marketing Function

‘Marketing activities help create demand for the company’s products and services… [by making
them aware to the people]’ (Snedaker 2013: p.246). The major concerns of marketing are referred
to as the “four Ps” of marketing as demonstrated by the table 2 below, while applying them to OM.

Table 2 : Application of the Marketing mix to the OM


Function Description

Ocean Market has a range of products from textiles to accessories to food.


Product The products of the company must be extremely important when
marketing, and having a variety of products makes it easy for them.

As Ocean Market sells retail items, their prices are in a low range,
Price
however, the less the price, the easy it is to market the product.

The place where the company sells the product has a high impact on the
sales. Ocean Market sells its product in a brick and mortar store, however,
Place
they will also make it brick and click in the near future. This also involves
placement of the correct product at the correct place in the store.

Even the best products would not be purchased if Ocean Market does not
promote their products so that the people will get to know about the
Promotion
products. When, where, how, to whom the product is marketed must be
considered when promoting the product.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Chianis (2013).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 16


1.1.5 Logistics

Logistics is part of the supply chain management that controls forward and reverse flow of
products between the points of origin to destination in OM (Transfreight 2009) as illustrated in the
following diagram.

Figure 3: Supply Chain Flow


Source: Logistic World (2010).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 17


1.1.6 Information Technology (IT) Function

IT department manages the computers, networks, and other technical areas of business. They are
responsible for the architecture, hardware, software, and networking of computers in OM. Some
of the services of IT are illustrated in the diagram below.

Figure 4: IT Services
Source: Basu (2011).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 18


1.2 Evaluation of Business aims and Stakeholders

1.2.1 Business Aims of OM

Any organization has a mission which states its purpose, this purpose is the future goal of the
organization which will also be the aim of it (Riley 2015). A typical aim of a retail store such as
OM would be to add value, expand their business by increasing their product range and employee
base. These business aims are achieved by setting business objectives which are reached once
business plans work in day to day activities (Business Case Studies 2015). As an example, the
table below shows how an aim of adding value to OM would affect other sub-objectives of the
company.

Table 3: How aims affect objectives


Aim of Ocean Market Adding Value to the company

Annual income to be increased by 20% by 2017 to


Main Objective
achieve an annual income above the usual value.

Increasing product price, range, and market stores


Plans for achieving the objective and assigning sub-objectives and plans to each
department.

Source: Author’s work.

Joseph (2015) mentions that the objectives involved are mainly about profitability, retention,
efficiency, and growth of the company. Whichever the objectives set, they all must exhibit certain
characteristics known as ‘SMART’ described in the table below.

Table 4: SMART characteristics of a goal


Characteristic Description

The objective set must be specific which means adding more detail to the general
Specific
idea to provide exact information on what, when, and how things should be done.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 19


Table 4 (Continuation)

The objective or goal must contain measurable values such as numbers, so that
Measurable
the progress can be monitored easily.

The objective should not exceed the limit where reality lets it to achieve, it should
Achievable
always be realistic and practically achievable.

Goals have to be relevant based on the business climate. The goal will not align
Relevant with other goals of the company if it’s not relevant, and will lead the company
astray.

Time The goal should always state its beginning and end, so that the plans can be
Oriented carried out to achieve that goal within the given time frame.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Wayne State University (2015).

1.2.2 Relation of Business Aims to the Stakeholders

A stakeholder is ‘any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the
organization’s objectives’ (Freeman 1984: p.46). So when a business sets up new objectives, those
objectives should benefit all the stakeholders of the business as long as it benefits the company.
Some examples of internal and external stakeholders have been provided in image below.

Figure 5: Stakeholders of the company


Source: Grimsley (2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 20


The table below shows how the aims and objectives of OM would relate to the stakeholders in
each department. The table also proves that the aims of the company affect its stakeholders by
altering their benefits and activities they should perform.

Table 5: Relating business aims to stakeholders


Department
Objective Relation to Stakeholders
Involved

 External stakeholders such as shareholders of the company


directly relates to this objective as their profit depends on
Sales &
Increase how the objective is achieved.
Marketing
sales quota  The internal stakeholders such as the sales and marketing
departments
staff will be affected directly as their tasks are related to
increasing the sales.

Increase Marketing Staff of the marketing department who are internal


customer department stakeholders, must apply more strategies to ensure an

renewal rate increased customer renewal rate each year.

Administration Having more partners reflects performance and


Sign channel
department achievement, so it’s the duty of the administration to choose
partners
what channel partners they are going to join hands with.

Administration Launching new services will help to add value to the


& Finance company supporting the main objective widely. The
departments administration must take decisions on what services should
Launch new
be launched, and must communicate with the finance
service
department to ensure the company could afford the
solution. Customers who are external stakeholders, also
contribute in this work by giving their feedback.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Statuspath (2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 21


Chapter 2 – Background of e-Commerce and its impact to the
Society

2.1 The Impact of e-Commerce to an Organization and Society

2.1.1 Background of e-commerce

Both developing and developed countries have barriers in implementing e-businesses, but while
developed countries have facilities to overcome those barriers, developing countries like Sri Lanka
(SL) must deal with issues such as trust, security, supplying personal information, computer
literacy, language, awareness and accessibility (Ceylontoday 2013). Together with the front
runners such as Wow.lk and Takas.lk, SL now has about 20-30 e-businesses in the industry (Team
YS 2013). However, these local e-commerce portals falls into three categories as described in the
following table.

Table 6: Major players in Srilankan e-commerce industry


Type of Business Description

These players only focus one narrow vertical such as clothes, accessories,
Niche Players
etc. Findmyfare.com is an example of such a business.

These players offers a variety of products without focusing on one type.


Large Players
Anything.lk is an example of such a player.

These companies have properties from both e-tailers and mortar


Bricks and Clicks
companies to leverage the benefits from both (Towson University 2015).

Source: Author’s work adopted from Echelon (2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 22


2.1.2 Functionality of e-commerce

An e-commerce solution must contain special options that lets its users to make a purchase online.
The e-commerce solution provides functionality to all of the functions that are listed in the table
below.

Table 7: Functions of an e-Commerce solution


Function of e-
commerce Description
solution

The users of an e-commerce site must first register in order to proceed with
purchasing by providing necessary information.
Registration
Registration is the first main function that an e-commerce solution must
facilitate.

An e-commerce site must provide the user with his basket, also referred to as a
Basket shopping cart that lets the user to add products and make payments for all the
products selected at once.

The e-commerce site must provide a good payment method that lets the user to
enter their credit card details and make the payment to purchase their products.
Payment
This system must let a bank or other payment service to carry out the process
that verifies and facilitates the payments.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 23


Table 7 (Continuation)

Product management is the main thing that an e-commerce solution must


provide functionality to, and must provide features required for product
placement, order fulfilment and so on.

This feature defines the product via a set of standard fields provided in the
points below.

 Product code

 Category
Product
 Subcategory
Management
 Product name

 Description

 Image

 Sizes available

 Price

 Pieces in stock

The e-commerce solution must be able to gather information from the


registration database, from the basket, delivery information, and verification
data and summarize them to a form identified by a number (order number).
Each form includes information as shown in the points below.

Order  List of products purchased


Management  User information

 Details of place of delivery

 Delivery time information

 Payment information

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 24


Table 7 (Continuation)

The e-commerce solution must provide back office functions such as enabling
to search and sort orders by:
Listing Orders  Customer
and Customer
 Order status
Details
 Date

 Payment

Source: Author’s work adopted from Engitel (2014).

2.1.3 Impact of e-commerce on Business and Society

Introducing an e-commerce solution to a business or organization will both positively and


negatively affect all its stakeholders. The table below shows the analysis done to compare the
impact of e-commerce by evaluating the risks and benefits of e-commerce to an organization such
as OM.

Table 8 : Comparison of benefits and risks for properties of e-commerce for an organization
Property of e-
Benefits / Business Outcomes Risks
commerce

The e-commerce solution can help the company The ability to supply for the
reach customers from around the world that demand decreases as the
Global Market
helps it to increase revenue thereby allowing it market expands and will
Place
to be expanded and deliver a wide range of result in stock controlling
products to its customers. problems.

Setting up a virtual store doesn’t cost much The company will have to
when compared to a traditional store. The e- risk their business on a third
Low start and commerce solution sets the company free from party who provides server
running costs hiring and maintaining a physical warehouse facilities, or they would
where the company could reduce the price of have to afford their own
their items in turn. server and maintenance cost.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 25


Table 8 (Continuation)

An e-commerce solution always results in Even though the transaction


automation of all the possible processes of the took place at the exact time
organization such as transaction handling. This that the customer wants, he
enables customers to receive a constant service will not get it delivered the
at any time and any day they want it to be. time he wants due to
24/7 Trading
external factors. For
example, if the customer
receives it by post, and
orders at night, he’ll have to
wait till the next morning or
so to receive his product.

An e-commerce solution not only creates a


virtual market, but also tracks all the business
Analytics transactions and product purchases that lets the
company to analyze these data to find out hidden
trends and buying patterns of its customers, and
to promote more related products in the future.

Source: Wills (2014).

In the other hand, the consequences e-commerce solutions will result in altering the risks and
benefits of the consumers too. This impact is analyzed by evaluating the risks associated for the
benefits they get in the following table.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 26


Table 9: Comparison of benefits and risks in e-commerce properties for consumers
Property of e-
Benefits Risks
commerce

The ability of the user to The user will not be able to touch or
navigate, compare, and to pay perceive the product before
online gives him the impression purchasing and has an increased
of trust and quality on both the chance of returning it due to less

User Convenience products and on the organization. satisfaction.

The user is also able to find more


consistent information on all the
products, having a rich idea of the
product being purchased.

Some customers feel Customers often feel like talking to


uncomfortable when they were personnel from the organization
being watched when choosing a concerning their products or any
Lack of Human product in a physical store. The e- related matter. Absence of this option
Contact commerce solution resolves that creates a major drawback for the
problem and lets the user to organization leading from less
choose, compare and even learn customer satisfaction.
about the product in their own
pace.

The e-commerce solution can Customers are reluctant in giving their


make sure that any details of its payment details when purchasing, due
customers are not leaked by to the lack of trust they have for the
Security
taking many security measures. organization. This is one of the major
issues that an e-commerce solution
must respond to.

Source: Tina (n.d).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 27


2.2 Global Impact of e-Commerce on society

Jaspalsingh8 (2015) mentions that the impact of e-commerce on society could be divided into two
categories as positive impacts and negative impacts as described on the topics followed.

2.2.1 Positive Impacts of e-commerce on society

Patterson and Wilson (2000) cited by Raj (2009: p.91) mentions that, ‘as ecommerce improves the
quality and flow of information and communication, there is a good reason to expect that the e-
commerce will have positive impact on the society’. Some of such positive impacts have been
described in the table 10 below.

Table 10: Positive impacts of e-commerce on society


Impact Description

The number of students learning e-commerce is increasing drastically and is


not limited to the U.S. While clearly mentioning that ‘Hong Kong
government’s education and Manpower Bureau believes that there will be a
Jobs for Society
shortage of 56, 000 IT professionals in 10 years’ time’ (Werthner and Bichler
2012: p.179), it is evident that the possibilities for employment will increase
worldwide.

Smarta (2009) points out the highs and lows of a new business describing the
challenges and business experience as highs and the setbacks and stress as the
lows. It states that whatever the low’s, it’s always rewarding with achievement.
Lime Canvas (2013) mentions the advantages of e-commerce such as 24/7
Helpful for new
service and low running costs would help the business become more productive
Business and make the reward even greater.

For example, Casey and Morgan found MixedMade which is a company that
started selling hot sauce to people, and makes $ 170,000 within a year using
the help of e-commerce (Schreiber 2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 28


Table 10 (Continuation)

The Australian Human Rights Commission of the government of Australia


presented a report from the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
which describes the benefits of e-commerce to the disables and aged people.

In the report, its author Tay (2000) summarizes the benefits of e-commerce for
Helpful for
disables and aged people claiming that internet and other electronic document
Disables and
accessibility let such people reduce the impact of transport and building access
Aged People
barriers, and allow deaf people, people who cannot read English, and people
who cannot turn pages to access the information they need.

The report further states that services of e-commerce such as bill payment could
be used by disables and aged people.

 Health
Electronic commerce solutions such as health care applications plays a vital role in the
health care industry, giving benefits to patients as described in the table below.

Table 11: Benefits of e-commerce in Health care industry


Benefit Description

The satisfaction level of patients’ increases as their perception of


Increased Patient
wait times decreases and when they are using an online waiting
Satisfaction
service offered to them to wait at the comfort of their own homes.

Patients can experience a service beyond a hospital’s traditional


Increased Service service area as they can receive services even if they don’t belong
Area to that particular geographic area, through the online waiting
services.

The e-commerce solution lets the administrators of the hospital to


Reduced Crowding
manage staff to increase their efficiency and schedule treatments
in Hospitals
so that the patients can experience less crowding in waiting rooms.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 29


Table 11 (Continuation)

Appropriate follow-up appointments can be scheduled to


Readmissions
Emergency room patients prior to discharge using online waiting
Prevention and
services. This results in increase of compliance and prevent
Patient Quality
readmissions.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Steele (n.d).

2.2.2 Negative Impact of e-commerce on Society

(Karake-Shalhoub and Qasimi 2007: p.55) shows out that e-commerce would have significant
consequences on social structures of the country as its growth has made changes in the social,
economic, and political fabrics of societies all over the world that leads to the conclusion that it
constitutes to a number of threats with wide ranging negative implications across numerous areas
of society. Such negative impacts of e-commerce to the society have been described in the table
below.

Table 12: Negative impacts of e-commerce on society


Impact of e-
Description
commerce

Basu (2013: p.191) shows that the rich and educated have the best access to
internet making a digital divide among the people and high income consumers
Digital Divide
shop online more than low income consumers.

Those facts proves that e-commerce has an effect on the digital divide.

Cook (2015) mentions that department stores and mega-malls were main places
that people could meet, socialize and shop.
Reduced
This kind of shopping used to be family treats and eventually evolved more into
Opportunities
trips to the shops.
to be Socialized
The growth of e-commerce will thus eliminate such experiences as online
shopping cannot provide such reminisce.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 30


Table 12 (Continuation)

Bristol (2001) shows that e-commerce results in expansion of import and export
markets by increasing the import and export of traditional goods and services,
thereby contributing to increase the tax and tariff revenues of such products.
Tax
On the other hand, states cannot compel e-tailers to collect taxes, that makes it
unfair for the bricks and mortar companies which will worsen their situation and
the related people (Efairness 2015).

 Threat for brick and mortar companies


In the United States (US) alone, the e-commerce growth rate is 20 per cent a year (Morrison 2014),
and ‘[f]or traditional “bricks and mortar” companies this has been a common threat for retailers
selling products such as books and financial services’ (Pearson Education India 2008: p.219). The
following diagram illustrates some of the differences between e-commerce and brick and mortar
companies.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 31


Figure 6: Comparison of e-Commerce to in-store metrics
Source: Nomi (2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 32


Chapter 3 – Market Potential and Different e-Commerce
Solutions
3.1 Market Potential (MP) of e-commerce

An e-commerce solution for OM is another business idea for the company, and therefore it must
be checked for feasibility by performing a series of analysis that helps determine whether it is
profitable to be implemented. The government of Australia shows how this series of analyses must
be presented as illustrated below in table 13.

Table 13: Analysis for MP for an e-commerce solution


Analysis Type Description

Ocean Market is a company that focus on a wide market where it can sell
textiles to accessories to cosmetics and computer items to baby items to
food. So this wider market helps the company to grow up with time. But
there are certain other factors that need to be analyzed to explain the market
of Ocean Market.

 Demand Analysis
All the products that Ocean Market sells has an increasing demand in Sri
Lanka, because those products are either consumed or be outdated within a
certain period time after purchase.
Market Analysis
 Supply Analysis
Ocean Market is a retailer and will only sell products to the consumers where
products are sold in few amounts, only to satisfy the needs of the consumers.
So Ocean market will be able to meet the demands without being short of its
stocks.

 Relationship Analysis
Ocean Market is a company that buys the products in wholesale from its
suppliers and always keep good relationship with them to pull forward in the
business.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 33


Table 13 (Continuation)

Ocean Market has a very few number of competitors who have an e-


Competitive commerce solution, because this technique is used by relatively less number

Advantage of companies in Sri Lanka compared to other countries.

Analysis The wider range of products that Ocean Market has, and the ability to deliver
them to any location in the island could be really an advantage over others.

As of 2015, the Sri Lankan retail market stands at approximately US$ 7


billion calculated with the household expenditure index (Pathmalal 2013),
where Ocean Market holds a fair share. Operating as a retailer for years and
Financial
having a fair share of that industry, Ocean Market is financially capable of
Feasibility
moving for, and handling an e-commerce site for it.
Analysis
However, it should forecast its sales and its financial situation in the future
and decide whether the e-commerce solution will result in increasing
profitability to the company.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Small Business Development Corporation (2015).

3.1.1 Analyzing of data to investigate the Market Potential

The potential of OM for moving to an e-commerce solution could not just be measured without
analyzing its capabilities and its environment. Therefore a Political Economical Social
Technological Legal Environmental (PESTLE) analysis must be carried out to make things more
transparent and make decisions based on that. The following table shows the PESTLE analysis
which have been carried out to investigate the MP of OM in SL for an e-commerce solution.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 34


Table 14: PESTLE analysis for Ocean Market
In Sri Lanka, there are no political issue for the retail industry as they always
try to encourage such business.

Political However, when moving to e-commerce, Ocean Market must face problems
such as the loss of popular payment methods such as PayPal due to political
agitations that would worsen its plight.

Sri Lankan’s have less buying power relative to other countries due to low
living standards and cost of living in Sri Lanka. Also the differences between
Economical
the Sri Lankan rupee and other currencies in the world, have a major impact
when going for an e-commerce solution.

Ocean Market must track any trends in the society, and must have plans which
Social considers various events and festivals in Sri Lanka and be updated on what the
society really cares about.

Sri Lanka is urbanizing, and shows growth in the number of people having
access to the internet. People are welcoming new technologies more faster
Technological
making Ocean Market to consider an innovative idea using the technologies
available.

The legal factors such as rules, regulations and acts concerning retail business
in Sri Lanka will apply to Ocean Market in common. Also when Ocean Market
Legal introduce something new such as the e-commerce facility for its customers, it
should make sure that their solution meets with the legal constraints of Sri
Lanka.

The Geographic’s, weather, population and so many factors affect a business


in Sri Lanka.
Environmental
Ocean Market must be able to adapt and make changes to be more stable with
the environment of Sri Lanka.

Source: Author’s work.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 35


Berry (2015) shows that business strategies could be developed by analyzing the Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the company. So it is expedient to do a SWOT
analysis after the PESTLE analysis is performed. The table below shows the SWOT analysis done
for OM to make its MP visible even clearer and simpler than a PESTLE analysis.

Table 15: SWOT analysis for Ocean Market


Strengths Weaknesses

 Has a variety of products.  No e-commerce facility given


 Has acquired a growing market. to its customers still.
 Has earned reputation and build  Not popular enough to attract
a good image of the company. customers.
 Not able to provide island wide
coverage with the limited
number of stores.

Opportunities Threats

 Ability to move to an e-commerce  Upcoming and existing


solution. competitors.
 Ability to increase product range.  Some other competitors give e-
 Ability to provide island wide commerce facility.
coverage in the future.  Ability of the competitors to catch
the market and turn customers.

Source: Author’s work.

3.1.2 Conclusion for Ocean Market

The analysis for the MP of OM supports the conclusion that an e-commerce system for OM is
feasible and essential. According to the technological field of the PESTLE analysis, it is easy to
provide services to Sri Lankans, and OM can target that emerging market. It is obvious that the
solution can alter the SWOT analysis done to OM in a more beneficial and productive manner.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 36


3.2 Different e-commerce systems in the world

Electronic commerce systems could be classified into two categories, as type of goods sold and
nature of participants as described in the following topics. However, it could be classified into
other categories as well.

3.2.1 Classification According to Types of Goods Sold

The table below explains 3 types of e-commerce systems which are classified according to the
types of goods sold.

Table 16: Classification by goods sold


Classification Type Description

E-commerce systems that aims at selling physical goods such as


books, accessories, cosmetics and similar items comes under this
category.
Physical Goods
An example is Urbanladder.com which sells online furniture and
decorations, the e-commerce system of Urbanladder.com has been
included in the Appendix A.

E-commerce solutions that enable people to buy digital products


such as music, documents, eBooks, software and similar products

Digital Goods belongs to this category.

Kobobooks.com is an example of such a seller which sells e-books.


Its e-commerce system has been provided in the Appendix B

The e-commerce systems used by banks and similar organizations


Services that sell services to the people can be categorized as systems that
aims to sell services.

Source: Khurana (2015).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 37


3.2.2 Classification According to the Nature of Participants

This type of classification is based on the nature of the market relationship in which the e-
commerce systems play different roles accordingly. There are many classifications under this topic
but a few major classifications have been described below.

 Business to Consumer (B2C) e-commerce systems


This is the most common type of e-commerce system based on market relationship and is
used by many organizations in SL. This model enables direct sales to consumers interacting
them online through the e-commerce system (Malik 2010). The appendices C, D, & E
shows such e-commerce systems of Odel, Keells Super, & Lankatronics respectively.

 Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce systems


This e-commerce model focus on selling products to other businesses, thereby making a
B2B market relationship online (Arline 2015). The figure below shows how this process is
done in more detail.

Figure 7: Process of a B2B e-Commerce System


Source: Tutorials Point (2015).
Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 38
However, this e-commerce model could be further classified into two more categories as
demonstrated in the table below. Both serves the same function while the number of parties
involved varies.

Table 17: Categories of B2B model


B2B E-commerce
Description
model

This e-commerce system is a straightforward and direct model


where companies have their own B2B models to enable
One-to-many customers to purchase their products.

In this e-commerce model, many companies makes a closed


network or a public market place model in which many
Many-to-many
suppliers can join it. This extensive market place is
administered by a third-party with a recognized name.

Source: Kaplan (2015).

 Consumer to Consumer (C2C) e-commerce systems


As the name suggests, this model of e-commerce deals within customers where the
customers are both buyers as well as sellers, so ‘[w]hile the main actors in C2C commerce
are buyers and sellers, the presence of trusted intermediaries is required to provide
infrastructure for C2C e-commerce activities’ (In 2008: p.1). Amazon, eBay and similar
companies are examples of such intermediaries that provides an infrastructure for C2C
activities.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 39


Chapter 4 – Proposed e-commerce Solution

4.1 Proposed e-Commerce solution

4.1.1 Selecting a Suitable System

Based on the conclusion in chapter 3.1 of this report, a B2C model has been proposed. The
proposed system will upgrade OM to a brick and click company. The domain name is set as Ocean
Market.com. Other criteria’s to be checked when implementing a system like this as shown in table
18 are considered.

Table 18: Criteria's to be checked when implementing an e-commerce system


Criterion Description

The design of the website is the thing that attracts and provides the
Responsive Design authenticity to its users. This design must fit whatever the device the
user views it.

Regular customers might create accounts and get the benefits such as
Support Guest
fast purchasing, but guest checkout must be there for users who place
Checkouts
a one-time order or those who does not like to create an account.

Allowing the users to search for the stuff they need is essential,
Site Search features like auto-completion of what the users’ type helps them reach
fast for what they want.

It is essential that the site is supporting Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)


which will be offered by a Certificate Authority (CA) (Bennett 2013).
Security
This ensures that any sensitive data transferred to and from the site is
encrypted and is secure.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 40


Table 18 (Continuation)

The site must be fast enough so that its users will not be uncomfortable
with it. To ensure fast loading, the following things can be done.

 Combining the JavaScript’s or CSS files to single files.


 Compressing images so that they are less in size.
 Use caching to reduce time spent for the transfer of data
Site Performance between the web server and the database server.

Also Osterhout (2014) claims that best practices for Search Engine
Optimization (SEO) such as proper architecture of the site consisting
the elements such as the structure of the commerce catalogue helps
the search engine understand the relevance of the keywords to the
contents, increasing the efficiency of search function.

Source: Author’s work adopted from McDavid (2014).

4.1.2 Designing the System

The following figure illustrates the homepage of OceanMarket.com.

Figure 8: Homepage of OceanMarket.com


Source: Author’s work.
Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 41
A beautiful header that attracts the user is provided consistently at every page of the site. It contains
the name of company, and a simple message that motivates the user to buy its products. The header
also provides all the tabs in the system, those tabs are explained in the table below.

Table 19: Tabs in the system


Tab Description

This is the page where the user lands once he entered the site, and
Homepage contains some benefits that the user can receive through the site as
shown on figure 8.

This is the place where the user is presented with a catalogue of


Store various products of the company from which he can view and buy
the products he want. More on this tab will be presented on table 20.

This tab lets the user learn and have an idea about the company and
About its history, its boastings and pride. This tab therefore opens the page
that reflects the image of the company over the years.

This tab allows the user to become a member by enabling him to


Register enter his details as required. This feature lets that user to make fast
purchases in the future.

Registered users are allowed to login using this tab, all other users
Login
are allowed to use the page as a guest.

This tab appears at the upper right corner of the header which lets
the user to identify it without confusion. The cart tab also shows how
many items the user has added to it, so that the user can know it
Shopping Cart
without the need to click the tab.

This tab lets the user to view the items he has added to the cart, the
total amount he must pay and the option for checkout.

Source: Author’s work.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 42


 Store

The following image shows the store of Ocean Market.com.

Figure 9: Store of OceanMarket.com


Source: Author’s work.

The store of OceanMarket.com has many features that lets the user easily purchase its products as
explained in the table below.

Table 20: Features of the store


Feature Description

The storefront as shown in figure 9 is the page that the user sees as he presses
Storefront the store tab. This page shows some of the top brands and products that the
company sells.

Search function on the store tab lets the user search any type of product that
Search
he wants and access it within seconds.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 43


Table 20 (Continuation)

The store tab presents the user with a category list that enable him to look at
the various products of the company by clicking the related category. Some
Categories
of the categories OceanMarket.com presents are Textiles, Cosmetics,
Accessories, Baby Items, and so on.

Sub-Categories lets the user to further refine the category he has chosen and
allows him to view exactly what he was looking for. As an example, the
Sub-Categories
figure 10 shows the sub-category “Textiles> Shirts” which displays only the
shirts from the Textile category.

Source: Author’s work.

Figure 10: A sub-category of OceanMarket.com


Source: Author’s work.

The following image shows how the user can deal with individual products as he shops. The table
21 followed will explain the features in that image.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 44


Figure 11: A product on OceanMarket.com
Source: Author’s work.

Table 21: Features on selected products


Feature Description

The above figure 11 proves that each product has its own path, and
the path is displayed for the user to know which side of the system
Navigation Pane
he currently views. He can also simply click any link in the
navigation pane to the visit the corresponding section.

Every product displays its product name which allows the user to
Product Name easily remember or choose the product. In the example in figure 11
above, the product name is “Formal Shirt”.

Every product has its own description which allows the user to learn
Product Description
about the product or get an idea on what he is going to purchase.

The image of the product is the thing that attracts the user and
provide him the ability to make judgments so that he can consider
Product Image
buying what he likes. There are multiple images which appears
when the user hovers the mouse over it.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 45


Table 21 (Continuation)

The product price is a main detail that should be presented correctly,


Product Price
it is by which the user sometimes compare products within the store.

The user can state how much from a product he wants by numbering
Quantity
the quantity text box as shown in figure 11 above.

Add to cart button lets the user to add the product to the cart and buy
all the products added to cart at once without buying one by one.
Add to Cart Once that button is pressed, the cart tab shows the number of
products added to it. It also pops-up a side window indicating the
products added and the sub-total, as shown in figure 11 above.

If the user likes the product being viewed and want to let his friends
know about it, he can share the product on his social media channels.
Social Media Sharing
The above figure 11 proves that this can be done for Facebook,
Twitter, and Pinterest.

Source: Author’s work.

 Shopping Cart

The image below shows the shopping cart of OceanMarket.com, table 22 will explain the features
of that shopping cart.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 46


Figure 12: Shopping cart of OceanMarket.com
Source: Author’s work.

Table 22: Features of the shopping cart


Feature Description

This button lets the user purchase all the products in the shopping cart
at once. Pressing that button will carry the user to a page where details
Checkout
of the user are collected, or if the user is registered, he will be
redirected to a payment processor.

The user can remove any product from the shopping cart as he wish
Delete Items
using the small cross button displayed on each product on the list.

This button lets the user leave the shopping cart and allows to shop
Continue Shopping
for more.

The user can press the ‘shipping info’ or ‘return policy’ buttons to
View Policies calculate shipping costs or to view return policy that pops-up once the
buttons are pressed.

Source: Author’s work.

The following diagram shows the form that the user needs to fill once the checkout button has been
pressed for users using the system as a guest.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 47


Figure 13: Guest details form
Source: Author’s work.

When all the required fields of the above form has been filled, the user will be redirected to Global
Payments to complete the transaction as shown in the image below.

Figure 14: Payment method


Source: Author’s work.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 48


Besides all these features of this site, its footer gives a variety of options for the user, and helps in
building trust from the user. The image below shows the footer of OceanMarket.com, its features
are explained in table 23.

Figure 15: Footer of OceanMarket.com


Source: Author’s work.

Table 23: Features of the footer


Feature Description

The footer lists a set of popular social media sites that the user can
Social Media
click on to like the page on the corresponding social media site and
Connectivity
to stay connected on new arrivals and updates.

The footer provides the user with a textbox to enter his e-mail
E-mail Subscription address which allows him to subscribe for the monthly newsletter
from Ocean Market.

The bottom right corner of the footer contains a list of payment


Payment Methods methods such as VISA, AMEX, and so on, which ocean market
accepts payments from.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 49


Table 23 (Continuation)

The bottom of the footer also provides the copyright information of


Copyright Information
OceanMarket.com.

Along with other information such as shipping & Delivery, Privacy


Terms and Conditions and Security, Returns information, the footer allows the user to view
the Terms and Conditions of Ocean Market.

The footer also provides the user to view the contact information,
Contact Question and Answer page, together with the option to provide
feedback.

This link which appears on the left side of the footer lets the user
About us know about Ocean Market, where its department stores are located,
and allows to read the Ocean Market magazine online.

Source: Author’s work.


Other details and features of this solution can be found under Appendix F.

4.2 Capitalizing an E-commerce solution

Ocean Market has a lot of options when funding for its e-commerce solution, and the correct source
must be selected for reducing the risks associated. The following table explains some of such
sources from which Ocean Market can receive its funds.

Table 24: Sources of funds


Source Description

Ocean Market has the option to fund for itself using the money it
Personal Savings has saved over the years, however the company cannot risk all of
its savings at once for an unpredictable solution.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 50


Table 24 (Continuation)

A business loan is the only type of loan that can be received from
Bank Loans a bank to an organization, therefore Ocean Market has that as a
second option.

Many finance companies provide loans just like banks, they can
Finance Companies take higher risks when giving commercial loans but their rates
and fees are higher than that of banks.

Venture capitalists are ready to invest their money on the


Venture Capitalists solution, only if the solution is going to be so much successful,
because they will get a massive return if it works.

Angels are people who provide funds in return of a proposition


Angels
of the company equity.

If the solution is about to benefit the public, grants can be


Grants considered receiving. These are most often received for non-
profit organizations.

Source: Scorerochester (n.d).

Ocean Market can go for a bank loan as it had made many business transactions over the years that
would allow the bank to trust the company and provide the necessary facility. However, the
company must show that they are investing their part too, for getting the bank loan. This will
reduce the amount hired from the bank, decreasing the interest which should be paid.
Considering these facts, the funding is done by personal investment and a bank loan which funds
the required amount. This dual funding reduces the risks faced by the company by decreasing the
amount of money hired from the bank.
There are certain reasons for not choosing the other options which Ocean Market had. The table
below describes why such sources of funds have not been chosen.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 51


Table 25: Rejected options for funding
Option Reason for not Selecting

Credit cards are not a good option specially for an organization such as
Ocean Market because its interest rates and costs on the card will build
Credit Card debt
very quickly and can be detrimental to a business owner according
Taylor (2015).

The table 24 above mentioned that finance companies have much


Finance Companies higher rates of interests than banks and therefore have been not selected,
as the bank can offer a much better deal to the solution.

As mentioned in table 24 above, venture capitalists consider whether


the solution will be successful, however the problem is that Ocean
Venture Capitalists
Market must provide them with a massive income once the solution
works.

UK Business Angels Association (2014) states that angels normally


Angels takes shares from the business and will seek to have return on their
investment for 3-8 years. So that is not a good deal for Ocean Market.

The Government of UK (2015) says that a grant can only cover a part
of the project, and its application process is time consuming. It further
Grants
states that there’s a lot of competition for grants, cutting that option out
for Ocean Market.

The Lowa State University (2013) describes a different method known as leasing. According to
Trisha (2014) leasing is when the lessor provides the lessee an asset and the right to use it against
a periodical payment. So Ocean Market cannot take that option, because instead of periodical
payments it needs instant funding for its solution. Therefore self-financing and bank loan is the
best option for Ocean Market.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 52


4.3 Feasibility of the E-commerce solution

The Technological, Economical, Legal, Operational, Schedule (TELOS) feasibility criteria’s are
discussed under following topics because they offer a simple way to consider most important
issues on feasibility as pointed out by Rudy (2014).

4.3.1 Technological Feasibility

Alhanati (2012) shows that the technological requirements for completing the project successfully
can be revealed by understanding the information and process requirements, as outlined in the
table below.

Table 26: Process requirements of the proposed System


Process Technological Requirements

The proposed solution is an e-commerce system on a website, and


therefore must be hosted in order to make the site accessible for the public.

Hosting can be done in several ways, either by using a home server, or a


Web Hosting
web based hosting service. Either option has its costs and benefits. While
maintaining a home server increases the risk, a web based hosting service
is the preferred choice.

The e-commerce solution will have to record all the sales, transactions, and
many other details which requires a huge amount of storage space. So a
data center is required to store such data it produces. As there are risks
associated with on-premise data centers, the off-premise cloud data centers

Data Storing can be useful in such a case.

As Angeles (2013) shows, that cloud storage can provide more security
and other benefits, cloud based data centers could be used for the
solution. The cloud space required can be purchased for an additional
cost from the web hosting service.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 53


Table 26 (Continuation)

The e-commerce system takes information about the place of delivery


when a customer purchases something from it, then it can place that item
under orders section of the nearest branch where the delivery is about to
Back-Office happen.

Function So every branch of Ocean Market must have access to the internet to
view the orders that appear in the system. Therefore networking facilities
such as LAN systems comprised of devices such as routers, hubs, and
PC’s must be present within every branch.

Source: Author’s work.

4.3.2 Economic Feasibility

The economic feasibility of the solution can be determined by a cost-benefit analysis as shown in
table 27, however Decision Analyst (2015) shows that a demand forecast is also essential to predict
economic patterns.

Table 27: Cost-Benefit Analysis of the solution


Process Costs Benefits

Ocean Market must When developed, the e-commerce solution can


capitalize the solution increase reputation of the company, provide
by funds received by a services to its customers, get the company back
Capitalizing the
bank loan and to track where the world market is moving, by
Solution
personal investment helping to keep its potential customers as well as
as described in attracting new customers.
chapter 4.2.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 54


Table 27 (Continuation)

Ocean Market must The e-commerce system can over the years keep
spend on maintaining the regular flow of customers and increase sales
the system, such as dramatically that would otherwise be unable to
for future do.
Maintaining the e- advancements. It
In relation to the annual costs it takes, it can
Commerce System must also pay an
contribute in generating vast amounts of profit
annual payment to the
for the company.
web hosting company
for its services and for
storage.

The intellectual Once the rights are privileged, the company has
property rights of the the chance and opportunity to build its image
system should be online through the proposed e-commerce
taken so that none solution because of its uniqueness.
Preserving the other is able to
When customers trust begins to grow on the
Solution duplicate or use the
solution, it is then that the intangible benefits of
original work. This
having an unique system appear.
process involves
payment to the Sri
Lankan government.

Source: Author’s work.

4.3.3 Legal Feasibility

There are many laws and policies in Sri Lanka, the table below demonstrates that the proposed
solution have no conflict with those laws making it legally feasible.

 Intellectual Property Rights

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 55


Table 28: Legal feasibility of the solution
Legal Constraints Effect on the Solution

Copyrights are rights given by law to the creators for their literacy and
artistic works. These economic and moral rights must be considered to
check whether the solution have violate those laws which are published
Copyrights
in gazette numbers; 1415/18 of 10th October 2005.

The domain name and other names on the proposed solution currently
comply with those laws making any names used feasible.

Trademarks, Service marks, certification marks, and collective marks are


the types of marks present.

Marks The solution uses the same original trademark of Ocean Market and is
viable to be used when checked against the intellectual property Act no:
36 0f 2003 under sections 103 and 104.

Patents protect inventions and provide the benefits of the invention only
Patents to the inventor. The proposed solution does not violate this law because
such a system haven’t received a patent within the last 20 years.

Source: Government of Sri Lanka (n.d).

4.3.4 Operational Feasibility

Heathcoat (2003: p.212) shows that operational feasibility is checking whether the current work
practices and procedures of a company are adequate for the new system. It is also feasible if the
employees can work with it easily. The following table demonstrates the solution’s operational
feasibility.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 56


Table 29: Operational feasibility of the solution
Criterion Description

In order for the solution to be operationally feasible, ideas about the


solution are taken from the employees of the company. This can be
Process
done easily in the systems investigation phase of the e-commerce
solution.

The process suggestions are then analyzed to look whether some


parties are affected when dealing with the system. Evaluation of those
Evaluation
suggestions is an easy task that could be done in the system design
phase.

The development of the e-commerce solution does not involve


Implementation employees from Ocean Market and therefore their work will never be
affected during that phase.

The solution is feasible if Ocean Market can use the newly introduced
system with less efforts. Any required strategies could be applied as

Strategies required in those situations.

As the proposed solution provides all the functionality they need,


Ocean Market can easily handle it.

The solution is also considered to be operationally feasible if the


employees require less time to adapt to the new changes. This
adaptation process can be monitored to determine whether additional

Adapt and Review changes must be made.

Because the solution is designed to be simple to use, it will take less


time for Ocean Market to adapt to it, however, review process is
carried out.

Source: User’s work adopted from Scheid (2013).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 57


4.3.5 Schedule Feasibility

The solution is feasible schedule wise if it is delivered on time. Arnette (2014) shows that it is used
to visualize the processes of the project to ensure on-time delivery, therefore it is also feasible if
its deadlines are reasonable. The following table discusses some phases to prove that the schedule
for developing the proposed solution is reasonable.

Table 30: Proving the deadlines are reasonable


Phase Description

At this stage, the requirements of the proposed system are collected


System
through different types of techniques. Once all the required data
Analysis/Investigation
are collected, they are analyzed.

After analysis, the e-commerce system is designed to meet all the


System Design requirements and functionalities required, by a set of designers
involved in the project team.

Once the design phase completes, the e-commerce system is


actually implemented. This phase requires a considerable time
Implementation
period because actual development such as coding is done on this
phase.

Upon successful completion of the implementation, the e-


Integration and Testing commerce system is tested for errors, bugs, and interoperability.
The system is also checked for security issues in this phase.

In this phase, the e-commerce system is setup and runs actual


business. This is the final part of the development of the solution.
Installation
Although maintenance and future improvements takes place after
this, they are not part of the schedule.

Source: Author’s work adopted from Kay (2002).

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 58


Conclusion

From all the analysis done to investigate the market potential of Ocean Market, including the
market analysis, competitive advantage analysis, financial feasibility analysis, PESTLE analysis
and SWOT analysis which shows positive results, the main advantage lies in the current situation
of e-commerce in Sri Lanka, because there are only a very little number of competitors for Ocean
Market that has an e-commerce solution. However more competitors on the future can be expected,
therefore, identifying their Unique Selling Proposition (USP) and promoting such, to face those
threats are recommended.
The solution proposed is the best fit for Ocean Market, because it’s a B2C model which falls under
the category of physical goods seller while making the company a Brick and Click organization.
The solution is full of functionality, Security and is feasible under all TELOS feasibility studies,
however, what the customers sees is the design, products and the payment options. Selection of a
popular and trusted payment service such as Global Payments will increase customer trust, while
the user friendly design will attract new customers to provide Ocean Market full of tangible and
in-tangible benefits by achieving better business outcomes.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 59


Appendices

Appendix A: e-Commerce system of Urbanladder.com

Urban ladder is an online furniture and decoration seller who allows its customers to choose, buy,
their products as well as allowing them to get it delivered to their homes, and have it installed. The
following image shows its homepage as of August 29, 2015.

Apart from the various categories they offer, the major points to be noted on this page is that they
provide:
 A hotline number
 An email address
 The ability to search products
 The ability to sign up or login as a member
 The ability to shop as a guest
 The ability to add items to the cart

They let customers pay using payu biz, and accept credit and debit cards as well as net banking
facilities. Urban ladder also accepts cash on delivery.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 60


Appendix B: e-commerce system of Kobobooks.com

Kobobooks.com is an online e-book seller which offers a variety of eBooks ready for purchasing.
The e-commerce system of Kobobooks.com is shown in the screenshot below.

Kobobooks.com allows its users to search its content in 9 different languages including English
while enabling to manually locate the books using the categories and its catalogue which includes
the Today’s Top 50 EBooks at the top. The solution even extends for mobile experience through
its kobo app for phones and tablets. Apart from those features, it provides the following
functionalities to its users.
 The ability to sign up and login as a member, or login using Facebook or Google plus
accounts.
 Shopping cart functionality.
 Help section.
 Ability to add books to cart without login.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 61


Appendix C: e-Commerce system of Odel

Odel is the Sri Lanka’s first retail department store, and has acquired its online presence as Odel.lk
allowing its customers to purchase its range of products online. As any other examples, Odel.lk
has got its unique and professional interface as illustrated in the screenshot below.

This e-commerce system allows its users to choose from a wide array of its products categorized
as Women, Men, Kids, and so on. It also allows to choose products by brand then filter results by
size, color, and price. The site lets its users to connect with them via popular social media channels
as well as enabling them to read the Odel magazine online.
They gives the ability to change currency type, register, login or use it as a guest, use shopping
cart, send and redeem gift vouchers, sort items by price, limit the number of results appear per
page, calculate shipping costs, save items in the saved items list, and offer international delivery.
The payments are handled by Global Payments Asia Pacific which is a joint venture of Global
Payments and HSBC.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 62


Appendix D: e-Commerce system for Keells Super

Keells Super is a popular company in Sri Lanka specially focusing on food items. Its e-Commerce
solution brings its customers a new experience through Keellssuper.com and allows easy
purchasing of its various food products. The following screenshot demonstrates how its homepage
reflects the company’s red theme color.

As any other solution, this site lets its customers to register, login, search, view, add to cart, and
pay to purchase anything online in its wide span of food products. The site aids the help of Global
Payments to facilitate the transactions and allows payments via MasterCard, Visa, and American
Express. The office and home delivery of products is a major point to be noted in this site.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 63


Appendix E: e-Commerce system of Lanka Tronics

Lanka Tronics is an electronic items seller in Sri Lanka, and is available online through
lankatronics.com site. It is one of the popular electronics seller in the country. Its homepage is as
shown in the screenshot below.

This site lets its users to choose from a multitude of various electronic items classified by brand,
size and many other variables. It allows to add items to cart, register, login or use as guest. The
solution allows users to change the currency from LKR to USD and allows to pay via bank account,
credit card, PayPal, and Dialog eZ cash. The payment using credit cards is powered by
2checkout.com. The users can also choose to collect their items from their stores, or get them
delivered to their homes using post or courier service.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 64


Appendix F: Other features of OceanMarket.com

Appendix F1: Multi-Platform Support

The solution presented on chapter 4 is not only for PC’s, but works well with tablets, and
smartphones. As an example, the following image shows how the same homepage of
OceanMarket.com is seen on a mobile device.

All the features of the Desktop version are included in the mobile version making the solution suits
any type of device.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 65


Appendix F2: Back Office of OceanMarket.com

The solution for Ocean Market not only serves the customers, but also the administrators and site
managers who need to keep track of the things going on online. The back office functionality of
the solution makes their work easier by tracking every detail they want. The following images
shows some of the back office features of OceanMarket.com.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 66


The images above shows how the solution lets the administrator to manage emails, members,
orders and view the sales as well as the stats per week. Back office functions like this is so much
essential for a company to become success in their work.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 67


Appendix G: Management of Work

Appendix G1: Gantt chart

Gantt chart

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 68


Appendix G2: Self-Criticism

Self-Criticism
Understanding the real meaning of what the individual chapters and topics of the assignment
expect is sometimes equivocal, but other than that, the poor knowledge regarding the structure of
a report and the format of a professional document has become major barriers in creating this
report. The inconsistent availability of formats and structures of the same referencing style within
different institutions and colleges also caused further confusion.
Inefficient time management during the preparation of this report leads to sluggish attainment
which affects how the report is been made. Going through materials thoroughly to help build the
report with increased accuracy might have benefited in understanding the content well, and how
the report presents them, however such practices lead to further delay which triggers peer pressure
that further affects the final stages of work.
However, all these problems were faced with responsibility while learning how such things could
be dealt in the future. Improved skills in understanding, realizing, and dealing as well as time
managing gained from this work will benefit in the future to be more efficient in all the above
mentioned areas.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 69


References

Alhanati, J. (2012) Creating A Feasibility Report With TELOS. Investopedia. [Online] Available
from: http://www.investopedia.com/articles/pf/12/feasibility-report-telos.asp [Accessed 25th
September 2015].

Angeles, S. (Monday 26th August 2013) Cloud vs. Data Center: What’s the difference. Business
News Daily. [Online] Available from: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4982-cloud-vs-data-
center.html [Accessed 28th September 2015].

Arline, K. (Friday 02nd January 2015) What is B2B. Business News Daily. [Online] Available
from: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5000-what-is-b2b.html [Accessed 27th August 2015].

Arnette, S. (2014) Schedule Feasibility. [Online] Available from:


http://www.redgage.com/blogs/saraharnette/schedule-feasibility.html [Accessed 05th October
2015].

Basu, S. (2013) Global Perspectives on E-Commerce Taxation Law. [e-book] Ashgate


Publishing. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=v9yhAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA191&dq=the+growth+of+e-
commerce&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAWoVChMI1tT95aeoyAIViY-
OCh0iGQRf#v=onepage&q=the%20growth%20of%20e-commerce&f=false [Accessed 21st
August 2015].

Basu, Shreya. (Wednesday 07th December 2011) Indian IT Services To Hit $15 Billion Mark By
2014 End. News Tonight. [Online] Available from: http://newstonight.net/content/indian-it-
services-hit-15-billion-mark-2014-end [Accessed 10th August 2015].

Bennett, T. (2013) Why Do I Need an SSL Certificate? [Online] Available from:


http://blog.wsol.com/why-do-i-need-an-ssl-certificate [Accessed 02nd September 2015].

Berry, T. (2015) What is a SWOT Analysis. [Online] Available from:


http://articles.bplans.com/how-to-perform-swot-analysis/ [Accessed 29th August 2015].

Bristol, M.A. (2001) The Impact of E-Commerce on Tax Revenues in the Caribbean Community.
[Online] Available from: http://www.caricom.org/jsp/community/cota/e-
commerce_tax_revenues_bristol.pdf [Accessed 19th August 2015].

Business Case Studies. (2015) Aims and Objectives. [Online] Available from:
http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/business-theory/strategy/aims-and-
objectives.html#axzz3kyFLAHlw [Accessed 06th August 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 70


Ceylontoday. (Sunday 11th August 2013) Implementing e-business in SL is challenging.
Mawbima. [Online] Available from: http://www.ceylontoday.lk/22-40004-news-detail-
implementing-e-business-in-sl-is-challenging.html [Accessed 18th August 2015].

Chand, S. (2015) Main Functions and Objectives of a Sales Department. Salesmanship, [Online]
Available from: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/salesmanship/main-functions-and-objectives-
of-a-sales-department/1897/ [Accessed 02nd August 2015].

Chianis, A. (2013) What is the 4P Marketing Matrix. [Online] Available from:


http://www.businessbee.com/resources/marketing/marketing-101-4p-matrix/ [Accessed 04th
August 2015].

Cook, G. (Friday 02nd January 2015) How brick-and-mortar stores can survive the Internet
shopping craze. Washington Post. [Online] Available from:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/01/02/how-brick-and-mortar-stores-
can-survive-the-internet-shopping-craze/ [Accessed 20th August 2015].

Decision Analyst. (2015) Economic Feasibility Analysis Services. [Online] Available from:
http://www.decisionanalyst.com/Services/economicfeasibility.dai [Accessed 29th September
2015].

Echelon. (2015) E-commerce in Sri Lanka. [Online] Available from:


http://www.echelon.lk/home/e-commerce-in-sri-lanka/ [Accessed 13th August 2015].

Efairness (2015) The Impact of the Internet Sales Tax Disparity on Massachusetts Tax Revenues
, Sales and Jobs. [Online] Available from: http://www.efairness.org/pdf/internet-sales-mass.pdf
[Accessed 20th August 2015].

Engitel. (2014) Typical Functions of An e-Commerce System. [Online] Available from:


http://www.engitel.com/en/products/spingo-commerce/typical-functions-of-ecommerce-
system.html [Accessed 24th August 2015].

Esoft. (2015) Structure and aims of Business Organizations. In: Business Skills for e-commerce.
Esoft, p.17.

Freeman, E.R. (1984) The Stakeholder Concept and Strategic Management. In: Strategic
Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Pitman, p. 46.

Government of Sri Lanka. (no date) National Intellectual Property Office of Sri Lanka. [Online]
Available from: http://www.nipo.gov.lk/ [Accessed 02nd October 2015].

Government of UK. (2015) Business finance explained. [Online] Available from:


https://www.gov.uk/business-finance-explained/grants [Accessed 15th September 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 71


Grimsley, S. (2015) What is a Stakeholder in a Business? – Definition and Examples. [Online]
Available from: http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-stakeholder-in-business-definition-
examples-quiz.html [01st August 2015].

Handfield, R. (2011) Role of Procurement within an Organization. [Online] Available from:


http://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/role-of-procurement-within-an-organization-
procurement-a-tutorial [Accessed 02nd August 2015].

Heathcote, P.M. (2003) ‘A’ Level ICT. [e-book] Payne Gallway. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=e3F8Sv2yKUcC&pg=PA212&dq=operational+feasibility+stud
y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CEkQ6AEwCGoVChMImKvuoefOyAIV1FqOCh304Qvy#v=onepage&
q=operational%20feasibility%20study&f=false [Accessed 03rd October 2015].

In, L. (2008) Electronic Business: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications ... [e-book]
IGI Global. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=Hw0pbYlFA14C&pg=PR41&dq=c2c+e-
commerce+systems&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBGoVChMI--
q8saf0xwIVggmOCh244gs7#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 28th August 2015].

Japalsingh8. (2015) Discuss the Global Impact of E-Commerce on Society. [Online] Available
from: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Discuss-The-Global-Impact-Of-e-Commerce-
1367328.html [Accessed 14th August 2015].

Jasmith. (2011) Roles and Responsibilities of a Finance Department. [Online] Available from:
http://www.jasmith.com/roles-and-responsibilities-of-a-finance-department/ [Accessed 03rd
August 2015].

Joseph, C. (2015) Examples of Business Goals and Objectives. Small Business. [Online]
Available from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-business-goals-objectives-4698.html
[Accessed 07th August 2015].

Kaplan, M. (2015) B2B E-Commerce Growing; Becoming More Like B2C. [Online] Available
from: http://www.practicalecommerce.com/articles/85970-B2B-Ecommerce-Growing-
Becoming-More-Like-B2C [Accessed 27th August 2015].

Karake-Shalhoub, Z. & Qasimi, L.A. (2007) The Diffusion of E-commerce in Developing


Economies: A Resource-based Approach. [e-book] Edward Elgar Publishing. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=6RXW5CuNw50C&pg=PA55&dq=negative+impacts+of+e-
commerce+on+society&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAmoVChMIs4vW0deoyAIVAkqOCh
3aHAFf#v=onepage&q=negative%20impacts%20of%20e-commerce%20on%20society&f=false
[Accessed 23rd August 2015].

Kay, R. (2002) System Development Life Cycle. Computer World. [Online] Available from:
http://www.computerworld.com/article/2576450/app-development/app-development-system-
development-life-cycle.html [Accessed 06th October 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 72


Khurana, A. (2015) Understanding the Different Types of E-commerce Businesses. The basics of
E-Commerce. [Online] Available from: http://ecommerce.about.com/od/eCommerce-
Basics/a/Types-Of-Ecommerce.htm [Accessed 25th August 2015].

Lime Canvas (2013) Advantages of e-commerce for business. [Online] Available from:
http://www.limecanvas.com/advantages-of-e-commerce-for-business/ [Accessed 16th August
2015].

Logistics World. (2010) The Mission of Logistics Management. [Online] Available from:
https://txemainlogisticsworld.wordpress.com/2010/04/12/the-mission-of-logistics-management/
[Accessed 07th August 2015].

Lowa State University. (2013) Types and Sources of Financing for Start-up Businesses. [Online]
Available from: https://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/html/c5-92.html [Accessed
18th September 2015].

Malik, A. (2010) The Five Different Types of e-Commerce. [Online] Available from:
http://www.designzzz.com/the-five-different-types-of-e-commerce/ [Accessed 26th August
2015].

Management Study Guide. (2015) Financial Management – Meaning, Objectives and Functions.
[Online] Available from: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/financial-management.htm
[Accessed 03rd August 2015].

McDavid, B. (2014) 5 Things to Consider When Developing an eCommerce Website. [Online]


Available from: http://blog.wsol.com/5-things-to-consider-when-developing-an-ecommerce-
website [Accessed 05th September 2015].

Morrison, K. (Friday 13th June 2014) The Growth of E-Commerce. Social Times. [Online]
Available from: http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/data-growth-e-commerce-
infographic/199692 [Accessed 22nd August 2015].

Nomi. (2015) In-Store Analytics: Illuminating Shoppers’ Actions in the Store. [Online] Available
from: http://www.nomi.com/orphans/in-store-analytics-illuminating-shoppers-actions/ [Accessed
23rd August 2015].

Osterhout, C. (2014) 3 Tips for Planning a Successful EPiServer Commerce Migration. [Online]
Available from: http://blog.wsol.com/3-tips-for-planning-a-successful-episerver-commerce-
migration [Accessed 04th September 2015].

Pathmalal, S.L. (Friday 06th September 2013) Why e-Commerce will explode in Sri Lanka in
very near Future. Daily FT. [Online] Available from: http://www.ft.lk/article/185950/Why-e-
commerce-will-explode-in-Sri-Lanka-in-very-near-future [Accessed 09th August 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 73


Pearson Education India (2008) E-Business and E-Commerce Management. [e-book] Pearson
Education. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=lsQZKstCuDUC&pg=PA219&dq=e-
commerce+is+a+threat+for+brick+and+mortar&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAGoVChMIs
5zur6uoyAIVTR6OCh0NdQle#v=onepage&q=e-
commerce%20is%20a%20threat%20for%20brick%20and%20mortar&f=false [Accessed 21st
August 2015].

Pipedrive. (2015) Sales Cycle Management. [Online] Available from:


https://www.pipedrive.com/images/sales-cycle-illu.png [Accessed 02nd August 2015].

Raj, K. (2009) Social Implications of Electronic Commerce. [e-book] University of Delhi.


Available from: http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JSS/JSS-21-0-000-09-Web/JSS-21-
2-000-09-Abst-PDF/JSS-21-2-091-09-667-Sumanjeet/JSS-21-2-091-09-667-Sumanjeet-Tt.pdf
[Accessed 19th August 2015].

Riley, J. (2015) Aims and Objectives of a Business. [Online] Available from:


http://beta.tutor2u.net/business/reference/aims-and-objectives-of-a-business [Accessed 05th
August 2015].

Rudy, L.J. (2014) Can We Really Do It? How to Conduct a TELOS Feasibility Study. [Online]
Available from: http://business.tutsplus.com/articles/can-we-really-do-it-how-to-conduct-a-telos-
feasibility-study--cms-21442 [Accessed 21st September 2015].

Scheid, J. (2013) An Example of Operational Feasibility. [Online] Available from:


http://www.brighthubpm.com/project-planning/72872-an-example-of-operational-feasibility/
[Accessed 03rd October 2015].

Schreiber, T. (2015) How Two Friends Turned Up The Heat and Sold $170k Worth of Spicy
Honey in 10 Months – Shopify. [Online] Available from:
https://www.shopify.com/blog/17878276-how-two-friends-turned-up-the-heat-and-sold-170k-
worth-of-spicy-honey-in-10-
months?ssid=102c623a516843542d3504ddf3cadc&signup_code={signup_code}&ref=wbe
[Accessed 17th August 2015].

Scorerochester. (no date) Funding Sources for Small Business. [Online] Available from:
http://www.scorerochester.org/help/funding/sources.php [Accessed 08th September 2015].

Small Business Development Corporation. (2015) Feasibility of the Business Idea. [Online]
Available from: https://www.smallbusiness.wa.gov.au/business-life-cycle/pre-start/feasibility-of-
the-business-idea/ [Accessed 25th August 2015].

Smarta (2009) What it’s like to run a business. [Online] Available from:
http://www.smarta.com/advice/starting-up/starting-your-own-business/what-it%E2%80%99s-
like-to-run-a-business/ [Accessed 15th August 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 74


Snedaker, S. (2013) Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning for IT Professionals.
[e-book] Newnes. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=vT8TAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA244&lpg=PA244&dq=business+fu
nctions+for+keep+the+business+running&source=bl&ots=d-
wxi8425V&sig=gwxdA21aSIMOAay7hmHUFGQm-
xs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAWoVChMI7oH-g7rixwIVhR-
OCh16tAz0#v=onepage&q=business%20functions%20for%20keep%20the%20business%20run
ning&f=false [Accessed 04th August 2015].

Statuspath. (2015) Business Goal and Objective Examples. [Online] Available from:
http://www.statuspath.com/business-goal-and-objective-examples/ [Accessed 11th August 2015].

Steele, R. (no date) Health Care Profitability in the E-Commerce Era. [Online] Available from:
http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/content/290986.pdf [Accessed 19th August 2015].

Tay, A. (2000) Accessibility of electronic commerce and new service and information
technologies for older Australians and people with a disability. [Online] Available from:
https://www.humanrights.gov.au/accessibility-electronic-commerce-and-new-service-and-
information-technologies-older-australians-and#BM4 [Accessed 17th August 2015].

Taylor, N.F. (Wednesday 29th July 2015) 14 Creative Financing Methods for Startups. Business
News Daily. [Online] Available from: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/1733-small-business-
financing-options-.html [Accessed 10th September 2015].

Team YS. (2013) How is e-Commerce in Sri Lanka different? Learn from Reeza Zarook,
Founder, Anything.lk. [Online] Available from: http://yourstory.com/2013/07/how-is-e-
commerce-in-sri-lanka-different-learn-from-reeza-zarook-founder-anything-lk/ [Accessed 12th
August 2015].

Tina. (no date) E-Commerce Advantages and Disadvantages. [Online] Available from:
http://www.enkivillage.com/e-commerce-advantages-and-disadvantages.html [Accessed 29th
August 2015].

Towson University. (2015) E-Commerce-Impact on Society. [Online] Available from:


http://triton.towson.edu/~swartout/cosc321/ecom-impact.pdf [Accessed 13th August 2015].

Transfreight. (2009) What is Logistics. [Online] Available from:


http://www.transfreight.com/lean_logistics_overview/what_is_logistics.aspx [Accessed 05th
August 2015].

Trisha. (2014) Lease Financing: Types, Advantages and Disadvantages. Financial Management.
[Online] Available from: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/financial-management/lease-
financing-types-advantages-and-disadvantages/43833/ [Accessed 20th September 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 75


Tutorials Point. (2015) E-Commerce B2B Model. [Online] Available from:
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/e_commerce/e_commerce_b2b_mode.htm [Accessed 26th August
2015].
UK Business Angels Association. (2014) Introduction to Angel Investing. [Online] Available
from: http://www.ukbusinessangelsassociation.org.uk/entrepreneurs/introduction-angel-investing
[Accessed 12th September 2015].

Wayne State University. (2015) S.M.A.R.T Objectives. [Online] Available from:


http://hr.wayne.edu/leads/phase1/smart-objectives.php [Accessed 06th August 2015].

Werthner, H. & Bichler, M. (2012) Lectures in E-Commerce. [e-book]. Springer Science &
Business Media. Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=EX4QBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA179&dq=new+business+e-
commerce&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CFMQ6AEwCWoVChMIq7SQhtuFyAIVCp6OCh0NVgI0#v=
onepage&q=new%20business%20e-commerce&f=false [Accessed 15th August 2015].

Wills, B. (2014) 18 Major Benefits of e-Commerce Business for Retailers & Customers in 2015.
[Online] Available from: https://medium.com/@briannawillsss/18-major-benefits-of-e-
commerce-business-for-retailers-customers-in-2015-63c5fc87f679#.k556tayhu [Accessed 28th
August 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 76


Bibliography

Basic Stuff. (no date) The sales department. [Online] Available from: http://www.basic-
stuff.com/business/salesmanship/sales-department.htm [Accessed 05th August 2015].

Connick, W. (2015) The 7 Stages of the Sales Cycle. [Online] Available from:
http://sales.about.com/od/salesbasics/tp/The-Seven-Stages-Of-The-Sales-Cycle.htm [Accessed
06th August 2015].

Content Writer. (2013) Social Implications of E-Commerce. [Online] Available from:


http://www.contentedwriter.com/social-implications-of-ecommerce/ [Accessed 16th September
2015].

European Union. (2008) Guide to Cost Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects. [Online]
Available from:
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/guides/cost/guide2008_en.pdf [Accessed
02nd October 2015].

Forde, A. (2014) Understand the effects of e-commerce on society. [Online] Available from:
https://prezi.com/hywf472ia1lj/understand-the-effects-of-e-commerce-on-society/ [Accessed 15th
September 2015].

Interparty. (2009) The Dangers of e-Commerce. [Online] Available from:


http://www.interparty.org/dangers-of-e-commerce.html [Accessed 05th September 2015].

Kingston, R. (2001) The Social Implications of e-Commerce: A review of Policy and Research.
[Online]. Available from: http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/papers/01-1/e-commerce.pdf [Accessed
20th September 2015].

LaRose, R. (2001) On the Negative Effects of E-Commerce: A Sociocognitive Exploration of


Unregulated On-line Buying. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 6 (3), 0–6.

Nguyen, T.A. (2015) Customer Renewal Rate - Critical Metric for Decision-Making. Scale
Finance. [Online] Available from: http://www.scalefinance.com/customer-renewal-rate-critical-
metric-for-decision-making/ [Accessed 02nd August 2015].

OECD. (1999) Economic and Social Impact of Ecommerce: Preliminary Findings and Research
Agenda. No. 40. Paris, OECD Publishing.

Rigby, D. (2011) The Future of Shopping. [Online] Available from: https://hbr.org/2011/12/the-


future-of-shopping [Accessed 02nd October 2015].

Rouse, M. (2015) Channel Partner Definition. [Online] Available from:


http://searchitchannel.techtarget.com/definition/channel-partner [Accessed 03rd August 2015].

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 77


Sam, L. (2002) The Economic and Social Impacts of E-Commerce. [e-book] Idea Group Inc
(IGI). Available from:
https://books.google.lk/books?id=D9Wj8pDWnQ8C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=fal
se [Accessed 06th September 2015].

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2005) United Nations. E-Commerce
and Development Report 2004. United Nations Publications.

Nilshan Devinda Business Skills for e-Commerce - Unit No: 01 78