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ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SALT-ANIONS

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE

Test for carbonate


A little of salt solution is treated with Brisk effer vescence with the Presence of carbonate
dil.Hcl evolution of colorless odorless
gas

Conformatory test for carbonate

1) The above gas is passed through 1 ml of Presence of carbonate is confirmed


lime water taken in a test tube and shaken Lime water turns milky
well
A white precipitate is obtained
2) A little of the salt solution is treated Presence of carbonate is confirmed
which is soluble in dil.Hcl
with Bacl2 solution

Test for Accetate(CH3COO- Presence of acetate


a)smell of vinegar
A little of salt is rubbed with dil.H2So4 Absence of acetate
b)No charatrastic reaction

Conformatory test for Acetate A deep red coloration is obtained

1) A little of the salt solution is treated Presence of acetate is confirmed


with neutral ferric chloride solution

2)A little of salt solution is warmed with


Presence of acetate is confirmed
few drops of conc.H2so4 and ethyl alcohol Pleasant fruity smell is obtained
is poured into excess of water

Test for chloride(cl-)


A little of the salt is warmed with A colorless gas fuming in air gives
con.H2So4 dense white fumes when a glass Presence of chloride
rod dipped in NH4oH is shown in
the mouth of the test tube
Conformatory Test
Greenish yellow gas with a
1)A little of the salt is heated with Presence of chloride is confirmed
pungent smell is obtained
con.H2so4 and Mno2
A white curdy precipitate which is
2)A little of the salt solution is acidified completely soluble in excess of Presence of chloride is confirmed
with dil.Hno3 and then Agno3 solution NH4oH solution is obtained
is added

Test for nitrate (No3-)


A little of the salt is heated with
Reddish brown fumes are evolved
conc.H2So4 and then paper balls are Presence of nitrate
added

Confirmatory test
1)A little of salt mixed with equal
volume of freshly prepared ferrous A brown ring is formed at the
sulphate solution and shaken well junction of the two Presence of nitrate is confirmed
con.H2so4 is then added to this
mixture along the walls of the test
tube

2)A little of the salt solution heated A colorless pungent smelling gas
with zinc dust and NaoH is evolved which solution gives
Presence of nitrate is confirmed
dense white fumes when a glass
rod is dipped in con.HCL is shown
at the mouth of test tube

Test for Sulphate


A little of the salt solution is diluted
with dil.Hcl and then BAcl2 added to White precipitate is obtained Presence of sulphate
the above solution

Confirmatory Test

1)To a little of the above precipitate Presence of sulphate is confirmed


The precipitate is insoluble
excccess of dil.Hcl is added
2)A little of the salt solution acidified A white precipitate is obtained Presence of sulphate is again confirmed
with acetic acid and then lead acetate
solution is added
SYSTAMATIC ANALYSIS OF CATIONS

EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE


The stock solution of salt is prepared In cold water

A little of the salt solution is treated a)No precipitate Presence of alkali metal
with sodium carbonate solution
b)A precipitate Presence of group metal

Analysis of alkali metal


A little of the salt solution is treated Colorless gas with smell of NH3 giving
with NaoH solution dense white fumes when a glass rod Presence of Ammonium
dipped in con.Hcl is shown in the
mouth of the test tube

Confirmatory Test
To about 1 ml of neslurs reagent two A brown precipitate is obtained
drops of salt solution and two drops Presence of ammonium is
of NaoH is added confirmed

Analysis of Group metal


Group 1 Lead
White precipitate is obtained Presence of lead
A little of salt solution is treated with
dil.Hcl

Confirmatory test
A little of the above precipitate is The precipitate dissolves
Presence of lead is confirmed
boiled with water in excess
To one portion of the above hot A yellow precipitate is obtained Presence of lead is again confirmed
solution potassium chromate solution
is added

A yellow ppt is formed which is soluble in


To the second portion of the hot hot water and reappearing as golden
Presence of lead is again confirmed
solution potassium iodine solution is yellow sprangles on cooling
added

GROUP II Cadmium(cd2-1)
A little of the salt solution is treated
with dil.Hcl and then H2S is passed A yellow precipitate is formed which is Presence of Cadmium
soluble in hot water

Confirmatory test
1)A little of the salt solution is treated White precipitate which dissolves in Presence of Cadmium confirmed
with NH4OH solution drop by drop in excess of NH4OH is obtained
excess

2)H2s is passed through the above Presence of Cadmium again


An yellow precipitate is formed confirmed
Solution

Group III Aluminium (Al3+)


A little of the salt solution is treated
with solid NH4CL and then excess of A white gelatinous precipitate
Presence of Aluminium
NH4OH solution is added

Confirmatory Test
1)NaoH solution is added drop by
drop in excess to little of the salt Presence of Aluminium is confirmed
A white precipitate which dissolves in
solution excess of NaoH solution
A little of the salt solution is boiled
with a few drops of con.HNO3 and
Blue ash is Obtained Presence of Al3+ is
cobalt nitrate solution is added. A
piece of filter paper dipped in it is
turned in to ash by burning

Group 4 Zn2+ or Mn2+


A little of the salt solution is treated
with solid NH4Cl and then excess of Presence of Zn2+
a)A white precipitate
NH4OH solution is added.Through the
above solution H2S is passed b)Flesh colored precipitate Presence of Mn2+

Confirmatory Test (Zn2+)


NaoH solution is added drop by drop
in excess to a little of the salt solution

A little of the salt solution is boiled A white precipitate is formed which Presence of Zn2+ is confirmed
with con.HNO3 and few drops of dissolves in excess of NaoH
Cobalt Nitrate solution. A piece of Presence of Zn2+ is again confirmed
filter paper is dipped in it and turned Green Ash is Obtained

into ash

Confirmatory Test (Mn2+)


NaoH solution is added drop by drop
in excess to a little of salt solution and Presence of Mn2+ is confirmed
A white Precipitate is formed with on
shaken well keeping turns into brown
A little of the salt solution boiled with
Presence of Mn2+ is again
Con.HNO3 to boil and is diluted with
The supernatant solution turns to pink confirmed
water and is allowed to stance

Group 5( Ba2+,Sr2+,Ca2+)
NH4cl, NH4OH,(NH4)2CO3 solutions
are added to a little of salt solution A white precipitate is obtained Presence of Ba2+,Sr2+
Analysis of group 5
A little of the salt solution is treated Absence of Ba2+
with acetic acid &potassium chromate No characteristic precipitate
solution

Absence of Sr2+
A little of the salt solution is treated
No characteristic precipitate
with dil.H2SO4

A little of the salt solution is treated Presence of Ca2+


with NH4Cl,NH4OH,ammonium A white precipitate is obtained
oxalate solution

Confirmatory Test(ca2+)
A little of the salt solution is made
into a paste with Con.Hcl and a small Presence of Ca2+ is confirmed
portion of the paste is shown into the Brisk red color is seen in the color of
flame
non luminous flame by charid spender

Group 6(Mg2+)
Presence of Mg2+ confirmed
NH4Cl,NH4OH,di sodium hydrogen
phosphate solution are added to a A white precipitate is obtained

little of salt solution

Confirmatory Test
NaoH solution is added 10 drop to
Presence of Mg2+ is confirmed
excess of salt solution A white precipitate solution of NH4Cl is
obtained

A little of the salt solution is boiled


with Con.HNO3 & Cobalt nitrate Presence of Mg2+ is again
solution A filter paper dipped in it is confirmed
A pink ash is obtained
turned to ash by burning