Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

Pocock & Richards: Human Physiology 4e

Chapter 21: Multiple Choice Questions

Results
You have answered 2 out of 11 questions correctly.
Your percentage score is 18%.

Question 1

Which of the following statements regarding the conduction system of the heart is true?

Your answer:

a) Between action potentials, the cells of the sino-atrial node have a steady resting potential.

Correct answer:

c) The Purkinje fibers are specialized cardiac myocytes linked by gap junctions.

Feedback:

The cells of the SA node have no steady resting potential but show a slow change in potential known as the pacemaker potential. The
conduction of the cardiac impulse through the atria occurs via normal atrial myocytes. In the ventricles, the specialized conducting cells are
the bundle cells and the Purkinje fibers, which transmit their action potentials to the ventricular myocytes via gap junctions. The speed of
conduction is slowed as the cardiac action potential passes through the AV node.
Page reference: 372-373

Question 2

Which of the following statements are true of the cardiac cycle of a healthy young adult?

Your answer:

d) During ventricular systole, all the blood in the ventricles is ejected.

Correct answer:

c) During the initial stage of ventricular contraction the volume of the ventricle does not change.

Feedback:

During the cardiac cycle the pressure in the left ventricle is around zero during diastole and 120 mmHg (16Kpa) at the peak of systole. Only
about 60% of the end diastolic volume is ejected during ventricular systole.
Page reference: 373-375

Question 3

Which of the following statements concerning the normal heart sounds is true?

Your answer:

c) The first heart sound is split into two components during inspiration.

Correct answer:

a) The first heart sound corresponds with the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves.

Feedback:
Since the first heart sound is caused by closure of the atrio-ventricular valves, it must occur after the onset of ventricular contraction, which
follows the R wave. The second heart sound is caused by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves. It consists of two components
designated A2 and P2, which occur at slightly different times during the respiratory cycle. The second heart sound occurs at the end of
systole when the ventricles have repolarized and therefore occurs just after the T-wave.
Page reference: 377-378

Question 4

The action potentials in the heart are about 100 times longer than those of skeletal muscle. True or false?

Your answer:

b) False

Correct answer:

a) True

Feedback:

The action potential of skeletal muscle is about 2 ms in duration while the action potentials of the heart cells range from about 150 ms in
the cells of the SA node to about 300 ms in a Purkinje fibre.
Page reference: 372

Question 5

The cardiac action potential is conducted through the atria via specialized conducting fibres. True or false?

Your answer:

a) True

Correct answer:

b) False

Feedback:

The conduction of the cardiac impulse through the atria occurs preferentially via certain fibre bundles, which are formed of normal atrial
myocytes. In the ventricles, however, the specialized conducting cells are the bundle cells and the Purkinje fibres.
Page reference: 372

Question 6

The spread of cardiac excitation is delayed by about 0.1 s at the atrio-ventricular node. True or false?

Your answer:

b) False

Correct answer:

a) True

Feedback:

The spread of cardiac excitation is delayed by about 0.1 s at the atrio-ventricular node because the cells are of small diameter and are linked
by few gap junctions.
Page reference: 372

Question 7

The second heart sound is due to closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves. True or false?
Your answer:

a) True

Feedback:

The second heart sound is caused by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves and occurs at the end of systole when the ventricles
have repolarized.
Page reference: 373

Question 8

Which of the following statements concerning the cardiac output is correct?

Your answer:

c) Can be measured by dividing the oxygen consumption by the difference in PO2 of the venous and arterial blood.

Correct answer:

d) Is largely determined by the end-diastolic volume

Feedback:

Cardiac output is increased by circulating adrenaline (epinephrine), not by aldosterone, which is secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cardiac
output is decreased by vagal stimulation. It can be measured by dividing the oxygen consumption of the body by the difference in oxygen
content between the mixed venous and the arterial blood. (This is the Fick principle).
Page reference: 379-382

Question 9

The stroke volume is decreased during strong sympathetic stimulation. True or false?

Your answer:

b) False

Feedback:

The stroke volume is increased during strong sympathetic stimulation.


Page reference: 385

Question 10

Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases heart rate. True or false?

Your answer:

a) True

Correct answer:

b) False

Feedback:

Stimulation of the vagus nerve decreases heart rate


Page reference: 382

Question 11

Cardiac output is increased by circulating adrenaline. True or false?

Your answer:
b) False

Correct answer:

a) True

Feedback:

Cardiac output is increased by circulating adrenaline. This is due to both an increase in heart rate and a positive inotropic effect.
Page reference: 385

Copyright © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved.