CIE4158  Computational Modeling of Structures
Case Study 4
Vrachas Panteleimon 4313836
Introduction:
The main objective of this study is to analyze the elastic and plastic behavior of a reinforced concrete beam with and without prestress. The beam was modeled as 2D plane stress element, while the steel reinforcement as 1D truss element. Prestress of the reinforcement is of a magnitude of 50KN.
Figure 1: Reinforced concrete beam Input
Start FX+ for Diana and set up the coordinates as well as the units.
Geometry: A rectangular wire 2300*150mm and a line 2300mm at 125 from the top of the rectangle, were drawn in order to depict model’s geometry.
Finite element mesh: Q8MEM and L2TRU elements were used to model the concrete beam and the reinforcement respectively. The Q8MEM element is a fournode quadrilateral isoparametric plane stress element with two degrees of freedom per node (u _{x} , u _{y} ).
Figure 2: The Q8MEM element
It is based on linear interpolation and Gauss integration. The polynomial for the
displacements u _{x} and u _{y} can be expressed as:
u ( , )
i
0
1
2
3
This polyonomial yields a strain ε _{x}_{x} which is constant in x direction and varies linearly in y direction and a strain ε _{y}_{y} which is constant in y direction and varies linearly in x direction. The shear strain γ _{x}_{y} is constant over the element area.
The L2TRU element is a two node truss element with one degree of freedom per node (u _{x} ).
Figure 3: The L2TRU element
The interpolation polynomial for the displacement can be expressed as:
u ( , )
0
1
This polynomial yields a strain ε _{x}_{x} which is constant along the bar axis.
Boundary conditions
Figure 4: Dimensions and boundary conditions
The model has two constraints. The left node is constrained in both horizontal and vertical axis, while the right node is constrained in the vertical direction.
Load: For the linear analysis a displacement of 1mm was forced to act where the forces F/2 are applied on the upper part of the beam.
Material type and parameters
Material Type
NAME
YOUNG
POISON
CONCRETE
25000 (N/mm ^{2} )
0.2
Non linear analysis – Properties of concrete
Tensile strength
Compression strength
Mode – 1 Fracture Energy
2.5 (N/mm ^{2} )
25 (N/mm ^{2} )
0.006 (N/mm)
Ideally plastic behavior in compression
The direction of the crack can rotate
Linear softening diagram
Non linear analysis – Properties of steel
NAME
YOUNG
YIELD STRENGTH
STEEL
210000
440
VON MISES FAILURE CRITERION
Linear analysis without prestress:
A prescribed downward displacement of 1mm was set on the upper part of the beam at two
symmetrical points, the position of which is defined by the two given forces F/2. According
to the following graph, tensile stresses at the bottom of the beam are three times higher
than the tensile strength of the concrete will appear in the concrete, which is contradictory
if we take into account that a linear analysis is being examined, so no cracks should occur in the beam cross section.
Figure 5: Deflection y of the reinforced concrete beam
Stress distribution of the steel reinforcement bar does not exceed steel’s yield strength, however it is not realistic too, because of the interaction of concrete with steel. In reality, steel stresses should occur higher than those in Figure 6 due to the fact that steel will take over the stresses when concrete has cracked.
Figure 6: Steel rebars’ stress xx distribution
A linear stress distribution Sxx occurs at mid span of the beam, which is in accordance with
the elastic material properties set for the linear calculations. This is depicted in the diagram
below:
Stress Sxx at mid span of the beam
Stress Sxx at mid span of the beam
Non Linear analysis with smeared cracking: no prestress applied
Displacement control was selected in order to analyze the non linear behavior of the reinforced concrete beam. A 7.9mm downward displacement was applied at the two points where the two forces F/2 are acting via 20 increments of 0.05 as a load factor. This displacement was derived from hand calculations, which are shown in the next page. 300 iterations and a tolerance equal to 0.01, were set for this analysis. Displacement and Force were selected as norms. Displacement control was selected instead of force control, since the latter cannot approach a drop of Force as displacement increases, and in this case of smeared cracking, a force decrease is expected after cracking failure of the beam.
Node:171
Figure 8: Force – Displacement diagram of the reinforced concrete beam at the location of force F/2 Seven characteristic points were selected from the diagram above, in order to analyze the elasto – plastic behavior of the reinforced concrete beam.
Characteristic point 
Force (N) 
Displacement (mm) 
Point 1 
0 
0 
Point 2 
10551.68888 
0.79 
Point 3 
29214.93647 
5.53 
Point 4 
28323.45682 
5.925 
Point 5 
31395.69846 
7.11 
Point 6 
29253.40696 
7.505 
Point 7 
30045.83617 
7.9 
Point 1: No loads are acting on the reinforced concrete beam, no further inspection is needed.
Point 2: First cracks occur in the concrete beam while the elastic behavior of the cross section turns into plastic one. Hand calculations were made in order to find the critical force acting on the two symmetrical points at the upper part of the beam, and proved to be smaller than the force derived from the finite element analysis: F _{h}_{a}_{n}_{d} = 7250N < F _{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{e} = 10551.69N. A crack pattern of the beam is also presented, where it is proved that small cracks in the lower part of the cross section occur (see Figure 9).
f
ctm , f
1
(1.6 ) (1.6 0.15) 2.5 3.625 /
ctm
h f
N mm
1
1
W b h
c
6 6
2
200 150 7.5 10
2
mm
5
3
M
cr
f
ctm f
,
1
M
cr
F
cr
2
W
c
375
2.719 10
Nmm
6
6
F 2 2.719 375 10
cr
7250, 7
N
2
P a
6 E I
l
(3
l
2
4
max
2300 ,
mm a
650 ,
mm I
a
5.625 10
2
),
max
7250, 7 650
6 25000 5.625 10
7
(3
7
4
mm
2300 4 650 ) 7.9 mm
2
2
Figure 9: Crack pattern at displacement of 0.79mm
Points 3, 4, 5, 6, 7: A certain decrease in force occurs while the displacement increases due to cracks opening and decrease in stiffness of the structure. At this point, the steel reinforcement takes over an amount of the applied forces, and subsequently an increase in the load can be justified.
In Figure 10 we can see that the principal total strain is more uniformly distributed along the cross section of the beam, when no cracks have occurred. When cracks take place, the principal total strain diagram has certain points of peeks (points 3, 5; Figure 11). At these points, the opening of cracks is accompanied with the “force take over” from steel rebars.
Figure 10: Principal strains at load step1 – point 2
Figure 11: Principal strains at load step 18 – point5
Point 7: Maximum load is being applied on the beam at this point, where the displacement is equal to the one prescribed 7.9mm. Subsequently, graph with the displacement at that point is presented below. From the finite element analysis, maximum load is approximately 30000N which is bigger than the hand – calculated load 28161N (Figure 12).
Figure 12: Strain and stress distribution of a concrete cross section
F concrete
F
steel
5
b x f 1 2 x f b f A
7
u
c
2
7
u
c
y
s
5
x
21, 28
1
2
x
200
u
7
5
mm
25
f
c
7
2
7
1
( d
2
N mm
x
u
5
7
F
28161
u
M
u
b
M
7
x
u
M
u
1.057 10
1
F
u 2
375
25 200 440 207,3
x
u
)
1
2
2
7
x
u
f
c
b
N
(
d
5
7
x
u
1 3
2
7
x
u
),
d
125
Figure 13: Deformed reinforced concrete beam at displacement 7.9mm
Stresses at the upper part of the beam have bigger values than those in the lower part of the cross section.
Figure 14: Stress distribution xx at midspan of the beam
Figure 15: Crack pattern at displacement at 7.9mm In this figure it is shown that cracks have spread almost everywhere in the cross section of the beam, with the ones at the location of the supports and at the points where forces act, to cover the total height of the beam, from bottom to top.
Subsequently, follows the diagram of stress distribution along the length of the concrete beam at the top fiber. As loading increases, the compressive stresses at the top fiber of the beam get bigger, until a point (load step 20 – maximum load) where the stresses decrease because there is decrease in stiffness of the structure as a result of extensive cracks (Figure
16)
Due to extensive cracking and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beam, a redistribution of stresses occurs along the length of the beam. As a result of this, positive stresses appear beside the supports (Figure 16).
Similar is the “behavior” of steel, where the distribution of stresses acts in an adverse way with that of concrete. From the next diagram it is also derived that steel has not yielded, since the maximum stress is smaller than the yield stress ( 418.47 < 440 N/mm ^{2} ,Figure 17).
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
100
Load Step 1(0.05) : SXX
Load Step 14(0.7) : SXX
Load Step 15(0.75) : SXX
Load Step 18(0.9) : SXX
Load Step 19(0.95) : SXX
Load Step 20(1) : SXX
Figure 16: Stress distribution xx at the top part of the reinforced concrete beam along its length
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
Load Step 1(0.05) : SXX
Load Step 14(0.7) : SXX
Load Step 15(0.75) : SXX
Load Step 18(0.9) : SXX
Load Step 19(0.95) : SXX
Load Step 20(1) : SXX
Figure 17: Stress distribution xx at the top part of the steel reinforcement bars
Linear analysis with prestress:
A prescribed downward displacement of 1mm was set at the two symmetrical points where
the forces F/2 are acting and a prestress of 50KN is applied on the steel reinforcement bars.
Displacement and stress graphs are being presented subsequently. According to the following graph, maximum tensile stress is 5.57N/mm², which is bigger than 2.5N/mm² concrete’s tensile strength. Therefore cracks occur which is contradictory due to the linear analysis.
Figure 18: Concrete’s distribution of stresses xx.
Sxx at midspan
Sxx at midspan
Figure 19: Stress distribution at midspan.
A linear distribution of stresses over the beam cross section at midspan occurs, which is in
accordance with the linear analysis.
Figure 20: Displacement of reinforced concrete beam
In the figure 18 a maximum stress of 40.67N/mm² occurs which is smaller than yield strength of steel (440N/mm²).
Figure 21: Steel rebars’ distribution of stresses
Non Linear analysis with prestress:
For the non linear analysis, a prescribed downward displacement of 7.8mm is set at the forces’ locations and a prestress of 50KN is applied at the steel reinforcement bars. The prestress was set to act first and the displacement was put with 100 steps of a size 0.01 to
act second. 300 iterations and a tolerance equal to 0.01 were set for the calculations. Force and Displacements are the norms for this analysis.
Force  Displacement
Figure 22: Force  displacement diagram at the location of the acting force F/2.
Characteristic point 
Force (N) 
Displacement (mm) 
Point 1 
8183.642821 
0 
Point 2 
20811.37825 
0.78 
Point 3 
33378.50348 
3.354 
Point 4 
32985.81274 
3.51 
Point 5 
33796.9527 
3.9 
Point 6 
33076.07971 
3.978 
Point 7 
34004.66 
7.8 
Point 1: Although there is a load, the displacement proves to be zero. This is a result of applying displacement control, where the displacement is specified with a certain value;
7.8mm.
Figure 23: Deformed structure due to prestress 50KN at load step1.
Point 2: First cracks of low value appear at the bottom fiber of it (figure 25 ).
Figure 24: Deformed structure at load step11
Figure 25: Crack pattern of the beam at load step11
Figure 26: Stress distribution of the steel reinforcement bar at load step 11.
As the displacement increases, the steel stresses increase as can be seen in the above figure. The stresses are uniformly distributed along the length of the rebar.
Principal total strains of the beam at this load step have increased in comparison with the ones at the previous load step and are uniformly distributed between the two points of the vertical loads, mainly at the bottom fiber of the beam.
Figure 27: Principal strains at 0.78mm displacement
Points 3, 5 and 4, 6: An increase in loading results in an increase in the deformation of the beam.
Figure 28: Deformed structure at point 6.
A certain decrease in force occurs between the points 3, 4 and 5, 6, as the displacement
increases. This a result of crack opening accompanied with a decrease in stiffness of the structure, and a force take over by the steel reinforcement bars. Subsequently, an increase
in
force occurs between points 4 and 5.
Principal total strains have increased in values and are not uniformly distributed between the two points of vertical loading, in comparison with the ones in point 2.
Figure 29: Principal strains at displacement 3.978mm
In accordance with the principal strains cracks open and spread over the height of the beam.
Figure 30: Crack pattern at 3.978mm displacement.
Point 7: At the maximum load, the displacement of the beam has also increased in value.
Figure 31 : Deformed structure at point 7
An increase in the values of principal strains is shown in the next figure, since the load has reached its maximum value.
Figure 32 : Principal strains at 7.8mm displacement
At point 7, where the applied load is maximum, the cracks have opened more and spread from bottom to top fiber of the reinforced concrete beam.
Load Step 1(1) : SXX
Load Step 11(0.1) : SXX
Load Step 44(0.43) : SXX
Load Step 46(0.45) : SXX
Load Step 51(0.5) : SXX
Load Step 52(0.51) : SXX
Load Step 101(1) : SXX
Figure 34: Stress distribution xx at the upper part of the reinforced concrete beam along its length
Load Step 1(1) : SXX
Load Step 11(0.1) : SXX
Load Step 44(0.43) : SXX
Load Step 46(0.45) : SXX
Load Step 51(0.5) : SXX
Load Step 52(0.51) : SXX
Load Step 101(1) : SXX
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
0
0.002
20
40
60
80
100
Load Step 1(1) : EXX
Load Step 11(0.1) : EXX
Load Step 44(0.43) : EXX
Load Step 46(0.45) : EXX
Load Step 51(0.5) : EXX
Load Step 52(0.51) : EXX
Load Step 101(1) : EXX
Figure 36 : Strain distribution along the length of the rebars
Reinforced concrete beam 

Without prestress 
With prestress 

Crack 
Less favorable, max crack = 4.080E2 at 
More favorable, max crack= 6.099E3 at displacement =7.8mm 
pattern 
displacement=7.8mm 

Beam 
More favorable, max stress=  

stresses xx 
Less favorable,max stress= 30.372N/mm² 
28.97N/mm² 
Steel 
More favorable, max 
Less favorable, max stress = yield stress = 
stresses xx 
stress=418.475N/mm² 
440N/mm² 
Beam 

total 
Less favorable,max principal strain= 2.47E 
More favorable, max principal strain= 
strains 
2N/mm² 
9.54E3N/mm² 
Steel 

strains, 
More favorable, max strain= 1.87E 
Less favorable, max strain=1.39E 
Exx 
3N/mm² 
2N/mm² 
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