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Review Kit (Student's Copy) Related Supplementary Material

No. of Limit page page
READING COMPREHENSION Items (minutes) Topic no. Topic no.
Reading Comprehension 25 10 Reading Comprehension 73-79 Reading Comprehension 27
Handout 7 5
32 15

Session breakdown
Topic/Activity No. of Minutes
Introductions 10
Review of Smart Reading skill application 30
Discussion of How to Answer &
Supplementary Materials 15 RK p. 37
Discussion of RC test question types 30
Answering of Review Kit & HO 15-20
Discussion of answers 60
Break 20
Summary 10
Evaluation 5
Announcements & Tips c/o RA 15
Total 210-220

Lecturer Must-know Additional materials for Lecturers only

In actual exam RC question types (see materials from
UPCAT - 90 items/70 mins UPCAT/Package review program)
ACET - 50 items/25 mins
UPCAT - 90 items/50 mins
ACET - 50 items/25 mins


How to answer the… Air pollution is the accumulation in the

atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient
READING COMPREHENSION TEST concentrations, endanger human health or produce
The following strategies can help you score high other measurable effects on living matter and other
in the ACET Reading Comprehension Test. materials. Among the major sources of pollution are
power and heat generation, the burning of solid
wastes, industrial processes and especially
 Work on passages with familiar subjects
transportation. The six major types of pollutants are
before passages with unfamiliar ones. Before carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides,
answering any item, quickly go over the particulates, sulphur dioxide, and photochemical
passages to see if there are any topics you oxidants.
know very well. Work on these passages first. We can see how air pollution is detrimental to
Doing so will allow you to give more time for the our health and environment. Are there any
improvements now? Fresh air is just as important as
difficult passages.
the food we eat. As anyone who enjoys a bracing
 Skim the questions. Get an idea of what the forest walk has noticed, trees do an invaluable job of
passage is all about and what you should look replenishing the atmosphere with oxygen. But when
for in it. they are burned, carbon in the form of carbon
 Read the passage to understand its dioxide and carbon monoxide is released. Both
structure. While reading the passage, keep the gases cause problems.
Asiaweek magazine reports that much of the
questions in mind. Read the passage again to
polluted air in Asia's cities comes from vehicle
fully understand it before answering the exhaust. Diesel and two-cycle engines are often the
questions. Ask yourself what the author’s point biggest polluters, producing large amounts of very
is and why the he or she is introducing or fine suspended particles. These cause many health
expounding on the idea. problems. Clean-air advocates have worked to
 Base your answers on the passage alone. Do improve the nation's air quality, and the health risks
that a particular individual might face directly from
not be influenced by what you have heard or
breathing polluted air are low. But research
read about the topic elsewhere. consistently is finding that, when spread out over a
 Immediately answer the questions that follow given population—be it residents of a certain city or
the passage. This way, you won’t waste time those with a particular disease—the quality of the air
recalling what you have read. Saving difficult has a very significant impact on public health. When
items for last is not recommended in Reading vehicles, factories, power plants, and other
Comprehension tests since you will then have to machines burn fuel, the chemicals they release into
the atmosphere react with one another (and other
give the passage another reading.
compounds in the air) in ways that can amplify
 Know when to move on. When a question on a health hazards.
particular passage proves too difficult, move on The situation looks very bleak. Despite
to the next passage. Remember that the ACET warnings and any action taken so far, problems
is given under time pressure, so you have to related to these most basic elements needed for life
answer as many questions as you can. Return have just been getting worse. The State of World
Population 2001 reports that "air pollution kills an
to skipped items if and when you have the time.
estimated 2.7 million to 3.0 million people every
year." It adds that "outdoor air pollution harms more
READING COMPREHENSION 25 than 1.1 billion people."
ITEMS / 10 MINUTES What makes air pollution worse for 2010?
DIRECTIONS: Read the selections carefully then According to the American Lung Association, air
answer the questions that follow. Encircle the letter pollutants concern researchers who study their
of the best answer. effects; one major offender is particulate matter,
PASSAGE 1 which wreaks havoc on human health. The
A prediction was made by a chemical Environmental Protection Agency says that we have
corporation president that by the year 2025 the word no natural defenses against them. The fine and
‘pollution’ will have largely disappeared from our ultrafine particulates in air pollution are so small
nation’s vocabulary as far as our industry is because they are about one-thirtieth of the width of a
concerned. Do you believe that it will happen? Now, human hair, and ultrafines can be up to 25 times
let me discuss one kind of it. What is air pollution? smaller that they can slip by the respiratory system's
defenses. Over time, particulate exposure can raise

rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung diabetes among vulnerable groups excluding
cancer deaths, and asthma attacks. the elderly, overweight and obese.
Who is most vulnerable to the effects of bad
air? Emerging research suggests that one group that 5. What best describes the author’s tone?
could be at risk consists of those who are A. Amenable
overweight or obese—even young adults. Air B. Frivolous
pollution has been found to exacerbate health C. Laudatory
problems in the young, the elderly, and those with D. Serious
such chronic conditions as respiratory disease, heart
disease, and diabetes. 6. What paradox is mentioned in the passage?
To many, the situation is a paradox. More A. Although particulate matter is extremely
information than ever before is available on air small, it has one of the most deleterious effects.
pollution subjects. More individuals and B. More resources have been allocated to fight
organizations than ever are interested with air air pollution, but there seems to be no
pollution. Governments have established improvement.
departments to help solve the problems. We have C. Air pollution is getting worse because bad
more technology than ever before to help deal with air aggravates the underlying conditions of
problems. Yet, things do not seem to be getting young adults.
better. D. Fuel combustion of vehicles and factories
when combined with other pollutants may result
1. Which of the following is a synonym of the word in amplification of health hazards.
“amplify” as used in the passage?
A. Augment PASSAGE 2
B. Expand
C. Increase volume A person’s gender affects him or her in very
D. Intensify intricate ways. This greatly affects the way he or she
is raised and treated. Men often treat women as
2. The author uses the idiom “spread out” in the their subordinates. Women develop a distorted
fourth paragraph to sense of self wherein they underappreciate
A. emphasize how thin the layer of clean air themselves because they have many flaws, most of
has become. which are superficial, especially those concerning
B. underscore how long air pollution has been their physical appearance. These are what they
wreaking havoc. learn from society, culture, and tradition.
C. illustrate how pervasive the effects of air
pollution on the population are. People are raised to want to fulfill the roles
D. demonstrate how widely spread the that society has reserved for them based on gender.
population with air pollution–related diseases is. Society typically assigns being active and
aggressive to males and being passive and
3. The final paragraph primarily serves to nurturing to females. Deviation from the norm merits
A. state the author’s insight. all sorts of reactions ranging from awe to disgust. In
B. provide a solution to a problem. keeping the status quo, it is essential to control what
C. describe the elements of particulates. people think they want. Take success, for example.
D. heighten the emotional impact of a paradox. On the one hand, a man is taught that he is
successful if he has furthered his career or business,
4. According to the passage the following are false if he has become a successful professional. The
EXCEPT: status of his marriage is not included in the equation
A. The health risks of a particular individual for his success. On the other hand, a woman is
directly breathing polluted air are low. taught that she is successful if she has a good
B. Carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen husband and is able to manage her household well.
oxides, particulates, sulphur dioxide, and This definition of success leads women to choose
photochemical oxidants are the six major air marriage over their career. It is said that having both
pollutants. a successful career and marriage is possible for
C. Fuels from vehicles, factories, power plants, women, yet others believe that one precludes the
and other machines can amplify health hazards other.
when spread out over a given population.
D. Air pollution causes chronic illnesses such These standards are deeply impressed upon
as respiratory disease, heart disease, and individuals by their role models as well as their
environments. Boys and girls learn how they are

supposed to act through the toys they are bought,

the television shows they watch, and the stories they 9. The word “deviation,” as used in the second
read. Boys are often depicted in a wide range of paragraph, means the opposite of which word?
possibilities; they can be fishermen, hunters, or A. Convergence
adventurers. Girls are also often depicted in different B. Departure
roles such as ballerinas or princesses. But the C. Divergence
ending of a story about a boy is harder to predict D. Variation
than that of a girl’s. A girl’s story almost always ends
in a happily ever after, which includes the triumph of 10. According to the author, why do women choose
good over evil and a charming lover next to her. marriage over career?
Ironically, this trend in children’s stories is mirrored A. A woman’s husband is the key to her
in real life. If a couple gives birth to a baby boy, it success.
would be hard to picture him twenty-five years from B. Career-oriented women can never be
now. He could turn out to be an engineer, an successful.
architect, or maybe an astronaut. But if a couple C. Society believes that successful women are
gives birth to a baby girl, it wouldn’t be hard to married.
picture where she would be twenty-five years later. D. Women are successful if they can handle
both their careers and marriages.
Of course there are other factors that affect a
person’s personality and destiny such as birth order, 11. The last sentence of the third paragraph
socioeconomic status, experiences, and most suggests that
importantly, individual differences. But being able to A. a girl’s life story often mirrors that of famous
see the lines and limitations that society has drawn fairy tales.
for a person based on his or her gender allows him B. women’s lives turn out the same when they
or her an unbiased say, a real say, as to what he or reach a certain age.
she wants to be and how to shape his or her future. C. people have the same idea of where twenty-
five-year-old women should be.
7. What does the word “precludes” in the second D. girls have more predictable fates in
paragraph most nearly mean? children’s stories and in real life than boys.
A. Contains
B. Engages
C. Prevents
D. Rejects
12. What type of selection is the passage an
8. According to the passage, most of a woman’s example of?
flaws are about what? A. Argumentative
A. Distorted sense of self B. Informative
B. Choice of marriage over career C. Intuitive
C. Passivity and nurturing nature D. Narrative
D. Physical appearance


The first thing that comes to mind when I think of honeybees, apart from honey of course, is the “Bee
Movie”. I vaguely remember this animated feature in 2007, although I recall that Jerry Seinfeld wrote the story and
played the main bee character. I think it was about humans stealing honey from the bees. Like most cartoon
movies I’ve seen, it was entertaining and funny, but I didn’t realize that there was a bee crisis about the same time
the film was released. Even more surprising is the little attention and concern it got from the public. It is alarming
that few people are worried about the vanishing honeybees, considering that we depend on them for a significant
part of our sustenance. Why is this happening and why should we care?

To be sure, honeybee disappearances are not new. The earliest cases of these due to mite infestations
were reported in 1984. The parasites Varroa destructor and Acarapis woodi have been wreaking havoc ever since
inflicting the largest losses to the Northern United States in the winter of 1995-1996. The Varroa mite is
particularly deadly because it infects the bees with viruses. To make matters worse, pesticides to control the
mites have been banned while pesticide resistance has become widespread. The syndrome causing these


disappearances, which are triggered by a combination of factors, has been conveniently called the “colony
collapse disorder” by scientists. Other biotic factors believed to be involved are insect diseases such as those set
off by the pathogens Nosema apis and the Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus. This disorder, however, appears to be
confined to the northern hemisphere as bee colonies in Australia, though found positive for the Israeli Acute
Paralysis Virus, appear to be resistant to it, manifesting no symptoms.

Other causes being considered are malnutrition, cell phone radiation, genetically modified crops and climate
change. As more bees in the US are called upon to pollinate orchards of oranges, blueberries, apples and
almonds, the feeding of nectar becomes more difficult. Often beekeepers are resorting to a diet of sucrose, corn
syrup and protein supplements for their bees. The effect could be a compromised immune system and a greater
susceptibility to infection. Radiation from cell phones has also been blamed for hampering the navigation system
of bees. Others suggest that bees have died ingesting crops that have been genetically engineered to contain an
insecticide. Already affecting various sectors of society and the natural world, climate change may also contribute
to the crisis. Extreme weather events and the disruption in the seasons have disrupted the synchronicity of the
emergence of bees from hibernation and the times when flowers open. Many believe that this factor is more
important than other individual causes being considered.

Realizing the importance of honeybees, government authorities have started implementing mitigating
measures and have launched investigations involving prominent scientists and organizations. This is not
surprising considering that one third of the food grown in the United States and 90% of British orchards are
pollinated by honeybees. According to a study of Cornell University, these tasty fruits, vegetables and nuts that
include avocados, kiwis and the extremely profitable California almond are worth more than $ 14 billion. The
same study estimates that pollination contributes $ 14.6 billion to the country’s agriculture industry.

Although largely confined to North America and the United Kingdom, the vanishing honeybees should be a
cause of concern to the world community. Not only does it threaten the stability of a significant portion of our
nourishment and agriculture, but it also augurs our continued co-existence with other life forms in this world.
Mankind may have pushed thousands of species to extinction throughout its reign, but he may not be prepared to
face the consequences of the wipeout of the honeybee.

13. In the last paragraph, what does the word 16. What is the mood of the author?
“augurs” mean? A. Alarmed
A. Dignifies B. Exasperated
B. Imposes C. Pompous
C. Portends D. Staid
D. Tyrannizes
17. According to the author, why are honeybees
14. What makes the Varroa destructor dangerous to important?
honeybees? A. They produce precious honey.
A. It is a carrier of pathogens. B. They pollinate flowers and trees.
B. It is a virus that fatally infects bees. C. They help ensure a steady supply of food.
C. It weakens the honeybee’s immune system. D. They support a profitable agricultural
D. Honeybee resistance to it has become industry.
18. Which of the following inferences is supported
15. How was the resistance of the Australian by the third paragraph?
species of honeybee to the Israeli Acute A. Honey production is being marginalized for
Paralysis Virus characterized? pollination of crops.
A. It enables survival of virulent infections. B. Nectar is healthier than a diet of sucrose,
B. It is due to its location in the southern corn syrup and protein supplements.
hemisphere. C. The government must ban genetically
C. The bee can be positive for the virus without engineered crops to prevent colony collapse
showing symptoms. disorder of honeybees.
D. It is made possible because of parallel D. Climate change is the most significant factor
infection with the Nosema apis. affecting the disappearance of bees because it
is much harder to control.



Guess what this is? It happens at least once every month. Sometimes, rarely, it happens twice a month.
Up there in the sky. Yes, it's a FULL MOON. Popular legend has it that the full moon brings out the worst in
people: more violence, more suicides, more accidents, more aggression. The influence of the moon on behavior
has been called "The Lunar Effect" or "The Transylvania Effect."

I was always a believer of this phenomenon since I have an inherited penchant for observing the heavens
and wondering if the stars can affect our daily lives. Since childhood, my destiny has depended on the stature of
the moon, whether I'll be lucky or not. This started my quest to discover the scientific correlation of the lunar
phenomena to human behavior.

Hippocrates wrote that "no physician should be entrusted with the treatment of disease who was ignorant of
the science of astronomy.” I relied strongly on this concept then applied my research on lunar phenomena. I found
that the belief that the full moon causes mental disorders and strange behavior was widespread throughout
Europe in the Middle Ages. Even the word "lunacy," meaning "insanity," comes from the Latin word for "moon."

All of these facts came upon my research to prove that my childhood belief was true. Of course, I did not
stop the quest. I found out that in the 17th century, Johannes Kepler caused the disciplines of astrology and
astronomy to diverge with his discovery that the motions of the planets followed mathematical laws; nonetheless,
the belief in the moon's influence lingered. As a young blood, who would not trust a Johannes Kepler? To support
this, a study from the United States in 1985 showed that 50% of university students believed that people act
strangely during a full moon. In 1995, it was reported that as many as 81% of mental health professionals
believed that the full moon alters individual behavior.

I've learned in Science that the human body, like the surface of the earth, is composed of almost 80 percent
water; then there are experiences of some kind of “biological tides” that affect the emotions. When a person is
already on psychologically shaky ground, such a biological tide can push him or her over the edge. This is one of
the reasons why I'm convinced that lunar phenomenon affects human behavior.

How else can I substantiate this puzzling idea? Another scientific study supports my claim. The repression
of the moon's gravitational influence brings about social tension, disharmony, and bizarre results. There are
empirical observations, research, and a synthesis of findings in physics, astronomy, biology, and psychology that
may be applied to a theory of biological tides. By this theory, the force of gravity can be shown to interact with the
forces of human evolution and behavior. Gravity directly influences the human nervous system and may make
persons more irritable or more sluggish depending on individual receptivity. People with unstable personalities
and mood disorders or those who are already under stress may experience the social consequences of excessive
cosmic influence. If such persons are violence prone, they may be compelled into uncontrollable behavior.

I may say that I cannot convince everyone that lunar phenomena affect human behavior. But theories
relating unusual psychotic occurrences to the full moon are so widespread throughout the globe that people
actually believe these theories to be true. It's up to you if you'll believe that the moon's story is a human's story. A
story of human consciousness since the moon may have been the first recorded story of the human race.


A howling werewolf with an eerily large full moon glowing in the night: this is the image that crosses one’s
mind when faced with conversations of the lunar effects on human behavior. Myth, pseudoscience, and the media
have collaborated to propagate this widespread belief. However, there has been no incontrovertible proof that it is
any more than a superstition.

That lunar phenomena can affect human conduct goes back centuries. One of the earliest sources of this
belief originates in Assyria, where it was believed that a woman’s fertility was connected to the moon. The
etymology of words has also been brought up in the discussions. In the Welsh language the words “lunar” and
“lunatic” are represented as “lloer” and “lloerig”. A better known linguistic explanation is to ascribe “lunacy” to
Luna, the moon goddess of the Romans. Related but closer to home, one is reminded of Juan Luna, the

illustrious Filipino painter who murdered his wife in a fit of jealousy. More famous and more dramatic is the legend
of the werewolf, which transforms a man into some dreaded creature when the moon is full.

Recent attempts to pass as truth the idea that behavior is influenced by the moon have taken on more
sophisticated forms. From causing epileptic seizures to an increase in homicides, few medical conditions have not
been attributed to the moon in what its proponents believe to be scientific studies. However, whether this or the
rest can withstand actual scientific scrutiny is another matter altogether. In fact, various studies have refuted many
of these claims while others have found errors in their methodologies. Take, for instance, the case of the most
plausible claim that the moon’s gravitational force affects a woman’s menstrual cycle. It might be easy for one to
make this assertion considering that a woman’s 28-day menstrual cycle appears to track the 29½-day lunar
phase. Yet, as any woman knows, few actually have a period within two days of this average. Another assertion,
although less popular, is that the human body is affected by the moon the way the moon affects the tides. One
might be tempted to agree if not for the fact that the moon’s gravity only affects unbounded bodies of water, which
is not the case for the human body. There are other lesser known attributions which do not deserve mention
though they are not any less fallacious.

Not much disservice might have been done to science and the study of human behavior if not for the media
priming the minds of their consumers. Films, TV shows and even news accounts featuring alleged associations
have fueled the interest and ignorance of the audience. As such beliefs are coupled with sensationalism, one-
sidedness and disregard for evidence, it is no wonder that they are so prevalent in the general public. With
repetition, selective recall and group reinforcement, the brainwashing is complete.

19. What does the word “penchant” in the second A. science in general is more incisive than
paragraph of passage 4 mean? myths and legends.
A. Aversion B. the refined nature of a scientist decreases
B. Distress the possibility of errors.
C. Fondness C. scientific studies are much more
D. Indifference complicated to conjure than myths.
D. although they appear to be more credible,
20. In passage 4, what is the author’s theory on how these studies are deceptive.
“lunacy” came to mean insanity?
A. Full moons were believed to cause mental 23. What two examples did the author of passage 5
disorders and strange behavior. cite as pseudoscientific claims of lunar effects?
B. It is not stated in the passage. A. Liquids bounded by the body and the uterus
C. Johannes Kepler coined the term when he B. The tides of the oceans and the human body
discovered that the movement of the moon C. The human body and the phases of the
followed mathematical laws. moon
D. The root word of lunacy is derived from the D. The woman’s menstrual cycle and the
Latin word for moon. human body

21. That the fields of astronomy and astrology 24. Which of the following best describes the
diverged in the seventeenth century suggests relationship between the two passages?
that A. Passage 4 presents proof that rebuts the
A. government intervention was necessary to argument made in Passage 5.
resolve the argument. B. Passage 5 supplies reasons that cast doubt
B. the two fields had disagreements on the on the claims in Passage 4.
nature of planetary motion. C. Passage 4 focuses on exceptions to a
C. the influence of mathematics in the current reality described in Passage 5.
seventeenth century went beyond the scope of D. Passage 5 provides insight on the topic that
the discipline. Passage 4 assumes are unfathomable.
D. the study of astronomy was more focused
on the study of lunar phenomena than that of 25. Both authors would most likely agree on which
astrology. of the following points?
A. The moon is one of the most mysterious
22. In the first sentence of the third paragraph of natural phenomena.
passage 5, the author describes the studies as B. Not all kinds of human behavior are caused
“sophisticated” to show that by the movement of the moon.

C. The belief that the moon affects human D. Individual behavior is much too complex to
behavior is becoming more widespread. be put down as only the effects of the moon.


PASSAGE 1: Air Pollution by Cherish Legaspi (611 words)
1 D “Amplify” in the last sentence of the fourth paragraph means to Vocabulary in context
“intensify the health hazards”
A. Augment = add
B. Expand = get bigger
C. Increase volume (self explanatory)
2 C Not A because there was no mention of “thin air”. Not B because Specific purpose;
there was no mention of time (“how long”). Not D because what is vocabulary in context
being described as “spread out” was not the population but air
quality or pollution (C).
3 A Not B because the passage does not provide a solution. Not C Main purpose
because air pollution in general was described, not only particulates.
Not D because the paradox was only mentioned in passing and was
not further explained to have an impact on the reader.
th th
4 A A – See 4 paragraph 4 sentence “Clean air…” EXCEPT/NOT
B – False because “carbon dioxide” is not included in the question
enumeration but “carbon monoxide” (See 2 paragraph last
sentence “The six major types…”)
C – False because the fuels do not amplify the health hazards but
their burning (See 4 paragraph last sentence “When vehicles…”).
D – False because air pollution also causes respiratory diseases to
the elderly, overweight and the obese (See 7 paragraph).
5 D Not A (amenable) because the author is not “agreeable” to the air Tone/mood
quality conditions. Not B (frivolous) because he is serious and not
“making fun” of the matter. Not C (laudatory) because he does not
“admire” this situation. The mood is “serious” (D).
6 B See 8 (last) paragraph. Figure of speech:
PASSAGE 2: Women in Society by Yvette Ruiz (494 words)
7 C “Precludes” is to prevent(C), meaning women can be married and Vocabulary in context
have a successful career at the same time. (See 2 paragraph last
st th
8 D The answer is D “physical appearance”. (See 1 paragraph 4 Factual
9 A “Deviation” means divergence so C is already wrong because we are Vocabulary in context
looking for the opposite. Convergence (A) is the antonym of
10 C Not A because it goes too far and is not supported by the passage. Factual
Not B because the statement is extreme and not true. D may be
possible but it contradicts and does not answer the question, so the
answer is C. See 2 paragraph sentence 8 & 9: “…she is
successful… good husband… manage her household well”, “…leads
women to choose marriage…”
11 D “But if a couple gives birth to a baby girl, it wouldn’t be hard to picture Inference: reference
where she would be twenty five years later.” A is too general. B goes
too far because the sentence only talks about women at 25 years. C
may be true but D articulates it better by being specific.
12 B The passage is informative. The ideas put forth did not come from Selection type
the author’s intuition(C). In fact, they were well thought out. No
narration was done (D). It’s not A because he was not trying to argue
with anyone.
PASSAGE 3: Vanishing Honeybees by Jeco Bacalzo (628 words)
13 C Augur (v.) means bode, foretell, predict, portend. Vocabulary in context

nd th
14 A See 2 paragraph 4 sentence “The Varroa…deadly because it factual
infects”. Not B because it is a mite, not a virus. Not C because it
does not directly cause the bee’s immune system to weaken. Not D:
although it’s becoming resistant to pesticides, this is only an
aggravating condition and not the original reason for the danger it
poses to bees.
15 C See 2 paragraph last sentence “This disorder…manifesting no factual
16 A Alarmed. See last paragraph “…should be a cause of concern…not mood
only threaten…but it also augurs…continued co-
existence…[mankind] may not be prepared…”
17 C Only C is relevant to all. A is the concern of the consumers and Main purpose
makers of honey. B is the concern of mostly ecologists and
conservationists. D is the concern of the government and those in
the agriculture industry.
18 B A, C & D have no support in the 3 paragraph. But B can be seen in inference
nd rd th
the 2 , 3 and 4 sentences: “…feeding of
nectars...difficult…resorting to a diet of sucrose, corn syrup & protein
supplements…compromised immune system…susceptibility to
infection.” Not D because there’s no support in the 3 paragraph that
climate change is hard to control.
PASSAGES 4 & 5: Moon Affects Behavior - Affirmative (Cherish
Legaspi; 596 words) vs Negative (Jeco Bacalzo; 478 words)
nd nd rd
19 C Penchant = liking; fondness. See 2 paragraph 2 & 3 sentence: P4: Vocabulary in
“…my destiny has depended…on the moon”, “ quest to context
discover…correlation…lunar phenomena to…behavior.” A – aversion
= dislike. B – distress = suffering. D – indifference.
20 B A & D are stated in the passage but were not the author’s theories. C P4: inference
– Johannes Kepler did not coin the term.
21 B A – No support in the passage that the government was involved. P4: inference
C –it may be true but it does not explain why astrology and
astronomy diverged. D –it may be common knowledge but it’s not
supported by the passage. B is the correct answer. See 4
paragraph 3 sentence “diverge with his discovery that the motions
of the planets followed mathematical laws”.
22 D Deceptive. Sophisticated can mean complicated (C) and refined (B) P5: vocabulary-
but the author used “sophisticated” to suggest that these scientific specific purpose
rd th
studies were misleading (deceptive). See 3 paragraph 4 sentence
“..studies have refuted…found errors…” . Not A because it has no
support in the passage.
rd th th
23 D See 3 paragraph 5 sentence “…affects..menstrual cycle” and 8 P5: factual
sentence “human body is affected by the moon”.
24 B A is almost true expect for the fact that the belief that the moon INTEGRATED:
affects behavior came first so the relationship is in reverse. C & D relationship
are not valid descriptions.
25 C A – the author did not make such a conclusion. B –the author of INTEGRATED:
passage 4 might disagree with this. D – Only the author of passage 5 common theme
will conclude this while the author of passage 4 might disagree with
this. C – both authors concede that this belief is becoming more
th th
popular. See passage 4: 4 paragraph 5 sentence “50% of people
th th
believed people act strangely..full moon”; 4 paragraph 6 sentence
“81% of mental health professionals believed that the full moon alters
individual behavior”; last paragraph 2 sentence
“relating…occurrences to thr…moon are…widespread throughout
the globe” See passage 5 last paragraph 3 sentence“..such beliefs
are so prevalent..”



One of the greatest strengths of U.S. Higher Education is that it grew by informal design. Following the
1862 Morrill Act, which gave federal land to the states to found colleges, the states created not only universities
but also state, junior, city and county colleges, some of them two-year. Without a formal national plan, there
emerged a template for public higher education – affordable schooling for all, close to home, paid for by state and
federal governments. Today American higher education is a more than $200 billion enterprise, enrolling nearly 18
million students in almost 4,000 public and private colleges and universities.

Elsewhere, higher education grew in a much more top-down manner. In communist societies from the
Soviet Union to China and throughout most of Asia and Latin America, a central bureaucracy ran universities, and
often still does. Typically, these systems have been unprepared for changing expectations, as even the most
remote and repressed populations have begun to develop – via the media and the Internet – a perception of how
the other half lives. Many view education as a way to get their fair share. When they see countrymen returning
with degrees from the United States or Europe and getting the best jobs, they begin to demand quality
improvements in their own universities, for which resources are often lacking. The result is a growing gap
between expectation and reality.

Many universities are looking to America as a model for how to survive. That means raising or introducing
tuition, increasing enrollment (including the number of foreign students who pay full fare) and boosting
endowments through fundraising. Money, however, is not enough to build a quality university. In many countries,
for example, professors are members of the civil service and do not enjoy the status, or salary, that will draw the
best talent.

The main challenge for each nation is to meet not only the aspirations of its citizens but the demands of
its job market as well. In the past, the United States relied on the many international students who came to study
– especially science, math and technology – and then stayed. It also gave a preferential treatment to immigrants
with specialized skills. Now America must increasingly rely on its own population to produce the necessary
engineers, teachers, scientists and other professionals. It can no longer afford, for example, to accept the fact that
last year, Maryland’s entire 11-campus university system produced only 46 secondary math and science
teachers. Or that the proportion of foreign-born doctoral students in engineering at U.S. universities is close to 60
SOURCE:Adapted from Gregorian, Vartan. (2007, August 20).America, Still on Top. Newsweek, 150 (8), 76.


Rapid growth in Asia and the Middle East has led many to conclude that U.S. economic hegemony is
ending. Now one might ask if the same is happening to U.S. academic hegemony, as these regions make
impressive investments in higher education. For the moment, the United States still dominates, more decisively
than it ever did the economy. America may produce 25 percent of the world’s economic output, but it accounts for
40 percent of global spending on higher education and 35 percent on R&D. In 2005, it devoted 2.9 percent of its
GDP to postsecondary schooling, while the EU, Japan, China and India spent less than 1.3 percent. Meanwhile,
of the world’s top 20 universities, between 12 and 16 percent (depending on how you count) are American.

Yet there are signs that U.S. pre-eminence may be softening. In the past two decades, thanks to the
liberalization of student exchanges in the EU and aggressive recruiting by Australia and Singapore, the U.S.
share of international students has dropped from about half of the total in the 1980s to a third today.




At the same time, China has begun Science

C. reasons why universities around the world
making staggering investments in its top schools; in are struggling
Shanghai, for example, Fudan, Shanghai Jiao Tong D. causes of the gap between expectation
and the reality of education
and Tongji universities have all developed
sprawling new campuses. The Gulf states are 28. According to the author of Passage 7, the
starting to spend hundreds of millions on branches following are reasons why America is losing its
of leading U.S. and European institutions. And leadership in education EXCEPT __________.
perhaps most ambitiously, the Saudis are about to A. China making big investments in its top
open the new King Abdullah University of Science universities
and Technology with an endowment of at least $10 B. aggressive student recruitment by

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Australia and Singapore
C. Gulf states including Saudi Arabia
spending millions of dollars for education
So how should Western universities
D. Maryland’s university system producing
respond to the rise of the rest? Already we’ve only few math and science teachers
begun to experiment with franchise operations,
setting up programs in the Middle East, China and 29. The primary purpose of Passage 7 is to
elsewhere. Yet such programs, while valuable for __________.

For AHEAD teacher’s use only.

the host regions, may risk damaging the reputation A. illustrate why America leads the world in
of the parent institution if top faculty can’t be education
B. diffuse panic over the deterioration of
recruited for them. Greater virtual participation by American education
professors at the parent campus may mitigate this C. provide perspective on the difficulties of
risk. educational institutions in America
D. catalogue the failures of other universities
More broadly, we should remember that in challenging American education
increased competition is a good thing. The list of
the world’s top 20 universities is likely to change in 30. Both passages are primarily concerned with
the years ahead; Singapore’s National University, the subject of __________.
to name one, is already within striking distance, and A. the history of American education
China’s Peking and Tsinghua universities will get B. the challenges of American education
there soon. America’s great universities should C. the emergence of American universities
welcome the newcomers and recognize that the D. foreign students enrolling in American
whole world will benefit from their success. universities
SOURCE:Adapted from Levin, Richard C. (2008, August 18). 31. Which of the following best describes the
The West Need Not Panic. Newsweek, 152 (8), 78.
relationship between the two passages?
A. Passage 6 presents proof that rebuts the
26. In the third sentence of the second paragraph
argument made in Passage 7.
of Passage 6, “repressed” most nearly means
B. Passage 7 focuses on exceptions to a
current reality described in Passage 6.
A. inhibited
C. Passage 7 supplies evidence that
B. sanctioned
reinforces the state of affairs in
C. shy
Passage 6.
D. unforthcoming
D. Passage 7 defines the scope of impacts
that Passage 6 assumes are well known.
27. In the third paragraph of Passage 6, the
author presented raising tuition, increasing
32. Unlike the author of Passage 7, the author of
enrollment, and boosting endowments as
Passage 6 does which of the following?
A. Offers a solution
A. revenue sources of American universities
B. Argues a position
B. solutions to the challenges of quality
C. Reinforces a perception
D. Discusses a phenomenon

ARKHandout – RC 2012 11





PASSAGES 6 & 7: US Education 1 (423 words) & 2 (393 words)

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26 A A – inhibited. It’s the closest definition because the author is P6: Vocabulary in
referring to countries with oppressive regimes. context
27 B The “raising tuition, increasing enrollment and boosting P4: factual
endowments” was used by the author to demonstrate what was
being done to improve the deteriorating quality of education.
28 D D is found in passage 6, not passage 7. P7: factual: EXCEPT
29 B Not A because only the first paragraph is about why America leads P7: Purpose: main

For AHEAD teacher’s use only.

in education. Not C because the difficulties were not enumerated.
Not D because what was catalogued was not the failures of other
but their efforts their educational system. The author wants to
readers to take the emergence of other educational institutions as
a welcome development (B).
30 B Not A because only Passage 6 discussed the history of American INTEGRATED:
education. Not C because it’s the foreign universities that are subject
emerging, not the American ones and this was only mentioned in
Passage 7. Not D because foreign student enrollment is only a
minor detail of Passage 6.
31 B Not A because Passage 6 provides little evidence (Maryland INTEGRATED:
producing few math & science teachers) to rebut the argument that relationship
the US shouldn’t worry (Passage 7). Not C because both passages
are describing the same realities in education without making
exceptions. Not D because the scope of impacts was not clearly
defined in Passage 7 or 6. Passage 7 cites examples (the rise of
other universities) that may challenge the US leadership (Passage
6) in education (B).
32 C Not A because both passages didn’t offer solutions. Not B because INTEGRATED:
Passage 6 is more informative than argumentative. Not D because difference
both passages discussed phenomena of US education vs. the
world. C is the right answer because it supports the perception that
US education is still the best while Passage 7 is trying to weaken
that perception.

ARKHandout – RC 2012 12