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List of thermodynamic properties

Within thermodynamics, a physical property is any property that is measurable, and whose value describes a state of a physical
system. Some constants, such as the ideal gas constant, R, do not describe the state of a system, and so are not properties. On the
other hand, some constants, such as Kf (the freezing point depression constant, or cryoscopic constant), depend on the identity of a
substance, and so may be considered to describe the state of a system, and so may be considered physical properties.

"Specific" properties are expressed on a per mass basis. If the units were changed from per mass to, for example, per mole, the
property would remain as it was (i.e., intensive or extensive).

Regarding Work and Heat

Work and heat are not thermodynamic properties, but rather process quantities: flows of energy across a system boundary. Systems
do not contain work, but can perform work, and likewise, in formal thermodynamics, systems do not contain heat, but can transfer
heat. Informally, however, a difference in the energy of a system that occurs solely because of a difference in its temperature is
commonly called heat, and the energy that flows across a boundary as aresult of a temperature difference is "heat".

Altitude (or elevation) is usually not a thermodynamic property. Altitude can help specify the location of a system, but that does not
describe the state of the system. An exception would be if the effect of gravity needed to be considered in order to describe a state, in
which case altitude could indeed be a thermodynamic property
.
Thermodynamic properties and their characteristics
Property Symbol Units Extensive? Intensive? Conjugate Potential?
Activity –
Particle
Chemical potential kJ/mol
number

Cryoscopic constant[1] K·kg/mol

Density kg/m3
Ebullioscopic constant K·kg/mol

Enthalpy J
Specific enthalpy J/kg
Entropy J/K Temperature (entropic)

Fugacity N/m²

Gibbs free energy J

Specific Gibbs free entropy J/(kg K)

Specific heat capacity

J/(kg·K)
(constant pressure)

Specific heat capacity

J/(kg·K)
(constant volume)

Helmholtz free energy , J

Helmholtz free entropy J/K (entropic)

Internal energy J
Specific internal energy J/kg
Internal pressure Pa

Mass kg
Chemical
Particle number –
potential

Pressure Pa Volume

Temperature K Entropy
Thermal conductivity W/(m·K)
Thermal diffusivity m²/s

Thermal expansion (volumetric) K−1

Vapor quality[2] –
Volume m3 Pressure

Specific volume m3/kg

Dimensionless numbers
Thermodynamic databases for pure substances
Thermodynamic variable
Conjugate variables

References
1. Aylward, Gordon; Findlay, Tristan (2002), SI Chemical Data 5th ed.(5 ed.), Sweden: John Wiley & Sons, p. 202,
ISBN 0-470-80044-5
2. Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2002).Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
p. 79. ISBN 0-07-121688-X.