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# List of thermodynamic properties

Within thermodynamics, a physical property is any property that is measurable, and whose value describes a state of a physical
system. Some constants, such as the ideal gas constant, R, do not describe the state of a system, and so are not properties. On the
other hand, some constants, such as Kf (the freezing point depression constant, or cryoscopic constant), depend on the identity of a
substance, and so may be considered to describe the state of a system, and so may be considered physical properties.

"Specific" properties are expressed on a per mass basis. If the units were changed from per mass to, for example, per mole, the
property would remain as it was (i.e., intensive or extensive).

## Regarding Work and Heat

Work and heat are not thermodynamic properties, but rather process quantities: flows of energy across a system boundary. Systems
do not contain work, but can perform work, and likewise, in formal thermodynamics, systems do not contain heat, but can transfer
heat. Informally, however, a difference in the energy of a system that occurs solely because of a difference in its temperature is
commonly called heat, and the energy that flows across a boundary as aresult of a temperature difference is "heat".

Altitude (or elevation) is usually not a thermodynamic property. Altitude can help specify the location of a system, but that does not
describe the state of the system. An exception would be if the effect of gravity needed to be considered in order to describe a state, in
which case altitude could indeed be a thermodynamic property
.
Thermodynamic properties and their characteristics
Property Symbol Units Extensive? Intensive? Conjugate Potential?
Activity –
Particle
Chemical potential kJ/mol
number

## Cryoscopic constant K·kg/mol

Density kg/m3
Ebullioscopic constant K·kg/mol

Enthalpy J
Specific enthalpy J/kg
Entropy J/K Temperature (entropic)

Fugacity N/m²

## Gibbs free energy J

Specific Gibbs free entropy J/(kg K)

## Specific heat capacity

J/(kg·K)
(constant pressure)

## Specific heat capacity

J/(kg·K)
(constant volume)

## Helmholtz free energy , J

Helmholtz free entropy J/K (entropic)

Internal energy J
Specific internal energy J/kg
Internal pressure Pa

Mass kg
Chemical
Particle number –
potential

Pressure Pa Volume

Temperature K Entropy
Thermal conductivity W/(m·K)
Thermal diffusivity m²/s

## Thermal expansion (volumetric) K−1

Vapor quality –
Volume m3 Pressure

## Specific volume m3/kg

Dimensionless numbers
Thermodynamic databases for pure substances
Thermodynamic variable
Conjugate variables

References
1. Aylward, Gordon; Findlay, Tristan (2002), SI Chemical Data 5th ed.(5 ed.), Sweden: John Wiley & Sons, p. 202,
ISBN 0-470-80044-5
2. Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2002).Thermodynamics: an engineering approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
p. 79. ISBN 0-07-121688-X.