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STRUCTURAL

INVESTIGATION
REPORT ON
ROOF SLAB CRACKS
FOUND AT
DUQUM HOSPITAL

Duqum Hospital
13 March 2018

LOCATION : Duqm, Al Dhakliyah Governorate

DATE OF INSPECTION : May

SUBJECT : Structural Investigation and Recommendation Report

SITE DESCRIPTION :

Construction Hand over : 2012

Make : Reinforced Concrete Frames with Concrete Beams and Columns


with External Insulated Concrete Masonry Walls
Walls : 200 mm thk CHB Internal Wall

Usage : Health Center

INSPECTION NOTES :

Below are the building conditions of the Health Center Main Building noted and have been recorded as follows :

PART A: HEALTH CENTER MAIN BUILDING


Item No.1 Predominantly Vertical Major Cracks no. 1 Near the Fire Exit Door at the Back Side Left Portion

Description 1:
Visible are cracks with widths of approx. 2.0mm to 5.0
mm running vertically from roof slab level almost reaching to
the ground level . These cracks are visible on the outside as well
as on the inside .

Figure 1

Medium sized vertical cracks 2.0mm to


5.0mm wide ( perceived to be the most
prominent among all the cracks in this
building ) .

Diagnosis for Item No. 1:

The vertical crack is seen to outline the intersection of


CHB Masonry wall. This continous crack might be due to the
combined effects of thermal contraction/expansion as well as
insufficient tying-in of CHB wall intersection to the surrounding
blocks . This may also be caused probably by mild movement of
the nearby CHB wall . It can be noted also that this crack
appears on the outside as well on the inside. This means that
this is not just a crack on the plaster but may also had affected
the blocks itself.

HOWEVER , THIS CRACK NO. 1 CANNOT BE CONSIDERED A THREAT TO STRUCTURAL STABILITY , since
there are NO CRACKS ON the MAJOR FRAMING reinforced concrete elements such as the roof beam or column.
Furthermore , no significant cracks at the bottom of these walls are found.

There was no indication that these cracks are due to foundation settlement . Normally , as in the case of
other old hospitals and centers we visited , the nearby slabs will show cracks and obvious settling due to
probable non-compaction of foundation soil.

In this case , the slab all throughout showed no signs of the said cracks. Hence , massive settlement of
foundation soil due to improper compaction, is not the issue.

Recommendation for Item No. 1 :

Since this crack no. 1 is a “through” crack inside and out , we need to expose the crack by chipping off a
V- groove on the plaster right into the surface of the CMU blocks.

As an example only , consider the technical specifications of , say Toughbond SBR Latex Waterproofing
repairs by Fosroc or or any approved equivalent flowable grout from Sika or Henkel. Then we need to apply
this appropriate concrete repair at the surface crack of the blocks itself.

Then replaster and repair properly as per specifications.

Item No.2 Hairline Minor Step Cracks no. 2 on the CHB Wall at the Back Side Left Portion
Description 2:

A closer look
will show step
cracks with
hairline crack
widths of
approx. 0.20mm
to 0.30 mm
barely visible to
the naked eye can be seen at the CHB wall at the back side of building left
portion.

Figure 2A

The hairline cracks around 0.2mm to 0.30mm in width here are barely visible to the eye but being step cracks
in nature may widen later.

Crack No. 1

Crack No. 2

Figure 2B
As shown in this sketch , Cracks No. 1 and 2 suggest a strong indication of movement either
thermal or settlement in this portion of the CHB wall.

Diagnosis for Item No. 2:


This crack No. 2 being a diagonal step crack in nature strongly suggested a mild settlement of the
structure at the portion to the right side of this step crack ( as shown by the arrow in the above sketch ) . At
present , this crack is barely visible but may continue to widen as time goes on.

Recommendation to Item No. 2 :

In general , this crack No. 2 at its present hairline width, require only grouting to close the hairline
cracks to prevent outside weather moisture from coming into the health center which is our concern now. For
this purpose , apply any flexible , cementitious grout or any approved equivalent epoxy concrete repair to
repair these narrow cracks in the masonry and plaster. Refer to this flowable grout supplier installation for
guide.

Repainting should be done properly to perfectly match the color and texture of the existing paint or else
the repaint would be more aesthetically distracting than the crack itself.

Item No.3
Predominantly medium sized Vertical Cracks no. 3 Near the
Exit Door at the Back Side Right Portion

Description 3:
Visible are medium sized cracks with widths of approx.
1.0mm to 3.0 mm running vertically from roof slab level almost
reaching to the ground level . This is similar to the Crack No. 1

Figure 3

Medium sized vertical cracks 1.0mm to


3.0mm wide near the fire exit door similar
to and symmetrical with Crack No. 1 at the
other building side.

Diagnosis for Item No. 3:

The vertical crack again is seen to outline the intersection of


two CHB Masonry walls. Same as Crack No. 1, this continous crack
might be due to the combined effects of thermal
contraction/expansion as well as insufficient tying-in of CHB wall
intersection to the surrounding blocks . This may also be caused
probably by mild initial movement of the nearby CHB wall.

Recommendation to Item No. 3 :

We recommend for this crack to expose the severity of the


crack by chipping off V-groove into the plaster till we reach the
surface of the CMU blocks. Apply any flexible , cementitious grout, say Toughbond SBR Latex Waterproofing
repairs or any approved epoxy concrete repair from Sika or Henkel .

Item No.4
Diagonal Medium Sized Cracks No. 4 near the door of the Pharmacy Room
Figure 4 Cracks 0.50mm to 0.70mm wide on the outside running diagonally from the door of the
Pharmacy Room and also can be seen from the inside of the CMU wall. Might be caused by thermal
expansion and shrinkage contraction occurring near openings.

Items No.5 Diagonal Medium Sized Cracks No. 5 near Window of Waiting Room 1 ( inside the building ).

Figure 5A Cracks 0.50mm to 0.70mm wide


running diagonally from the window as seen from
the inside of Waiting Room No. 1 ( see sketch.
Might be due to thermal expansion and
shrinkage contraction of plaster happening near
openings but may be aggravated by mild initial
movement of the CHB wall.
Figure 5B
With the use of a crack width
gauge, the cracks in the inside of the
Waiting Rooms were confirmed to be
ranging from 0.50 to 0.70mm wide.

Items No.6 Diagonal Medium Sized Cracks No. 6 near Window of Waiting Room 2 ( inside the building ).

Figure 6A
Similar to Figure 5 , cracks as seen on the inside
of building running diagonally from the window of
Waiting Room No. 2 ( see schematic floor plan ) .
Might be due to combined effects of thermal
shrinkage stresses with initial wall movement.

Figure 6B
The same crack in Figure 6A , this time
shown from the outside of the building
occurring near the window. This crack inside
and out indicates the degree of cracking
affecting the internal parts of the CHB wall
since it is a “through” crack.

Items No.7 Diagonal Medium Sized Cracks No. 7 near the Window (outside Building) at the Vicinity of Store and
Utility Rooms.
Figure 7
Diagonal crack similar to Crack No. 6
found outside the building emanating from the
window stepping up into the roof slab soffit
along the CHB wall seen here.
Probably affected by thermal and
movement stresses.

Diagnosis for Item Nos. 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ( Medium Sized Cracks ) :

The cracks here running diagonally and somewhat stepping can be perceived to be due to a more
probable mild initial settlement of the nearby soil . Also , these cracks can be found on both sides of the wall
which gives us a clue that the internal blocks inside the wall may have cracked to some degree also. It may also
had been aggravated by thermal contraction and expansion.

Recommendation for Item Nos. 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 :

Though the cracks might be due to wall movement caused by either by thermal expansion or shrinkage
contraction or the nearby soil mildly settling , THESE CRACKS WILL NOT AFFECT THE STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF
THE BUILDING , SINCE NO MAJOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENT LIKE BEAM , COLUMN OR SLAB SHOWED CRITICAL
CRACKS.

Since this crack no. 1 is a “through” crack inside and out , we need to expose the crack by chipping off a
V- groove on the plaster right into the surface of the CMU blocks.

As an example only , consider the technical specifications of , say Toughbond SBR Latex Waterproofing
repairs by Fosroc or or any approved equivalent flowable grout from Sika or Henkel. Then we need to apply
this appropriate concrete repair at the surface crack of the blocks itself.

Then replaster and repair properly as per specifications.

Items No.8 Diagonal Minor Cracks No. 8 from the Door of Store (inside the Building)
Figure 8
Horizontal crack from the Door
of the Store Room but stepping up
diagonally into the ceiling as shown
with crack widths estimated 0.30mm to
0.60mm wide.
Items No.9 Diagonal Minor Step Cracks No. 9 from the Door of the Laboratory (inside the Building)

Figure 9A
Step crack originating
from the Door of the Laboratory
Room but stepping up diagonally
into the ceiling as shown with
crack widths estimated 0.30mm
to 0.60mm wide.

Figure 9B
The same step crack in Figure
9A near the Door of the Laboratory
Room just shown a little closer.
This step crack might be caused
more by thermal expansion and
shrinkage contraction.

Items No.10 Minor Horizontal Cracks No. 10 near the Entrance , Below the Arch , Right Side

Figure 10

Horizontal Cracks at the Entrance Arch at


the Right Side of the Building seem to
show the separation between cast in place
concrete and concrete blocks.

Items No.11 Minor Horizontal Cracks No. 11 near the Entrance , Below the Arch , Left Side
Figure 11

Horizontal Cracks at the Entrance Arch in


Figure 10 but now seen at the Left Side of
the Building.

Items No.12 Minor Diagonal Cracks No. 12 at the Corner of the X Ray Room

Figure 12
Diagonal Crack on the intersection of
CHB walls inside the X Ray Room which
s
might be caused by a combined effect of
thermal stresses and differential
movement at the intersection of the two
CHB walls .

Items No.13 Minor Intersection Cracks No. 13 under the Slab Projection Back Side of Building

Figure 12
Minor Crack found forming
at the intersection of the R.C.
cantilever slab projection and
the wall . Might be caused by
thermal stresses and
construction imperfection.
Recommendation for Item Nos. 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 & 13 : ( Minor Cracks )

These cracks may be caused by many factors but the more probable will be due to thermal expansion
and shrinkage contraction of the concrete. These cracks , whatever , the cause , MAY NOT BE ENOUGH TO CAUSE
STRUCTURAL INSTABILITY , since cracks are only on CHB walls only ,and NOT ON STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS such
as R.C. Beam , Column and Slab.

These minor cracks can be remedied by using epoxy concrete repair to be injected into the cracks with
chemical repair product from an approved local supplier .

With reference to Consultant suggestion , it was agreed that all these concrete repairs for the cracks
should be executed at the time of General Maintenance for the Health Center so that concrete repair be done
simultaneously with replastering and repainting one time.

PART B: ACCOMODATION BUILDING

Recommendations for the Accomodation Building

As per our ocular inspection of the Accomodation Building near the Health Center , the cracks are only
hairline and are very minor and may be repaired by epoxy fillers before repainting.

Prepared By :

Eng’r. Wilfredo Corrales Enghoy


Structural Civil Engineer

Noted By :
Eng’r Salim Saleem Al Busaidi
Head of Building Maintenance Section
DGPEA , MOH , Al Khwair