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# Dot & Cross Product - Electromagnetic

## Theory Questions and Answers - Sanfoundry

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Dot and Cross Product”.

## 1. When two vectors are perpendicular, their

a) Dot product is zero
b) Cross product is zero
c) Both are zero
d) Both are not necessarily zero

Explanation: Dot product of two perpendicular vectors is given by A.B = |a||b|cos 90, which is
zero. Thus, dot product is zero and vectors are perpendicular.

## 2. The cross product of the vectors 3i + 4j – 5k and –i + j – 2k is,

a) 3i – 11j + 7k
b) -3i + 11j + 7k
c) -3i – 11j – 7k
d) -3i + 11j – 7k

Explanation: Cross product of two vectors is, A X B = (a2*b3 – b2*a3)i – (a1*b3 – b1*a3)j +
(a1*b2 – b1*a2)k. Using the formula, the answer can be calculated.

## 3. Which of the following are not vector functions in Electromagnetics?

b) Divergence
c) Curl
d) There is no non- vector functions in Electromagnetics

Explanation: Since all the coordinates in electromagnetic are space coordinates, direction and
magnitude both are important. Thus all functions are vector only.

4. The work done of vectors force F and distance d, separated by angle θ can be calculated using,
a) Cross product
b) Dot product
d) Cannot be calculated

Explanation: Force is a vector quantity, whereas distance is scalar. Work is defined as the
product of force and distance, which is given by dot product.

## 5. Find whether the vectors are parallel, (-2,1,-1) and (0,3,1)

a) Parallel
b) Collinearly parallel
c) Not parallel
d) Data insufficient

Explanation: Two vectors are parallel when their cross product is zero. Since their cross product
is 4i + 2j – 6k (non-zero), the vectors are not parallel.

## 6. Lorentz force is based on,

a) Dot product
b) Cross product
c) Both dot and cross product
d) Independent of both

Explanation: Lorentz force is given by, F = q (v x B).Thus cross product is the answer.

## 7. Electromagnetic forces are defined by

a) Fleming’s right hand rule
b) Fleming’s left hand rule
d) Ampere law

Explanation: The three left hand fingers denote electric field, magnetic field and wave
propagation in free space, analogous to force, magnetic field and current respectively in any
conductor.

8. The dot product of two vectors is a scalar. The cross product of two vectors is a vector. State
True/False.
a) True
b) False
Explanation: Dot product is an algebraic operation that takes two equal length sequences and
returns a scalar. Cross product is a binary operation that calculates area of two vectors, thus
vector quantity.

## 9. Which of the Pythagorean Theorem is valid in Electromagnetics?

a) |dot product| + |dot product| = 1
b) |cross product| – |cross product| = 1
c) |dot product|2 + |cross product|2 = 1
d) |dot product| + |cross product| = 0

Explanation: Option c gives |cos|2 + |sin|2 = 1, which is the right answer.

## 10. Which of the following is not true?

a) A . (B . C) = scalar value
b) A . (B x C) = scalar value
c) A x (B . C) = scalar value
d) A x (B x C) = vector value

Explanation: Cross product of dot product of two vectors is a vector value.

## Position & Distance Vectors -

Electromagnetic Theory Questions and
by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Position and Distance Vectors”.

## 1. The distance vector is obtained in

a) Cartesian coordinate system
b) Spherical coordinate system
c) Circular coordinate system
d) Space coordinate system
Explanation: Vector formed by connecting two points in space is distance vector. Thus, it is
obtained in space coordinate system.

## 2. The divergence of distance vector is

a) 0
b) 3
c) 2
d) 1

Explanation: The distance vector of any coordinates is generally, r = xi + yj + zk. The divergence
of r is 1 + 1 + 1 = 3.

3. Find a vector normal to a plane consisting of points p1(0,1,0), p2(1,0,1) and p3(0,0,1)
a) –j – k
b) –i – j
c) –i – k
d) –i – j – k

Explanation: Distance vector from p1 and p2 is a = i – j + k. Distance vector from p1 and p3 is b
= –j + k. The vector normal to these points is a X b = -j – k.

## 4. The unit vector to the points p1(0,1,0), p2(1,0,1), p3(0,0,1) is

a) (-j – k)/1.414
b) (-i – k)/1.414
c) (-i – j)/1.414
d) (-i – j – k)/1.414

Explanation: The cross product of p1, p2, p3 is a X b = -j – k and its magnitude is 1.414. The
unit normal vector is given by, (-j –
k)/1.414.

## 5. The polar form of Cartesian coordinates is

a) Circular coordinates
b) Spherical coordinates
c) Cartesian coordinates
d) Space coordinates
Explanation: The radius in the polar coordinates is the Pythagorean triplet-(r,x,y).Thus it is the
circular coordinates.

## 6. The work-electric field relation is given by

a) Volume integral
b) Surface integral
c) Line integral
d) Relation impossible

Explanation: The work done is given by, W = -Q ∫E dl. Thus it is line integral.

## 7. The distance vector can be used to compute which of the following?

a) Dot product
b) Cross product
c) Unit normal vector
d) Area

Explanation: The distance vector is the distance between two points on space, thus the unit
normal vector is computed using the distance vector.

## 8. Distance and position vectors rely on field strength. State True/False.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: Position or distance of a vector is dependent on the field strength.

## 9. Find the projection of A on B. Given A = 10j + 3k and B = 4j + 5k.

a) 6
b) 6.25
c) 6.5
d) 6.75

Explanation: Projection of A on B = (A . B)/|B|. Thus the answer is 40/6.4= 6.25.

10. The vector product of two vectors is given by area of the parallelogram. State True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The vector product of two vectors is A X B = AB sin θ. n, where n is the unit
normal vector to the plane given by A and B. Their magnitude is given by |A X B|, which is the
area of parallelogram.

## Vector Properties - Electromagnetic Theory

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Vector Properties”.

## 1. The del operator is called as

b) Curl
c) Divergence
d) Vector differential operator

Explanation: The Del operator is used to replace the differential terms, thus called vector
differential operator in electromagnetics.

## 2. The relation between vector potential and field strength is given by

b) Divergence
c) Curl
d) Del operator

Explanation: The vector potential and field is given by, E = -Del (V).

## 3. The Laplacian operator is actually

c) Curl(Div V)
d) Div(Curl V)
Explanation: The Laplacian operator is the divergence of gradient of a vector, which is also
called del2V operator.

## 4. The divergence of curl of a vector is zero. State True or False.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: The curl of a vector is the circular flow of flux. The divergence of circular flow is
considered to be zero.

## 5. The curl of gradient of a vector is non-zero. State True or False.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: The differential flow of flux in a vector is a vector. The curl of this quantity will be
zero.

## 6. Identify the correct vector identity.

a) i . i = j . j = k . k = 0
b) i X j = j X k = k X i = 1
c) Div (u X v) = v . Curl(u) – u . Curl(v)
d) i . j = j . k = k . i = 1

Explanation: By standard proof, Div (u X v) = v . Curl(u) – u . Curl (v).

## 7. A vector is said to be solenoidal when its

a) Divergence is zero
b) Divergence is unity
c) Curl is zero
d) Curl is unity

Explanation: When the divergence of a vector is zero, it is said to be solenoidal /divergent-free.

## 8. The magnetic field intensity is said to be

a) Divergent
b) Curl free
c) Solenoidal
d) Rotational

Explanation: By Maxwell’s equation, the magnetic field intensity is solenoidal due to the
absence of magnetic monopoles.

9. A field has zero divergence and it has curls. The field is said to be
a) Divergent, rotational
b) Solenoidal, rotational
c) Solenoidal, irrotational
d) Divergent, irrotational

Explanation: Since the path is not divergent, it is solenoidal and the path has curl, thus rotational.

## 10. When a vector is irrotational, which condition holds good?

a) Stoke’s theorem gives non-zero value
b) Stoke’s theorem gives zero value
c) Divergence theorem is invalid
d) Divergence theorem is valid