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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Alcohol consumption is used and enjoyed in most developed and developing countries

around the world. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant even though it is commonly

mistaken to be a stimulant (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2013). Alcohol is a generic term for

ethanol which is found in drinks intended for human consumption. Other forms of alcohol,

including methanol, which is more toxic to humans than ethanol and therefore not suitable for

human consumption (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2009). It is produced when

certain food stuffs such as barley, grapes and hops are fermented by combining yeast and sugar

(Barlow & Durand, 2009).

People use alcohol for a wide range of reasons and in different social and cultural

contexts. They may drink for sociability, cultural participation, religious observance or as a result

of peer influence. Individuals may also drink for pleasure, relaxation, mood alteration, enhanced

creativity, intoxication, addiction, boredom, habit, to overcome inhibitions or to escape or forget

troubles. (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2009).

However, research has shown that alcohol use is associated with several major

compromises which comprises alcohol addiction, other drug use, unintentional injuries, physical

fighting, criminal activity, suicidal ideation and attempts, and increased risk of sexually-

transmitted diseases; all under the influence of drunkenness. Alcohol abuse causes 3.2% of all

deaths worldwide annually and also accounts for 4.0% of the global disease burden each year.

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Moreover, prolonged alcohol use can lead to psychological damage. Research has

demonstrated a strong association with alcohol misuse and mood disorders mainly depression

and anxiety. The equal implications of this suggests that alcohol may be used in an attempt to

self-medicate against various mood disorders, but it can also aggravate mood disorders if used

excessively. (Prince, Akincigil, Hoover, Walkup, Bilder, Crystal, 2009)

For instance, studies have found that people with alcohol disorders often suffer from

some kind of depression in which they use alcohol excessively to relieve certain depression

symptoms, which worsens it. The prevalence of depression in alcohol abusing/dependent

individuals range from 15 to 70%, including primary depression. Depression ranks high among

mood disorders that are related with alcohol abuse. Similarly, changes in personality such as

increased irritability, impaired reasoning and poor judgment are said to be consequences of

excessive alcohol use. (Butcher, Mineka & Hooley, 2005).

There is also a proposed relationship between schizophrenia and heavy alcohol use which

suggests that heavy alcohol use may increase the severity of common symptoms associated with

schizophrenia such as hallucinations. (National Health and Research Council, 2009) Although

numerous researches have found clear relations between various psychological disorders and

alcohol abuse, there is still further clarity required to find out what urges a person to engage in

alcoholism.

On the other hand, alcoholism has also impacts on the social aspects of a person, and in

the community. The abuse of alcohol for heavy drinkers has implications on the increased

incidents of violent crime. Furthermore, family units are often affected if one member of the

family is a heavy alcohol user. Family problems such as marital breakup, domestic violence and

spouse abuse are strongly tied to high use of alcohol (Skrtic, Karlovic, Kruljac, 2008)

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Alcohol use is also a common causal factor for risks and conflicts such as risky behaviors

in drinking and driving, inappropriate sexual behaviors, motor vehicle accidents, financial

problems and job loss. (Shand, Gates, Fawcett & Mattick, 2003).

As for the physical health, the long-term effects of alcoholism are similar to those

experienced with other drugs. People who consume excessive amounts of alcohol will have an

increased risk of developing arthritis, cancer, heart disease, hyper- and hypoglycemia, kidney

disease, obesity, nervous disorders, psychological disturbances and malnutrition. Alcoholism can

also have serious health effects on unborn children. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is caused from a

mother drinking heavily while pregnant. The fetus will suffer physical and behavioral

abnormalities. However, even when alcohol is consumed on a moderate level, individuals may

run the risk of developing liver disease, pancreatitis, esophageal and oropharyngeal cancers, and

cardiovascular problems. Unfortunately, these risks will even increase when the person stops

drinking and begins to experience withdrawal symptoms. The symptoms could be severe, and in

some cases could result in death. (Rehab International, 2018)

Researches also prove that alcoholism can make people suffer with drawbacks on their

mental health, such as memory loss. A person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may

suffer brain deficits that persist long after he or she achieves abstinence. Heavy drinking may

have extensive results, ranging from simple memory gaps to conditions that require long-term

diagnosis.

Studies of male and female alcoholics also showed significant brain shrinkage, which

caused the memory loss as well as learning problems. Other more recent studies have shown that

women’s brains may be even more vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage than men’s. Other

studies have shown that alcoholics have deficits in the frontal lobe deficits, which are responsible

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for many functions associated with memory and learning, and also the cerebellum, which

controls coordination and movement. Along with memory loss, other cognitive impairment

common in alcoholics is difficulty learning. Serious and persistent changes to the brain may be

the direct result of alcoholic intake or may indirectly result from poor overall health or severe

liver disease. Excessive alcohol in the brain’s cerebral cortex affects thought processes, leading

to the individual having problems with poor judgment. (Addiction Intervention, 2018) Hence, the

more alcohol a person consumes, the more they lose their inhibitions. This may result in them

becoming overly talkative or overconfident.

Alcohol use could conceivably affect a student’s quality of learning and academic

performance regardless of its impact on school completion. This possibility is suggested by

Renna (2008), who concluded that drinking could affect learning through a variety of

mechanisms. Recent neurological research suggests that underage alcohol use can cause

alterations in the structure and function of the developing brain and impair learning. Alcohol use

can negatively impact brain areas for planning and executive functioning, memory, spatial

operations, and attention. Alcohol use could also affect academic performance by reducing the

number of hours committed to studying, completing homework assignments, and attending

school. (Balsa, et. al, 2011)

Furthermore, the work force is impacted as personality and poor judgements worsen due

to alcoholism. In the UK, a study conducted in 2001 found that alcohol related work absenteeism

had an economic cost of equivalent to average 1.5 billion dollars per year (Institute of Alcohol

Studies, 2009).

The work performance of an employee with a drinking or drugs problem can be affected

as a result of poor decision-making and impaired reaction times. Their behavior may also

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detrimentally affect relationships with colleagues, damaging team spirit and morale. Productivity

often suffers resulting in inferior services or goods, while errors can lead to injuries and

accidents. This in turn can affect consumer confidence, and potentially damage a company’s

image and customer relations. One person’s drinking or drugs problem will also affect a partner

or family member, who may in turn suffer significant job performance-related problems.

Employers may see a change in behavior such as a lack of focus at work, increased absenteeism

or lateness, and stress or health-related problems. (Triora, 2016)

Individuals in employment are more likely to drink frequently compared to those who are

unemployed. Further, individuals in managerial and professional occupations drink more

frequently than those in routine and manual jobs. Problematic drinking behavior includes

drinking before or during working hours, as well as heavy drinking after work resulting in a

hangover during work the next day. Alcohol reduces physical coordination and reaction speeds,

even at blood alcohol concentrations lower than the legal drink or drive limit.

In order to address this global public health issue, the World Health Organization (WHO)

recently prioritized the global reduction of the harmful use of alcohol. Even with limited data, it

is still evident that low and middle-income countries bear an uneven public health burden due to

increasing alcohol consumption and limited or non-existent prevention policies and programs.

(Swahn, et al, 2013) One example of this case is the Philippines, wherein alcoholic beverages are

available to everyone, almost everywhere.

In fact, results of a "Truth Survey” conducted in the country during the second quarter of

2012 showed that female alcoholic beverage drinkers were of greater number at 54% compared

to 48% for males. Based on age range, majority of drinkers came from the 19 to 25 range with at

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least 25.55%. The 29 to 35 age range comprised at least 14.38%. Interestingly, the youngest

drinker documented by the survey was 13 years old. (Radio Veritas, 2012)

Hence, it is disturbing that due to lenient monitoring and implementation, alcoholic

drinks such as beer and hard drinks can easily be bought in grocery and convenience stores

by teenagers. Our law sets the minimum legal drinking age at 18, nevertheless underage

drinking is widespread and prevalent.

The effects of teenage drinking can be quite serious. Fortunately, teenage alcohol use is

on the decline. Still, noting a survey result with three out of four high school students reporting

that they have consumed an alcoholic beverage prior to graduating high school, the problem with

alcoholism should be strictly noted. The most serious effect of teens drinking is that it leads to

adult dependence. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism reports that teens

who start drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to develop an alcohol

addiction than those who do not begin drinking before the legal age of 21. (LMAA, 2017)

Intriguingly, research on the predictors of alcohol use and its adverse outcomes among

youth is scarce in the Philippines. Data from the WHO indicates that almost 9% of the

Philippines population who are 15 years of age and older (estimated at 86 million) have an

alcohol use disorder In addition, 25% of males and 8.3% of females (15-85 years above) are

heavy episodic drinkers. (Segarra, 2016)

Regrettably, alcohol use among youth is affected by a range of psychosocial and

environmental factors. A major cause of teen alcoholism is peer pressure. Many teenagers – boys

in particular – are incredibly competitive and will try to outperform one another at every possible

opportunity. Drinking games may be very common at this age, and can help to foster the

impression that drinking alcohol is not a serious matter. (ProjectKnow,2017)

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Research also demonstrates that supervision and family control are strong predictors of

delinquency. Junger-Tas et al (2011), noted that family social control is based on two dimensions,

indirect and direct control. Indirect control is affected by the quality of the relationship of a

youngster with his parents, whereas direct control in the family is applied by close supervision.

For example, White and Halliwell have found that family dinners have a positive effect on

lowering the likelihood of alcohol use. Parental support has been associated with decreased

alcohol consumption. (Kask, 2012)

Moreover, curiosity also drives a teenager to try alcoholic drinking, as urged by his or her

own decision. Curiosity, composed of two factors: exploration and absorption, has been

previously associated with life satisfaction, life meaningfulness, and enhanced positive affect. It

also shares some overlap with sensation seeking, which has been linked to alcohol use and other

addictive behaviors. (Lindgren et al, 2010)

In addition to the associated variables to alcoholism, in a study conducted in Cambodia,

10.0% out of 3,000 teenager students of mean age 17 reported current alcohol use, 10.8%

lifetime drunkenness, and 2.8% problem drinking. Researchers found out that sociodemographic

factors such as older age and being male, mental health and other variables such as bullying

victimization, having attempted suicide, illicit drug use, and alcohol exposure variables such as

peer influence on drinking alcohol, were significantly positively associated with current alcohol

use and drunkenness. Moreover, older age, being male, bullying victimization, having close

friends, suicide attempt, drug use, father or male guardian drinks alcohol and peer influence were

associated with problem drinking. (Peltzer, 2016)

Researches consistently shows that people tend to drink the heaviest in their late teens

and early to mid-twenties, disregarding the risky effects of alcoholism to their health, and for

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people around them. This high level of alcohol use comes at an age when people are moving

away from parental restrictions but before they take on the full responsibilities of grown-up life.

Particularly, these descriptions apply to students who are in an abrupt transition from the early

stages of their lives.

Talking about transition, senior high school students seem to fit the characteristics which

describe critical changes teenagers may undergo in the aspect of decision making. Regarding

this, senior high school students in the Philippines are undeniably composing a population where

alcohol abuse is prevalent. Alcoholism within the group can make students execute risky

behaviors and tardy performances in school, or even at work.

The Department of Education (DepEd) itself aimed to produce globally competitive

students who excel in their fields of choice, and come up with the “Kto12” educational

curriculum, putting senior high school students into the scene after an additional two years in

secondary education has been implemented. For this reason, senior high school students are

divided into two tracks namely Academic and Technical, Vocational, and Livelihood (TVL)

track. Among the two, the latter is with great opportunities when it comes to venturing to work

and academics at the same time. Due to this, involvement of a TVL student to alcoholism may

not just put his or her health at risk, but also aspects of his or her academic and work

performance.

Given this, the researcher conducted a study to find out the status of alcoholic drinkers

among the Grade 12 Technological, Vocational and Livelihood (TVL) students of Bongabon

Senior High School, specifically the factors that influence each of them to engage in such a

lifestyle. The researcher identified the extent of influence of different biopsychological

environment factors on inducing alcoholism among the respondents. In addition to this, the

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researcher also computed for the relationship of the students’ sociodemographic profile and the

factors identified. The researcher believed that assessment of these points will produce helpful

information that will be a significant accomplishment.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to assess the factors that influence students on alcoholism among the

Grade 12 Technological, Vocational and Livelihood (TVL) students of Bongabon Senior High

School. Specifically, it sought to find out the answers to the following questions:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1. age?

1.2. sex?

1.3. number of siblings?

1.4. monthly income of parents?

1.5. alcoholic liquor most frequently consumed?

2. What is the level of manifestation of the following factors that influence a student to

engage in alcoholism?

2.1 peer influence;

2.2 family problems;

2.3 stress;

2.4 gaining social status;

2.5 curiosity

3. Is there a significant relationship between the characteristics of the students and the

factors that influence them to be engaged in alcoholism?

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Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the characteristics of respondents and the

factors influencing alcoholism.

Significance of the Study

The generalization of this study would be a great contribution to the vast knowledge in

relation to students’ engagement to alcoholism. Vital results of this investigation could be highly

significant and beneficial specifically to the following:

Researcher. As the one who assessed the factors inducing alcoholism among students as

well as the status of alcoholic drinkers in the school, this study greatly helped the researcher to

gain knowledge as well as to suggest solutions that can help prevent underage alcoholic drinking.

Students. As respondents and as readers, the study is significant to them in terms of

raising awareness about alcoholism and factors that may urge them to be involved in alcoholic

drinking, regardless of strand, gender, and age bracket.

Teachers. As the ones who have a huge part in the supervising the students outside their

homes, this study would help them to assert and pay attention on the current status of alcoholism

prevalent among the students.

Parents. As guardians within the students’ living environment, the study will be

important for them to gain knowledge on the possible risks of alcoholism and factors that may

influence the teenagers in their household.

Future Researchers. This study is of great help as a reference and a related literature for

future researches and for those who aim for the improvement of the current study itself.

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Conceptual Framework

There is no single, simple explanation for why some individuals develop problems with

alcohol. One of the central findings of the large body of research that has examined the

psychosocial causes of alcohol use is that there are multiple pathways to behavior that involves

alcohol consumption (Cloninger et al. 1996; Sher et al. 1997; Zucker et al. 1994). Multiple

biological and psychosocial factors mutually influence each other in causing alcohol abuse;

Alcoholism is best viewed as a result of a combination of biopsychosocial influences. Clearly,

different factors may influence different aspects of drinking, such as initial experimentation, later

maintenance of regular drinking, and the decision to stop drinking. Not only is alcohol use

different from alcoholism, but alcoholism itself takes different forms; researchers have suggested

that different subtypes of alcoholism may have different etiologies (Cloninger et al. 1996; Zucker

et al. 1996). Researchers hypothesize that childhood, biologically based vulnerabilities in

emotional and behavioral regulation (temperament or personality) interact with poor parenting to

create emotional distress and exposure to negative peer influences, both of which create risk for

alcohol misuse. Finally, environment encompasses a wide range of influences, including not only

family and peers, but also culture, social forces, advertising, and economics. (National Institute

on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] 1997)

The focus of this study was undertaken by the following conceptual framework which

has a three-part process: the input, process and output.

The input for the study included the socio-demographic profile of the students which is in

terms of age, sex, number of siblings, monthly income of parents, and alcoholic liquor most

often consumed. It also included the identified factors that affect their preference which are peer

influence, family problems, stress, gaining social status, and curiosity.

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In the research process, the researcher evaluated the relationship between the factors and

their sociodemographic profile.

Meanwhile, the output of this study then identified interventions to be proposed which

will strengthen programs, supervisions, and ordinances towards alcoholism.

INPUT
Sociodemographic
Profile
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Number of siblings
d. Monthly income of
parents PROCESS OUTPUT
e. Alcoholic liquor Evaluating Proposals to
most frequently relationship between strengthen programs,
consumed the factors and supervisions, and
sociodemographic ordinances towards
profile alcoholism
Factors
a. Peer Influence
b. Family Problems
c. Stress
d. Gaining Social
Status
e. Curiosity

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study


Scope and Limitations

This study only focused on identifying the level of manifestation of the researcher

identified factors that induce alcoholism among Grade 12 Technical, Vocational, and Livelihood

(TVL) students, as well as their significant relationship between the sociodemographic profile of

students. The study was conducted by means of survey questionnaires which included one

dichotomous question in the beginning to assess the population of alcoholic drinker and those

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who are not. Afterwards, a sequence of questions followed, regarding the sociodemographic

profile and the level of manifestation of the factors, which was answered only by students who

are alcoholic drinkers.

Location of the Study

The study was conducted on the situating classrooms of the Grade 12 TVL students.

These were located inside the facilities of Bongabon National High School, second floor of the

former Bongabon Senior High School building. Bongabon Senior High School is a stand-alone

senior high school established on the year 2016 and is at present situated at Barangay Sinipit,

Bongabon, Nueva Ecija.

Figure 2. Map of Bongabon, Nueva Ecija

Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined operationally to enhance reader’s knowledge about the

study:

Socio-Demographic Profile. It refers to the age, sex, number of siblings, monthly

income of parents, and the alcoholic liquor most frequently consumed of the respondents.

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Age. This refers to the corresponding age of students which will be bracketed into 16 to

17 years old, 18 to 19 and 20 above which were based on the common age groups of TVL

students, and teenagers who engage in alcoholic use in the Philippines.

Sex. This refers to the assigned gender of the respondents at birth, depending on their

physiological orientation; specifically, male or female.

Number of Siblings. This indicates the number of other children born in the respondent’s

family, of the same parents but not necessarily biologically related.

Monthly Income of Parents. It refers to the average salary or profit the respondents’

parents earn for more or less than 30 working days.

Alcoholic Liquor Most Frequently Consumed. This indicates the alcoholic product that

the respondent most often consumes among brandy, whisky, gin, vodka, beer, wine, or others.

Family Problems. It refers to the problems encountered by the students within the

household, may it with the relatives, parents and siblings that could have made them resort to

alcohol use.

Peer Influence. It implies the role of friends in making decisions towards alcohol use.

Stress. This refers to the stress brought on by various activities such as homework,

chores, projects, or forceful actions.

Gaining Social Status. This refers to the factor influencing students that are thinking of

attaining respect or recognition, thus engages in alcoholism.

Curiosity. This refers to the self-made decision to drink alcohol or be involved in

alcoholism due to inquisitiveness.

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CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

This study applied the quantitative descriptive method of research to determine the

factors that influence a student in engaging on alcoholism as well as to describe its relationship

with the respondents’ sociodemographic profile. It utilized both descriptive and quantitative

statistics to compute for the actual value and manifestation of the variables.

Sample and Sampling Technique

Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. In purposive sampling, the subjects

were then selected because of a particular characteristic observed by the researcher. It is a

representation of several different non-probability sampling techniques, and known as

judgmental, selective or subjective sampling. (Del Siegle et. al, 2017) The decision on selecting

the characteristics that are to be studied relies on the researcher. Usually, the sample being

investigated is comparatively small than with probability sampling techniques. The main goal of

purposive sampling is to avoid random sampling of respondents and generalize them. This

purpose is guided by the quantitative design of research. (Laerd, 2012)

In the given case, the researcher used sample size of respondents who are all alcoholic

drinkers from the Grade 12 students of TVL strand.

Data Gathering Procedure

1. Data Gathering Instrument. In order to evaluate the students’ sociodemographic

characteristics, as well as the extent of influence of the identified factors, the researcher

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originally formulated and utilized a survey questionnaire which was reproduced and then

distributed to the respondents.

1.1 Description. The researcher first had the respondents answer a dichotomous question

to determine their status in relevance in alcoholism to distinguish the respondents, and the set of

questionnaire items were only made to answer by those which are student drinkers. The first part

of the questionnaire is the Sociodemographic Profile, which includes a checklist for the items

which categorizes a respondent’s age, sex, number of siblings, parents’ monthly income and

alcoholic liquor most often consumed. The respondents were asked to place a check mark on the

box corresponding to their answer. Part II, entitled Factors that Induce Alcoholism involved a list

of five items of questionnaire for each of the five factors which is answerable using a Likert

scale for determining the extent of influence.

Table 1 shows the Likert Scale value for the level of manifestation of the identified

factors. The scale value is 5, the highest, for Very Much Influenced; 4, for Influenced; 3, for

Somewhat Influenced; 2, for Less Influenced; and 1 for Not Influenced.

Response Mode VERBAL INTERPRETATION Mean Value


5 Very Much Influenced 4.45-5.00
4 Influenced 3.45-4.44
3 Somewhat Influenced 2.45-3.44
2 Less Influenced 1.45-2.44
1 Not Influenced 0.45-1.44
Table 1. Likert Scale for the Extent of Influence of the Identified Factors

Statistical Treatment

The researcher used descriptive statistical analysis in identifying the prevalent

sociodemographic profile and response mode categories among the respondents. For the

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sociodemographic profiling of the respondents, frequencies and percentages are used. For

identifying the level of manifestation of the factors based on the response modes, weighted mean

was computed with the following formula:

x=
∑ ( f . w)
n

where:

x = weighted mean

(f • w) = summation of the product of each frequency and the assigned weight

n = number of respondents

Meanwhile, the evaluation for the level of manifestation of the factors that influence

alcoholism comprises a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 for the lowest and 5 for the highest. The

following describes the weight and the mean range of the degree of influence, represented by

each point:

WEIGHT MEAN RANGE DESCRIPTION

5 4.20 – 5.00 Very Much Influenced, deeply concerned

4 3.40 – 4.19 Influenced, concerned to some extent

3 2.60 – 3.39 Somewhat Influenced, sometimes concerned

2 1.80 – 2.59 Less Influenced, slightly concerned

1 1.00 – 1.79 Not Influenced, no concern

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Afterwards, Pearson’s correlational coefficient was used in analyzing the relationship for

the data of the sociodemographic profile and the factors that induce alcoholism among students.

As defined, correlation is a technique for investigating the relationship between two quantitative,

continuous variables. (Campbell, 1999) Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) is a measure of the

strong point of the relationship between the two variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) for

continuous (interval level) data ranges from -1 to +1: wherein a value of r=1 indicates a positive

correlation, r=0 indicates no correlation, and r=-1 indicates a negative correlation. To make

analysis uniform and accurate, the researcher correlated the variables using the International

Business Machine (IBM™) SPSS™ Version 21 software.

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CHAPTER III

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data as analyzed and interpreted by the researcher using

quantitative descriptive research design. This chapter assesses the results of sorting the different

categories on the sociodemographic profile of respondents, and their frequencies and

percentages. It also presents the level of manifestation of the different factors the researcher had

identified and their association with the sociodemographic profile of the respondents.

1. Sociodemographic Profile of Respondents. The first question this study dealt with is

about the sociodemographic profile of students in terms of age, sex, number of siblings, monthly

income of parents, and alcoholic products most often consumed.

1.1. Age. Table 2 shows the distribution of the respondents according to age. The table

shows that 62.50%, or 30 out of 48 respondents, belong to the age group of 16 to 17 years old

while 33.33%, 16 out of the total respondents are 18 to 19 years of age. Meanwhile, 4.17%, or

two out of 48 respondents belong to the age group of 20 years old and above.

Table 2. Distribution of Respondents According to Age

Age Frequency Percentage


X 16-17 30 62.50%
18-19 16 33.33%
20-above 2 4.17%
TOTAL n= 48 100%

These findings imply that most of the respondents are 16 to 17 years old.

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1.2. Sex. Table 3 shows the distribution of the respondents according to sex. The table

shows that 62.50%, or 30 out of 48 respondents are male while 37.50%, or 18 out of the total

respondents are female.

Table 3. Distribution of Respondents According to Sex


Sex Frequency Percentage
Male 30 62.50%
Female 18 37.50%
TOTAL n= 48 100%

These findings imply that majority of the respondents are male.

1.3 Number of siblings. Table 4 presents the distribution of respondents according to

number of siblings. The table shows that 39.58% or 19 out of 48 respondents has no siblings.

22.92%, or 11 out of 48 respondents belong to the group who has a number of 1-2 siblings.

25.00%, or 12 out of 48 respondents belong to the group who has 3-4 number of siblings and

while the remaining 12.50%, or six respondents belong to the group who has five and above

number of siblings.

Table 4. Distribution of Respondents According to the Number of Siblings

Number of Siblings Frequency Percentage

None 19 39.58%
1-2 11 22.92%
3-4 12 25.00%
5-above 6 12.50%
TOTAL n= 48 100%

These findings imply that majority of the respondents have no siblings.

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1.4. Parents’ Monthly Income. Table 5 presents the distribution of respondents according

to the monthly income of parents. It shows that 50.00% or 24 of the respondents have parents

with monthly income of Php5,000 to 10,000. Meanwhile, 33.33% or 16 respondents has a

monthly income of Php11,000 to Php15,000 and 16.67%, or eight out of 48, has a monthly

income of Php15,000 and above.

Table 5. Distribution of Respondents According to Monthly Income of Parents

Monthly Income of Parents (Php) Frequency Percentage

5,000 to 10,000 24 50.00%

11,000 to 15,000 16 33.33%

15,000 - above 8 16.67%

TOTAL n= 48 100%

These findings imply that most of the respondents have parents with monthly income of

Php5,000 to Php10,000.

1.5 Alcoholic Liquor Most Often Consumed. Table 6 shows the distribution of

respondents according to the alcoholic liquor they consume most frequently among others. As

shown in the table below, out of 48 respondents, 2.08% or only one consumes brandy the most.

The same frequency and percentage of respondent (1, 2.08%) also prefers vodka. Meanwhile, no

respondent answered for whisky. On the other hand, 2 or 4.17% answered wine, 12 or 12.50%

for gin, 15 or 31.25% for others, and 17 or 35.42 most frequently consume beer.

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Table 6. Distribution of Respondents According to Alcoholic Liquor Most Frequently Consumed

Alcoholic Liquor Most Frequently Frequency Percentage


Consumed
Brandy 1 2.08%
Whisky 0 0.00%

Gin 12 12.50%

Vodka 1 2.08%

Beer 17 35.42%

Wine 2 4.17%

Others 15 31.25%

TOTAL n=48 100%

These findings imply that most of the respondents most frequently consume beer among

other alcoholic liquors.

2. Level of Manifestation of the Factors that Induce Alcoholism to Students. The

second question of the study dealt with the level of manifestation of the factors that induce

alcoholism among students, which the researcher identified as peer pressure, family problems,

academic stress, gaining social status and others.

2.1. Peer Pressure. Table 7 presents the level of manifestation of peer pressure as a factor

inducing alcoholic use among students. The table shows the weighted mean of the responses for

the questionnaire items. It is shown that respondents are influenced by item number 1, with

weighted mean of 3.58; influenced by item number 2, with weighted mean of 3.52; influenced by

item number 3, with weighted mean of 3.52, and influenced with item number 4 with weighted

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mean of 3.90. However, respondents are only somewhat influenced by item number 5, with a

weighted mean of 3.33. The grand mean total is 3.59.

Item Response Weighted


Factor Frequency Verbal Interpretation
No. Mode Mean
5 15
4 12
1 3 10 3.58 Influenced
2 8
1 3
5 1
4 8
2 3 9 3.52 Influenced
2 11
1 3
Peer Pressure 5 16
4 10
3 3 10 3.52 Influenced
2 7
1 5
5 20
4 11
4 3 12 3.90 Influenced
2 2
1 3
5 13
4 9
5 3 11 3.33 Somewhat Influenced
2 11
1 4
GRAND
MEAN 3.57 Influenced
TOTAL
Table 7. Level of Manifestation of Peer Pressure Among Respondents

Based on the findings most of the respondents are influenced by peer pressure to induce

alcoholism. This infers that friends play a role in the decisions of a students with regards to

alcohol use.

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2.2. Family Problems. Table 8 presents the level of manifestation of family problem as a

factor influencing alcoholism among students. The table shows that items 1 and 2 has weighted

means of 2.88 and 3.23 respectively thus somewhat influencing the respondents towards

alcoholic use. On the other hand, the respondents are influenced by items 3, 4 and 5, with

respective weighted means of 3.81, 3.98, and 3.69. The grand mean total is 3.52.

Table 8. Level of Manifestation of Family Problems Among Respondents

Item Response Weighted Verbal


Factor Frequency
No. Mode Mean Interpretation
5 8
4 11
Somewhat
1 3 8 2.88
Influenced
2 9
1 12
5 14
4 9
Somewhat
2 3 4 3.23
Influenced
2 16
1 5
Family
5 20
Problems
4 20
3 3 9 3.81 Influenced
2 7
1 2
5 23
4 20
4 3 8 3.98 Influenced
2 5
1 3
5 25
4 5
5 3 6 3.69 Influenced
2 2
1 10
GRAND MEAN
3.52 Influenced
TOTAL

These findings infer that family problems influence majority of respondents to be

engaged in alcoholic use. Hence, it implies that having conflicts within the household shape a

student’s perception to resort to alcoholism and is an evident concern.

24
2.3. Stress. Table 9 presents the level of manifestation of stress as a factor influencing

alcoholism among students. The table shows that for items 1, 3, and 5, the respondents are

influenced by the stress as a factor, with weighted means of 3.92, 3.83, and 3.65, respectively.

On the other hand, the respondents are only somewhat influenced by items 2 and 4, with

respective weighted means of 3.17 and 2.56. The grand mean total of the responses is 3.43.

Table 9. Level of Manifestation of Academic Stress Among Respondents

Item Response Weighted


Factor Frequency Verbal Interpretation
No. Mode Mean
5 20
4 16
1 3 4 3.92 Influenced
2 4
1 4
5 16
4 6
2 3 8 3.17 Somewhat Influenced
2 6
1 12
Stress 5 22
4 13
3 3 3 3.83 Influenced
2 5
1 3
5 5
4 5
4 3 15 2.56 Somewhat Influenced
2 10
1 13
5 16
4 12
5 3 10 3.65 Influenced
2 7
1 3
GRAND MEAN TOTAL 3.43 Somewhat Influenced

Thus, these findings imply that respondents are somewhat influenced by stress as a factor

influencing alcoholism. This means that stress due to different activities has a weak yet evident

impact on influencing a student.

25
2.4. Gaining Social Status. Table 10 presents the level of manifestation of gaining social

status of respondents as a factor inducing alcoholism among students. The table shows that

respondents are: somewhat influenced by items 1 and 3, with respective weighted means of 2.71

and 2.75; less influenced by items 4 and 5, with respective weighted means of 1.98 and 2.85; and

influenced by item number 2, of weighted mean 4.12. The grand mean total is 2.88.

Table 10. Level of Manifestation of Gaining Social Status Among Respondents

R
e W
I Ve
s ei
t rb
p g
e al
o h
Fa m Fre Int
n te
cto que er
s d
r ncy pr
N e M
eta
o M e
tio
. o a
n
d n
e
5 10 So
4 6 me
3 6 wh
2. at
2 12
1 7 Inf
1 lue
1 14 nce
d

5 32 Inf
4 3 4. lue
2 3 7 1 nce
Ga 2 0 2 d
ini 1 5
ng 5 8
So So
4 6 me
cia
l wh
2.
St at
3 3 12 7
at Inf
5
us lue
nce
2 10
d
1 12
4 5 1 1. Le
4 1 9 ss
3 15 8 Inf
lue
2 10

26
1 21
nce
d
5 10 Le
4 10 ss
2.
Inf
5 3 7 8
2 5 lue
5
nce
1 16 d
GR So
AN me
D wh
2.
ME at
8
AN Inf
8
TO lue
TA nce
L d
These findings show that most of the respondents are somewhat influenced by gaining

social status to engage in alcoholism. This infers a weak yet a visible concern for students who

often turn to alcoholic use to gain respect and attention from the society or from people their age.

2.5. Curiosity. Table 11 presents extent of influence of curiosity to respondents who

engage in alcoholic use. The table shows that respondents are only somewhat influenced by

items 1, 3, and 4 with weighted means of 3.33, 3.38, and 2.56 respectively. On the other hand,

items 2 and 5, with respective weighted means of 4.13 and 4.19, is interpreted to influence the

respondents. The grand mean total is 3.52.

Item Response Weighted Verbal


Factor Frequency
No. Mode Mean Interpretation
5 15
4 11 Somewhat
3.33
1 3 4 Influenced
2 11
1 7
5 21
4 15
4.13 Influenced
2 3 6
2 6
1 3
CURIOSIT
5 19
Y
4 7 Somewhat
3.38
3 3 3 Influenced
2 11
1 8

27
5 7
4 5 Somewhat
2.56
4 3 11 Influenced
2 10
1 15
5 27
4 12
5 3 4 4.19 Influenced
2 1
1 4
GRAND MEAN
3.52 Influenced
TOTAL
Table 11. Level of Manifestation of Curiosity Among Respondents

The findings imply that curiosity influence students to engage in alcoholism, thus

implying that self-interest and experimentation may positively lead to alcoholic liquor

consumptions.

3. Relationship Between the Respondents’ Sociodemographic Profile and Factors

that Induce Alcoholism Among Students. The third question the study dealt with is about the

relationship of the respondents’ sociodemographic profile, in terms of age, sex, number of

siblings, monthly income of parents, and alcoholic liquor most frequently consumed and their

relationship with the respondents’ sociodemographic profile.

3.1. Relationship between Age and the Factors. The researcher computed the relationship

between age and the factors that induce alcoholism among students. Table 12 shows the

computed values of Pearson correlation coefficient between age and each of the factors. With a

correlation coefficient (r) of 0 value, peer pressure, stress, and gaining social status showed no

significant relationship to the respondent’s age; while family problems with r=1, showed a

positive significant relationship with age. On the other hand, curiosity, with r=-1, showed a

negative significant relationship with age.

28
GAINING
PEER FAMILY
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE STRESS SOCIAL CURIOSITY
PRESSURE PROBLEMS
STATUS

Pearson Correlation
AGE 0 1 0 0 -1
Coefficient

Table 12. Relationship between Age and the Factors that Induce Alcoholism Among Students

These findings imply that there is a significant relationship between age and family

problems, as well as curiosity and age, in influencing students towards alcoholism.

3.2. Relationship between Sex and the Factors. The researcher computed the relationship

between sex and the factors that induce alcoholism among students. Table 13 shows the

computed values of Pearson correlation coefficient between sex and each of the factors. With a

correlation coefficient (r) of 0 value, family problems, stress, gaining social status and curiosity

showed no significant relationship to the respondent’s sex. Meanwhile, peer pressure, with r=-1,

showed a negative significant relationship with sex.

GAINING
PEER FAMILY
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE STRESS SOCIAL CURIOSITY
PRESSURE PROBLEMS
STATUS

Pearson Correlation
SEX -1 0 0 0 0
Coefficient

Table 13. Relationship between Sex and the Factors that Induce Alcoholism Among Students

29
These findings imply that there is a significant relationship between sex and peer pressure

in relevance to influencing students to engage in alcoholism.

3.3 Relationship between Number of Siblings and the Factors. The researcher computed

the relationship between the number of siblings and the factors that induce alcoholism among

students. Table 14 shows the computed values of Pearson correlation coefficient between the

number of siblings and each of the factors. With a correlation coefficient (r) of 0 value, family

problems, and curiosity showed no significant relationship to the respondent’s number of

siblings. On the other hand, peer pressure with r=1 showed a positive significant relationship

with the number of siblings. Meanwhile, stress and gaining social status, with r=-1, showed a

negative significant relationship with respondents’ number of siblings.

Table 14. Relationship between the Number of Siblings and the Factors that Induce Alcoholism
Among Students

GAINING
PEER FAMILY
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE STRESS SOCIAL CURIOSITY
PRESSURE PROBLEMS
STATUS

NUMBER
Pearson Correlation
OF 1 0 -1 -1 0
Coefficient
SIBLINGS

These findings imply that there is a significant relationship between number of siblings

and each of the following factors namely: peer pressure, stress, and gaining social status, in

relevance to influencing students to engage in alcoholism.

30
3.4. Relationship between Parents’ Monthly Income and the Factors. The researcher

computed the relationship between monthly income of parents and the factors that induce

alcoholism among students. Table 15 shows the computed values of Pearson correlation

coefficient between monthly income of parents and each of the factors. With a correlation

coefficient (r) of 0 value, peer pressure, family problems, stress, and gaining social status showed

no significant relationship to the respondent’s parents’ monthly income. Meanwhile, curiosity,

with r=-1, showed a negative significant relationship with monthly income of parents.

Table 15. Relationship between Monthly Income of Parents and the Factors that Induce
Alcoholism Among Students

GAINING
PEER FAMILY
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE STRESS SOCIAL CURIOSITY
PRESSURE PROBLEMS
STATUS

MONTHLY
INCOME Pearson Correlation
0 0 0 0 -1
OF Coefficient
PARENTS

These findings imply that there is a significant relationship between monthly income of

parents and curiosity in relevance to influencing students to engage in alcoholism.

3.5. Relationship between Alcoholic Liquor most frequently consumed and the Factors.

The researcher computed the relationship between alcoholic liquor the respondents most often

consume and the factors that induce alcoholism among students. Table 16 shows the computed

values of Pearson correlation coefficient between the alcoholic liquor most frequently consumed

31
by respondents and each of the factors. With a correlation coefficient (r) of 0 value, family

problems showed no significant relationship with the alcoholic liquor most often consumed. On

the other hand, stress and gaining social status has a computed value of r=1 which shows a

positive significant relationship with the respondents’ choice of alcoholic liquor most often

consumed. Meanwhile, peer pressure and curiosity, with r=-1, showed a negative significant

relationship with the alcoholic liquor most often consumed by each respondent.

Table 16. Relationship between Alcoholic Liquor Most Frequently Consumed and the Factors
that Induce Alcoholism Among Students

GAINING
PEER FAMILY
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE STRESS SOCIAL CURIOSITY
PRESSURE PROBLEMS
STATUS

ALCOHOLI
C LIQUOR
Pearson Correlation
MOST -1 0 1 1 -1
Coefficient
OFTEN
CONSUMED

These findings imply that there is a significant relationship between the alcoholic liquor

the respondents consume the most and the following factors namely; peer pressure, stress,

gaining social status, and curiosity.

32
CHAPTER IV

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

The study entitled “Assessment on The Factors That Induce Alcoholism Among Grade 12

Technological, Vocational, And Livelihood (TVL) Students of Bongabon Senior High School”

evaluated 48 respondents from Grade 12 TVL track who are engaging in alcoholic use, identified

using the means of purposive sampling technique. The researcher gathered data by means of

survey questionnaires which were distributed to students, who answered them within their

classrooms located inside the facilities of Bongabon National High School, second floor of the

former Bongabon Senior High School building, in Barangay Sinipit, Bongabon, Nueva Ecija.

The study aimed to assess the factors that induce alcoholism among students. It sought to

gather data to provide answer to the following questions:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1. age?

1.2. sex?

1.3. number of siblings?

1.4. monthly income of parents?

33
1.5. alcoholic liquor most frequently consumed?

2. What is the level of manifestation of the following factors that influence a student to

engage in alcoholism?

2.1 peer Influence;

2.2 family Problems;

2.3 stress;

2.4 gaining Social Status;

2.5 curiosity

3. Is there a significant relationship between the characteristics of the students and the

factors that influence them to be engaged in alcoholism?

Based on the conducted survey for the respondents’ sociodemographic profile, the

researcher had distributed the respondents according to age, sex, number of siblings, parents’

monthly income, and alcoholic liquor most frequently consumed, and the findings are as follows:

1.1. Age. Survey results show that 62.50%, or 30 out of 48 respondents, belong to the age

group of 16 to 17 years old while 33.33%, 16 out of the total respondents are 18 to 19 years of

age. Meanwhile, 4.17%, or two out of 48 respondents belong to the age group of 20 years old

and above.

1.2. Sex. For the distribution of respondents according to sex, 62.50%, or 30 out of 48

respondents are male while 37.50%, or 18 out of the total respondents are female.

1.3. Number of Siblings. For the distribution of respondents according to number of

siblings, it shows that 39.58% or 19 out of 48 respondents has no siblings. 22.92%, or 11 out of

48 respondents belong to the group who has a number of 1-2 siblings. 25.00%, or 12 out of 48

34
respondents belong to the group who has 3-4 number of siblings and while the remaining

12.50%, or six respondents belong to the group who has five and above number of siblings.

1.4. Monthly Income of Parents. For the distribution of respondents according to monthly

income of parents, 50.00% or 24 of the respondents have parents with monthly income of

Php5,000 to 10,000. Meanwhile, 33.33% or 16 respondents has a monthly income of Php11,000

to Php15,000 and 16.67%, or eight out of 48, has a monthly income of Php15,000 and above.

1.5. Alcoholic Liquor Most Frequently Consumed. For the distribution of respondents

according to alcoholic liquor most often consumed, out of 48 respondents, 2.08% or only one

consumes brandy the most. The same frequency and percentage of respondent (1, 2.08%) also

prefers vodka. Meanwhile, no respondent answered for whisky. On the other hand, 2 or 4.17%

answered wine, 12 or 12.50% for gin, 15 or 31.25% for others, and 17 or 35.42 most frequently

consume beer.

On the other hand, the findings for the second question which aims to find out the level of

manifestation of the factors induce alcoholism among students are as follows:

2.1. Peer Pressure. It is shown that respondents are influenced by item number 1, with

weighted mean of 3.58; influenced by item number 2, with weighted mean of 3.52; influenced by

item number 3, with weighted mean of 3.52, and influenced with item number 4 with weighted

mean of 3.90. However, respondents are only somewhat influenced by item number 5, with a

weighted mean of 3.33. The grand mean total is 3.59.

2.2. Family Problems. Results show that items 1 and 2 has weighted means of 2.88 and

3.23 respectively thus somewhat influencing the respondents towards alcoholic use. On the

35
other hand, the respondents are influenced by items 3, 4 and 5, with respective weighted means

of 3.81, 3.98, and 3.69. The grand mean total is 3.52.

2.3. Stress. Based on the results, for items 1, 3, and 5, the respondents are influenced by

the stress as a factor, with weighted means of 3.92, 3.83, and 3.65, respectively. On the other

hand, the respondents are only somewhat influenced by items 2 and 4, with respective weighted

means of 3.17 and 2.56. The grand mean total of the responses is 3.43.

2.4. Gaining Social Status. The results exhibit that respondents are: somewhat influenced

by items 1 and 3, with respective weighted means of 2.71 and 2.75; less influenced by items 4

and 5, with respective weighted means of 1.98 and 2.85; and influenced by item number 2, of

weighted mean 4.12. The grand mean total is 2.88.

2.5. Curiosity. Results for the level of manifestation of curiosity show that respondents

are only somewhat influenced by items 1, 3, and 4 with weighted means of 3.33, 3.38, and 2.56

respectively. On the other hand, items 2 and 5, with respective weighted means of 4.13 and 4.19,

is interpreted to influence the respondents. The grand mean total is 3.52.

For the last question, which focused on determining the significant relationship between

the sociodemographic profile of the respondents and the factors that influence students to engage

in alcoholism, the researcher’s findings are as follows:

3.1. Relationship between Age and the Factors. With a correlation coefficient (r) of 0

value, peer pressure, stress, and gaining social status showed no significant relationship to the

respondent’s age; while family problems with r=1, showed a positive significant relationship

with age. On the other hand, curiosity, with r=-1, showed a negative significant relationship with

age.

36
3.2. Relationship between Sex and the Factors. With a correlation coefficient (r) of 0

value, family problems, stress, gaining social status and curiosity showed no significant

relationship to the respondent’s sex. Meanwhile, peer pressure, with r=-1, showed a negative

significant relationship with sex.

3.3 Relationship between Number of Siblings and the Factors. With a correlation

coefficient (r) of 0 value, family problems, and curiosity showed no significant relationship to

the respondent’s number of siblings. On the other hand, peer pressure with r=1 showed a positive

significant relationship with the number of siblings. Meanwhile, stress and gaining social status,

with r=-1, showed a negative significant relationship with respondents’ number of siblings.

3.4. Relationship between Monthly Income of Parents and the Factors. With a correlation

coefficient (r) of 0 value, peer pressure, family problems, stress, and gaining social status showed

no significant relationship to the respondent’s parents’ monthly income. Meanwhile, curiosity,

with r=-1, showed a negative significant relationship with monthly income of parents.

3.5. Relationship between Alcoholic Liquor most often consumed and the Factors. With a

correlation coefficient (r) of 0 value, family problems showed no significant relationship with the

alcoholic liquor most often consumed. On the other hand, stress and gaining social status has a

computed value of r=1 which shows a positive significant relationship with the respondents’

choice of alcoholic liquor most often consumed. Meanwhile, peer pressure and curiosity, with r=-

1, showed a negative significant relationship with the alcoholic liquor most often consumed by

each respondent.

Conclusion

Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

37
1. The average respondent is under the age of 16 to 17 years old, male, has no siblings,

with parents’ monthly income of Php5,00 to Php10,000, and consumes beer more frequently

among other alcoholic liquors.

2. Most of the respondents are influenced by peer pressure, family problems, and

curiosity to induce alcoholism.

3. Respondents are somewhat influenced by stress and gaining social status towards

alcoholism.

4. There is a significant relationship between the factors identified and the

sociodemographic profile of students, particularly between the following:

4.1. There is a significant relationship between age and family problems, as well

as curiosity and age, in influencing students towards alcoholism.

4.2 There is a significant relationship between sex and peer pressure in

relevance to influencing students to engage in alcoholism.

4.3. There is a significant relationship between number of siblings and each of

the following factors namely: peer pressure, stress, and gaining social status, in

relevance to influencing students to engage in alcoholism.

4.4. There is a significant relationship between monthly income of parents and

curiosity in relevance to influencing students to engage in alcoholism.

4.5. There is a significant relationship between the alcoholic liquor the

respondents consume the most and the following factors namely; peer pressure,

stress, gaining social status, and curiosity.

38
Recommendations

Based on the findings and the conclusions drawn, the following recommendations are

presented:

1. The researcher advises further evaluation of the relationship of the factors and the

student’s sociodemographic profile by means of testing other categories or characteristics that

may also have significant association with the identified influences.

2. School authorities, especially teachers should partake in supervising the students and

evaluating the factors that could urge them abuse alcoholic liquors, especially enforcement of

liquor bans at school premises. Furthermore, stressful activities, having quite an influence to a

student’s decision towards alcoholism should also be administered in the academe. Moreover, in

order to feed students’ curiosity, both teachers and guardians should provide appropriate lectures

and educate teenagers on the possible risks of alcohol use and abuse.

3. Counselling should be done for parents which will address family conflicts that could

possibly cause students to resort to alcohol use. Furthermore, counselling should also be done for

students in order to present other alternative stress relievers and activities instead of alcoholic

liquors.

4. The ordinances and ban against selling of alcoholic liquor to minors should also be

enforced strictly.

39
APPENDIX
Sample Survey Questionnaire

Bongabon Senior High School


Bongabon, Nueva Ecija

Assessment on the Factors that Induce Alcoholism among Grade 12 Technological, Vocational, and Livelihood
(TVL) Students of Bongabon Senior High School

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Alcoholic Drinker? YES NO

If YES, proceed to the next questionnaire items. If NO, you can stop answering.

Part I. Socio-demographic Profile


Name (optional): ________________________________ Gender: Male Female
Age: 16-17 18-19 20-above
Number of siblings: 1-2 3-4 5-above
Monthly Income of Parents: 5,000-10,000Php 11,000-15,000Php 15,000Php- above
Status in relevance to Alcoholic Drinking: Drinker Non-drinker
Alcoholic liquor most often consumed:
Brandy Whisky Gin Vodka Beer Wine Others None

PART II. Factors that Induce Alcoholism among the Students


DIRECTION: Place a check mark on the space before the best option that you have chosen.
1. To what extent are you influenced by the following factors to engage in alcoholic drinking/alcoholism?
EXTENT OF INFLUENCE
FACTORS Somewhat
Less
Very Much Influence Influence Not
Influence
Influenced d d Influenced
d
A.Peer Influence
1. I saw that my friends are always
drinking.
2. My friends urged me to start
drinking.
3. My friends encourage me to continue
drinking.
4. I think that I am a good friend when I
drink with my peers.
5. I think my friends will leave me if I
did not drink/stopped drinking.
B.Family Problems
1. My parents are always
arguing/fighting about something.
2. My father/mother is always drinking
alcoholic liquors.

40
3. I am always in quarrel with my
siblings.
4. I always have misunderstandings
with my parents.
5. Our family is facing a financial crisis.
C.Stress
1. Drinking relieves my stress.
2. Academic and family conflicts gives
me stress that can only be relieved by
drinking.
3. I can forget my problems when I am
drunk.
4. Drinking makes life seem easier for
me.
5. I believe that drinking alcohol can
make my problems disappear for a
while.
D.Gaining Social Status
1. I think drinking is cool.
2. People will think I am “strong”
because I drink.
3. I drink to be famous.
4. I drink because it is what people my
age nowadays does.
5. I think drinking will make me gain
more friends.
E.Curiosity
1. I was curious on why many people
drink alcohol.
2. I wonder how it feels to be drunk.
3. I wanted to know what alcoholic
drink tastes like.
4. I am curious on what I will do when I
get drunk.
5. I wanted to know my tolerance on
alcoholic liquors.

41