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General

Symbols Used in Log Interpretation


Gen-1
(former Gen-3)

Gen

Resistivity of the zone


Resistivity of the water in the zone
Water saturation in the zone
Mud

Rm
Adjacent bed

Rs

Uninvaded
hmc zone
Flushed
zone Rt
Rmc Zone of
transition
dh or
(Bed Rw
thickness) annulus
Mudcake Rx o
Ri Sw
h Rmf

Sx o

Rs
di
dj
Adjacent bed

(Invasion diameters)

Δrj

dh
Hole
diameter

© Schlumberger

Purpose Description
This diagram presents the symbols and their descriptions and rela- The wellbore is shown traversing adjacent beds above and below the
tions as used in the charts. See Appendixes D and E for identifica- zone of interest. The symbols and descriptions provide a graphical
tion of the symbols. representation of the location of the various symbols within the well-
bore and formations.

Ing. Edwin Mendiolaza Bazaldúa UNMSM-EAP Ing. Geologica CATEDRA: Hidrocarburos


1
General

Estimation of Formation Temperature with Depth


Gen-2
(former Gen-6)

Gen

Temperature gradient conversions: 1°F/100 ft = 1.823°C/100 m


1°C/100 m = 0.5486°F/100 ft

Annual mean
surface temperature
Temperature (°C)

27 50 75 100 125 150 175

16 25 50 75 100 125 150 175

2
B

10 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6°F/100 ft Geothermal gradient 3

A
4
1.09 1.46 1.82 2.19 2.55 2.92°C/100 m
Depth Depth
(thousands 15 (thousands
of feet) of meters)
5

20 6

25
8

80 100 150 200 250 300 350


60 100 150 200 250 300 350
Temperature (°F)
Annual mean
surface temperature

© Schlumberger

Ing. Edwin Mendiolaza Bazaldúa UNMSM-EAP Ing. Geologica CATEDRA: Hidrocarburos


3
General

Equivalent NaCl Salinity of Salts


Gen-4
(former Gen-8)

Gen

Li (2.5)† OH (5.5)†
2.0 2.0
NH4 (1.9)† Mg

1.5
K
Ca

CO3
1.0 Na and CI (1.0) 1.0
K
Multiplier
SO4 Ca
CO3
0.5 NO3 (0.55)†
Br (0.44)† HCO3 SO4
I (0.28)† HCO3

0 0

Mg
–0.5
10 20 50 100 200 500 1,000 2,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 50,000 100,000 300,000
Total solids concentration (ppm or mg/kg)

† Multipliers that do not vary appreciably for low concentrations


(less than about 10,000 ppm) are shown at the left margin of the chart
© Schlumberger

Purpose Example
This chart is used to approximate the parts-per-million (ppm) con- Given: Formation water sample with solids concentrations
centration of a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution for which the total of calcium (Ca) = 460 ppm, sulfate (SO4) = 1,400 ppm,
solids concentration of the solution is known. Once the equivalent and Na plus Cl = 19,000 ppm. Total solids concentration
concentration of the solution is known, the resistivity of the solution = 460 + 1,400 + 19,000 = 20,860 ppm.
for a given temperature can be estimated with Chart Gen-6. Find: Equivalent NaCl solution in ppm.
Description Answer: Enter the x-axis at 20,860 ppm and read the multiplier
The x-axis of the semilog chart is scaled in total solids concentration value for each of the solids curves from the y-axis:
and the y-axis is the weighting multiplier. The curve set represents Ca = 0.81, SO4 = 0.45, and NaCl = 1.0. Multiply each
the various multipliers for the solids typically in formation water. concentration by its multiplier:
(460 × 0.81) + (1,400 × 0.45) + (19,000 × 1.0) = 20,000 ppm.

Ing. Edwin Mendiolaza Bazaldúa UNMSM-EAP Ing. Geologica CATEDRA: Hidrocarburos


5
General

Concentration of NaCl Solutions


Gen-5

Gen

Concentrations of NaCl Solutions


Temperature Gradient Oil Gravity
Density of NaCl Conversion
g/L at ppm grains/gal solution at Specific
77°F at 77°F 77°F [25°C] °F/100 ft °C/100 ft °API gravity (sg) at 60°F
0.15 150 1.00 2.0 0.60
10
100
0.2 200
12.5 3.5 0.62
15 1.9
0.3 300 90 0.64
20
0.4 400 1.8 0.66
25
80
0.5 500 30 0.68
0.6 600 1.7
40 0.70
70
0.8 800 50 3.0
0.72
1.0 1,000 60 1.6
70 60 0.74
80
1.5 1,500 90 1.5 0.76
100 50 0.78
2 2,000 125 0.80
150 1.4
2.5 40 0.82
3 3,000
200 0.84
4 4,000 1.3 0.86
250 30
5 0.88
5,000 300
6 1.005 0.90
6,000 1.2
400 0.92
20 0.94
8 8,000 500 0.96
10 10,000 600 1.1 2.0 0.98
700 10 1.00
800 1.02
15 15,000 900 1.0 1.04
1,000 1.06
0 1.08
20 20,000 1,250 1.01
1,500 0.9
30 141.5
30,000 °API =  131.5
2,000 1.02 1.5 sg at 60°F
40 40,000 0.8
2,500
50 3,000 1.03
60 60,000 1.04
4,000 0.7
80 1.05
80,000 5,000
100 6,000 1.06
100,000 1.07 0.6
125 7,000 1.08
8,000 1.09 1.0
150 9,000 1.10
150,000
200 10,000 1.12
12,500 1.14 1°F/100 ft = 1.822°C/100 m
250 200,000 1.16
15,000 1°C/100 m = 0.5488°F/100 ft
300 250,000 17,500 1.18
1.20

© Schlumberger

Ing. Edwin Mendiolaza Bazaldúa UNMSM-EAP Ing. Geologica CATEDRA: Hidrocarburos


6
General

Resistivity of NaCl Water Solutions


Gen-6
(former Gen-9)

Gen
Conversion approximated by R2 = R1 [(T1 + 6.77)/(T2 + 6.77)]°F or R2 = R1 [(T1 + 21.5)/(T2 + 21.5)]°C

10
8

6 grains/gal
5 ppm at 75°F
200
4 10

3 300
15
400
2 20
500
25
600
30
700
800 40
1
1,0
00 50
0.8 1,2
00
1,4
0.6 00
1,7
0.5 00
2,0
00 100
0.4
Resistivity 3,0
NaCl
0.3 00 150 concentration
of solution
4,0 (ppm or
(ohm-m) 00 200 grains/gal)
5,0
0.2 00 250
6,0
00 300
7,0
00
8,0 400
00
10,
00 500
0.1 12, 0
000
0.08 14,
000
17,
0
0.06 20, 00 1,000
000
0.05
30,
0.04 000 1,500
40,
000 2,000
0.03 50,
000 2,500
60, 3,000
000
70,
0
0.02 80, 00 4,000
0
100 00
, 5,000
120 000
300 140,000
,000 ,0
170 00
,
200 000
0.01 10,000
250,000
,
280 000 15,000
,00
0
°F 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 20,000
°C 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200

Temperature

© Schlumberger

Ing. Edwin Mendiolaza Bazaldúa UNMSM-EAP Ing. Geologica CATEDRA: Hidrocarburos


8
Spontaneous Potential—Wireline

Rweq versus Rw and Formation Temperature


SP-2
(customary, former SP-2)

0.001
500°F
400°F

0.002 300°F

200°F
SP
150°F
0.005
100°F
75°F
0.01
Saturation

0.02

Rweq or Rmfeq
(ohm-m) 0.05

0.1

0.2

500°F
400°
F
0.5 300°
F
200°
F
150
°F
Na
Cl

1.0 100
°
at

75° F
75

F
°F

2.0
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2 3 4 5
Rw or Rmf (ohm-m)
© Schlumberger

Purpose The dashed lines can also be used for gypsum-base mud filtrates.
This chart is used to convert equivalent water resistivity (Rweq ) from
Chart SP-1 to actual water resistivity (Rw). It can also be used to con- Example
vert the mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf) to the equivalent mud filtrate Given: From Chart SP-1, Rweq = 0.025 ohm-m at 250°F in
resistivity (Rmfeq ) in saline mud. The metric version of this chart is predominantly NaCl water.
Chart SP-3 on page 49. Find: Rw at 250°F.
Answer: Enter the chart at the Rweq value on the y-axis and move
Description
horizontally right to intersect the solid 250°F line. From
The solid lines are used for predominantly NaCl waters. The dashed
the intersection point, move down to find the Rw value
lines are approximations for “average” fresh formation waters (for
on the x-axis. Rw = 0.03 ohm-m at 250°F.
which the effects of salts other than NaCl become significant).
Ing. Edwin Mendiolaza Bazaldúa UNMSM-EAP Ing. Geologica CATEDRA: Hidrocarburos
48