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Vocabulary Paula Carrillo Carrasco 4ºB ESO

Black Thursday was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United
States, acting as the most significant predicting indicator of the Great Depression, when
taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
l was a series of federal programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations
enacted in the United States during the 1930s in response to the Great Depression. These
programs included support for farmers, the unemployed, youth and the elderly as well as
new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and changes to the monetary
Roosevelt was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd
President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. Roosevelt directed the
United States federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his
New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history.
Welfare State is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the
protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on
the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public
responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life.
Black shirts was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party. An all-
volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy. Its members were distinguished by their black
uniforms, and their loyalty to Mussolini, the Duce (leader) of Fascism, to whom they swore
an oath.
Vittorio Emanuele III was King of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861. He assumed the title of King
of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century.
Matteotti was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian
Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the recently held elections, and
denounced the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days later he was kidnapped and
killed by Fascists.
SA functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. It played a significant role
in Adolf Hitler's rise to power. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies
and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary
units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League
Mein Kampf is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work
describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology
and future plans for Germany. The book was edited by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.
Hindemburg was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship
of the Hindenburg class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by
envelope volume.
Beer Hall Putsch also known as the Munich Putsch, was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi
Party leader Adolf Hitler to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9 November 1923.
About two thousand Nazis marched to the centre of Munich, where they confronted the
police, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four police officers.
Enabling Act was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet
(Chancellor Adolf Hitler) the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police
agencies of Prussia into one organisation.
SS was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation. Its formations included men
from Nazi Germany, along with volunteers and conscripts from both occupied and un-
occupied lands.
Nuremberg Laws were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany. The two laws were the Law for
the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and
extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German
females under 45 in Jewish households; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that
only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were
classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights.
Kristallnacht also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom against Jews
throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces
and German civilians. The German authorities looked on without intervening.
Shoah was a genocide during World War II in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by
its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-
thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Appeasement policy in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or
material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict
Afrika Corps was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African
Campaign of World War II. First sent as a holding force to shore up the Italian defense of
their African colonies, the formation fought on in Africa, under various appellations, from
March 1941 until its surrender in May 1943. The unit's best known commander was Rommel
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union,
starting Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi
Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be
repopulated by Germans, to use Slavs as a slave-labour force for the Axis war-effort, and to
seize the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories.
Anschluss refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. There
had been strong support from people of all backgrounds – not just Nazis – in both Austria
and Germany for a union of the two countries.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet
Union signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939. The pact delineated the spheres of interest
between the two powers, confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the German–Soviet
Frontier Treaty amended after the joint invasion of Poland. It remained in force for nearly two
years, until the German government of Adolf Hitler ended the pact by launching an attack on
the Soviet positions in Eastern Poland during Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941.
The Munich Conference was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of
portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German
speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Blitzkrieg is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense
concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air
support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and
then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air
Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of
December 7, 1941. The attack, also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, led to the United
States' entry into World War II.
Battle of Stalingrad was a major confrontation of World War II in which Nazi Germany and
its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in
Southern Russia. Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in
air raids, it is often regarded as the single largest (nearly 2.2 million personnel) and bloodiest
(1.7–2 million killed, wounded or captured) battle in the history of warfare
“D” day The Normandy landings were the landing operations on+1944 of the Allied invasion
of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune
and often referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history. The operation
began the liberation of German-occupied northwestern Europe from Nazi control, and laid
the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation
that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World
War II. The operation was launched on 1944 with the Normandy landings.
Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II which
occurred between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor
and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea.
Battle of El Alamein was one of the most decisive victories in WWII. It was fought between
two of the best commanders in World War II, Montgomery for the Allies and Rommel for the
Axis between 23 October – 4 November 1942 . The victory of the Allies at El Alamein lead to
the surrender of the German forces in North Africa in 1943.