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Investigación y medición de los esfuerzos de corte en suelos cohesivos saturados

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9 visualizzazioni23 pagineInvestigación y medición de los esfuerzos de corte en suelos cohesivos saturados

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Sei sulla pagina 1di 23

Mr J. Brinch Hansen in the Chair

The following two Papers were introduced by the Authors and submitted for discussion.

On the motion of the Chairman, the thanks of the Conference were accorded to the Authors.

STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS

‘v

R. HAEFELI

SYNOPSIS

Methods for the determination of the shear D&s 1935, les laboratoires de recherches hydrau-

strength of cohesive soil have been in process of liques et de m6canique des sols annexes a 1’E.P.F.

development since 1935 in the Laboratory for Soil (Zurich) ont Btudie les methodes de determination

de la resistance au cisaillement des sols coherent%

Mechanics at the Federal Institute of Technology Ces mcthodes sont caractCrides par l’emploi com-

in Zurich, and the combined use of the ring shear bin& de l’appareil de cisaillement rotatif et de

apparatus and the triaxial apparatus has been I’appareil triaxial. Si l’on rcpartit la resistance au

specially studied. Through a division of the shear cisaillement en une part due B la cohesion et une

strength in friction and cohesion, and based on part due au frottement, on dcmontre, par dee

essais de traction et des essais de cone, que la part

tensile tests and cone tests with artificially con-

de la cohesion est a peu pr&s proportionnelle B la

solidated samples, it is proved that the cohesive pression de consolidation. Lorsqu’il n’y a pas de

part increases linearly with the pressure. For con- pression interstitielle, la relation entre r&istance au

ditions without stressed pore water the relationship cisaillement et pression de consolidation (ligne-a)

between shear strength and consolidation pressure est mise en parallble avec la relation entre resistance

au cisaillement et teneur en eau. Les circonstances

(a-line) is set up in parallel to the relationship

particulieres lors d’essais de cisaillement a l’etat

between shear strength and water content. The d&charge sont Ctudiees sur la base du changement

special conditions which must be observed during de volume pendant l’essai. En outre la notion de

shear tests with relieved samples are dictated by tension de cisaillement residuehe est introduite

the change in volume which takes place during the comme complement de la r&stance au cisaillement.

test. As a complement to the shear strength the Les relations th6oriques ont et6 control&s par

residual shear stress is introduced. une s&e d’essais et on a not6 les &arts. 11 y a une

concordance satisfaisante entre les resultats dormes

Through a number of tests. the theoretical re- par les 6chantillons consolid& par une pression

lationships are investigated and deviations estab- axiale et par une pression hydrostatique dune part

lished. The results of ring shear and triaxial et par les essais avec l’appareil de cisaillement

apparatus tests carried out with confined and rotatif et l’appareil triaxial d’autre part. Lor~qu’il

y a pression laterale active l’ essai triaxial donne de

hydrostatically consolidated samples show a satis-

bons rcsultats m&me pour de faibles hauteurs de

factory confirmation. It is proved that for active

l’cchantillon.

lateral pressures the triaxial test gives reliable

L’application pratique des bases ex@rimentales

values even for very small heights of the sample. est expode pour le problbme de la stabilite des talus

The practical applications of the test results d’un barrage. Les mouvements de rampement qui

are demonstrated by calculation of the stability precedent la rupture y jouent un role particuliere-

of a dam slope. Special attention is drawn to the ment important et sont en relation Ctroite avec

l’apparition de ruptures progressives. L’introduc-

creep before failure, which is again related to the

tion de la tension de cisaillement r6siduelle permet

progressive failure. The introduction of the re- d’app&ier de faGon simple le degr~ de dcurit6 du

sidual shear stress makes it possible to estimate, in talus en tenant compte de la rupture progressive,

a simple way, the stability for the progressive failure. resp. de la formation de surfaces de glissement.

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS 137

I. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEMS

In the development of soil mechanics the discussion about shearing strength forms an

important leitmotiv (Skempton, 1949. Tiedemann, 1937. Hvorslev, 1937). In spite of a

steady improvement in laboratory methods for determining shear strength, complete clarilica-

tion of this problem has not yet been obtained. This is due to the extremely complex nature

of this soil property, shear strength depending on a number of other properties, for example,

permeability and compressibility. In this Paper an account is given of the methods for

testing cohesive soil, adopted at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory annexed to the Federal

Institute of Technology in Zurich. In previous publications (Haefeli, 1936, 1944, 1946,

1946. Shaerer, 1946, 1946. Schaad, 1946) developments up to 1946 have been described ;

therefore only the latest progress will be considered.

This novel development has been considerably advanced by contributions from Mr L.

Bjerrum, who is at present working on a detailed investigation of the shear strength of soils.

Our Laboratory has adopted a number of new aspects resulting from his investigations, and

his contributions to our knowledge of the z3g.i

shear strength are partly taken into consider-

ation in this Paper.

-AXiil tollion I bnrolidation

Since 1936 an endeavour has been made to

II Consolidation

combine the use of the ring-shear apparatus

and the triaxial machine, based on the view

that the two apparatuses supplement each

other. For tests in an open drained system

with disturbed or artificially compacted

samples, the ring shear apparatus is suitable.

For tests in the closed undrained system

-that is, with no alteration in water content

during the shearing process-the triaxial ap-

paratus is preferred, since undisturbed or

artificially compacted samples can be used.

In the second part of the present Paper

the theoretical basis for the treatment of Tonsils bwngth of clay samples, conmolidated

shearing strength is formulated and discussed. in oedomekr, plotted as a function o! the con-

solidation presmlre

In order to control this basis a further number

of ring-shear and triaxial-shear tests were performed with artificially consolidated clay.

Part III deals with the test results at present available and Part IV gives some outlines for

the practical application of the theory.

If a clay slurry is consolidated under a gradually increasing load, the clay will become

denser, resulting in higher compression strength, higher tensile strength, higher shear strength,

cohesion, and higher modulus of compressibility. The higher the range of pressure the less

pronounced is the linear increase of the above-mentioned firmness figures and the pressure.

If, however, only a small pressure range is considered-which is often sufficient for practical

purposes-the proportionality between the consolidation pressure and the magnitude of the

above-mentioned mechanical sires provides a working hypothesis for application in practice.

Lack of accuracy may thereby be compensated by simplicity.

As an example of the above relationships, the tensile strength of a saturated clay, determined

in the centrifugal machine, is plotted in Fig. 1 as a function of the consolidation pressure ai ;

the tensile stress acting in the direction of the parallel orientation of the clay structure caused

by the consolidation pressure (Haefeli, 1939,1944,1946,1946. Schaerer, 1946,194&X Schaad,

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188 R. HAEFELI

described direct proportionality between tensile

strength and consolidation pressure can be

confirmed approximately by the test results.

In this connexion it may be noted that the

influence of capillary pressures is not exactly

stated.

Another criterion of the existence of this

direct proportion can be found by the aid of

cone-tests, the tests being carried out on soil

remoulded at the liquid limit and consolidated

in the oedometer. If the penetration of the

90-degree cone with a weight of 1 kilogram is

measured, the limiting pressure gb can be calcu-

lated as the specific stress on the cone area.

Fig. 2 shows the limiting pressure of a tile

clay (No. 4000) consolidated in the oedometer

under different pressures (beginning at the liquid

limit) ranging from 0.5 to 16 kilograms per square

centimetre. The ratio of the limiting pressure

to the consolidation pressure is approximately

1.50. For the same soil the ratio of the shearing

strength to the consolidation pressure was found

to be 0.27 ; therefore it can be concluded that

the limiting pressure is a measure for the shear

Water content 0, limiting pressure 0, and

strength, giving values 5-6 times higher than

tensile strength 0, plotted against consolid-

ation pressure those for the shearing strength. The cone test

Water content and tensile strength after can, consequently, be applied to an approximate

consolidation in oedometer,O. determination of the pre-consolidation pressure

Water content after consolidation by hydro- or the shearing strength. The ratio of the limit-

static pressure,V .

ing pressure to shearing strength has moreover

a certain inttirest for judging the load-bearing capacity of a clay with known shearing

strength.

The above examples show the importance of the relationships between shearing strength

and consolidation pressures and between shearing strength and water content. It is presumed

that consolidation starts with a material remoulded at the liquid limit and that it depends

only on the major principal stress.

Relation between shearing strength and consolidation pressure.-For unstressed pore water

the relation between shearing strength and normal pressure, u, can be illustrated by a line,

designated as the a-line (Fig. 3). Approximately, this line can be assumed straight, passing

through the origin and cutting the abscissa-axis at the angle & of apparent internal friction.

In reality it is not a question of friction only, but a sum of a friction r and a cohesion c : I

s=r+c . . . . . . . . . . . (1)

From previous tests it may be assumed that the’friction increases linearly with the

normal pressure, and the cohesion with the consolidation pressure ; that is :

rcu.tan4, . . . . . . . . . . (2)

where & denotes the true angle of internal friction.

An exact division of the total shearing strength in friction and cohesion, as made in 1937 by

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS

189

Hvorslev and in recent years by Skempton (1943) and Bjerrum (195(I), is of fundamental

importance for the understanding of shearing strength (Terzaghi, 1936). Since 1935 the

Zurich Soil Mechanics Laboratory has been working to the same end. (Haefeli, 1933, 1944,

1946, 1946. Schaerer, 1946, 1946. Schaad, 1948.)

Cohesion may be assumed to be governed by the adhesion of the absorbed water fihns,

Fig.3

Water content,

I%.

after hcarinq.

Normal rtrcsr-

;_________c_____

+j

!+____________________

pi__.___.____.__

~________Q______________

____I

. of normal pressure

which surround the individual grains. The proportional increase of cohesion with the

consolidation pressure can thus be explained by the increase in the contact area or, more

generally, by the more pronounced influence of the molecular forces.

In a drained system, as is the case in slow shear tests, the major principal stress acting in

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190 R. HAEFELI

the moment of failure, is identical with the consolidation pressure. The shear strength can

thus be expressed either by the normal pressure u or by the consolidation pressure uI

s=o.tan~,=u~.tan~~ . . . . . . . . (3)

The geometrical relationships between the three angles +,, #d, and 6 are illustrated in Fig. 4

in such a way that, if two of them are known, the third is given by the diagram.

consolidation pressure aI there exists, for normal clay, a simple relationship which is shown

in Fig. 5 by the line $fi

+I=Ad, =Aw,lo&& . . . . . . . . . . (3)

A, is the coefficient of compressibility and denotes the specific settlement due to the augmen-

tation of the consolidation pressure from u = 1 kilogram per square centimetre to u = e = 2.72

kilograms per square centimetre.

C,

A - - .0.434

e-l+cr

lr ,# void ratio for u = 1 kilogram per square centimetre.

On the other hand, the shearing strength is proportional to the consolidation pressure, and

for this reason the shearing strength can be expressed as a function of water content (Rutledge,

1947). This expression must, according to Fig. 5, be :

. . _. .

I, comparison pressure = 1 kilogram per square centimetre.

A: ), alteration in water content caused by change in consolidation pressure from

o = 1 kilogram per square centimetre to u = i kilograms per square

centimetre.

Awe’, ,, alteration in water content caused by an increase of the consolidation pressure

from u = 1 kilogram per square centimetre to a = e = 2.72 kilograms

per square centimetre.

The relationship between shearing strength and water content (#.) is thereby fixed by aid

of two values, the first of which can be determined in the oedometer (Awe), and the second

approximately in the ring-shear or triaxial apparatus (+d). With the assumption made above,

the horizontal distance between the two parallel lines GI and @, will be A - B = log, tan #,j.

With a sample consolidated at a certain pressure, the state of which is represented by the

point E of the line +r (Fig. 5), two different points of the shear line ‘&acan be obtained : the

point F by draining the test during the shear process (open system) and the point D in the

undrained or closed system (constant water content).

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS

191

OS bD

-6 0 AND W(s)

Water content a6 a function of consoIidd0n

pressure (&I), shear rdstance (‘&), and

residuaI &tear StmqYth (OR)

Alteration in cmolidatiota and water content by slow shear tests in an open or drained system-

As already proved by Hvorslev and the Author, for materials with a straight a-line a consolida-

tion and a water-content alteration during the slow shear tests can be observed, the magnitude

of which can be considered as a constant for the same material. Using equation (3) and

introducing the coefficient of compressibility A,, the above value can be expressed by the

angles 4, and ‘$d.

tan

4, . . . (5)

Settlement before failure :

[ 1

-4

In the former paragraphs only those shearing processes were considered in which the

major principal stress is equal to the consolidation pressure. Below, failure conditions will

be considered when the major principal stress is either higher or lower than the consolidation

pressure.

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192 R. HAEFELI

Shearing Strevzgth in a closed or undrained system with pore-water pressure (right-hand for T,

Fig. 6).-The dependence between shearing strength and normal pressure is, in the closed

system with pore-water pressures, given in Fig. 6 by the horizontal c-line. Since the c-line cuts

the Mohr’s circles, the shearing strength must be somewhat less than half the difference

between the major and minor principal stresses ; that is,

s -_ =I - WI

cos l& . .

2 ’

which must be taken into consideration in triaxial tests.

On the other hand, if in the closed system the shearing strength is determined as a function

of the consolidation pressure o,, a straight line, the d-line, will be found, cutting the abscissa

axis at the angle +,+ This line is identical with the shearing line found in the ring shear

apparatus by quick tests (+a = +W). (Terzaghi and Peck, 1948).

Shearing strength of the relieved material (left-hand for T).-For the shear strength a re-

loading will be effective only if the major principal stress, which may be present during the

shear, is lower than the consolidation pressure ; that is, if (I < uI (Fig. 6).

If, during the relieving and subsequent shearing the condition of constant volume and

water content is exactly fulfilled, the cohesion will be unaltered, and the shearing strengths will

consequently form a straight line, the b-line, which makes an angle r& with the horizontal

axis. Since these conditions can scarcely be real&d, the b-line is of more theoretical im-

portance, first as an ideal limiting condition and secondly as tangent to the Mohr’s circle at

the point T.

In reality, the shearing strength depends, for a given consolidation pressure and equal

reloading, on the special test conditions ,* that is, on whether the tests are carried out below

or over water, as quick or slow tests, etc.

Shear resistance plotted agfCn6t normal preaeura for open syclbm (a-line).

and closed eystem (c-line)

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS

I93

If in the ring-shear apparatus slow tests under water are carried out with considerably

relieved samples after a complete. swelling, a rising of the sample is observed before faihue,

as stated by Hvorslev. Figs 7 illustrate an attempt to explain this phenomenon.

With much relief in the ring-shear apparatus, the ccefhcient of the pressure at rest will be

higher than 1, conditioned by the horizontal confinement. The horizontal pressure u will,

in this case, be the major principal stress (q,J In such a case it may then happen that

during the shearing process a decrease of the major principal stress will occur. This is

expressed in Figs 7 by the two stress circles (4 and 5), representing the begimring and the

end of the shear test, intersecting. The result is a small rise of the sample surface (Fig. 8)

+________ct__ ____ 4 i i

b__________.___

c_‘-oi. __--___-+._- .____

AQr_______

+

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194 R. HAEFELI

which, however, occurs only in the case of much relief ; for smaller reloadings a settlement will

take place, the magnitude of which will increase the less the sample is relieved. Analogously,

with the critical porosity, introduced by Casagmnde (1935) and the critical normal pressure

for sands mentioned by Terzaghi and Peck (EM), there exists a critical reloading pressure ok

or a critical ratio 0, : oI for which the sample retains its volume unaltered during the shear

test (Fig. 8, point K-Hvorslev 1937). In this special case constant cohesion or constant

water content occurs during the test.

The relationship between shearing strength and water content given by equation 4 for

primary loading is invalid for relieved conditions. In Fig. 5 the dependence between shearing

strength and water content for this case is illustrated diagrammatically by the two dotted

arrows. For a given water content the shearing strength will thus decrease with increasing

consolidation pressure.

If, on the other hand, the failure condition is brought about by an increment of the forces

above water-that is, with the entire effect of the capillary pressures-an envelope to the

failure conditions is obtained, as shown in Fig. 8 by the line T, - C*. This condition

arises in the tensile test, the compression test, and the test of pure shear, during which the

I Nol-lnol r1nJs.u

i

~.~_~~~._~~___._...__~__________.~__________.______________~___.

Shcarmmiatanceaudchangehvolwrroamafunctiondnormal~:

1,-c* : ~~~ple,~~~doonab~watar(cap~ affect)

T,C: relievedmample, shear test done below water (swelliq and

=d-WI)

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS 195

lateral deformations are unconfined. The line T, - C* is nearly horizontal, as assumed in

the + = o analysis.

By residual shearing stress is meant the specific friction, which remains in the sliding

surface after complete retarding of the shearing operation. Experiments under similar con-

ditions were first made with snow, when the value 0 was found for the residual shearing stress

-an expression of the complete plasticity of that material (Haefeli, 1939). In 1938

corresponding tests were made with clay, using the ring shear apparatus, which had been

fitted with a dynamometer as retarding device (Figs 9). (Haefeli, 1939, 1944, 1946, 1948.

Schaerer, 1946, 1948. Schaad, 1946.)

With the definition given above, it must be noted that the residual shearing stress is not

identical with the minimum shearing strength present immedia;tely after rupture. The latter

is dependent on the pore-water pressure occurring at rupture because of sudden settlement

(disturbance of structure in the sliding surface). The residual shearing stress on the other

hand, is measured only some time after rupture actually occurs ; that is after motion (settle-

ment and transverse displacement) has quite ceased and the pore water is relieved of pressure.

This shearing stress therefore expresses only the weakening of the material through the

formation of sliding surfaces. Any renewed increase in shearing strength which may after-

wards occur-for instance because of thixotropy, is consequently not considered in the.

residual shearing stress (Hvorslev, 1937).

The practical importance of the residual shearing stress lies in its adoption when criticizing

questions of stability. The relation between the residual shearing stress and the shearing

strength is then of special interest :

=s-“;a+ts5!h, . . _ . . . - (8)

tan +R

0

tan4s

Since III the case of the residual shearing stress we are dealing with a specific friction,

which still remains after loss of cohesion in consequence of the formation of sliding surfaces,

the question must be investigated as to whether the angle +n may be identified with the angle

& of the true internal friction.

For a constant value of +n, the dependence of the residual shearing strength on the water

content can, according to Fig. 5, be represented in an analogous manner as for the shearing

strength (straight line @n).

The test materials used were clays with’the characteristics shown in Table 1. The older

tests of 1942 and 1945 were supplemented by new tests, all samples being packed into the

different consolidation appliances at the liquid limit.

Table 1

Co&l&ah of the materials wed for the t%ate

the material year per cent. perucAt. per cent. per cent. per %nt.

1632 Brick clay 1945 55.7 22.9 32.8 ;:; 2.72 31.4

4000 Brick clay 1950 41.1 16.6 24.5 7.4 2-69 26.5

A, = coefficient of compressibility ; yI = specific gravity of the solid substance.

w = water content for n = 1 kilogram per square centimetre (prepared at liquid limit).

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196 R. HAEFELI

The test series were carried out by Mr H. Huggler, civil engineer, and the following ap-

paratus was used : oedometer, cone-test apparatus, rotary tensile-strength testing apparatus,

ring shearing apparatus and triaxial apparatus. On the suggestion of Mr Bjerrum the con-

solidation of the triaxial test samples was carried out in a special big water tank, allowing

consolidation under a hydrostatic pressure of up to 16 kilograms per square centimetre. The

results of the tests are illustrated in Figs 16-16 and may be summarised as follows :

(1) The final water contents obtained, on the one hand in the oedometer and on the

other hand with compression on all sides, agreed very well (Figs 2 and 13). Thus,

at least within the scope of the test conditions, the assumption is confirmed that

the first chief stress is decisive for the consolidation.

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS

197

(2) The deviations found in each of the five tests in the ring shearing apparatus reached

at the most about 5 per cent. In the case of materials not filled in at the liquid

limit, a remarkable decrease of the angle +# was found in the region of the u-line

when the normal stress increased from 1 to 4 kilograms per square centimetre.

The decrease amounted to about 18 per cent in the case of clay 1632, and to about

15 per cent. for clay B, (Figs 10).

(3) The change in water content Aw,, measured in the ring shearing apparatus with clay

4000 during the slow shearing of primarily consolidated samples (u-line), agrees

with the calculated value (Equation 6 and Fig. 11). The settlements observed

when shearing display the characteristic run illustrated in Fig. 8. In the case of

---_

4.0 1.486 0.971

4.0 1.480 0970

1.470 OaS

::; 1.488 0.972

4.0 1.474 oa9

---.

Average 1.480 0970

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198 R. HAEFELI

greatly relieved samples (4-5 kilograms per square centimetre) slight rising

occurred,as had been observed and explained by Hvorslev (Figs 11 and 12).

(4) For relieved material, consolidated at 4 kilograms per square centimetre, unconfined

compression and tensile tests were carried out in the triaxial apparatus above

water; showing a slight inclination of the envelope TI - C* (courbe ilrtrinsique.

Fig. 11).

(5) The line #r shown in Fig. 13, which represents the dependence of water content on

consolidation pressure for clay 4006, shows a certain deviation from the theoretical

straight line when pressures exceed 4 kilograms per square centimetre. This

anomaly is probably due, to a certain extent, to a systematic error in determining

the direct water content in heavily consolidated samples (disturbance by swelling).

(6) The straight line Q8 given in Fig. 13, which represents the relation between shearing

strength and water content for clay 4666, shows that the shearing strengths

determined without relieving, either in the triaxial apparatus or in the ring

shearing apparatus, agree well with those calculated from theoretical principles.

Only values measured during the relieved ring shearing tests show the expected

deviation (Fig. 5).

Shearrtmictance~,

water content, and volume chaqp

plottedagednatnornmlpreu9ro (day4ooo: neealmo

Fio. 8)

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Nga 12

SE = 0.293 kilogram per square centimetre

SB

= 0.755 = Aa

s

W, = 23.6 per cent.

hl = 13.734 millimetres

0.153

As =-lm= - 1.11 per cent.

m

W, denotes water content at end

hr ., height of sample (for consolidation pressure :

(I = 1 kg. per sq. cm.).

SR = 0.430 kilogram per square centimetre

‘-!! = 0.928 =

.c

YE-

b = 13.489 millimetres

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,

Changes in volume aad height of sample during shear test (material 4000)

Top : rise of t$e relieved sample surface during shear process (consolidation pressure = 4 kg. per sq. cm., normal pressure

during shear bst = 0.5 kg. par eq. cm.)

Bottom: settl~entfor.no~~st(~~,inOp~~~tem(CO~s~datiOnpre~~~ = 4kg.par sq.om. = normal pressure).

200 R. RAEFELI

(7) In agreement with theoretical considerations the two straight lines G1 and G8

mentioned above are practically parallel for clay.4000. The point of intersection

A of the straight line U$ with the horizontal line w = w1 gives tan +d = 0-n.

This value of tan +d corresponds to the result obtained in the ring shearing ap-

paratus (Fig. 11). By plotting the constant change’in water content Aw,, two

corresponding points of the two lines or, and c?&for drained shear processes are

obtained. For an individual material 4000, the consolidation of which started

with the liquid limit, some agreement between the theory based on a simple

hypothesis and the results of the tests has been determined, but may not yet

be assumed to be generally applicable.

(8) The definition of the residual shearing stress and of its experimental determination

requires further restriction and exact definitions. Tests hitherto made with

Fig. 13

cl+ = AW, = AW.. 1og.b

Water oontant a8 a fnnction oi consolidation pmaaurC (@I) and ahear rcmmallco (OS). Ring-

ahcar apparatus,c : biaxial apparatum,A. (Material 4000 : sea Ng. 6)

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SHEAR STRENGTHS OF SATURATED COHESIVE SOILS 201

Fig. 14

RAnoA,. FOR u. 1 KC. RR IO. CM.

a f’unction of liquid limit

about thirty different kinds of soil gave the loose connexion illustrated in Fig. 14

between the ratio A, on the one hand (ratio between residual shearing stress and

shearing strength, determined for Q = 1 kilogram per square centimetre) and the

liquid limit on the other hand.

In the relieved state of the material, An will be smaller the more the material is relieved

before shearing, or the greater the cohesion part of the shearing strength that disappears

when the sliding surfaces form. The question whether the angle +n can be identified with

the angle +r of the true internal friction remains open.

From what has already been said, it will be seen that the shearing tests were in the first

place intended to determine the angle +a of apparent friction (thereby friction and cohesion

are included), and the angle +, of true internal friction. The combined adoption of ring-

shearing and triaxial apparatus serves this purpose.

Since 1948, on the suggestion of Mr Bjerrum, the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Zurich has

intensified his endeavour to investigate exactly the relations between shearing strength and

consolidation pressure (oi) on the one hand, and between shearing strength and water content

on the other hand. The application of these new methods to practical cases has led to simpler

and clearer solutions than the methods formerly adopted.

If, in the case of consolidation of the disturbed material, a start is made from the liquid

limit, with all-round or hydrostatic consolidation pressure, not only homogeneous but

also isotropic samples are obtained, and for them the angle 4, at the inclination of the

surfaces of rupture can be checked (Fig. 15).

On undisturbed samples the compressive strength is determined with unhindered lateral

extension. In addition, triaxial tests are made in the region with pore-water pressure. When

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SBEAR STRENGTHS OF SATWRATED COHESl[VE SOILS 203

ah active, continually increasing lateral pressure and constant vertical pressure are applied,

the triaxial test gives perfect results, even when the height of the sample is only half its

diameter (Fig. 17). Qn the other hand, triaskl tests on undisturbed and disturbed samples,

using controlled stress and active lateral pressure, were applied to study the creep

phenomena in connexion with the measurement of the viscosity, q, as a function of stress

conditions (Fig. 18). To that purpose the following relation was established (Haefeli-

Schaerer, 1946) :

f% (04- %J ;a=-. a . . . . . . ,(Ql

‘1 =I.* 2a dt

where m. denote the Poisson ratio fyr plastic compression and a the vertical strain velocity

of the samgk For 9+ = 2 (no dramage, constant volume) equation (9) becomes identical

with the fonnufa given by Geuze and Tan Tjong Rie (1950). For longduration tests special

creep apparat:uses are necessary.

.ActiveIa~pmss~s bycoxdaatvertiolrlpressum

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R. EAEPEILX

N -.----. .--.

.z.

/---

t -------

?L._______._i_-___‘_.-

-t i

! %

: c

_.B

~,____.%_

._-ii::

i

?6!Etrci

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SHEAR STLaENCTBS OF SAlURAiED COHESIVE SOILS w

Therefore, also when judging relieved soils, the greatest care should be taken and any cleavage

should be considered. If there is much cleavage, it is, strictly speaking, only ,possible to

calculate with the residual shearing stress. The difference between residual shear@ stress

and shearing strength will be the greater, the more .the material has been pie-loaded.

Finally a practical case will be explained in order to illustrate how a consideration of the

residual shear strength influences the stability calculation. Fig: 22 shows the upstream

slope of an earth dam constructed of a cohesive core material, zone 1, and the cohesionless

permeable zones 2,3, and 4. As a first approximation tl e maximum water level is admitted

as decisive for the consolidation ; that is, all the intere&d zones are subject to uplift. The

most unfavourable case is then the sudden draw-down of the water level, the safety factor

being defined as the ratio between the sum of the possible shear strengths along the sliding

surface and the sum of the active shear forces.

The calculation of the shear strength in the cohesionless zones 2-4 can,be made from the

equation s = u . tan 4, where a denotes the normal stress on the sliding surface for lowered

water level. The determination of the normal stress is-itself a vast problem, which may

result in different solutions, dependent on conception of the failure process and the producing

forces.

As stated above, the consolidation pressure for maximum water level, which can be assumed

approximately equal to the overburden pressure (or = yl’ ‘.k) is decisive for the shear strength

of the cohesive material. In this equation y,” denotesthe average unit weight of the soil below

water. Consequently we have, after equation (3),

Py,“.k. tan+, . . . . . . . . . . (10)

The rise of pore pressure is.thereby taken into account since. in the zone of draw-down, the

active shearing forces are calculated without uplift and the &earing strengths, on the

contrary, for full uplift.

Taking the progressive failure into consideration, the shear strengths have to be reduced

according to the ratio tan 4n : tan (bd. In our example for cohesionless material this ratio

was taken as 0%. Cn principle an analogous, but numerically larger reduction of the shear

strength is applied to the cohesive materials, for which the difference between residual and full

shear strength is more pronounced. In the above example a reduction of 20 per cent. is used.

By the consideration of the progressive failure it is also possible to translate the problems

to pure friction, the shearing strength of the cohesive zone being calculated as the product of

normal stress and coefficient of friction.

In Fig. 22 the safety factor for one given sliding surfau+calculated according to the above

described methods-is plotted as a function of the stage in water level during the draw-down.

It is directly seen that a calculation of the progressive failure for this example results in only

small reductions of the safety factors, the cohesionless materials prevailing.

Fig. 22 shows, moreover, that for each sliding surface there exists a critical draw-down of

the water level, &, for which a minimum value of N, results. Inversely another very dangerous

sliding surface corresponds to each stage of the lowered water level. During the draw-down the

decisive slip surface consequently shifts down and simultaneously changes the shape. For

a most critical stage of the water level an absolute minimum value of the safety factor

will be reached. (Gruner and Haefeli, 1934). Normally this minimum value does not torte-

spond to a full draw-down, but may occur for an essentially higher stage of the lowered

water level.

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io8 R.. .HAPFEEQ

REFEREWCES

BJI~RRUY, L+&XO~, F;hndamentalconsiderations onthe shear.strength et soil. G&ecksdqrre. 2 : 209-Z@

QSAGRABDB,,& 19g,. Characte$stics of cohesionless soils affecting the stability of slopes and earth

tills. Bull; Hikiard Univ. Grad. Sch. Eng. No. 173, Soil A$ech. Series.’ No. 2. 32 pp.

GUEZE, E.d:Wi Ali and TAN TJ~?+G Km, 1950. The shearing properties of soils. CMschnique. 2: 141-181

GRUNER, H. E+-+d HAEFELI,!R., 1934. Beitrag, zur Untersuchung des physikalischen nnd statischen

Verhaltens koh&renter Bodenarten. (Testing the physical and static properties of cohesive so+.)

SchwizetiscW Bbuzeitung. ‘, 103 : 171-174, 1851188.

HAEFELI, R., 1938. Mechanische Eigenschaften von Lockergesteinen. (Mechanical properties of loose

stones.) SchweWr&he Bauxeitnng. 11 I : 299-303, 321325.

HAEFELI, R., 1939. Schneemechanik mit Hinweisen auf die Erdbaumechanik. (Snow mechanics and its

application to soil mechanics.) Dissertation E.T.H., Zurich.

HAEFELX. R., 1942. Spannungs-und Plastisitatserscheinungen der Schneedecke. (Stress and plasticity

of snow blanket.) Mitteilungen No. 2 der Versuchsanstalt fJr Wasserbau an &r E.T.H.

HABFBLI, R., 1944. Erdtiumechanische Probleme im Lichte der Schneeforschung. (Soil mechanics

problem in the light of experiments on snow.) M&&ilungen der Versuchsanstatt firr Wasserbau an dc*

.E.T.H.. Zurich., SJo.11.

HAB~.ELI, R., and SCEABRER. CH., 1946. Der Triaxialap rat. (The triaxial apparatus.) Mittci&rgea

de? Versuchsa+@lt fi?r Wasserbau nnd Erdbau ah’der l? .T.H.. Zurich. No. il.

HABFEU; R., 1948. Shearing strength and water content, a complement to the shearing theory. Proc.

Secmd Int. Con. Soil. iMe&. 3 : 3844.

HVORSLEV, M. J., 1937.. Uebei’ die’Fest.igkeitseigenschaften gestorter bindiger Bljden. (On the physical

properties of disturbed cohesive soils.) Ingeniervidenskabelige Sktifter. A. No. 45. 159 pp.

RU~LEDCE, P. C.. 1947. Triaxial shear research. Prog..Aep. of Soil Mech. Fact Finding Survey, U.S.

Waterw. Expt. Sta.

SCHAERER, CH., SCHAAD, W., and HABFELI; R., 1949. Contribution to the shearing theory. Proc. Se&d

fnt. Cmzf. Soil Me& 5 : 12-19.

SKB;PT;T~~A. W., 1948. A study of the gedtechnical properties of some post-glacial clays. G6oo(echniquc.

SKEM~TON A W., 1949. Alexandre Collin, a note on his pioneer work in soil mechanics. Cktechniqw.

1 21A2il:

-: ! --- ----

TERZAGH~, K., 1936. The shearing resistance of saturated soils and the angle between the planes of shear.

Pr&. First Int. Con, Soii Mech. 1 : 54-56.

TERZAGHI, K., and PECK, R., 1948. Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, New York. 566 pp.

TIEDBMANN, B., 1937. Uebei die Schubfestigkeit bindiger B6den. (On the shearing strength of cohesrve

soils.) Bautechnik. 15 : 400-403, 433-435.

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