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1.

0 Experiment No: 04

2.0 Name of the experiment: Study of manual lifting operation and determination of the
recommended weight limit using NIOSH lifting equation

3.0 Introduction: The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) felt the
need for the development of a technique to mitigate the effects of Low Back Pain (LBP)
and Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) associated with lifting and
lowering tasks. The NIOSH lifting equation included aspects such as asymmetry, coupling,
frequency etc. for manual lifting. Manual handing is an important application of
ergonomics principles that particularly addresses back injury prevention. A large
proportion of the accidents which occurs in industry involve the manual lifting or handling
of goods. These parameters proved to be of greater importance and more training is required
for their use. The equation was designed to provide a limit beyond which there would be a
need to take ergonomic measures to curtail the risks. A study indicated that approximately
650,000 workers every year suffer injuries and illnesses caused by overexertion, repetition
etc. which have caused the US businesses to incur compensations between $15 to $20
billion dollars a year Back injuries prevail as most common and costly in agriculture too.
NIOSH has produced a work practice guide for the design of manual handling tasks has
been issued in determining safe loads. In Europe, a new directive for design of these task
has been issued in 1990 and U.K. health and safety commission conductive document
provides interesting proposals for the design of manual tasks.

4.0 Objectives:
 To study manual lifting operation.
 To determine recommended weight by using the NIOSH lifting equation.
 To ensure workers safety in different lifting related workstation.

5.0 Study related theory:


Recommended weight limit (RWL): The RWL is the principle product of the revised NIOSH
lifting equation. The RWL is defined for a specific set of task condition as the weight of the
load that nearly all healthy workers could perform over a substantial period of time without an
increased risk of developing lifting related LBP. By healthy workers who are free of adverse
health conditions that would increase their risk of musculoskeletal injury.
The RWL is defined by the following equation:
RWL = LC× HM× VM× DM ×AM× FM× CM

LM = load constant
HM = horizontal multiplier
VM = vertical multiplier
DM = distance multiplier
AM = asymmetric multiplier
FM = frequency multiplier
CM = coupling multiplier

Lifting Index (LI):


The LI is a term that provides a relative estimate of the level of physical stress associated with
a particular manual lifting task. The estimate of the level of physical stress is define by the
relationship of the weight of the load lifted and the recommended weight limit.

The LI is defined by the following equation:

𝐿
LI = Load weight/ recommended weight limit RWL =
𝑅𝑊𝐿
6.0 Methodology:

Problem description: A punch press operator routinely handles small parts, feeding them into
a press and removing them. A cursory view of this task many overlook the fact that once per
shift the operator must load a heavy reel of supply stock from the floor onto the machine. The
diameter of the reel is 30 inches, the width of the reel between the worker’s hands is 12 inches,
and the reel weight 44 lbs. significant control of the load is required at the destination of the
lift due to the design of the machine. Also the worker cannot get closer to the roll because the
roll is awkward.
Data Collection a Calculation:

Data collection Worksheet


Dept.: Manufacturing Job: Punch Press Stock

Object Hand Location Vertical Angle Frequ Time Object


Weight Destination -ency Coupling
(Lbs) (Inches)

Origin Destination Origin Destina Lifts HRS


(Inches) (Inches) -tion /min

L H V H V D A A F C

44 23 15 23 63 48 0 0 0.2 1 fair
(assumed)

This problem is to be solved by following steps:

Step 1: Determine Task Variables Needed: To determine the task variables needed: Gather
information, interview supervisors, group leaders, and workers to determine the origin (start
position) and the destination (ending position) of the lifting or lowering task, and whether
significant control of the object being lifted or lowered is required at the destination of the lift.
Step 2: Measure and Record Task Variables: The next step is to gather the needed
information and perform the measurements for each lifting task variable, and record the data
to be used later to calculate the RWL and LI for the tasks being evaluated.

Step 3: Enter Data / Calculate RWL and LI: In step 2, we determined and recorded the
lifting task variables in our worksheet. Now the RWL and LI is to be measured.
Origin of Lift:
LC=51 lb = fixed factor
HM = 10/H = 10/ 23 = 0.43
VM = (1–0.0075|V-30|) =1- 0.0075 | 15-30| = 0.89
DM = (0.82+(1.8/D)) =(0.8 +(1.8/48)) = 0.86
AM = (1-(0.0032A)) =1 -0.0032*0 = 1
FM : 1 ( For F= 0.2 lift /min)
CM : 0.95 For fair grip as V < 30 inches
So, RWL = LC * HM* VM *DM *AM*FM*CM
=51*0.43*0.89*0.86*1*1*0.95= 15.95 lbs

And Lifting Index ,LI = Weight / RWL


= 44/15.95 =2.76
Destination of Lift:
LC=51 lbs = fixed factor
HM = 10/H = 10/ 23 = 0.43
VM = (1–0.0075|V-30|) =1- 0.0075 | 63-30| = 0.75
DM = (0.82+(1.8/D)) =(0.8 +(1.8/48)) = 0.86
AM = (1-(0.0032A)) =1 -0.0032*0 = 1
FM : 1 ( For F= 0.2 lift /min)
CM : 1 For fair grip as V >30 inches
So, RWL = LC * HM* VM *DM *AM*FM*CM
=51*0.43*0.75*0.86*1*1*1= 14.14 lbs
And Lifting Index ,LI = Weight / RWL
= 44/14.14 =3.11
7.0 Result:
Origin: The origin of the lift is acceptable and safe since LI<3
Destination: The end of the lift is dangerous since LI>3. This could be point where serious
back injury occur.

8.0 Limitation: Revised NIOSH does not apply for


1. Lifting with one hand.
2. Lifting/lowering for over 8 hours.
3. Lifting/lowering while seated or kneeling.
4. Lifting/lowering while carrying, pushing or pulling.
5. Lifting/lowering unreasonable foot floor coupling (<0.4 co-efficient of friction between
the sole and the floor).

9.0 Discussion: In this lab different preferable lifting weight for worker in this selected
problem has been calculated by NIOSH lifting equation. This paper focuses on presenting
literature on the NIOSH Lifting Equation, which is used for calculating injure-free lifting
capabilities for workers who perform two-handed manual lifting tasks and using the study as a
basis for applying it to a manufacturing company Technocrats India, Nagpur. The papers
acquired for the study focus on the importance of the equation to reduce the effect of Low Back
Pain (LBP) associated with various lifting operations. The result of the study is a systematic
research and compilation of various aspects of the equation and its applications at construction
sites and industrial organizations and its use at a manufacturing company where the
manufacturing process comprises the machining of the Cylinder Body part and Valve body
part. The equation will be used for these to know the effect of the work on workers. The final
assessment of the study is that for successful outcomes for reduction in Work related
Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) and LBP, the equation should be thoroughly considered
for manual lifting practices.
10.0 Conclusion:
The NIOSH Lifting Equation has its application in a variety of fields to reduce the Low Back
Pain caused by manual lifting tasks at workplaces. The study based on these applications is
being used to know effectiveness of lifting tasks in order to ensure safe working practices of
workers at Technocrats. The result shows increased LI for all the 8 operators working on the
Cylinder Body part machining. Suggestions regarding using proper heighted tables and roller
conveyers were made so that the working will be more protective of workers. This study is
applicable for in knowing the effectiveness of lifting operation to ensure safe working place.