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1

MSE 305A
Materials Processing
LECTURE:2

JAN 9TH 2018


lattice.mse.iitk.ac.in/~shashank/MSE305
Exp-3: Molding 2
characteristics

Mold must possess:


Strength (Compressive and shear)
Permeability
Surface Hardness
Thermal stability
Collapsibility 207-18 Semester-II
Exp-3: Molding 3

characteristics

Figure (left) Universal strength tester used for measuring compressive


strength and shear strength; (right) Permeability testing equipment

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Exp-4: Shrinkage Behavior 4

in Casting
What are these defects?
Why do they arise?

secondary pipes primary pipes

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Exp-4: Shrinkage Behavior 5
in Casting

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Mikell P. Groover

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Exp-5: Fluidity of Aluminum 6

Alloys
 Scientific Definition: Inverse of
viscosity (exact quantity)
 Foundry Definition: Distance
that a liquid metal will flow into
a mould cavity and is thus a
relative quantity
 As molten metal is introduced
into a mould cavity it loses
thermal energy to the walls of
the mould and eventually it
begins to freeze

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Exp-5: Fluidity of Aluminum 7

Alloys  Factors
 Initial metal temperature
 Heat extracting power of the mould material including the
effect of any insulating die coating that are applied
 Kinetic energy of the metal (will be different for different kinds
of moulds, eg. sand mould casting vs pressure die casting)
 Purity of the metal/ alloy is also very important
 Composition of alloy (Remember Al-Si alloy)

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Exp-6 Investment Casting 8

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Exp-7: Microstructural evaluations 9
of MMAW, MAG and TIG

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Exp-7: Microstructural evaluations 10
of MMAW, MAG and TIG

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Exp-8: Powder Metallurgy 11

study of copper powders

Automobile parts
(Ref: Twohyun Powder
Metallurgy Co. Ltd

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Exp-8: Powder Metallurgy 12

study of copper powders

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Exp-9: Severe plastic 13

deformation

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Exp-9: Severe plastic 14

deformation
Sample eEF Ɛ̇s α β LnZ TEF Vickers
- (Strain) (s-1) (K) Hardne
conditi ss
on (kgf/m
m2)

0L 8.7 56.1 1.20E-03 0.95 31.11 361.4 154

0M 5.9 937.7 2.10E-02 0.80 30.69 451.5 147

0H 4.9 2376.5 5.46E-02 0.70 30.60 482.7 109

20L 5.9 76.0 1.70E-03 0.94 32.07 344.2 163

20M 3.9 1289.9 3.06E-02 0.77 32.42 409.9 161

20H 3.4 3134.5 7.58E-02 0.66 32.38 436.6 159

30M 2.6 1736.4 4.36E-02 0.73 33.90 377.5 154

30H 2.3 4028.4 1.02E-01 0.61 33.89 400.3 152

(Note the hardness for bulk Cu: Hv= 46 kg-f/mm2) 207-18 Semester-II
15

Solidification
Introduction 16

 Science of Solidification is very important because


 Solidification is applied to a wide range of materials from metals
and alloys to ceramics to polymers
 Solidification is of such importance simply because one of its major
practical applications, namely casting, is a very economic method
of forming a component
 Properties of casting is not easy to control, hence understanding the
science behind it is important to manipulate the process to achieve
desired results
 Manufacture of every man-made object involves solidification at
some stage and hence it is economical and relatively easier to
achieve desired characteristics of the final component by
controlling process at solidification stage itself
 Purification of some metals

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Introduction 17

Important processes which Involve solidification:


 Casting:  Rapid Solidification Processing:
 Ingot  Melt-spinning
 Die  Planar-flow casting
 Investment  Atomization
 Continuous  Surface remelting
 Joining:  Directional Solidification
 Welding  Bridgman
 Soldering / Brazing  Czochralski

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Dhokra art form
18

Turbine Blade
Manifold
What is Moradabad in UP famous for?
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Casting 19

 Process in which molten metal flows by gravity or other force into


the mold where it solidifies in the shape of mold cavity.
 Step involved are
1. Melt the metal
2. Pour it into a mold
3. Allow it to freeze
 Capability and advantage of casting
 Can create complex part geometries, 3-D shapes
 Can create both external and internal shapes and large hollow shapes
 Near net shaping process for small to large parts both for ferrous and
non ferrous materials
 Relatively quick and mass production process with low scrap
 Reasonable to good surface finish
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Casting 20

 Disadvantages
1. Mechanical strength is poor
2. Surface finish is required !!

 Casting processes for metals


• Sand casting – 60%
• Investment casting – 7%
• Die casting – 9%
• Permanent mold casting – 11%
• Centrifugal casting – 7%
• Shell mold casting – 6%

2017-18 Semester-II