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A. Logunov and M.


:The r/(/fatzvzstzc
0/ (jravltatlon
Mir Publishers Moscow
The Relativistic Theory ofGravitation
A. A. n OryHOB, M. A. Mecrea peme anu


ALogunov and M.Mestvirishvili

The Relativistic

Mir Publishers Moscow
Tl'IUIaitd It1lCII Ilw a.......
by t . ... Y, nb" 'y

Fi.. .... 11tMl 1981l

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u d dr-lip of thl. banI<. w. ~u ld .130
be pl..tH to l'Kt;. , ' ny otbt r!IIftMl iOllS
you lII'y. WI 10 makl .
OUt . dd it ,
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2 ......,. Rilla", 1'. .-10..
1-110. GSP, Al_ . 1NS20

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1S81 f ~1 c ~_ W ~ y••-.pc;ntn, t lJlll

o Ell(i illl trIaIl. t' -. Wi. PaW...... l iflil
Con tents

1111'0,11,,11... 6
Cl. . ptu I . c,.;';c.ol l'lem.. 1u Cc>IICfl1ling the E" ui•• l, nco Principle l~

Chapl.. 2. ElIt'1y-M omeMulII ""u dOl.tnlO~ " I tluo C.a.llall on, 1 Field ill cn 11,r 3. Inorn al Ma.. in GH IP
OIapie. 4 . E..../'i y-ll!<)l;IIOnw... CoaM.'lltloo ill en 26
Cbopleo S. ElInV'- /!tn...e.>tulIl aDd Mll"Ia. N_tum Coourr.uioo •• ne lU8 10
Ge<l.... try 01 S~Tim. 30
tMpltf •. '"'" ~tI'i ..lioo P'riDCipJ", a"" e-nl liTO R,lal.i_ J3
OIaplcf 1. Tloe Basic ~ti tf 43
Olopl.. 8. !ITO Eq... lI01Dt 4$
CMpl et t. Rolati...,.,bi,. 8ft.._ thoo c.o_ical £ n-u ..w_I... T..-- 'DOl lb.
Hilbtrt T _ S3
CMplcf I' . T1le c...,. Pri llClpt. alld ... UIII~ 01 I'" RTO t.qn....... S1
Q.aple. I I. A e.-.... i.. li'"' of RTG Sf"Ie- of EII... t i _ &%
OIa pler 12. Sollll"" 01 RTO £" ...11_ G6
n .1 'The Yield of _ "plle . kaUy Sf ......lrk Ob)etl M •
11. 2 n.. Eltl:rio. AaiayrnlDe l .le Solotl Oll lcr a Spitlll!J>a' "' ... n
Chople. 13 . C•• • ;l u iood Colla pH M
o...pler U . The Cra . ; uoUoo" Field 01 a NOQ.IIUi c Sph..h:a Uy S)' wmel,; t ObJot l In
RTC . Rlrkboll '. T~ 'li6

Cbopter U . Grnilat;OQI.I WIl' .

Cbtopl tf 16. A H OlDorn-" _lid llOt

Cbtopl tf 17. r-,.N,...-IC.i.o" A,prolI

ic U..
hOll ill RTG
t 08

Olopt tr 18. RTO .oad Sobt-S)'Oleal On ' ;latlOOLO.l £Iper;_ta. A.. bil"iti. i. 1M
Prodlcl\oll. of GR 13&
16.1 Eq"" I;, y 01 the ...ertlal aDOl G.nllatl_1 A1_ •• RTe 138
18.2 ~ Eq.. tiou of 1oI0U000 oI a Bool y A1ool • • GeooIePt" tile Su',
e.....,..'........ '~ld 141
1&.3 Ddfttioll of Lie bl , rut Hadio w,_
i . tile S"o'a G'ui, fleW 143
18.4 'lM S~ l f , of Nere..,.', P. .hal. 140ll
UU T ; m~ Otb y 01 n .,jj,o Sip_b i. l.ile"SM ', CrUilal~ I'"..t<! tSl\ll, ll'O"
E" d j I ' i
18.$ PH ;"" of 11...01111100 01 , 'l et t Bod,. III OrIN , 1S5

15.1 SbiFObrr·. Elocl . 58
13.S ~oa of • G~ 1m Orbit 16\
t 3.i OR u d GruiutiOOllt Ell....... ill tho Sol., S f6UIII. c..cl1Ai.. 11$
a..pta- It. Pw$. Now....... lawlf'lla 01 Wot,,,,, I. liTO 1&$
£.u_"'" O')Icu )( 0", AI... Goood. . ill .... 11 1.,. .....S~T; .a1
Qapter ZOo 0.
l.GOl.O.OO e-...-u-
P_·X... n-t.. of
L.o.. . "" N.tric e;.".. i u lJ...
on. Eq u t.iGG of 3h.ll . . of l~ CoD&« of W_ ' " all £:r kllded O bJoc.t
n. GeocI'esk MoUOIII Eq lJca ISO
20.4 TIl. EArth'. hMlft Q ll.llti .....l MaN 181
ZO.S o.n.
UOll of tho " ~ Oll of tho Eaf l.h', Ceotil' of 111_ fro ID \he Rd·
Geod fllll,c 183
21M The La... of Moti,. 01 ... Rloclritllllr Cluorred TOllt Body t M
:!:O.r TnlUlorIDili Oll to PIl,..,l Comi'lU le:I \M
ZO.8 A f'OC1IIul. lor Ut StroniM of ~ CcxulH'llII.ti ai' EI",me Pi..ld tST
2lI.1I Studylq tho MOiIOll of lb' Eulh'. Ct!>u. of Mau by Gr....illlottle
Elperlm'D~ 189
20,10 Studying Ih /010>\;"" of iJI" Earth', 01 Mass 1>1 Tiltllli tt n
20.11 Studyill!l" Ihe MollOll of the Ear th ', Ceoll' 01 Mu e in I " Ib ~m"" l
Involving ' D A.tUldal E.rlh S. l.tllile 192
20. 1$
ElIecli AllIIOOiu.d ..llh the I'..-OOll of . Pr.I I ....1ld Ih l~ Fra me
theta AMOtllw4 .,hb AIl;to troPJ ...llh " .. peel 10 ,b. CeDu r 01
N... of ttw Gllny 19l1
OuoJl et 21. Thlo hU-MIl...... Cot llki.ta ll ia RTO t!l7
Aw-f,iro I %02
A p~ [J 2 2lt
ApptDd b , 212
App_ Lo ~ 217

........ '"
An-dLo ~ :/2l

NI_ I.... 22lI

5u'ojKI IIMko. 230
P r efac e

I" lhis book we gi ve 11 detailed eXpll!Iit ion of t he rele tivis tic th eory of gra";tation,
or R.TG, developed in Logunov, 1986, LOg1lnov Illd M~tviri sbvHi, 1984 , 1985a ,
1985b, 1986b , Vlasov and Logllnov, 1981i, an d Vlasov , Logunov, and Mest viri -
shv ili, 1984 . I n t hese works RTG bas been b uil t unambiguously, usi ng as a ba~is
t he relati vit y pr;nciple, t he gauge princip le, and the goometrin tion princi ple.
The gravita tional field is constr ucted as a physicalliDld in the sp irit of Farad ay
and MRXwell, and th is field hM energy, momen tum, an d SpillS 2 and O. RTG reo
vtvea the concept of a cl~leal grav ita lional field t hat nn choice of eeteeecce frame
c an de! lrn y si nce it is It mater ial substr at um. TIlIl gauge princip le i.! form ulat ed
on the hasi.! of t he looa l inrm ite dimenslcna l neneemmutattva grnup 01 super-
cnordina te t ransformatloll.'l.
The syst em of RTG equation s (8 .28) a nd (8.29 ), is genera l--eovaria nt and de-
pends exphctrly on the met ric te nsor of th e Mink owSki space-ti me. Thi s unambig- separ ate.\: t he forces of iner tia from the gravitat ionel field. All field var i-
abl es i n the R.TG aquettons are function s of sp a~tl me coordina tes of t he Min-
k owskl s pace-ti me.
The t heory cen si dered hnT'$ r igorously obeys the laws of COl\S(!rva t ion of eneTfY-
mome ntum and a ngula r momentum foe ma tt4!r and gravita tional field taken
I.ogother. It also descri bes the entire body of gravitatloll al e:tpe,imentli. We sllnw
tha t Einste in' s formula fnr grav it ationa l waves, (15.56 ), foUnws d irectl y from the
theor y. In a na ly~ i ng t he ev olut ion of the univerae , RT G conclud es that the uni_
verse is infinite and "lIa t~ and pred icts a la rp "laten t" man in it. Th is"laten t"
m ~ exceeds the observab le masa "I t he unive rse by a faclor of 40.
RT C pred tcta th at gnv itat ional colla pse, which for tile comoving obser ver
occur s over a finite p rop~ time interval, does: not lead to the Inl'mit4! cont raction
(If matter; ra t her , it ter m in a t~ wilen the object eehleves a certa in finite densit y,
and the physiea l precess es associated wit h the ob ject slow down indefinite ly as t he
object ap pr oaches t he .. dtus equal 1.0 GM. Tbis means t hat in RT G thue can be
no stat ic or nonste t tc spber icall y s ymmet ric ob jects with a radi us equ al to or Jess
t ban GM. From the standpoint of an external obser ver t he lu min(lS it y o[ a collaps-
ing object deen!asel5 ex ponen tially (it blacke",), but Ilothin g un usual happens to
it. Hence, aeeo rd tng to this approac h, there can be 0 0 objects In nat urn ill whic h
t he gravitat ional contraction of matter eeeuha in inlJn it e density (black holes ).
However. objeelS ca n e:ds t that have an n : l.temely la rg8 mau and 8n i nnar st ruc_
tere .
We also ahow tha t in gene ral relati vit y, GR , t here are no funda menta l la ws of
conserva tion of energy -mome ntum and a ngu lar' moment um of ma tter and grav-
itation al field taken togetb e~ , with t he result that the inertia l mass dlltined In
GR is not eq ua l to the active gravita tlonal mess. We hav e established t hat CR
gi ves no definita pl'(ldictiOllS conc erning i~av i tatio nal e!let ts. Fin all y, in Gil. t he
grav itationa l field l~ not a physical field pOSlleSSi ng an eller gy-moment um dens it y.
Consequent ly, Etnstein's for mula (15.56) for gra vltatl onel waves does not follow
from GR. .
Our collesg uel5 A. A. vteecv, Yu. M. Loskllto v, and Yu. V. Chugreev con trib-
uted cOIl.'5 ;der abl y to t he develo pmen t of some Il!Ipecl.!l nf KT G incorpo fated in
t his b(l(lk, and ChaplEr 20 was written with t be a id of Yu. V. Chug n:»ev . To all
of t hem our s illcere th ank s.
A . A . LoglUllW
M. A. MeslV/"l3hvil!
Introduct ion

Defore presen tin g the b615ies of th e rel ati v ist ic theory of grav it at ion ( RT G) pro-
posed hero, we will touch briefly on some impo rta nt espe<::15 of the genera l relativity
(G n) theory.
Tn crea ting hi~ genera l relativity theory. Ein stein proceeded from the princi ple
of equi va lence of t he forces of iner t ia a nd grav ity. The equi valen ce pri nciple was
formu lat ed in th e foll owing mallne r (E inste in, 19205 ):
. ..for . ny in6,,' tely amaH ..wld-""lriO<l the """rd i.... ..,. coo al.. . ys he " hoe. " 10 sue1l • w.y
lhal Ih. t tl.Til. U""ol 6d d in tbU _ rld_"", i.." v.nI5hel.
i n formulating the eq uivalence princi ple Ei nstein al ready dep arted from t he idea
of a gn vit ational field es being a Fara da y-Max well lield. Subseque ntly Ihis feet
found refiectioD in t he pseu dote~9r ch ara ct eris t ic of a grav itationa l field, T~ ,
introdu ced by Einstein. Late r SchrOd inger . 1918, de mons trate d tha i if tbe coor-
dina te s ystem Is "hOllen appropriatel y, ,,11 the componentll of the gnv it" t ione l.
field an ergy-momentum peeud otensez, T~ , ou tsi de a ba ll vani sh. In th is "onneet ion
Ei ns tei n, 19t88 . noled :
As fnr th. id.... ofSC htildl~r. theIr parwao;veneQI lies In Ihn a"alogy..ilh eled rodynami..,
.. hue the SlreMes aod ~'tY de",l ty nl . oy lI.eld ore o"" .ero. Iio.. . vu . I " nnot " nd My
Tn """ the SltUlltlO1l m",,1 bo tha " ma fnr H" vlut ,oool lI.eld.. A g.a vHatioool lI. eld
ta O be , pO!< jll.<:d .. ithout 10t rodl&C; " 1I" otrUll" ood . 0 e,,""liIY den. ity.

Th ill d early shows that Einstein /:OMtk!<4lV rkplVW from. fh e/:Oncept oj a grw -
IIlltlona l field al bei ng a F(U"adaJl-Ma~1l phJlrical fi eld, a materia l 1,, /llt nU l.lIPI'
flulf can neuer be tkl t roJlM /III t he d lOlu of reJerence frame.
Since in Gil lh ere ill. no concept of a grav itational _field enllrgy_momentum ten -
50r dllnsi t )·, there is n OWilY 01in lrod uci ng in GR th e law 01co nserva tto ll of energy-
momentum of mltt tllr and grav ila tio nal lield tak en together . It was Hil bert , 1917.
who first ullllerl ined t his facl:
I d..l..... lhal ... for the tt"J1eral tbeery 01u lalivll:r, lhal ia. in the <If generall nv. riance
of 'h e Homilt..nian luuctlO<l, tbere . ... gcn"rally nn enn'l1Yequ"ion. that ... corr..pond
to "'t y .-;uu lonr In orthogooll. lovari. nl theati... , i could even oot" lhl. f."1 OS being
a ch t", ,,,,;c '..Ill", of the tt..ory.
U.nfort unately, thi . s ta tement of H ilber t 's wa5, a ppa rent ly , not unders tood by
Ius cont emporarIes, s ince nei tbllr E inatein nor oth er p hys icists , eall nd a t the time
that Gil In prineiple ca nnot h ave lav.-s 01 consarvetion 01 energy- momen tu m a nd
. ni uh r momenl um of matter a nd grevttett onal field taken togelhe r. Even toda y
t hore are scien tis t" who do not understand thi S, wh ile othe rs do undel'!lta nd it bu t
in te r pret it as th e most im portant s tep made by GR, a ste p th at over th row the
eo n"e pt of en ergy . Rejection of the concept of the gra ional-Iield allergy-
mom ent um d ensity leads to a . ituet ion in cn in whiclj the gra vitatioolll· lieid
energy ca nnot be Iocaltzed. But the a b!ien"e of a ny looa liu t ioll of lIeld en erg}' and
th e a bs\!lIte of conserva tion la w. lead to th e abse nce of the concept. of grav ila lio nai
waves and gr~v it a t iona l-wa ve flux, which mea ns th .t t he prop agati on Qf gra vi-
tat iona l energy in space Irom one objed to euoebar is Impossible in GR.
Anoth er impor ta nt as pect of Gn Is th e fact that Ei nstein ideotified the metrte
01 lhe Hillman n ~ paee-time with the gra vitational field. This too deprives the
gl'llvita t ional field wit hin the GR fra mework of all the properti es tbat a Faraday-
Mlllt'l>'(lll phya;cal t\eld has . TI,e energy- momen tu m te nsor al a physi ca l field gene r-
ated by 1l1lO1IN:e cannot dro p 011, as we reeve a way from th e source, more s lowly
th an 1/r', since otherwise, if we t ook the integ ral of the law of e nergy-mome ntu m
couservatlon over the vulu me 01 a sphere sur eouodtng the source and sent th e
radius of the s phere to infinit y, we would arri ve at a physica lly meaningless result,
namely, thet a SOlU'l;1l of finit ll dimenstoue carries an infinite am ount of llnergy.
It hu been l'!~blished that the asy mpt otic behavler of metric coefficien ts
depend s on the choice of the three-dimensiouel spa ~ia l cee rdine tes, a nd , conse-
quent ly, t his behavior can be rnede arb itra ry . Bu t this means that the metnc of
the Rieman n s pace-t un e is not the ph)'llieal gra vitationa l field. Hence, 1.0 reta in
the conce pt oi a grav ita t ion.1 field u being a Fan day·Mn well phys ical lie ld we
must cam pletely ren OUOCIl it s id\!nti ty wit h the mlltric te llsor.
In cons truc t ing the rela tivistic t heory of gravitation , RTG. we will base our
reasoning entirely on the ~ pec i a l theo ry of refatl vity , which we call ~ i m pJ y the
relatiVity t heory because physic all y there can be no ot her relat ivity. Although
the ne me "genera l the ory of rela tivi ty" does exis t , it nl £ars on ly to gravi ta t ion
and not t o aome sort of genera l tt':lalivi ty. Long ago Fock , 1939, 195\1, clar ified
Now we briefiy d tscess the eseecce of the theory of re lativ ity , touch ing espe-
d a lly 011 how Eins tein inte rpreted the th eory. Th is wil l net only be of historical
intere.'lt; chiefi y, it will give the eeadee a dee per uudeesta ndtng of the stlt ti ng poi D ~
of E inste in 's rea soning whic h led to th e crea t ion of GR. Minkowski , followi ng
P oinClu e's reason ing, deve loped the idea of the pseudo- Euclidea n geometry (If
four-dim ensiona l s pacll-timll. The li ne element in th is geomet ry has the form
rilt = ct dl t _ tLr" _ dyt _ d:.".

Poinc are was the fi r~t to introduce such a qua nt ity; he de monstr at ed that <4"
Is im'ar ia nt u nder LoronLt lr a nsformations. He was a lso the first to introduce th&
concept 01 a Lorent z grou p and th e idea 01 a four-d ime nsio na l apace.
Even to thi S day ma ny llCien t ists believe that Minkowski prov ided a tnathe-
matica l inte rpre tation for tlill th eory of rela tivity that forma lly s implified the
theory . But there is more to it t han th is. In LOgUll OV, 1985, it is demonstrated
1.hat the concept of a Ioue-dtme nst onef spece- ttma develop ed by Poincau and Min-
kowski mekes it possible to e:l:te nd th e theory of re lativi ty from inert ia l rete-ecce
frames 10 eecele reted frames. In an arbitrar)' accelerated reference fra mll the line
elemen~ tis' has Ille form

whe re Y1. (z) is the melri c te nsor (If the Minkowsk i s pace-time.
For th e Minkowski s pace-time, in view 01 the existenc\! of ten K ill ing vectors ,
there are always tr ansforma t ions
z· =1' (J:')
that 0.1 0 not ch8nge the metr ic coefficient!!, tha t Is,
tis' _ )',. (.z:' ) d :t' ld,r".
[ t is th is t hat enab les us to generaHzll lila Poillearli relativity princ ip le (Poincare.
1904, 1905) and form ulat e t he genera l ited rela tiv ity principi a tllUs ( Logunov,
:>0 ", . ' \<or .. hoi "b y. ieol . e(eN:n<:e frome ..". u ko (ine'li al o. oool n.,llol ), \he", alwaY'
oxi .~ on 'nfiniu. numbe r of other rert"'lICe In"" • • In ..,bleh aU phl'llca l " henom. ... (In-
d"ding ,rnl l'~i OD. l pn. nolllnnaj oc:cur in th e Some maone, as In Ih. in it ia l ,ef. ",oce I",,,,. ,
"'. l.h.t .... do nOt hoYe . nd "" noot hIVe any ex perimental me.n. to dl ningni'" in which
of thi . infinite "" mhe. 01 "'£."'0":' ["'met w. ' r. poeHlo""d.
T hllS, non inert ial referen ce frames oe( Opy an equal st etus ,,'itll ine rt ial referen ce
fra mes in t he th eory of rel BtiYlt y. It is t his fu ndame ntal fact th at was not dea r
\ (1 EilUtein (see Einste in and Grossmann, 1913);
In lh. <><d inarr Ih_ r of r<!1.livily onl y line.. ort hogona l t'. Mfo. mlli"".... admi tl t<!.
Also ('00 E inst.eiD, 1913),
In tlw in;tl.l lhoo. y or relaUv ll y, lb. lndt[ltndenu of Ille phy!;o.l eqlU'linM ,,{ Ih••[lt d"
ch"iel of rjO r..tflte 1•• m. ;1 h. std em th p<><tu latl"" of Ihe rond ~ mentl l inv''' ' OI qu. nti ty
ds' _ ~ (d. ,)'.
when .. "" ... "' 0 0'" ,pea kloU 01 eonst, ucting . th"" y (OR- T• • au''''''..) in" which 0 Hn_
e.. elemenl of a mo'" ~. "' l nlto,,", pl. ys 1M . ole of t he fundomenta l iovuionl qlU'ol,ly

d" _ ~ ,,~ d. , d%~ .

These p. ssages show l hat at thall;IIl Q Eln atein had yd to penetrate dee p into t he
essen ce of t he tll eory of relati vil y. In t he s pecial tlle o.y of l'flla tivi ty we al'l!Sp\!ak·
ing not of the post ulatiOll of t he line elem ent ill the for m

eo ntra . y to Ein stein's belie f, but of the ps.eudo- Euc Udean geomet ry of s pat e-ti roe
defined by the Une element
dr ... 'l',~ dz i dz"
with a metric ten sor 'l',~, for which the Riem. nn-Crlst.ollel cur vatu re teosor R. ; ~ l",
v.D ish e.!!. Hence , in t he spectel t heo. y of . elsti vi t y the 1.10' 01 en ergy-mome nt um
conser vat ion can be w. lt ten i n t he gen'l' ei cOVil/ iant for m, but th ts ' . ct was not
understood by Elll!Iteill. What ha s been said Ic und its re Deetioll In GU, in t he con-
l\lr uctioo of which Ei nswi n wu gu ided to • grest exte nt by the eleg.nt form al
appardus of R iema nni'll geometr~' an d his idea of th e equiva lence of forces of
iocrt ia s nd grav ity (t ho prlM iple 01 eq uival ence).
Accord ing to Lh ideology of GR , t he relativ ity principle can not be applied to
grav it atio n. ! phenom ena . It wss on th la centra l Ide. t hat Einste in .nd Hil bert ,
in creating GR " Imost 70 yeal':'l .go, departed bas icall y from t he speciel the ory of
re l&livit y , which i n 'urn led to a re jeetio n of t he laws 01 consen.t ion of energy-
momentum and . nlu i.r momentum, to th e emerge nce of nonphys ical ide as cou-
eern ing the 1I0nloc. Ieauon 01 gra vi t u ioD. 1energy , and to m.ny ot her as pects not
. el. t.ed to vavltuion. Th ese tw o gru t eetenue te a ba ndoned the wonderf ully
iiim pl" worid of the Minko...-ski spece-ttra e, which pO!SMSe.!! th e muimum pOM i bie
(te n-psr8.toete.) gre up of toOtiOM on t he spac..tim e• • nd ente .e d the jungle 01 Ri e-
meceta n geome t ry. which bogged down su bseq uent geD\lratio ns of phys icis"
study ing gra vitation.
T hos. if ' " usume tluI \ GR ill . meaniql'ul t heor,. we mll5l rejec:~ both tb'
t llndame ntallaws of eonH, ,,.tioft of "l>eI'iY~m_l'I lum of ~ and grn ilil i olUll
Wei and lhe cOClUpLof • c;lu sic. 1 hid. Thill, ho,","" 1$ too ' fea t a lou. aDd it
'W'II1d 1>. . ery tbouabtlea to.1f'" to this "ithout proper upuimental proo f.
So f ir there is not. aiDa l, u peri melt....l fact l h. t , d irectly or indiTe&lly, ch. lIeapll
!.he .. alid it y Dl conservation I,WI i " the macro- l od mkr&-ycrl cl.ll. Th ete is only
(IrI1 c:oncl usioo t Aen: we most diteard GR , givi n, it credit u. I tage inlh. d. ...lnp-
mlll l 01 OU ' id us of gU 'fiut io ll.
In Den iso.. an d Logu no\', 198Oa. 19110.., 1982 b. 1982<1 . lAcuna," l od f olomeM-
kin , t 9i7b. an d V]L.OO\· a nd Denll oy, 1982, it is d. monltnted tha' ainel GR d".,
nol , and u onnl , b,.,.
1'''"11 01eo n&e.uti on of tM eneryy-mo mlnllllU of malter a nd
gr",ltat ion al field tak en t.op ther, Lhe inertia l mass .. defined in EiMLein ', theory
hu PO ph ysical mean ing, th e gn vlu tiollal,w l ve nUl 1.1 defined in GR ean . I....y.
be d&Jll'O!ed by tile prope r selectio n of eererenee Ieeme, I nd, hooeo, E in! l.ein'l
q Ul drupo o formul a for gra vlla tl ona l wevea i. not a coroll. ry of GR . BU ica l\y
it does not foll ow from G R tha t . bln;ry I YSW I\l 10llU eue"llY in t he form of Q:UV'
111t io"ll W. Ve! . G R hal no cl.!IIicl l Newtonia n limit and, ce nsequemly, dou
not u tlsfy one of the m~l fUIllil monta l pri nc iples of phyaiCl, the corre l pondenn
princIple. T bi! I! what lhe absenCI ill G R of enorr y-momen t um conJerVltilJn laW!
leed. 1.(1 if 01'11 rejeet!J doglDat i. m In d ponder. on the _ence of the problem I lld
ml ka a delliled lII alr a' "
A U fld s poWs to llu l oa rJu,t GR II ROt .. u. lisllJdl.>rll ""lIdat llt awll . Ift il« , it
Is WIt" t III fOlU"tnu:t " dlJSlkal l~1I 111 ,fI"a vUallon JhoI Ulllla llsl , ..1I 1M Ikma~
IMtU oj .. pII,dal IhtotlI.
At tbt bax of the ~ted relati vi! tic the ory of rrav lt.tio n (see Locuno v.
1986, LoeU II OV IDd MelIlv irish .. ili, t 9ll4, 1955. , 19& b, t ll86b, Vlasov .nd LoKu--
no.., 19fW, IIld Vle l)''', Loeunov, I nd JoI ll$ vili , 1984 ), wbieh eompleles th.
d e..-Io pment of the ideal JH'O powd in Deaisov I nd Loa:\lIIO" , 1982d, _e place lhe
follo winr phys ical req uinments (_ Loguno .., 1986):
(. ) Th e Mlnk owskl !paee-lilJle (~) , thl t ill, I p _time equi pped ,..ith pseudo-
Eudidu n p<>m,Hry , is I fllnda ment.l apace lb at incor pora les . lI pb )'a iu l lields,
ine!udinr th.. gt"Ivil.ltion.1. Thllat. te mea l iJ reneral bet. use it iJ n_ I ry a nd
su r6eient for the \"a lidily of t he laws of eon!l&<"va lion 01 enerry· momentu m and
anru l. r momentum for maUer a nd gra vita tionl l fl eld lak en toQ:e ther. I n ot ller
words, Ih.. MlnkoW$ki aplce-Ume reflecta the d, nlmical p. operti e:!l eommon lor
all Iypu 01 mltler. T his g uaranteea tho u ls lonce of uoiveMla l eh an ct crisl icl flJ.
all forms of m.Uer and ll'u vit at iona lft eld. Di.'loCll.lo8inll t it.. I tr uel ure of t he (lil'O lIIelry
01 rn l s pate- t ime. E ioate in, 1921, no ted;
. .. Ibco q _ lioo Ihi l<:O<\l lnuul1I h •• • EuelldUJI. Ri. lD~ nllilD , Of' aoy Ol bcor Knl<;l ..
loa . q....,Uoo of physicl p/"Oper wbkb mUli I be "",....rtd by ""peritll... I nd 1>01 1 q_ U....
nt I """v.,.U"" \I> be e~ 011 l'f'OlIedl of mere u peditllcr.

B. s ieall y , of course, Lhia aU lem,nt 01 E inst ein·. It COlJl pllt ely cor~ L BUI Ihe
_Dee of t he m. tter i.!! much dee per. The ma in thin g here It to undeMltand ..-hat
pll)"'lIlca l propert ies of mat ter deteflni ol the reomelry or apaee-tf lJle . h tderd , lei
us USllme th ai if .... de teorllllni the phYlilea.1 geDlJlelfy on lhe bai.!! 01 I tudies o£
lJle proPl l lt ioo of li&ht .od Ihe mo..ementa of teat bodies.. ... ""ill a tabli.!!h the
RieDlan oia o I tr uclure of the pometry of mL But dDe'S Uti! meall thl t thia
l eo_ try IIl USI be piKed .1 t he b_ of the t~1 No, it doe!l not, bee. UlII m.
inr t hill 'WOuld meaD rejeetlnr I ulom atitan y th a fu nd a metl tal la~ of COIIMr t1011
of eotrt1-111omen t"m Illd all(ll l. t 1llOa>e.lllum. ainca Ihis &eO_try does 1101 pos!8lIlI
t he muilJlum ITOU P of 1Il0ti ons 00 apace-ti me. And .11 lh ia ha ppened in GR.
" T hWl, one. 'We hi". dillCOV, red Oft the bu iJ of n perhne lllfl in.,gl ving Ihe prop-
_( u lon of H&h ~ n d t he movem.tlts of tat bodiu th. ! Rleman lli,n ,eolQetry 1fI
Yalid , must. not bul4ln to dr.weondusi Ons . bout t he . 1nIdur' of the geometry
01 sPf'CO" li m. t h.t m ust " , t UWI base of / byalu.. W. must lirs t " ta blW\
whe lh er lh... u ~ri lll'D ... I I...U IlftI pri m. r y an lID ln'$&1 or of ~o lldvy ofi li n
. nd pnll. ) illtere5L I II ~lIbJ~ 1M fl rudun DI tM ,_ try of 1M p/l,,/(41
' /Hl"-l lnl . _ "'"" ~tm 1&01 front ' M nAlIINI 0/ Ilglrt p roPGfol um lind tm-bod,
_ _nU blot InIlfl lM most , . na. l Gt"lIlUniazl pro~fn 0/ /lUltlD'", 1M ~Um
t./lII, AIK' U If not 1M pvl k ul#r fJAMdl:1I1 I1UUI ljuJo t iM I 01 t lte mM lo" 01 m.uUr
Ibt tkurml1>t 1M W1idun o/ ' /u pJtpJcIU geometry If/' II,1lt the b.ue of phl/,fa but
1M ,rnutd IUlWumI dllll ll m /clll pro pD11a of mIllU, .
III our th lIOry . RT G, tile physica l geometry of . p.... l i.D. is dote'l'IIiued hot 011
th e buil of . t udi es of the propagalioD of lig ht alld the mev eeien ts 01 tes t bodies
bllt on lilt bUie of geM " l dyn. mieal properli u of ma Uer. t he co nservaLion laws.
wh ich I n no ~ onl}' of fundamen ta l i111" bu t ca n be verified expe rimenla lly .
I\eqlliremen l (a) Sl!b RT G ent irely a parl b orn the general t heory 01 rel aUvily.
(h) A I ravi ta tiollal fleld ia described via a aym met rle seecnd-renk teneoe tI>'""
and con~ Li \u ll.'fI a real physica l field char ac terized by an energy- mumen tum den-
sit y. a u ro lll!lt mass, an d . p le atll\lll 2 and O. Th ls aapllt t alao b...,lull y d iali n-
, uishM RT G from G R.
(c) We Inlrod uc. the reom elrlll tl on principle, accordi nl 10 which the interact ion
01 ", a ra vlta llona l field ..ith maUeT is aeblev ed, in vie.. of l ite lUlivef'lali ty of th ie
iDlera cUon, by "a ddi.lll" tlla ,tD v ila li oDal Ii. ld $ '"" to the metric te n_ y-
01 lh. Mink01ll:llk i .apae.II-tima in t he tegrang iaa della iLy of ma ile r auonI inl l.O rh.
loll o. illl rula:

an d $ .. ara t he materi a l fielda. 8 y matta we mea n a ll of ib forlll5 euept gra v_

ita t iona l field.!. Aceord ill' to I hl genmet rilalioll prinei pll , mot ion of maUer
under lhe . ction of a gravita tional field $ "" l u I h. Minkowski apace- li ma wlt ll
a Dlelt lc y• • i. eq uinl l!flt to mot ion in .u eflectl ve Rie mull apaco-t ime wlrh
a metric f· · , The metri c tenser y" . of the Minko....aki apaea· timo an d t he , rav -
it etl oul· lield tenser tI>"'" in th i.a . p"ct-t ime are pri mar)' concepts . wllile the
R iowallll ~pa~e- l i me and i \.l metric Ii"" orOseconda ry ccncepte, OWillC" tlleir orl l/in
to Ihe grni taUonaJ field and lUI u niversal ee tt on OIl meuee tbrough 4>.. . T hlt
efleetiv. Riemann ~pa~o-ti mlt It litera lly of field oria lo . tha nka to tllll peesenee of
the gTi vita tiona l field. E inst ein waa th e til'llt 10 ",uu est thlt th e ~paeo-l i m e ia
Rie rua nnla n ra ther t han pseudo- Euc lid ean . He iden lifled gravil at ion wit h lh e
metric telllOr 01 the Ril!ma nn a pa~o- li me. Bu\ Ih ia Itne of ..aSllDing as mucb 115 led
10 re jec tio n of the rravilati ona l field as a ph ys ical fie ld posse!Sinr an e nera y'
momen tum de...ily a nd l.O the 1011 of l undam en la l toMervat! oll lawll. T he ,DO-
lIllelriu tion pri nciple, based on lhe Ilot.iona 01 tJw, lo! lnko" Y i apac.ti me u d •
phr ti ce! rr... l ~tioDlI field . inlr o(hlCM lhe COIlcept of I n elleel!ve Rie lJllllD space-
t ilne , Ind in th is Ei nstein '. Id.. of I Ril!maDn ia n reo metry linda ib indirec t ee-
Ded ion.
Aecord inr to lhe RT G id.eIDlY. aince the Minko.... k i lIpace-- l ime (~) lor llls its
base, th ere ai'll ata od ard lempotal a nd s pati al sea l" lh l l do Dol up lici tl y depend
00 lhe , ra vila lional intenoctlon . I n ... le... of the geomeu iuUon pri nci ple , I he enll~
depend_ of t he li M eleUlent In the eDective fti, me nn sp.~ti lDe.
rUt - f,~ (~) d.i dr'.
<;IDthe I . av ita t ionel field Ii. in lhe metr~ eoel/ieluu ' rt (r ). T. l N!itioll to I lly
olhlll' eoord iDltes in RI G, say , 1.0 the pro eoOl'lIi.u1lll. wil l resolt i n . shutioD
in .. bleb the pro~ . pllCe-ti _ ...e n,bl ill depend botb 0Jl. the coord lo_"" J:-
in t b' lol inkofti sp_ t illlll an d on grn ittltioDaI COIlllt.ant G. H eooe, propet
UlIlll and 'Pf1"al ebaneles'Utiu ...HI depen d 011 lbe ....niholioll.l Beld. It is onl y
in RTC that one Ga ll completely det«m ine tbe . Bed of. rr...itatioDal lil ld lllI th.
p_ p of proper time .nd Oll tb, vlriat ion of the distlnc e between points.
(d) The se. lar L..grl ngi'll density of .. V avil. Won. 1 field is • bilin ear form of
the liJ'li1 con rin l derin li vee, D;;;--, with respect to the Minkowsk l metrle.
Buic.Il}' there is no WI}' to ecnneuct • eealae LI I •• ngJan dens ity of such I form
In GR.
Using the eoncept of th e Mlok owski . p. ee-li me end tile geomet r lnlion prtn-
ei pl e .. . beete, we e.1I write the Lagrangle n d&n! ity in the lell owlng form:
L _ C.,(yl' , 0 1')+ L. (; IO, itA)' (O. t)
In our theory Ihe gra vUI Uolll l-field Lagrlllflan dlJlJlity c... depends on t he
mehie t tll l<l1' yf~ an d the gr.... itlt iooa l field Itl _ Hen«l , this Uleory d iBers f" n-
d lm entally lro'" GR, wbe:re t he Lla:ra ngil n deMil, d' l*\ds only on tb e metr ie
tl!Mor ~ of the Riemann ,p.e.-time. Thll.!l, the gru it l ti onaJ-5eld LIII:r1nr iin
d ell!Jty In 0111" t heory is Dot fully pomelrised, WMI'IIU ill G R it is . & will be
demons tnted Il ler, t he noti on of I v ult. lion," field pouess illl' III eMrfY -1Il/)-
men tu m d' lWty .lId spin stil et 2 .nd 0 eombiDed witb the reol'lletr iutioll prin-
d pl, pro .,idllS the possibilit, of eOll!trueti ng. n unlmb1ruous rfllt t i.,ist ie theory 01
pvitl lion. S",eh • theol'1 ebaape tllll stereotype 0( sp_ lim. developed. u nd.
the ioDuetlUI 01 GR I nd in spir it IJ!'"II wit h the mod"n ttl_1M in e1ement at}'
Plrtit.le pb)'li es. It implies th. l Einsleln'. p~rl l 1'IIII II vlly pr inciple is devoid
01 .ny pbysieal meanin g or eon tln t (Fock, 1939, f9S9). III the ex positio n of •
IIlImbu of problems wll loll nw O' Oi50'I' u d 1.oII:uoo.... t 982d .
Chapter L Cr it ical Remar ks Concerning the Equh'ale nce
Pr inciple

In ure iu trod,oetiotl wupecinod tbe logical prt!rcqulaites th t m'IlIL D~ _ril y I UI I

(and , "utl'fl! , do) 10" llIlmber of d; frlClllli~s in Gn, E.vlilll' Ih_ aspect5 wert! rl i.. ,
cUMed i n llela il in Ikn lsov ftlld Logulln . 1980 ft, t ~ b . l \lll2h, 1!)g2,I, " 0<'10:..
1\13\1. 1tl5!), li il b~r t. 19 17, Logllnov IInr! Fo lome!! hk in, 1!n7b , SchrOdi"tor, 1\)18,
ami v tseov lind lJolliso" , 1G82. I n lhi s cLtn pler .... u inlen,t to co "! id ~T SOlita of IhO$\)
_.,pe els.lollow;ng Dcnia ov nnd Logunov . ttl8Oa . 1!I!1Oh, l 'J82b. t !J1:I2d . LoglU'o \· lind
Folomrshk in, 1!l77h . nud Vluov nod I)c"'sov, 1!J1:l2, .011 MIOW lhat C ll i ' ineR-
pRhlo of I'I'Mllv ing these d irroc llllie1J.
We sln rt with a discu" ion of the oquiva lenu princip le. To ue present (IMy in
W,o lill'ra lliro I.l,~ ro is DO IID ity of opini" n cotlGtrl,ing the I1ll'wIling of 11ll' eq " iv-
RleltU princi ple alld ita I'(I~ in Iho gClIera l Ilmo ry of relali¥; l)'. Solno cOllsidu
it celltra l to 11I~ s trucl ure of en, while Olhen IUl le i t.l irnilf'd nalun'. In tl'e linl
'Ia~ 0( creal ing hi5 lbNlry. Ei"" lein ,1K'lI as a Iu d in.: idu lI", fo. mal a"alO£'y
between lO r,eld of Ierees of Iner\ '/I a"d a gruila tlona l lit'ld . h ,dec.oct , IhC3C li" hI.
,!emons llnlo,! mue h ill co ,n,non ill IlJeir ac:.ti on 011 tlte 'Qe<;l.w\nin l 0I01'01l of oLjfoc:.u:
the mot ioll of objorlS und.... the ad iol! of a gr avitatl Oll.1 CH!ld is indillUnCllislla ble
from l heir molioll in ~ " ap propr i;llely , hOR" IIonill«". 1refe.enu; in bol h
foel, b lhe act "lI'ra lion of object. dott not de pend Gil t1leir mass or co rnposiLi"n .
nl i~ cave E h .,t.ei ll t~e gTolln.b LO sb le th . 1 the cru ila l lo" . l m:lS! of an obje<;1
i. eu,clly ..q ll. l10 the objCC't '~ in('rl i,,1 m ~ :llld ll'd h im to till! fOrllu,bt ioll of l he
eq iliu lellcc prin eiple ( Einne ill a,,,t e r~n1.I1 01, l\1I3):
TIl<' I"'~"')' ,1....... bM1 I....... " '; ,t n.'.... I."", . b.. e"......Uon 1100 ' Ito. 1"" I. ""li,,,,,,IoI)' bo·. ........ '
'h.. ' r1 ;~1 a,,,1 Ib<- ~~ . ; I 'II <ll1. 1 """ . "I • bool.!' .. an UK' I... "I nnl".., Ihal ",~"I "
... 1" 1"" a 1, "J al,,'" !'f,ndl" " ,0( 1.........,\i-.. I I'hJ'al... Wn .ried h',rI , bi. ",,,,.Io;, I,••
l" a lI",nl.... or , Ii 1"1...... n .. llI el, an MI>'nrpl "' af ",",I,· I.. " ,h",,, U.. tnr ' · Il. " . ~ . 1
...... 1<> II", ,,,,,,,.1 ; Ihi• • ' I.i. o. l"" l..d ... I<> Ih,· bYIII'IIt... I. Ih"l l'lor. i<' Uy ~ Il"'" .-
'lali'~I.l (,,·hl (h",,,,,~,,""'"'' h' ." ;"r", I1<·ly . ",,,ll "" h",,,· ) <0" b,. ",. " ph,,,·I)' "'1,1'''' '''1
..·Hh ' n .. ·,·,·h·r" l<~1 .... r,· ""o I.. nlt'. Gr;'l'hi,,,U)' Ilti. hypul tw-II . ' "' I>r ("n"" l"..... . . ,,,I_
I""... All ,,\>Or·. v,.. ,. "'1 ,11" on ek''' .l''r k'" n,~ WilY (0 'k>chlu ",bo\~~. I k ..k'. a IoJr i' 01
n'til n' 0 ~l . ';~ ~r,wiillli<><, " ( r...1d "' ",1,"11..., 1I... ~J • • aI'" ;. I""R I,'" i" l/I".v,... (" ·[ ...... "I"'oo·
,n ... ""(~ I ..r.',.., ..."'1.1",, Ilt. l ;1 ~ ' .1n i,lr'<! b)' To", .......I;.. ~ ..., I"" .......11" . 1 " I\laI.,, ~
bn"" .....l.
Thus, " a ,n l:: i'I$I(',n 'S poi Ol l of .·ie..... II", only dinerellC(l bet ....een lieJd~ .. I fort.."
01 inct'lia abd C......ita li onal rlt'l,ls c:.0l,~ill1.ll ill l he dilll'.,,111 f'1U'rn al M"........ l:C'lt'r,
a ti nC 11lCOOll fie"!:!!: tile '~ I ar. dlle ... Ibe lIon 'lOt'7"liltlil y of tI.e rcfercpc(l fra n'"
u.sed by thl! obatl"ttr a nd the ...:on'd an. gcn""aU<d by .... lfo1'; ,,1 ohj.....L•. lI ow.... er.
.. [ instf'i.. bel..... e<t. u- ""I d. h. ve an t!qlliv. lent elfect "0 aU phY3icRI pn..
c:.eae.! u d , Ihc.,,'~, in olher mJpec:.t3 are ;ndi.· li nru isloab le. Th il! ~la \.c m.Ol I. i n
turn . Cl'Nlcd l he i11 lL5ion of tb e possiltil il y of n c:.h'di Di 11111 etreel of a goavi la lio" . l
field 0" . 11 phyaiCil I pl" nomt na Via on a pPfOP~;a u t..,,,,forma lion of the apac,'"
tillle c:._ d ina tes. b~' a lia logy with lito des l rud ion of flelda of fore" of inert h•.
I n Ihis respecl Ihefollo"' i" l puuge fro,n Pall Ii, 1!I5oll (p. I" 5). ;5 charllClorio!Lic:.:
Or il ' edl)', th e principle or equ ivalence had "" If 1l~1l pooLulJltd l..r homo,*"""o , V"v-
itat ..nA1 l1.e!ds. VOl" lb. ~D . ... I ~ , it con " formul. ltd III Lhe foll"""lng way : For oo. r1
lc i ull ol)' _ II """rid n gion (i.e . • "'orld rcaI""which I• •" . m. lI lhat !.he , p' fA>-and·
t ime- vari UI Oll of glU tty con be ",,*Jetted III II) thue . l",.~ ....1.iS • Motd{ nue ' yOltm
K , (X " X" X" X . ) in ...ble b "",,,italion hUDo ;" nuencll elt h., nil lh, mot ion of part ic10e
or . ny <>100 phY"lco! proc...-. III !boll., ,,, a.. llliinlt.cly small wo.l d n l lon overy gravi.
1'li""a1 ~e1d tan be tra... lormed _WIl y ..
A . imilar Blate men t can also be found in Ei ll!lt.e ln, 1 9~ :
... fo. any h'lI nllelY small ,.·o,ld_.., lon th . clloN iaa m C.II . l.... y. bo chQlleJl ill such . way
Ibal Ihe ll'nl v;\. thm. l hId III thai wcrW-region "nl!!les. Thtll ",e ma y .:I4um. t hat hI such
an infinitely "". ll ...·o:rId-~j"" th e specia l thoo ry 01 .-.IHivit y I, ,." lid . 10 Wi.....
~n.tlI l
f ",
Oleo. y ol ..I' tiv,ly ' s ...1,Wt! 10 lb• •p.,;id tb.ory of ..J. livity . nd the reau III 01
lhe Ja i ler ar. 1.,.,w orm6d 10 llullorm••.
Later th l!$l> erroneous sta tement! foun d their WilY into a number of textbooks
practica Uy with ollt all.etations. However , forees of inert ia and gnv itat ional forces
are en li rely d iflerent iu thei r origin, si nce lor t he first t he curvature ten sor is iden -
licall y zero wh ile for the secon d it i s lIon zero. Consequentl y, the effect of the lirst
on all physical phen omena can be ltulHlied io the .mt ire apace (glohllll y) by trana_
ferr ing to an inertia l reference fram e, wh ile the dad of graviht iona l rc eces c en
be destroy ed on ly in local reg ions of s pace an d not for al l phys ical processes but
only lor t he simplest , thOll e in whose eq ua tio ns t he space- tiroe CUrvature is not
prllS¥ nl.
Hen ce, on the one han d , the princip le of equi valence is in va lid for peeeesees
invnlv ing pert tetes with hi gher s piIlll because the equati olU for th e parlielu conta in
the curvature tenso r ex pli ci tly ; on the ot her, th e princi ple can no l be ap p1i&d to
erlen ded obje cts (of snflic iently larg e dimensio ns ) s tce e in thi s cIISa the deviat ion
of t he geode:!lcs corre sp(lnd ing to t he edge points (If the (lhjed maoif8!its Itse lf .
Sinetl the cur va ture tensce ente rs into th e deviat ion equat ion, forees of iner tia and
gravitn lional fo l'<:llS are nonequivalent for mechan ical movemen ts nr an e xtended
objec t, too .
The main cradi t for elucidat ing these aspoot.s must be give n 10 Eddi ngton. t 923
(pp. 40 an d 4f ), WIlD poi nted out:
T ile Principle 01 Equ;ul . ,,,, . hu Illayed e &,",,1 pan .. . guide ia Ih~ orlgioal building
up of th . I!""'eralited relativity theory ; bUlao... tbat ..'e bu. reached ilia na... vi.... <If lhe
naturo of \he "' orld II haa be ~om 8 1_ oflU!8ll"Y .... II i......alia U)' "" hypntbe!lls tel ba
1..sIed by o.perlment U nppol1uoiW offen. Moreover it is 10 be .., . rd od • • • ""i!rU1iOll,
rather than . dogma adm,tting ..r 0.. unllt.l<>nJI. It i. llk~ly Ihat ""m. ..1 the Ilh""O"'06'
...iII hi' delerDllned by tho cO"'JI'.rallvoly almpi. equation. in which \.b. ~()mpOll""tI 01cu....
"'alun or the world do llot . pp...r: Aueh "'l... ltono..~Il be Iba u ma for a ~urv" region al ln.
a 0. 1 region. II ia to t heM Ih. 1 Ih. Principl, 01 Equlul,,,,,, applle"
One ean nc t. however , assert ths t descript ions o{ pb~ica l p henomena in a grav -
Hs.tio nlll field and in a non tnertie l relerea ce fra me of tha pseudo-Euclidea n s pace-
tim e lIl'e fully equ iva lent, since (\15 put by E dding km ):
... tb... are m...... comple:o. pbanomena i ovomed by equation. In whith tbo cu' .... I....." 01
the IV<Irld an ln~olvtd; l.<mu eOll tailling theeecurvalure will vanish io \b. "'lu. ti<>nJI lUm -
morlslng uperlmeo t.s madt in a nat nglan.. alld would te ba noin. llted in Jl'.Hiag
10 lila i f"en l equoliOllI. Cl..rly there must he" "'10 pbeuomeoo of Ih!s klnd whlcb diseri",-
foolo I>ot"'8<'1> • U.I wo.ld and a curved world: otberwi... w. could b..... llo knowled ge 01
world ...,u rva~ur •. flor Ih_ the Prineipl. of Equiveleu<:e br... ka do...,..

ThlLS, the equivalence principle, if understood as the possi bili ty of elc1uding

the gravitational field in a D in finit esimal region , is not eOtroot s ince t here is no
way in whieh we can excl ude tbe curva ture of speee (if it is non zero] by selectin g
. n appropriate reference frame, even with in a give n actui:acy . Moreevar, grav -
i u tiona l lields Ind field. of forces of ine rU. d o noL h l ye a . imila r cllee t lin a ll
phy.inl prooMll fllJ.
Tn.e, it 1I)\15( be DOled tlld s ubHqU8nlly E htsteiD rKoll$ide .od h ill " i . .. po int
on t he p. lnei pla oJ eq uiulenee and d id Dot Insist 00 th e co mple te toquiVilenc. of
field, oj forus of 11111111. a nd CJ'lv'u. li on&llieJoe, poloti n, out th at t he for mer (non-
jowli.1 rel_ne. fralll_) c.ol1Stitut•• partit uln eue of l .a"itatioliailieldlllaaUafy.
in, th Ri e"'l nn c;o"d' iioo R~ ... _ O. He WIOta (_ E huteio. 19(9):
n..e 1.0 • optdal Ulld of r.paoo n... pllr,lial moo:l.CJ'I ("ld) .... be pn<S<l......1 ,....
rial" bowa OIl ~ ..... of 1M qecial tlleot)I' of f'l4 Uvl. y. nil ill emp', IPke w1tJooool
eny; Lot
JOOinli I_
b}; t_
.~ic Wd -....l • • u ... It is ~ pLll4lJ' d. lcra1>l tcl 11, lIS ....Iric • .-p'
4 to ".. . &ad til. be r&. eoonIl.u~ d ill'e~ of two h.ftIoi teoiAall, _ .

"- ol4+"rI+ ~-"tlIl

b. _ ..... bill ,,"'1\1[1, lUI i. iad...,.r.,u of lpote;al ...... Ie. of the ,...,rt ia l lyMuI .
II _ 1. ",od llCat Ie I~. "r- u.......
.-.d1.1I.U. " r o' ". , &lIOl " . 1"",,,-&10 • ,........ 1
~f_lloo of coonIl..... me.
tbo q lllla d'J . " I I ~ lama pai . 01 poill.t.s Us en n -
~ onoflMf_

(2) .,·= l:ltl.~141

(IUmllled lor I . od .. IfOIII I 10 4). wlw'oo Ir . _ t i l' Ttu. I I. Uull lor m • ' J III-mC Ie........
.o.IId . .. conllll~ O\I' f~ac: U ..... of " I••. ., SOI..... d_ribe aceonl l"l lo lbe prillo(:lp l. of .... lI.i v_
. 1• ...,. I v niuollonl l .... Id of I 1]l<!:C,"1 kind. "III.", 01>1 Ih' t olD. be .. tnIl:I......1IIfld 10 lhe
lor lll ( I).
" rom tl i....loo·. lovtllligot.ion. lID melric opaCfl!h. IQllhe ID.ltle,1 prop.erti. of . hi' l ll
r.. ld no be , ivon nl>Clfy (RI.mana condlllo o). WI.. I 10 IK>\I rb\ . howeve r. [I lh. ''' ~ll iODI
"'li '~K by '00•• 01 , .uluoti ooll ft.lda. It II 0. 10•• 1 \0 ..sum. l bal lh e,. 100. caa 1>0 dl -
... Ibild .. UIlIO. fuJld' of \he typo ttl ' which la geoe•• l do a o\ Idmil • t r.ll8formlllon to
Ib, form (I ), thn I. , which do nOI ... Usly l h. RI.mlllll CbDdlllon, hoi ............ ku conditiOllf.
whieh, jlllli I t l he RI' lO,nn w o.d llhm lnd.~ndent 01 1"" cboleo 01 coordinatM (l hOi
I•. ttl ro n... ll y Invttiu.I) . A . impl, fo 1 conoldln Uoo Iud. to ker caodi lio n. Ih al
. .. clONly CDIIl>t<ltecl orlth Ih l Rle mlllll. collditi"" . T heM condiUOfII Ih. VI'" equU IOII.lI
01 thl pa.. , .. vll llioo.1 IIl ld (on the olUld. of .., U.. " '" In l he I bo.""" of lD. , 1... lro·
IIIlpoti. ~ I d ).

T hWl, ElNtdn a ll erod 1M plt ydcal meaninlol l lu '9'u lL'alenu pri nciple, all lloo<, 11
tltu lad apJHU?nlly ~,"lIfned u n /UJffcN b, IItlIny.

Whll . cte, t in, th e a:enera l \.beo.ry of I'lliativ lty, EIDllt4lln ....111 tota lly lfuided by
t be princ iple of equ \v a!eJlce in its init i. 1WOrd in" .... biclt t h_ fonl pla,ed a heur iJt--
te role in t.OlllI Lruetin, th e t heory ( EiDota' D a nd Gl"OlISmlln D, 19( 4):
TIoo _ 111$lbeory
IIhyMc.>.1 ~
ori".. ~ on ~ bui. t>f tho. COII yict illll IU t III • rn v; uotl ..., l fi~lcl ,U
ill the ...... _ .. u III llIo . "-ce of ...... iuoll""'"'lli""~ bl l ill
... illlproprillbl, 1 lId {th l_ ·.H..... _I ~ ' r - of -..a iDOtaI (equinll11OU II, .

Sinu ill th ose da)'ll. th anks to Minko"., ki ' . dQcovtry, it wu knolrll th a t to

d iftt reot rtltteoce fu mn tha:re COITeIpond di ll_li t (pa«a ll, oll-d'lJronal) met·
. ies of , pac. tim.. EhUlu ln a.nd GrtllIIImallll, t 913, concl uded t bat 1M nwtrle I4MOr
0/111.4 R ~n ' f'G""tllM IftU.d be tWn AStM ~ld ...,.Joble Itw" l /l.e cn>~"il4luJltld ~14
ud that thi, ~03Or iI d. &efUliDed by th , distr ibut ion nd mot ion oJ m.n... . h
th ill "'a y tllere emerpd tho idea. of I. li nk botwean m. U« a nd t be po mlltry 01
s pac.,.ti mll.
Proceed inl frOO1 thue _ umplians, EilUltllin a nd Gl'OIIlIml nn purelr intui tivel)'
tlied to establi, h thll form of the equ a tions Unk illl thll components of t ba metric
tensor of the Ri llmann 'PfoU""t hne with th e Iluetl)'-moman tum teeeer for maUeI'.
Afler numereUf u4ltlC(,MSfu i attemplS lJUCh t qua t ioll' were fou nd by E in'l4Il n at
th e en d 01 1915. Since eome".h, t ea rli er Hil bftt, 1915, arr ived . t the ,a rne eq u.tlOll.t
(hi~ reasoning was based on varialiona l prin ci ples), we will ca ll tbese equilions
the Hil hert·Einllteln equa tion s,
It lll~t be noted that t he metr ic tensor of the Hietnann sp aClI-time cann ot serv e
II.! a char ac terist ic of t he grav itat ional field becaulle its Mympto lic behavior de-
pends on the choice of the th roe-dimensional (apati al) system of coordi nates,

Chapter 2, Energy. Momeotum Pseudotenser s of tbe

Gravitational Field in GR
E iMlein believed th at in GR the grav itat iona l field together wilh matt er must
obey II conset\'ation law of SOlUe ki nd (Ei nlltein, 1914);
...11 I"""
", il h""t "' \""8 Ih. t we "'0'1 roq ui l'(l Ihal ....olUlr ond tlf uilllibnol lield li ke"
tOBel ... ""H. ly . "ergy ond mamenlom eoo...",va!ioo lowo.
In his opinio n , thi s problem bad been full y w ived on the basil! 01 "eeeseeveucn
laws" that. used the energy· moment um pseudotee scr as the energ)'- ffiomentum
charac teris tic of the gravita tional lield . The eommon line 01 reason ing that leads
to such "conservat ion laws" goes as follows (Landau an d Libh ill, t 975), 11 tile
H ilbert- Ei nst ein equa tion.':! are "Ti tl en as
- ~ g [Rj~-+ g;~ R] _ _ gT'·, (2.1)
where g = det gl ~' R ' ~ is the Ricc i tensor, and T l~ the energy-racmentuz» tenso r
for matter, the n the l~rt-han d aide can be represooted as IIs um of two nonCQvatiant
qu ~ n ti t ies:


where t l~ _ t~l is the gravita t ioul-field eMrgy·mo l1lentnm pseud oteneoe, an d

11,1"' _ _ hll. the sp in pseudotensoe. Thi s lransforlll!l the Hilbere-Elnsee tn equa-
t ions (2. 1) into 1111 equiva l&Jlt lorm
_gIT i" +TI"I _ _ '_ hl"l. (2.3)

I n view of the obvious lact t ha t

_·_·_ h l·' ~ O, (2 A)
iJzJ> iJz'

th o Hilbert. Einstein I!qll alio ns (2.3) yield the foll owing d ifferent ial conserva tio n

which formally is similar to tba conservation law Ior energy-m omentu m ill etecreo-
dynamics. Accordi ng to Gft , this law is ,'alid for any cboice tlf ceeedin a tes .0;",
lor one thing, sp heetce! coord inates (/, T, e , 'l'). But in t be lntter case (2_ 5) will
a lways lead to phys ically meaningless results. Th us, Eqs. (2, t ) in ar bitrllry ecce-
dlna tes alwa ys lead to (2.5), whic h has no physical mean ing.
I n accordance with thls Blulo g)', t ile grav ita tio nal energy "n ux" through the
elem ental s urface ' rea dS~ is defined ln Gft thus :
ill =c (- g) T""dS" .
T ,lliDI • I phUII of " dlUJ r .. tb ' surfac:e of inu. rltlon (<is. = -rn.dO). we
ur ln at th . formu la for the "i n\en5lty of grav ita t ional ~lIetgy per WIlt !OlId

. nlle:

I =--n" ( - ,) ~". · (2.6)

f'orlll\l ~ (2,5) is also used ill GR to deri ve la teen'1 "t 0ll5ll1Vlt ioD luI" for Lb ,
energy-momenlum· of mattar alld rrn itationa! field Ulken \urel.hes-. He re Ulu.all y
(ael E ilUlte in, t 918b, a nd Li ndau u d Lifsh it a, 1915) (2.5) is in tegnt&d D'u r
• dtfin lte volume and th.., i t iI'Slu m,d that lbe mlU er Du x. tbr oll(h \he ' urlace
cOfI lin hl, tb, vel u e e of !ntqrat ion V I UfO. The ' UUIt i,
: , ~ ( _ I) [1'" + -cO' ) dV "" - ~ ( - f ) T'" dS._ (2.7)
E ins tei n, 1918b, IMumed tbat the ri lh t-b llI d aide 01(2.7) , t t _ 0 is "lor eeril in
the lOll' 01 eDergy by \h e mate rial 5yst .m~ and, hence,
- ~= ~ ( - t) 'f(jg. dS.. (2.8)

In tb, .baene. of gra vU." Uoll,I·Jield "~gy- momeDtum filli es" through the ,uriaee
connolor t he integra tion " 0IUIII6, Sq . (2.1 ) yields the foll owing 11w 01 ~en ,rgy.
momeJltum WlllIUVltion In th'lystem:

pl _";- ~ (- IHra' +,.' l dV _ eoDli t . (2.9)

By me. D.I of th e Hll bert.-Ei D.lteln equatioll!l (2.3), thl In. (2.9) u n be rn rr iUln
.. foll crn:
Pl _ ";- ~ A·"dS. t. __ (2. 10)

E inatein. 191Be. bel ieved that the (oW' qua nt it ies p i efIutit ule the energy (i - 0)
and Ute momellt\lm (I _ t , 2, 3) of I pb)'Sieal Sialem. It i. usuall,. at. ted in this
eoaMet ion (_ w llIdlU IUd Lifshit " 1975. pp. 283-2840) thl t
Tb q"'" l h l'" p I (u.. " " " " _ "IUIII 01 lield "Jut .,..\.tm
",uter) ~ u. I IOOlOpl,~IJ d, rmlte
..... oh.i and a.. ind. peod",1 of 1"- c.ItoH:oo 0{ . . ....-oee 10 j \tl\ t he I1 lr t l Ib. 1 I.
"_ rr 00 tbe bU b 01 pbyalcal coll$ld' l'llt iOlll.
We wlll ehow. hc wev ee, th. t thls . "" lement UI erroneou a (Ice Ch. pLer S).
On the buls of such I definitlo n of the ~enCrlP'· m o llle ll lll m" of • ayst em eon-
eisting 01 ml tte r ead grav itat iona l field , tho follow ing concept 01 Inert ial mass ml
of t he Iystem is introdll(Oli In GR:
'"w - .!.P'
c -~ r ( _ IH r- + 't"lJdV ... ~
c J ,r, h·"' dS._
c ,. (2.. 11)
EJ:p~loOll li milu to (2.5)-( em l bo bee Obtained if tbe Hilbert- Einate in
equltiona are written m ter..... of ml.led eomponents :
v=t 11"j + Tj'1- ".u':"'.
T he cholet of the gnv lta ti oDtll-6,ld ellerv-motll6llt\lm pseudo lensott depended
to , ,,..t Iltent on the preferanC41 of the diftel'llnt IIIUlOfll '1td."1
rule, 1Ii'U cu:rieti
ou t Oft th e buis OlllKOlldlry properl.ia . For matlnCl, if we ta ke /atlll in tbe fon;n
It.tIl' _ 16m; ..,!r t -t£l"'r' - , I1, ""')I, (2.12)
""a llrTil' 1 at the wo d, ,,·L 'f!hlh tyw. ll)etrl~ PMudotelltOr, wbich coota iu onl y tb,
fint dl!!l'i.... li 'l'es of \.be lIl, trle teCltOr.
,.10 - Iiic ({2I"'..rc -. rtr'_ -r:tr"..) (('''' _ t"'-')
+ ,u,._(r'",r"_ + r'_N',,- r".. r"... I""... - r:,)
+ r ',.-(r'"I"'_+ r'_ r;.- r:,r:.. - r:",r:.>
+,...,.. (r'al ......_ - r~, r:,.)}. (2. 13)

" 1l"$ aMUlGe tha i

,,:;: ' ~ <' 'V'L ~l _ , (g .. ,r~l _, ~' u) l ,
6..c. _J (1z '
.. (2.14)

""e . rrive at E instein', pMudol.ensor

,.~ _ "I~~t (- 2r~n,,·· + r'. ,r:',.r" + r:..r:,.('" + r~,r~~'

- n,r:..,-' - ~ I'-or'• • rj" - ("r:" r;. I}. (2. 1~)
whk:h eoln cides wilh the c.aoonieel ell<erg)'-momelllu lIl (pK udo) ten30r obll iu d
from t he noReon , ;a"l C", .,ila tionlOl-fleld LqraIl,iID de.ll.lli ty
Lw - v=i" r'I r;,~ - r:'.r:,I .
<' v=i .-"" t"' I, ,z•• - ,
o.• , - ~ .,.,1 (2.16 )

... ha n !.ore ntJ.'lI pHoootell5Ol'

..1- ",r,;c' la.r'" ",-o.r:.","'-a:RI. (2. 17)

whlch coincid es wit h tile u nonieel eOllrl y-momentu m (PMudo) tensor obt alntl!

Let u.
vii the noneova rian t i n ~ n l l~lm .l-d isp lacemell t method from the eour iln t gUY_
itati ona l· lield Lagran llian darll ity L . _ V
now inves tigate th e ~a ner,r-m ome ntu m" qu' nt it illll introduced in Eln-
slain', theory mi ni the def,nftiOll of "inertial rnl M" of I. apheric, U)' aymmatric
MutCe. Flit the sake 01 definite ness we carry out all calculati ons with in the fram e-
work of the Landa u-LibhitJ aymmetrk: Jl5l!udol4!nJ(lt.

Chapte r 3. ln er Ual Mass in GR

E lutai ll cOlUidet'ed the equ. lit )' of inertl.l .nd crnitation. 1 IIlUS of . n object
as I.n n att I. .... 01 nat:a ra, . 1. .... that must ind ita reDaction u. his theory. At PffIf-
IID t it ill taken for cra n~ ill GR that tbe cr n itat ionel mus of I. fY'tem eon-
aWo iD( oJ maUer and pv ita tio ",, 1 h id is eq u.1 t o the loeftia l DlU5 ol l~ .,:IIlem.
Suc:h .talell'M!nta are elInt. illad in tb. .oric:.
01 ElAstein, 191&, Tolmell, 1934,
aDd We)'l , 1923. SIIMequently , the "proo[" of th is ate lellleot ....lth variou ' a ltera -

tiO!l3 wu carr ied out by oth er authors (aee Landau a nd Lifshitz, 197 ~. Misner,
Thorne, lind Wheeler, 1973, a nd Me ller , 1952). However. the etate ment. Is eUOIle-
ous. Foll owing Deolsov and Loguncv, 1982b, we will now prove this .
T he gravr la tio nal mass M of e n ar bitrary physical syste m tha t Ie llS a whole at
rest with res pect to a GaHlean (at infInity) Schwaezsebtld sys tem of ceoedtnates wu
defined by E llls telo, 191& , as the q uant it y that is the flletor of the term - 2GIc' r
in th e a~ m p totic expttlSS ion (as r ...... 00) for t.h e component 100 of th e metr ic ten-
scr 01 th e Riemann space-Urne:
100 "'" 1-..,- M.
A w mewhal different definit ion Wl\S gi ven by Tolman, 1934:
M_-& .\ R: V - ldV. (3.1)

These delinit lollS imply di r0Ctly that grav it a tional maM is inva riant under
t ra nd ",rmatinns nf thrw- dimWlsinnal eeerdi netes, sinell both th e componont oR:
01 the Ried te nsor and the component Cooor t he metric lensor are trans formed like
a sealar .
For the case of 8 sla t ie spherically symmetr ic source these definitio ns 8.J:1l equtv-
ele nt. We wish to dllmonstr at ll that they remain !lO for a ny stat ic sys te m. To this
end we write n: in the form

R:", (I ' [8:. r~, - # r~! + r~, r~p- r; , r~o] .

Identi ty Itallsforn 'a tions yield
n:= V ~, a~ IV - cr J7nl - g'" #r::.
I ... al"l I ~ -r-r-: -reo~ l.
, -,
- T ' ;""'7i'iO +~ ~ [ r - g (' (3.2)

Sin ce for suti c sy!tem.s the last three terms on the right-ha nd si de of (3.2) can be
Ignored, (3.1) yields
M= ,c:.e § ss,V - ggO"rg•. (3.3)

Since quit e ra, Irom the sla tic system its metric can be described , with a given
ace uracy, by th e Schwereacbild metric. (3.3) assumes the fnrm

M _ -b
0"""' l,_.. k.dS",IfOV=8 ~
;m '! ~:< 'N'

The integra nd in (3.1) is a sca lar for all tr ansi ormati <ms of the t hree-dImensional
coordin ate syslom, which means that t he grav itational maS!! /11 is lndependeut
of the ehetce 01 cccrdtn etes. In Schwar1..'lChi ld coord ina tes, (3.4) aasumM th e form

M"' -;;; !~r;. (... ~)= -;; !~r;.[r> *(t - ~ M) ).

Thus. the grav itational mass of a ny s tat ic sys tem, aeeording to Tolman 'a defi-
nition. i!I lh e factor of - X /e", in th e asym(ltot ic eX(lreslIion Inr t he component
C.o nf the lnetri c te nser of t he Rie mann space- time. Hence, for sta t ic systems the
definitions of gravit al lonal maS!! given by Eins tein and Tolman cni neido.
E ins te in c1011el)' linked t he eO.ll ce pt of the inerli. l mu" of • phys ical SYS~ lD in
Gil. with the ide. of the eOllf'Y of the sys te m (Ei nate io, 191& ):
... t.heq... ntl IJ W I • • boo..., in..p~ I ' n1elW7 pl.,.. t1M ..... olllIBtbl ...... fa . """"
~._ WiLh 1M opeclal llIeorJ til reWilllr.

Si nce Einstein IUueeted calclIl, t ina: th e eDf!'1Y of. sys tem wi tbi ll t he GR Inllle-
work wilh the lid of f nergy-IllGlDaD1Um ~udo18nsors. lb, i urlia l mass is ca l-
eu l.t.ed on t he ba.,ia of (2. 11).
W. lUI" define in acwrd . oee with (2. t t) Ute in lll't i. 1 m. . of • spher lully 'Jm-
metr ic lOW'Ce of gr ui ""tiooll &tId an d stud y ho,",' i n«ti.1 III ILV tr.Ill5forl'OS undu
coord inate lra omormd jons, I n i.totropic CIod.llo coordi na tes the metzic: of the
Riemann Ip .~ tim" hu the lorm
(1- 'I IiY)'
s.o - (I +'111,)1 l ..a- 'I'd (I +',/41")', (3. 5,
where ' . _ 20M/c'. These coordinates ere nyw ptotic l Uy C. lilu ll, einee the
IDllow/Ui esti mates hold Irue u r _ 00:
g... - I 0 (lI, ), I ... __ V•• l l + 0 (t/r)). (8.6)
If we em ploy t he eO" llriu L com ponent.! of met ri.. (3':), tlltn (2. 12) y ields
h'''' - - .. -,;e
Ib e ~[ ' 1I1.. f.-~
-- [ .
Suhlt itdinr this into (2. 10), I ll owinr for the f.d thd
dS.. _ _ I
; "' ,iIl 8 dll~ . (3.7)

Ind 11I!.t1f'1t inr eve- In inJjnitel r dllbnt aurillCe• • 1 ohll ill

T- ~ 1::C !~~ ,.. ~ ~ ,~ [- t ",.., ......Jli n 6d9 d". (3.8)

Th Ull , Llle «lm ponent P' iI i ndepende nt of t he «lm ponent I .. nl l lle melt'c te nsor
of t he R leman o llpllC$-UOI e. Com bi n ing (3.5), (3.8). e nd
, z' d
8Tf{r j -' -;:-a;:-/{r) . (3.9)

where " ... _z",r", we I Tdve a~ Lhe rolJ<>wi ng n preuion for th e compollent p G
01 " energy-moOla nt um" ,

It Wit th e lac t th. t " inert il l ml .u'" eol ndde! witll I r. yitetio nll mu ! th lt lUI
JfOundl for .5!eJ' tinr Lh.L tb ey .re eq ull in GR , too. .....nd.u . nd Lib llitl , t 975
( p. 334). wrote '
...1'* _ o. flO _ M< • • I'UIIl t ..Web .... IIIIW&lI,. 10 be U"pec\eCl . II il ia up.-ioa of tt.
'''In..I...t i....J· IJIci "1Mr1ie.I" ....... r'..rn hll ioiJel- "' _ I. lhI ... . 1h.1 d. l....
f!Cl.ull il,. of
111._ ~ ..... Iu ' __ l hW PI"O'I"'*' h,.lhIbo.l.i, tJle_lll. . IIu.' . I'.....,.sII !loa-nc
~ lao • " niuti--.l ,.w, If, II ~o.r. ill 10'''01'' lor, "iMrti ar _ II I. '"
WI dtlffllll_ I!le ",li o of -ru ucI _ '"Ill of 11M Mely: I. partklllu, 11M l't!t
MeI'O' 0' lboo loocIy il ~ ...1 \4> Ihle ...... .. v.lllpIOai b,. <'l.

Uo",., t.b. iI sta tement I nd I hntl ar I ta tem(lD1S made by Ein.ste;ll. 191& , a nd
olilor a " tbon 1_ Ed di ngton , t 923, Misl,ler, ThOl"oe, a lld WIlH ler, 1973, M.ller.
u r.. R, I« lo/fIk T-,. ./ C''''IOIlu
1952, . nd Tolman. 19311) are erTOOfO\lS. AllUlI easily be demoRlltr.ted . tbe ~'Il"1Y'"
01 • I )'lIItIll and, heDee. tbe ~i Berti. 1 mad' 01 tbe ",ma l )'Itl m. ( ). have no
phys ical mea ning bec.l1l!e !.belr P:lagn lt ud. d.pelldt Oil lb. c:ll.oice of t he t breo-
di_lIlIioaal eoord iD.te q&WD- l odeed.• buic: ftq ll itellle o \ th . t lilT deli nitiOIl
01 Inertial IIIUII mlUt ... tidy b the in dependence of tllb qUlnti t, hom tbe eboica
of tht mlem 01 cooroiD.lter, lh b bold. ttu. lor 'll)' ph)'SlUlI
theory. But i t G R t ke de6n iUon (2. t t ) of " inerti.1 m..... doa DOt meet t hiol _
qu i~enl.
We will d_ OIlll1nte, fOC" ins l.lnce, I.b.t io the ca. 01 • Sebwaruebild solu t ion
tIM " iner1ial mass" (2. t t ) ummes In .., bihary VIIUI depend.ina: on t he choicfl 01
lb" lhree-d imeMional eoordhllte . )111. 10. To t h is end we t ransfer Ieem t heft o
d illll Mioul Carwa iao c:oord in.ta ~ 1.0ot her eoOI'd lnl tQ ~ linked to lil a p..v ioul
eoordinates by t he loll ll"'; ng formul. :
~ _z~l t +/ h . )l, (3.11)
where 1); . . (zl< yfl + + aM''' . and f (' N) is an ar bitn t y nonalngulae fll llc~ioo
obey/nl tbe cond itioD'
1(, ,,,»0, l im 1('", ) ... 0, lim ' ''' -/;;- 1(,,..),,,,, 0. (3.12)
'N ~ · 's ~.. ,..

It is .uy to SlllI th t Lr. ndormlt ion (3.1 1) ~ponds to I eh1nee in the ltit lllJll-
Iin iioo of the poinu of the th rtt.dimensional . pate , Iollg tbI radillS, re -
r l<U + 1 (P')I»). f or h allllormt iioo (3.1I) to hn l In ilivetSe l od be e ee-re-ece,
It it Dec l!lllllr)" Ilid slIllieiellt t~ t
* _ I+ I + Tl«> O,

r» ~ l (rld ,
Tball 1M l acobi" l of lhis Lr. nalorm.lion .iIl . lso be ooozero;
J _ det [ =," ] .. (1+ 1)' ~ .,. 0 .
• " I( 7;;i
Specificall y, the function
I (TN) _cr;z .'" )'" [l -exp (-
(~ . IT/< l], (3.13)

witb cr; . ndt arb itrary numbll'li not equal to zero. aatl,rlli ' \Ivery one of the above
l'equ !~me"t.a. If ",a a llo.... lor (3.13), Wll get

~- l+ DI ( ~~ )''' (-}+(tlrN-+)U P( _ .J r ,, ) ] > 0,

.bich abo.... tb t Te is . monotone fonr:tioo of Tl<' It Is O5y to verily tJ.1l 1 (F)o)
is • DoOllef. t!"1 ll oui ll(U l ar fuoeti on in the en ti~ 'peel. The Jaeo bie n of t he
t.rIRlforme tioD !n this CUI i" lr ktly gruteT th . D IIlIlty:
J_(I +"-:;;-> I.
Therefol'l, trl nd_.tioo ( ) .,..;th (u netioo 1 (' :f) " i. (3.13) b.u 11\
Inv_ tra osfotUl. t ion I nd It one-to-one,
Ob'l iolUly, Ira osrormatiOI1 13. 11) does no~ cha np th e nlue of t lte gr.... ;te t ion. 1
mUll (3. 1). We ..ill no.. ukil late th... al ue of IIIe "inert ia l mus" (2. I l) in term s
of tbt Milt eoon.fina h'S :r~ . Applyi ng thl! t&nSOt tl'ilnslorm. lion I... to the metrie

(J .14)

we can ftllod the tom ponen l& 01 tbe Sc......rDIClIi ld melr ic (3.5) i ll ler m' of ' he n••
coo rdioll l.ell. Th e l'e:!Iul t ill

g.. = [ 1 - "if ;~+f) f [ t+ "I( ~~+Il )"1. (3. t 5)

K.~ - [l+ v,. ~~ +JJr { "... (I+fJl- .r~ :rn(/')'+, ; f'{1+n]} .
The detorminanl of the met ric l.IIllSOt (3. 15) is

K- - , .. [ 1 + t;< ~~ + n r (l -i-I)l lIt + /)I+ r!<l U')' + 2r Hf'{t + 1)1· (3. 16)

It musl be especiall y noted ttla t melric (3. 15) ill llSy mploticilll y G.lilean:
li m , .. _ I , Um ' •• _ Y...
• ~ -. '}<-

h . II,. fNort ie11 lu case ",here funct iOlt f i:s spel;i6ed by (3. t 3) a nd ' H ii_li t to in-
fiIlity, 1'- metric of lhe Riem. nn 'PJlee- time hu lhe followllli uymp\Olie beb", lor :
, .. ~ t +0 U /'~l , , • • - l., [I + 0 {llr:rll. (3. 17)
For the co....ri . nt eomponenlt of metric (3.15) ... hu e
tt" - r.:, 1'4- 1".4 +.;48, (3.t 8)

whl' '''' we haw, in trod uced th. notation

tl _l l + n-l[ l + ~ (~ +lJ r l .
s .. 't!Wl'+ 2!'(I+fl
'N [ 1+ 4rt!~~T I) r (l + fFW +n'+'k U'l' + 2It!I'II +nl
Sll ~lilut i ne (3.16) and (3. 18) inlO (3.8). ...... obtain

, ,~~~_rN
P' -i6:iC . .t':,
J 7,;""hf {1"(l+ /P [ 1+ "
4T;(I + h J'
X1(1+ If'+ rJo lfi' + trffr (1+ fJI
z:~ l+fJ
+ ~.( 'I 1 + iI'lC "tl+ n J'
XIrJ< U')t + 2r~r (I + fJI ) dr.
In vie w 01 the valid ity nf [3.9) th is yields

pt=;; ' N-'" {r"NU'):(i + fJ2[1 +

lim 4rr' (~ + 1J ]8

n [ t + 'rt: ;~ + h
+ r. (I + f)2(1+ f+ rN Jl (3. 19)

All owing for th e asymptot ie I!xl'reMlion (3. 12) for /' we lina lly ob ta in (sal.' Mf/lJer ,

T hus, th e Minert ia l mass" depends /!$Sll llti aHy Oil the ra te at whieb f' ten ds to
eerc as rN_ 00. SpeCifically , if we take funct ion f (r N) in the form (3. 13), from
(3 .20) we get
1lt, =M(l + a"}. (3. 21)
Helice lor t he "inertial mass" (2.1t) of a system cons ist ing of eraner a nd gra v.
itat ional field we C81l obta in in GR a ny fixed number "" ;;,, M depen d iog on the
choice of the spa t ial coordin ate system (beca use of the ar bitr arineM of a) , whereas
th e gra vit a ti ona l mass !If (3.1) of th1$ s}'st em and, eonseq uent ly, all throe effects
of GR Nlmai" unaltered. Note a lso t hat in th e evant of reoee complex tr a nsfor-
ma t ions of the s patial eoord inates t hat lea ve the llletri c u ymptot ica lly Galil ean,
the "i nerti al mass" (2.11) of the s}'stem t an assume any fixed valu es, posit ive as
well as negative.
T hus, we eee th a t in GR the value 01 th e "iner tia l mass", a concept introduced
by Ei nstein a nd late r usad by ma ny authors (e.g . see Eddingtpn , 1923, La ndau and
Lifsh lh , 1975 , ~fl8ne r , T horn e, a nd Wheeler, 1973, ~l.liIll er, 19.52, aDd Tolman .
1934), depends on thll eholce of th three-dims DJl iona l ~yste m of coord ina tes and ,
therefore, carr ies no phY9ica l meani ng. He nce. t M datern4nl that " /nerlla l m(lSi'
II tqual to grat/ltotlo nal m lUi In Elm/em'. throry ha.s no phyncal ~nlng eilhtr.
Th e eq uali ty takes place ill a narrow class of three-di taonalcnel sys te ms of coord i·
na te.!, lind s ince the Uin ertia l mass" (2.11) and th e grav itational IDaS/! (3. t ) obey
d ifieren L tra nsformati on laws, a tea nelttcn t o other t llr_d imens iona l syste ms of
coord inat<'S results in a violat ion of th is equa lity .
More th an tha L, such II definiti on of Uinert ia l mass" in G ~ does Rot obey the
princi ple 01 c orres pondence to Newto n's theory. Indeed , s ince the "inert ial mllSll"
m, in E instein's theory depends o n the c hoice of th e thre e-d ime1l.'! iooal sys tem
of coord inat es, its e ltpression in the genera l case of a ll arbi tra ry th ree_d imens iona l
cooedinete s ystem does not transform in to t he appropria te ex pressi on in Newton 's
theory , in which the tilnerLia l mll!O!" does Dot d epend on such a choice. TIt~, GR
conlalJ., no daulcal Newtrm i(JII Um it and, hence, don not I14 tu fll the crJrrnporuknu
principle . This Impllts thai GR Is nol on ly logically contradldory from th e vft wpotnt
of phI/sics bu.t 01&0 dlred lll contradicts t M experimental /hlta on 1M tq u.olitll of the
inertfa l and the octWt grlWitotion ol maSS.
Then why were the aforesaid a nd th e eeceaeary coucl usious not arri ved at ear-
lier? Apparentiy the answer is thd E inste in foeu'lld on the problem or enerl'-
moment um in GR and alter , tudying it assumed he had , ucceeded in find ing a so u-
tton th a ~ was definite to th o same e xte nt u ill c laS!lica l mechanics. Somewhat late r
Klein, 1918, math ema tica lly liubsU n LiatOO E insteiu '8 ideas. Einste ill's conclusions
concerning the ener gy-momentum of a s ystem are Nlpeated almost with out va rt-
J. I n. rl i . 1 M,... in Gli

et ten to th i3 d. y (e.g. see Lan d. u aed Lifsh itz, 1975). T he st ud ies of these ou t.
stan din g seientists created the belief tb.t in GR t he problem of energy-momen tum
had been solved. All th ia. or course, hind ered carry ing out l detailed a nal~."ia and
. n iving at basic co nclusions. But OUl' lindings disag ree completely wit h those of
Ei nste in and Klein . Why ? Because the work of E instein and Klei n contains. llli.s-
take. T hll two Ia tled to noti ce th at the quantity J. with wh icb they opera ted is
simply ' 11 idanti e• • toro. Tbis VllrY sim ple mist. kia is highly importa nt, bee. use
it complelllly destroys Elnsteia's eoeclustons.
Let us en, lyle this q u~t ion in greaw detai l. To this end we present Ei nste in' s
reasoning an d analy te its essence. E inslllln, 191& , WrO(;):
.. .1 ...i! b to dtm onsu.le hl!'l'e tJo., with th e help 01 Eq . (I)' the OOJl&o:pt, 0 1 , oorgy nd
momenlum ..o be O$tab llsho<l "" d oor/y M io cl...!""l mecho.nios. Tbeoo aod momeotllm
01. d Med syst<:m . re f.. lly deftn ~ ind'p"odently from Iha cboice "f. "y"le ,o 01 "'lC.di -
oal '!<l . pl ovld.d th. t tb. motioo of tbe 'Y"lcm (., . ...hol.) "" tb ","peet to the ay! l"", " I
coon:linll" I, b ed; lor jostanoa, th a "16'\1 .0 0'1'Y" 01 aoy d Olled . yst "lll does not <>d
on tM chol.. ..I the ay!leOl of coo,diutet .
.. . Lel UI oele<'t a ayst.1II of coon:llnate.s i uch tha I alllln"ar alomenta (0, O. II, dr ,) 're
Ulll<llke . n<l oli !in... , .I..... nl . (<!>'" d"., ....." 0) ate &pa"" ll k..: Ih. o the f..~rtb t oord(ou "
oon ,n • ceno ln "~ be oalled 1110 ·tIOl'~'
r or u, 10 be eb l. 10 .~. k of tb a energy apd momenlum 01 • , yau,m, the oa. l'\ly aod
lllomoot um den ,itl.. mll5\ vanl'h oulllid. a nite region B. Tbi. will ba ppan OfI l y if
outside B 1M componen\3 ,~ • • re const .nl5, llIal i., ...heo the aY'u,m In ~u.nlon iI, 10 10
SO Y. io,m"", od In a ~Galilun 'JI'lU" and .... employ "C llilun tco,d iolt.. 1.0 de.., lb. Ute
, ulTOundi"f" or th o s y. te" . Ro«ion B h.. lofinlta dlm."" lonl Iu tho dlreoUon ofth. time
n l•• ttt. t lS. It Int•.., ee" .IIY hyperpl. u " . _ conll. The "'et ioo of B by • bYIl".p!aoe
' J ~ conat Is bounded on. lI . ,dO!. InSld. B thora ..o b. no"G.lileon .y, ~m 0' C'lon:linal ....:
tOe choice of . oon:linatO$ in. id. B I, lImi"'d by . na tural conditloo , lhal tbo coo.-
diM ta mu,t cOOl lnuoull y ,... lOW t b, coon:ljnu OlJ out. idt B. ado... I conslde' .lO rn. , y. "
",m l "f . oordlule'I of thi . kind . th. 1 II. , y!lfflI&coiocld iOll£ ou\3ide B .
Th. Inlegra l l.",. 01 COll5ern tlOll ll'l . norgy and mOm.lllum ate obtai nabl e lrom Ell. (I)
by lot. g... tIQfl wit h ffil p~1 t...,. r" r. 0••' region B. Sine. I I the boundari .. of this
tegion . n tbe IT,; u ni. h, w. ha..

TII<:.- lou, "<tultiona expreu. l lMli•• • • tb.I ..... 01COlWlr.UiM 01momcotum (0" ... I , 2. 3)
. nd eo.'1'Y (0" _ ' I. Lot u! dUOIe Lb" 10"ilra l in Eq. (3) by J. _ Now I SlUt Ihat tb. J!iI.
d" oot d.p.ud 00 Ibt cbok . of <owd in~te, 10. a ny aysl<>m 01 ooon!inot.ea (h. t oullid" IS
ooln&irl" ...ith 00. ODd tlln H ""e Caillun ~y$(8lD . .
Further he 110100 :
Thu" oolwilhatlod ;ng tit<: Ir"" ob.,lco of coord bllt'" iM ide R. the Mt ""e'llY or rna. of
tb. ,y."'"
<onn itltt.. . p,.. i, ely d.fined quanllty lhot doOi not dopond QfI the oholce el
th. t yw m 01 ooo«l fnl l.e&, Tbll I• • "..n mOte rem.rkab le b.c• ., 1e Ibonka to Iha nOllI.llOOr
nalure of U~ nu ioyariant lulet p' ota tloo 0' \be components of th e wergy de ... 11y CIO b.
gi ••n.
T hisreasolling of Einstein eontains a sim plo bu t Iu ndeme ntel mi.tako. 'fo .erify
this , we write the Hllh ert- Ein stein equation in the form
lr. - r: +
t~ .., il~IJ~Y . (3.22)
",hore~· _ - ,,~~ is the density or an . nt isymmetrie pseude tensce. Sub~ ~i tu ting
Eq . (3.22) into the ea peesstcn fo r the -i-momentum of all iso lated sys tem, we obtai n
J,_ ~ dVU : ... ~ dV 8~~\ d~dS.~·. (3.23)

, I'or""ul. (I) In Eln't"in ', corro&l'OOd. to Eq. (2.~) in Ih is book.

Since the surf~ce of in legr.\tlon S Ii"" outs ide B, tha t i ~ , ill a t:egion wheNl ll.ll t he
cem poncn t~ of te n~or K", are ccustents , t he (J~' I'en ish everyw here all S , Th ill
follo ws l\il1lC tly fro m the o_, prosllioll (2. 14) for 0:'. T h"s , (3.23) impli 8ll thllt
J, = O. I t ia t hia UtH noither Einsteio nor Kle in (nor ot hel"!l) noticed . Nor d itl
th.. y tlntlel"!l tan tl t he C[)f"rllGt nntl profound irtea 01 H ilbert, HI17, (see t he In tr o-
dll c.tion) tha t in GR t hero nra s imp ly no eed inary conservRtio n laws lor en ergy lind
momelltll ll'l , A ll tl illt follo wed WA il. coru pleted by t he dogmllti Sl1l and fai t h Lhllt for
more then hal f II. celil ury callollit ed GR, elon ti ng i t to a ll ind illpllta ble t rut h.
La tel}' PMltloov. 1982, hllS ~ llI t"" t hat i n GR t he Hamilt onia n fnr md ism e".bIOl!
solvirlg the problnm 01 t be energy- momentu lll of t he gravitat ionll. l field. Bll t De-
nisev a nd Logllnov, 1982d . a nd Den iaov a nd Solov 'ev, 1983, hAve ShOWI. tha t lhia
~ lete mell t ia err oneous lind Indi cate s t hBl the au thor oeee not understand Lhe
essence of t hl! pr oblem .
I t ia al> met imes SAid Lh ot within t hn fra mework 01 G R t he gra vi ta ti (",.l·flold
f'norgy-momentllm tllnear ca n be constru cte d b)' re ploci ng t he ordinAry rler iva tlv (l.'l
III t he ex pre8.'llon lor t he pNl"do tE"nsor with eevert an t deetve uves with respect to
"the Minkowsk i me t ric". Th l'5e s ta tements , however, Ilre err oneoua. I" GR, in
cnn t rnat to RT C where t ho Min kowski sp ace-tim o occupies lhll oonter nl ahge.
,hero ca n be 110 glob Al Carllls ian coordi oates lInd , I'en ce, 1"0 cannot i n pri nciple
s a)' whaL form t he Minkowakl metri c .....~ haa in GR for a g iven so hl ~i on to t ho
Hi lbert-E inatoin eqllRtiona. Two so h,tions 01 th e Hil bert- Eins lein eqlla tions, say,
{3.5) and (3.15), where one ia cbtalned from t he ot her br tra nslormiug only t he
s pa tia l coord inates. hive equ nl alll! ns a lld u n, at ollr choice, be refetn!'ll to one
lind the sa me metete r". Bllt thia d irec tly sugges ts t hai for each of t heso so l " tio n ~
we will ha ve dllfe rent valu ea of t he energy 01 the system . Th is mU lls ~ha t t he
energ)' of 0 system depend s on l he select ion of t he spatial ceordln a tes. whic h is
phys lcell y nwani ng- Iess. Such err olleous s ta tements can still be e ncountered in Ihe
l iteratu re e.s- ~ Ponomarev, 1 !lS.~) .

Chapt er 4. Energy-Mome ntum Conservation in GR

T he d ef'n it ion of iner t ial m ~SII tlt at in Chapter 3 e s em pltfied the gro undlees ueee
0 1 ft defliliti oll baserl OIl t he energy-moment um peeurtotensce does not u hallat all
I he defletenctee in CR. These de ficie ncies a ull tile resul ting con seq uences ha ve
boon dist llssed in detoi l in DeniW"lInd LOl/nliOv. 1982d . W il hou~ g() i ng into tech.
Il j c~ l de ta ils. we discu ss so me of t he ln here,
III a ll ph}'aiclIl t heor ies desc r ibillg the var ious for ms of m ~tter Olle of the ," os t
i mpor t An t heM chnr1lcter iatics is t he energ y- mome ntu m tensor dellSit)' , which is
IlsulIl1y obta ined by va ry i ng t he Lagra ngiA n fillld d"!Il~ ity Lo ver tltll c ompolle l1 ~
g .. n of t he apacll.(ime metetc tensor .
T his chnrac wr ist lc ronects t he e.~ ist':!l1ce of th" f'eld: 3 phys ica l Held ':! xists ;11
a cert ain ragioll of space-t ime il and 011 1y il t he e ncrgy -mornellt u m w llaor dellslt y
is non zero in U", region, Th e oner!:y- momllnt um of an )' physical field CO litri but es
to t he to tal lll.crgy-mom entuill tensor of rho syste m and does n o ~ vanish com plet ely
outside the so1lreo 01 field , T his ena bles eo naider ing energ )' tr~ n5por t i ll t he form
of waves in t he sen~ of Paraday and Ma xwell . 11.3t ia, we oro ob lo t n s t \l d ~' t he
distelb utlcn of the lield', at re ngth ill s pace, del-ecln illo th e energy Iluxes t hr ough
s nd acas . calc ulat e the chllnge ill energy-mom ent UIll in em tsston oud Absor ptioll
processes, alld car ry oul ot her ellergy calculatio n"
I n GR , however, the grllvitllti ona l lield does not possese t he prop er t ies lnlrerenr
in ot her phys ical fields ai nce it lacka such 1\ ch oraeterlst ic, In deed , i n E lnstelns
theory the Lagran gian density e01lllisl.S of tw o pRrU: th a gravitat ional· f'eld Lag_
rangian de1lllity L , = V=C: R , which depends only on the met ric l\III50r 1 m"'
and the material Lagrangia n deM ity Lid "" L lil (lI'mp, $ .. 1, which dep ends on the
metr ic tensor lI' ,"~ an d th e othe r ma terial fie lds (fl .. . Th us, in E inst ein 's general
thellry of relativ ity the lI' ,"~ ha ve a. two-fold melllllng: Ihey are field var ia blea and
at the sa me time eompcaents of the metr ic ten ace of space -ti me.
As /I resul t of s uch pbveteo-geometr tcel duali sm tlul density of the total sym -
metric energy-mo mentu m tenSQr (Ihe va riation of the Lagre ngtan de ns ity over the
components of the metrtc tensor) proves to COi nc ide with the field var ilbles u he
vari ation of th e Lagr anll'iJR de nsity over th ll compollentll 01 the grav itRtiollal
field), The result is that the density or the to ta l sy mmet ric ,margy-m oment um
tensor of the sys tem (field plus matter) ill ex actly aero:
T" 1+1(~) .. O, (4.0)
where T"' => -2~Lw/6gp l ill the density of t he sym metric energy- momentll m
tensor 0 1 mat ter (here by maUer we mean a ll materia l fields uce pt t he grav ita ·
ti onal), and
"' -
T11) - =- --.. --
2 el.,
11 - I [ R~l
I ~IR ] ,
- -g
E quat ion (~, O) a lso im pHea tha t all t ile comp onen tll of the dens Ity of tha -,ymmetrie
gravi tat io nal. field Illlllrgy-Ino mentu m t1l1l50' Tr: : ,·all ;,.;h everywhe re outside ilia\.-
Thu s, these r8! ults alone impl y that the gravi tation al field in Ei nst ein 's genera l
lheory 01 rela t Ivity dOell not P0888!lS the pro pert ies i nhoren t in other pllysiea l fields,
since outa ide its source th e grav ihtional field lacks the main physica l character.
istic, the energy -momentum tensor .
A physical charac lerist lc of a gr av itat ioual ftllid in Ei ns tei u' s theor y Is the
Riema nn c urva ture tensor RL...That we ha ve a clear ulldel'3tand ine of thia we
owe to Synge, 1960 (p, v iii):
1I we &ccept ~hl idea Iha ~ ~'p~e-l l llle Is . Riem .no ian lour-llpoce (and il we • ..., rel. II . 1IlS
we OlU'O, th en :l\lroly OUr n" l lu k Is to get the 1..,1 01 II jus~ IS Bld y "1",,1.0" h.d to
gel the f.. 1 of II .phoric:al """' 0. And Ihe lirsl th ing we h~vo 10 get the 1 1.,1 I. Ihe Rie-
mlnn lensor, lor it I, the grovllll lnD.1field_if it U Dil hl'$, &Dd ooly I""n, tho•• I. MfI.ld.
Ylt, . tn Dgely enough , thi . mOIl im portanl eleotent Iu.. b""n p"" ho<I Into t.... N ckgroond.
And Iurther he notes (p. ix):
In E inste in' , th eory , eltbe. til.,... i, . fl,....l t. tlOIl. 1 fu!ld or there i. DI>IlIl, . cwrd lng .. the
Il leotano tonsor dOH nat or d Oell ".ni.h. Th i. ia I n I hoolut<t pr"p 8tly; JI hu noth ing 10 d "
"' i1h Iny ob•••• • t ' . w!>tld· n"e.
The absence 01 slleh en understand ing leads to i ncomprehension of the essence 0 1
Einstein's theory ,
Thus, etuce t he gravi ta tional field is characterized solely by the cur va t ure te n-
sor, ""e ca nnct i ntroduce in GR a si mpler ph ysica l cha racte ris ti e of Utis field, s ay ,
tbe energy -momen tu m pseudotensor. with the resu lt ~ ba t in Ei nstein' s theory
energ y-momen tum pseudot ense ts are not , in pri ncipl e, related to the existe nce
ol a grav i tat ional lield , Th is uscrt ion has the StU U8 of a theorem whose corolla.y
U! the pOSS ibility of suc h si tua t ions in G R when the cueveture tenser is nc neeec ,
that is, II field exists, and yet the energy-momentum pselldoteosor van ishes . a nd
vice versa , t he curva ture tenso r vantsb es but the energ y-momentu m psIludolellllor
is non zero, Therelore, ealcula rlons in volvin g ener gy-momen tum pseudotensotll
Jack all mea ning.
E instein's genera l theory 01 r(llati viLy links matlef and gro.vltatioDa l field Into
.. single entity; while th e first is ehe ractertead . as ill other theorie s, by 911 energy -
momentum tensor, that is, II second-ran k tenaoe, the second is chaeacteebed by the
curv Il.tlU0 tensor, which is a fourth-rank tensor . Owing to the di fferent d imensio ns
of the physical character istics of grav it a li ona t field and matter in E instein' s thaory,
it Iellowe directl}' that th ere can no t be (in GR) any co~rvdi (ln laws li nk ins:
maile r and gravitational field. Th is l und amental Iact, est ablla hed in Den teov a nd
Loguno v. t 98(lb, and Hil bert , 1917, means tha t EilUltain' s theory was co nstructed
at the ex pense 01 repudiati ng the laws of eonseevat fon of malter e nd gra v ita ti ona l
field tak en together.
Anllther physical eheracleris tle of a gra vitation al Dold in cn, the RiGGi tensor ,
eenecis more the ab ill ty of B grav itBtiona l field to cha nge the energy-moment um
oj ma tte r, th at ia, reflecl.'l the /Ittio u th d a grn"i ta!i ona l field h/ls on mntter, but
prov ides no inform U ion on t he energy 1I 'lx carrlad by a wave. As n resu lt there is
no p ~ 8ibil i ty in Einstein's theor y of s tu d)'ing th e distributio n of the strength
of a grav itat ional field If) space, of determin illg th e energy fluxes <:arried by grav -
itat ional waVell through a surfa ce. et c. Th at scien t ists opera ti ng with in the GR
Jn mework Ga n , by employ ing the idea of pseude ten acrs , find conserv ed q ua ntities
for matter an d gnvi tat iona l field ta ken togetbor Gonstitutes a profound de lusion,
I ndeed . in GR ths in iti a l relationshi p for obta ining conservat ion IllWS is thll
iden tity
Jl matter is concentr ated onl y in I volume v, Eq. (oj. 1) imp lies that
; ~ ( T'l + t1) dV "' - ~ T~ dS~ . (4.2)
At PlllSe lit th ere eats ts a whole Sl::ries 01 exact sol utions to the vacuu m Hil bert -
Elns reln equations lor ....hieb the s tresse s T~ are everywhete n ll (see Brd Kka.
l OSt , Rudak ov a, 1971, Shtrokov, 1970 , an d Sh irokov an d Budk e , 1967). Cenee-
qu e n ~ly , for exact wa n s ol u ~i on! to Hil bll1' t-E iJl$tein equa tions thet n ull ify tile
co mpon@nb of th e energy-m omen tu m pseudotensor, Eq . (4.2) yial ds

4~ n1 r:+~I } dV= O,
th at ia, the energy of matter and gra v it ational field inside V is conse rved. T his
mealls thal t here is no flow olonergy fro m V ou twa rd a nd, the refore , t here ca n ba
PO alllion Gn test bodi es placed ou tsid e V. Thi s conclus ion follow8 fro m E inste in '8
However , th o cxat t wi ve so lutio ns to th c Hilbert-E instein eq uations that nullify
th e cc rapcnonts of th e ener gy-mo ment u m pseu dcteascr rlll! ult in a nc nee-c Gurva -
l ui'll tenser R:,,,,;
hence, ill viaw of the equat ion
'~I ..
~ + R~I"u u n ",, 0, (4.3)
where IIi is en iJlliniteeimal geodBllic de via ti on vector, and 10' _ d;r'lth is tbeo
4-voot(lr 01 velocity , curvat ure waves allt (In test bodies lyi ng outs ide V a nd change
the energy of th bodies. T hus, starti ng from two d iiJerent hut exael rtllati on-
shi pe 01 E inst ein 'e general theory of relativ ity , we llrl'ive a t mutuall y excl usive
pbys ical t OneluSiOIU.
To unda eate nd the N ason for th ese con trad ictory cc ncfustccs let us an a lyze in
mOM! detail tbe formalism of energy-momentum pseudot enaore in E ilUi toin 's theory.
S illlCtI T'" i8 .. pse v.dotensor. by .seleeliDJ all ' PP"l pri l ~ IY'te lll of eooN'Iin. tes we
u n Dullify .U the componen ts of ",,1 . t "veI'y poi.rlt in sp.e.. Th is lad e le ee ra in . ULIn terpreting th e T'" u atreues . ad IIlN'V"- mom entu m d enait y of the
if. viu tiooll l\eld.
It i~ UIl ua lly sa id ;" th is eono llOtlon (Illfl Me ll er , 1952 ) t hU t he guvi tltion a l-
fteld energy in GR Clnno ~ in p,ineip lo be I~. ll z ed , th a ~ la, th at a loel l d istri-
bution oJ t he ener gy 01 .. iT. vil. tion,! field hn 00 ph ysic, l muninr al nce i t de-
-,end.. on t ILe ehoiee 01 the . yaLem of coordi natu end th et only th e tot.1.nel1rY of
e losH . yste lnS Ull be .... lI-delintei. But ave b an UIlIf t ioD d oe! .\lo t alu d u p to
critlcmm ei lhlU.
lll.deed. .. loc.1 d u lri huti oD 01 th, trav;ta' io~l·lield welllll'JY- deDed ... 1. e o)'
uerwY-momtntll m pMndotlll!lOr de pend. on th, cbo ie. of the .ya tem 01eoordin'la
ud Ga D be f1 ulJifiBd at any point in epee., ....h ich is usually interpreted as the
. b!enell of e , rIVitat ionl l-field ~ener8')' dens it y" e t this point . But I Kru itl tionl l
fil ld dll$Cri bed by th l eu rv l t ul'il te n!lOr el nnot be nu llified by pUl ing to I ny 8dm is-
sible system of coordJ nl tl!ll. Hen ee, bee euse Qurva l urfl WI ves aet on phys ies l pro>
eMM5 " -e u nnot Sla te eit her tha t in I cer tai n syste m of coordin ates tile gnvitl lio ll-
al h id is n il ,
Th ts is m~ l d eu ly MeIllf we ta ke the n erop l. of tbe enet wave . ol utions lor
.,b.leb tbe eomplllumta of the ellltl!P'-momllbl um pseudoteftlOr vlnisb ....rywher.
whil e the eUr'l"llture ....... do Do L And ytee YI I'SlI, ;11 the eNlI of JI.t ' p'(.&ot i01I,
when the ml lde lell!W),l" 1., of t he R i' mllD n spa_ti ml is eq ual to thl ml leie tensor
T • • of the pMudo-Eue lidean spa~tl me, tIM components 0 1 enel'Jy- molnentum
paaudote.nIOl'1 ml Y not Vl nish I l tbough tbeta is no gr n it, UO!ld field In d I II tha
components of tbe e llrvature tensor 1111 l ero in .n)' ayste.m of coord ina tN ,
For exa mple, in tb . spherieal a)·s tem 01 coord inl tes In the peeudc-Eu el ldean
s pace-time, where Rl,.. _ 0, IH _ 1, I " _ _ t, In __ r' , I.. ... _ r' siot a,
....e be ve foll owing ror mub for t b, eomponent ~ of EiM tein '. pseud otensor
{_ Bn er, 19 18):
..: - - &.~ s in e .
I t is dur that ( < 0 IIl d tht the I.otallt"'vite ~1P1l'1'Iy'" re this sys tl!Dl
.a, eoordiutu is iPlinite,
TIM Land.u-L ifshltz fl'lludotll'lI$Or In thi, U M de mons trates a d ifterlln t ~eDergr"
d ill~ib uti on In s pace:
" ( I +<\ sl n~9) ,
( - g) "" - -1i""

Tbe eu mplu jus t d isens.wd .sbow tha t enerl!P'- momentum pseudotenso l1 ill Ein-
stein's t beor)' d o oot serve as phyl iea l e hane teristiel of Ibe Krav ite t ion. l t:ield
and , benee, eany nO physical mu ninl'_
Thus., in GR there do Ilot {. nd ca nnot} u1st ao)' Ine'VJ'-mOtll. ntoDl couMrntioll
laws Icr matter 'lId gr,V!U1tiollal field taken toptiler. 011 tbl other- hind , in th ao-
riM In,,o lvi ng other pb )·aiea l fields .... have a universa l la. of elM.'l'Jy-molDentltrll
eoll5eryat ion and tberllo are no uperimen tl l il\dleatio D.!l of t b is In .. heinl violated.
T berefore, ",e ba'" no r U lDn to rtljeet tbis la w.
So wlo at l! th l! WIY Ollt of t his I lt uat ion ? What ean we ra t.ltl of Eins tein's m. g-
nilieant creat io n and ", hat must ....e reject 10 tbat in tbe new Ul/ll.lry of gr.vita tio ll
t be ' '' nda men ta l law of pbyaics, law of eonse rvation 0' en ~rgy- Ill o men t\l rn of
gruita tiona l field end metier ta ken t0f8tlter, holds tr ue ? To answe r t beM q Ull'5tiollll,
" e mus t u re'ull y ana l111 tbe dee p rela tiollShip betwee n energJ'- momentu m COn -
Itl"Vltioo la,.., a,ad the pometry or .paee-time.
Chapter 5. Energ y· Momenlum and ADguJar Momentum
Ccnseevatton es Related to Geometry or Space-Time
The geomeuy 01 apace-ti me largely dlltM'mines the pogib ility of obt.ininr t on-
5t!'v.tion ilws for I dosed !lyaillm 01 inter-cti q fields. All is well lmo"1\ (see Bogo-
Iiubov and Shi rkov, 1979 , a nd NOYOl hilov , 1975). a theory lor a ny phy. teal field
t a n be ccnstr ueted on the buls 01th e Lagra llgian formallsw.. I n th is ~ th e phy. ;";_
a1 field is due.rl btd by a funct ion of coordinates a nd ti lDa, known II th e field
funct ion, and Ille equa ti ons lor de Lerminiog th is fu.netion ca n be found by II mploy inr
Lb. variationa l prineiple of leu t act inD. Buidtl!! produeinf lield equal iOllll, the
La.graoiian appro . eh to eollftrut tin g a clutiul theory of . ave fields makes il
poa. ibl. to d.-iye a Dumber 01 di lfereot ia l nJatioll5hlps kooW'll lIlI dill:erenUal con-
,..,...t ion la1rll Noethn', 19t 8). Th ese relationsh ips foli o. from. the illva
of thl adiOrt InterraJ u nder kansIot"matiollS of t be . p_ t ime coord lnltes Illd
link the loul dyn l mical cb nt tftisliu 01 the Reid with the respeeliYI eovar ian t
dl!l'i vali\"e5 In a rtometry th at " natu ra l in ~Ialion 10 theH ch. ..cteri.tiu.
At pn!.'!llot In Ibe Iil&ratulIl two Iypfll 01 dill'lll'e nt ill cOJllllltY aUon I. ~ .ro d ill-
li ngu ishlld: 1I1.rong I nd w. . k. U. ually • !trollg ecneeeveuee 1.'11' is I difterllnti l l
l'll18tionsh ip that hold. tru l !KIloly owing to tbo invar ln co of t.ho action integra L
under coordi nlte tr. nsforml lion. and does not require tho ex iste nce ol llqu.lions
01 motion 101' Ihe field. A ....oak conurn t ion I. .... un be obtl Joel! from a alrong eon-
_ va ti on I..... by a\lowiog lor the eq uat iolU of motion for a I y!te m of in ten ct ing
II .lDuet be lil.reaed th at n ot.ithlu,nd iq tbe lr neme, di lfwenUal conser Yati on
la Wll do not req uire coD~vatiOl1 of 1O.lD1 q ua ntity &ftber IlIaI lIy or J lobany. Th y
a~ l imply d iBenntial id en lltia link i.nJ \.be dlBtnllt euraete rist iu of a field an d
U't yaUd beeall5ll tb , Ktion intlJl1l l does not ch l nge und.. eOOt'd inl te trl u lOl'lDI-
t ion Il.e. ill a seal.,). Tbfllr n ame ....I!!I giyea by analogy ....ith t ho diBe-e llti a l eo n-
lUya Uoo la ~ in psend~ El1Cli du n . pae&- time, in wlIieh d iftel1l oUaL co nserva ti on
' aWl! may lead 10 iotegra l 11"". For eum p!e , writing the law 01 cOlllllrvatlon for
th e 101.8 1 eoerfY- lI'lomentum tensor of a sy.te m of iotlln. d ing Iields in , C, rlO$i an
sys i@ m of eoordio .tes 01 the pseudo-E uclldea n .sp. c&-!fme , we get
, r-l + _'_ (>I _ O.
-,;r ' z"
l ou-gut iDJ 0'1« I ctJ't.ain Yolue.,. . nd employi ", tbfl d iveJ'it!llGO theorem, "" re t
-iT J,.1 dV _ _ , ,-1 es•.
T hLs l'Ill.t io!Uhip meallS that the var iatio n in the ~JY'"mOlllell.tum of a liystam
of in tl!l'atli ng llelds illSlde a cltll in volume ill equi l lo tht'"eD'ergy~mollle n tu m 6 u.l
th rough Ihe sud .n enclOllln, th . volume. II th ill on.l ill ;;-'(0. or ~t"ldS .. _ 0, we
arrive . t tbe conserva t ion I. w for the 101. 1 4-mome ntum of .n isoldod .y! tem ,
~ pi_ a,

pl _ '!' \ t'l dV.
Sim ilar inUp.1 n:lal ioJ1!hips in tbe p!eudo-E uelid u.1l .pac&-t ime ean "obtained
f~ angular momllIlum U . ell.
Howe-vIr, in ' 11 arb itrary Hiemenn span -tim e th e pr«!enee of • dillertDt i. 1
( oVlt i.nt eOllllefVatl on equation does Dot i u.untee th e po!.Sibil it)" of obta ining
I mpec th e in tegr.1 eon!lelVi t ion equat ion. The p4l!4ibility of ob ~ i n l D g il'l tegra l
conserv at ion I, .... in . n arbitr ary Riemloll llp. ce-time ~ tot, lly depende nt on tbe
geometry of the sp.c&otlme a nd is el0;!8ly li nked with tbe u ist6lee of KUlinf
"telonl in t.he r ' 'ten sp.ce-ti me or. as b IOlJIeti mft Mid, , the ui5teoce of
I VGlIp of mol iou in lh, Rieman n . pllCe- li m.. Let UJ d wd l 00 lhill in mort del . il.
sinte Lb. formalillm develo ped ben can 1M used to obu ia integral coD$erv.tion
1,11'S it! arhi lra ry curyilinnr systems of WOrdiDIWSof 1M psludo-Euc:lide&rllpac.&-
li m, .. well.
i n ID . rbit rary Riemann . paee-tlme we hi" the ' ollowjnr eon conser"'-
liOll eqllJltlon for t he toL&1 eDergy -momlllllo m LelltOf of lb , sy.s!elll:
v,T"" _ O,r-" + r:',T'" +fI",r-- _ 0. (5.1)
Let Wi mlilt ipl,. this equat ion by the Killi u, " lCtM, tbl t is. I lIectM 11.. t h. t .!II ti,..
lift Kil li n, 's tq lll ti o"
V..1J.o+V.'Ia -O. (5.2)

In lIiclt 01 the s)·tllmelr y 01 the tensor , r"· _ r-·, the eqc et te n V,r '" _ 0
u n be "'r itten thus ;
lJaV,T""- V, Ill. 7"""I- O.
If we employ the properties QI • cOllariln t derivl tive, we get

r - ,
- ' (V-"'O
-.n.. 1- ·
Sinee the left-hand side of thi.!l equauen is I sel lat , we can multi ply it by V=idV
and int\l(t at e over a certain volu me. We then I rriu at the following integrl l con-
servation I.", in the Riemann sp.ce· time :


If the nU ;Il of the 3-lIector through the ..mIce IUlTOlind ing tM lIollime is nil , th . n

j l' - t r-,. cW - eeest. (5.3')

Th IlS. if Kill inC ..eeton u i!t. then from tb. dilh tellti l l coMer'l at ioo tq\ll\ iorl
(5.1) ..... u o obUin lbe integral eoNer..... tion 1. W! (5.3) Illd (5.3').
Let os now est.blish what ~tric.ti ons IZlIISt be imposed DC the Riemann , p.c....
time metr ic so th lt Kill ing', eqlli tioll (5.2) wiU bUll I soillti oll, t hat is, the con-
dit ions tbl t .. .clot 'I . mllSt meet ~ tblt Eq. (5.2) is satisfied. WI DOle. mt, thl t
KiIlinc ', eq ul tl on (5.2) foll ows from tha requinmll1t tlla t th e Lill t ions 01
the m. tt ie Iel1IOr of th e Rieml nn lIp1ee--ti m. ondet lb. infioiteaiml l eoord io.te
.1" - = r" +'1'\- (z) (5.4)
.....oieh (here 'I- (z) is I n inlin ll.ellimi l 4-1I. tor ). Ind eed, under sw::b I trlnsfor-
IIlltion of the eoordiDltM t he Li. Vlliit ion of th. m. tt ie leMOt
1,_IS!IlIlDelI the
Compari ng this wit h (3.2), we see th at Ki lli ng' s equat ion r<!q uire s thd thll Lie
va ri ati on 01 th e metrlc tensor varush:f,.
Ii!,." . =- O.
Th us, Killing veetoes d6$rib e infinites imal coordinate tru aformat ions that
the metric for m·l ll\·ari ant .
Kill ing's equatio n (5.2) constit utes e syste m of firs t-ord er par tial d illarant ;el
equati ons, Accordi ng t o the general theor y (see Eisenhar t , 1933, Petrov, 1966,
a nd Ponl ryagin, 1966), to esta blish t he sofvllbili ty cond ilioIl.'l for II sys te m 01
part ial d ilTerenlial llqua t ioll$, we must reduce this syste m to the lorm
~9' """"
hi lTl"" ('" , 7"J' , (3.5)

where 6" are th e unknow n 11I1ict iolls;I, n "" t, 2, . .. , N ;anda , b = I, 2, ....

M . The n th e solvab ility condit ions for sys tem (5.5) csn be obtai ned frolll the
relati onship

by replac ing the nl'3t.-order parti a l der tvattves wit h the right-hand s ide 01 Eqs.
(5,li )

H lh e solva bility condi tion (5.6) is met idenl ica lly in View of the valid ity of
Eqa. (5.5) , the syste m (5.5) is n id to he complete ly i ntegrable and its so lution will
contain M parametel'!, the g ru~t possibla n umber of ar bitruy consta nts for the
gi veo syste m. BUl if (5.5) is not comp lete ly integrable, Its solution will ee nta in
a s maller Dumber of arb ilr ar}' constants. Let us estab lish the condi tions in which
the solutioo to K ill ing's equatioll.'l (5.2) in the Rieman n s pace-ti me V~. con tai ns
the greatBllt possible number 01 para meters a nd find this number .
Ali ca lculati ons will be carrled out in all expiicitl y cova ri ant for m, wh ich is
e gencraliu t ion of the a bove sche me lor find ing t he sol vab ility cond iti ons lor the
system 01 Kill ing's equations. Wi! d mi!Nml iati! cova riallt!y Ki ll ing's equatio lls
(5.2) with eespecr to para nleter s ", The res ult is
l'l , ;j~ + "lJ;j~ "" 0,
I n view of th is we have
"ll:;. + 'II" ~ + 'll :~; + 'i . :H - ' ll:. ' - "l-=Ji = O.
Regrouping the ter ms in thi s ex pression, we get
"l"I. + '\I:~I + ('11:10 - 'II:. ,) + (Ok i, - 'h i ;) "'" O. (5,7)

On the other haud , in view of the cOllllnntatioll relation for cov aria nt deriv atives
we have
') I : ~ I - '1' : ln - ' Lon~.; . (5.S)
If we suhslH lite th is into (5.7), we get
2'11: I. +l'l~m.j + 'I~H11 . + 1'l~R: 1 J = 0 , (5.'3)

U!lDg Ritti' , identity

~ ., ~ R~ +'b. R"Ji,. - 11o R~lJ •

(5. t~

..hit;b melIll5 l hd .... can write (5.9) in t he (0110",11'1 ' fotm:

11/;1,, - - 1Jt.Jt.U-
We ""n, tbll'll forr. arrived at t he (0110'\11'101 eon rlant equetions:
'11,,,+,,.,,-0. '1' :J,, - - ....R~.... (S.tI )
Let us'or!D this q'lItelD of eo..ari u t d ill_lI li.1eqll.tions 1,,1.0 . srstam 1:01'1 -
tailliq onl,. lint eouriul deriv . t j,.es, T o this end, i ll add ition to \be N unknown
colD.pon.nta of yettor TI. we in trod uce . n uok noWll lenJot A,. that ob$ys the
'l l;_ - A,._ (5.t2)
This tellSOl" contains N''I unkno1l'll componenU. bill llIlly N (N - 1)12 of t lleu UfI
indepeodent sinu ' hill tensor is l oliaymmelrie in vi..... 01 Eqs. (5.2) e nd (5.12):
A., + J.,. _ O. (5. 13)
If we . llnw lor , H lbis, the $O ught syste m of CO" lri,nl dilferenli.l equat ions u -
n ION th. IorIO
(5,t 4)
Wa hive, t her,rore, red ue&d Killi ng's 9qllltlon. (5.2) to 11 s ystem of e spll(li, l ty pe
t onsisti n, 01 HnelU' d iflere ntl.1 equat ions in 51'l1 t.-ord er covari ant deriva tiv es.
This 8ys t.&CIl i8 a covar iant ~n era1illt i(ln (If sys t8m (5.5), wltb. the unk uc ....n
lunettons e· boln, t he N ( N + t )12 com ponents of tel\SOl'll TJ .. and 1...,:
e' _ ('I... 1,...,).
T he aofubili ty cond ition for ~stem (5.14) can be obla ined frOm the COlD(Qutl-
tion relu l on fOt cova r ia nt deriva li vlllI, wbich lollo'lll'll fro m the inde pe.o deDCt of
tbe order in wb ich deri va tives ate taken in par tial diBere nt Jat ion. 0 0 t be bUd 01
tb is rule we rei
111 ;_1 -'1,;_ - ~ ~1ooJ1
1,.. ; /1 _1,..: 11 - ~ . R"OI/l +'-...R'U/.
Replaciq tbt lirat co.....;.,, 1 d... i ..lti>·. 011 the lel t.-hl.Dd sides of (5. 15) with t halr
u prl!llaiOM (5. 14) an d elllployiq (5. t3). wbic h refleeu t he fact tha i 1 •• d ",11-
~metr io, ...e anin at the sol .... bility cOildlUll/II fOt 8)'11Wm (5. t 4) in the lor m

ls..; J -l ll; .. - .... ~1ooi1 {5.1S}

,,,,,R"..,1:I- l""m... !:J - >.,.R".... + lu,WI./I. (5.17)
It is _ ilJ vu llied t bat (5.16) it ,...t is£,ed idllOt icall y becalUll of the nl id;!y of
Eqs. (5.14) u d t h8 propert illll of t ile cur·. ..l llre teeeee. Th llJ, if toodi\ioo (5.H)
Is ,...tWiad ident ica lly solel y bee. of the SJ'nlmetty ptopertill!l of tha Riem ann
space-li me. then $)Ostem (5.t 4) will be l:iompletlll J' i..ll tegra ble an d, beeee, t be JIOlu-
tiOll to K ill in,', ~a tioll,ll (5.2) will colltain t he IfNtelt possibl. llu mbec M _
}J (N + 1)12 of itruy eoWlt&nLs. S ince the UIIknown functions 'I. a nd A",. _
- A/_ eatulal in to :lyste m (5. HI mmt 1M Icdependeol in \his use, the I,tt-blod
aid, of (S.t 7) vu.ishes Ideotka11y ooly if
R:'U;I -mu;... _ o, (5. 18)
67m...- 61m..,- 6~ R"J-I + ~ R1.t +6jR"...,-6: R:.u- a:,lt,u + ~Rjlj _ o. (5. 19)
If 1l"t! conten t (5.19) Dil l and /I end allow for the nd u ionahips R ~_ _ R io. u d
a:.., _ 0 and for RiccI'. identiLy (5. tO). we aut
(N -1) R:" J - 61H"f - 6~Rl," '
F(llm Ihill it follow. !.hit

R,... u """
N -t ('/,R., - 'I/ RI".)· (5.20)
Muhi plyi oi thb equation Int o ,-1, we pt
N R] , _ ' II R.
U ... IIOW substl t \lt. this iota (5.20), .,.. I rrin at • eolldit ion iII view of ...bieh
(5.19) ill l$t.ti3fied idlotieally:

R• •/ = tr( N_1) ['ll'. , -'IlII.I. (5.21)
Combi.ll ina (5.21) a nd Eq . (5. t 8) ~ s ul u in. requirement Illal lh e seel ar CUfVUure
mua, " t idy:
[61".. - 6:" .
' - 11- [151I u- 6tilll "';' R _• O.

"~ .,,

U ...·8 multi pl y t hiz by 6l,..I, .....e gel

{N -f1 hi _ 0.

Sinu ia lb, CUll eaasidered N> I , tb' •.bove candl lion d met if ud only if
R _ eol1ll t. H&IIce, lb, aol",. bililJ c:ondi1lolU (5.t 8) a nd (5. 19) far K iIIine's equ.-
lions (5.2) _ill be lIlItillli.d idantically il 'nd only il t" R ie..... nn s pace-t im. eur-
"" tUrs tensor hu tbe lorm
Rbool /"" N (N • tl Il l ll . , - KIlI I.. 1.
wit h R .. ccn s t.
Thus, K lIling's equatlo ns have solut ions contai ning the fl' estesl post ibls num-
ber Af - N (N + 1)/2 of ar bit rary eood l nt s (parametc r!I) if a nd cnly if the Rie-
man n . V N I. a call1l tllnw: urvature space, and if VN te not a consla nl--
curvature space , the number c r pl rl meters will btl smaller th i n M.
HeDe&, math em.tieall y speu lnr, tb . presence of intllfl'al coJUervd ion I.",s for
energy-momentu m and anp lar momentum reOec.ta th e u.dtence of e«tai" prop-
er ties inhereo l in . pate-l ime-its hOIllOlt"0el ly aod i.soll'opy. Thers .re lbree
typea of folU"-d imel1llion. 1 .paces th ll ~ lb. proptWties of homore neit )' I1ld
ilIotropy t o III exte nt th. t allolll'l for Introdocing teo integrlls of mot ioo for I
d Olled l}'Stem. Th_ It'l the !lpac:e with eoutenl M£ltive eurn tlll'l (Lobeeb.v-
space , Of' hyperbolic sp.te), lh. "~urYlltllnl s pac:e (pgud o-Euell du n
spa.c:e), end the s pace with cOl1llla nt positive cur ....tllnl (R iellUln n . pace). Th e
6n t two spaces ar e infinite , with I II inlillite YOhl~ , .hila lh, third ill elosed. with
• b itt volume , hul has DO bouod. , ies.
tAt U5 DOw find lbe Kill ing vector it! I n arbitrary eUrTili nlar . yste m of eoor-
4iMItIS of the PM!ud ~EuciidMa sp-.lIme. T o thi s I nd . . &nt write KlI Hn,..
eqv&t iODl in the n system 01 eoord iltltes:
8,'1_ + 8."11 - o.
Hence, lo det ermine I Killing veetor we h ur e I sys tem 01 l.ell li n t-onl er puUsl
lilll!u difterentl. 1 equati ons. Solv iDg tb is syn eltl aeeord illi to glllier. l l ulu , WI
obl. in
(5.22 )
where 0 , is In u bitrary GOMtant infinil6simal veetor, a nd u, .. is an ' rbUn ry eon'
atant infinitesimal lelUor u t isfyiDi 1M cond ition

n lOll, ",lul ion (5.22), &II npeeted. eontllM .11 te n u blir ' " ptIrl lD8l.erl. SilICa
(5.22) eon La iu le n indepandent pari_ten, we Ktll,n,. b...., tin inde pu d enl
Kill ing vectors, I nd (5.22) eonrtitul.ell a li near combina ti on of the teo ll.-

-. ,
daot vecte rs.
Let Ull esillblilih the meanillg of theee para meters. Sublllitu li ng (5.22) loto (5.4).


We see t hat the four pera meter.! aft are ee mponents of th e 4-voolo r of inlinitu lme l
Iranslati ons of the refeNl nee frame. The three pa rameters (II .. ~ al'9 the ccmpcnents
of lhe tensor of rolllti on t hrough lUI lntlnile'l mal aogle . bout a certai n u i. (the
eo-celled proper rote Uon). T he three pu ame lel'!l (II " deaerlbe infloite' ima l rota-
tions in the (,rI'. 'z')- pla ne, known at Lorelltl ian rolali ollS. Since th e metrie tensor
1•• b form- inyui.nt Ilode: tn n. lationa, the ~ud o-E uclid ll8.D space-ti me is
bom.neo~; its propm ll!ll do not depend 0 0 the position of Iha origin ill th e
,,_. Similarly , tbe form-loYal lance of the metric le 1lSO!' 1• • under four-d imen-
~Olla l I'Otlt lollS leacta to lhe i$otropy of lhi. space, whjell mu na tba t a ll d il'tlCtiollS
in tbe pseudo-E uclldeao space-time have eqllal stetlU.
ThUl, tile p6elldo-Euclidea.n spac;e.lime adm its 01 a tan- paramew , roup of
motioos consiatiJIC 01 a four- param.ter In.o.slat loo lJIlbJrOup a nd a ai:a:-p.a ra
rotatlO Il Sllbgr'oU p. TIle tsistence 01 thi. gro up of molio ns III d the eor re.poodi ng
Killi llf Yed o n guan ,ntee'.l ten int.epl la llm of COllJe" l ti OD. o f l oel'ln'-
momentum and I ngular momentum in a system of intorae Ung field•. Indeed•
• lIowing lor the fact th at in tbe Cart " ian syste m of coord ina tes y=y _ l i nd
for the general relati onship (5.3), we find th at in the cue of th a tnosl. tion sub-
group (1], - Ill )
-.b ~ T-"1l.. d V - - ~ dS• .,.....Il"' .
$illeell. if all arb itr U)' consta llt 'fec t Of. Ih ill rllla ti 08ship
:z. ~ T-dV _ _*dS.r-.
For In iJ;olated S)'Sknl of ln teraetilll fields, th e upteasioll on the rlgh t-b nd
of th if relat ioDshi p vanishes, a. a I"tI5lllt of ",bieb the total '-mollMntlUll 01 th e
P"' ... ) 7"""av _ const. (5.24)
Sim ilu ly, at 'I).... "'."'z.. ...e get
-V) av.7""':<"w",. _ - ~ dS ... T""'%"w", ~.
Sine. the constant tensor (0",. Is ant lsymmetric, the a bove In ds us to the follo'/l'-
iog integral llOlL'lerva tio n law lor angula. momentum

:.,. ) dV(ro-:t'-T""%"' )= -~dS~[T""'z·-r"'z"j . (5.25)

For 8tt il!(l lated syste m the tota l angu lar moment um is conserved because the
r ight-h and side of (5.25) ve ntshes:
M..• ... ~ dV[T''''x·-fO''z"'j .. const. (5.26)

Only in tbe pseudc-Euelld een speee-ume are there sepa rate laws of conserv atio n
for energy-m omentu m and angular momentum of a closed sys~m .
Note tha t we can obtai n the solution to Killing's equatio ns (5.2) in arb itrary
curvilinear coordina tes 01 tb. JlMudo-Eueli dean s paee-t ime in view of th e t. o!lQr
RatoN 01 xi and '1)1 from th e solu tion (5,23) to these equa tion s ln th. Cartesian
eool'1Hnata system. To th is end v,llt. anafet in (5.23) from Cartes ian coordinates Xl
to arbit rary curv ilinear coordinates z~ thua:
Xl "'" 11(z ,,).
This yilllds

Thus, in . o arhitrary curvilinear coord ina te system of th e pseudo-Euclidea n s pace-

ti me, the K illing vectors have the lorm
~= "" (~) 4i +~W,.f"(XI<) ' (5.27)
ilz;; 8%';:
It is not very d ifficul t to geueealne Ell'S. (5.24)-(5.26) so that they incorporate the
casa of arhil.t&ry curvi linCl8t coordinates. Proceeding in the same man ner 85 WIt
d id .hove, w8 ..rive lit the following upl'1'&'l ion for the "-- moment um of lin iso-
lilted system:

Th e II n ~isymme trie tensor of angul ar momentum In this ceae hIlS th e form

M '...... ~ V- y (Z,, ) d,,;.d;rt dZh 1'"' (ZI<) [ f"' (Z>; ) ~~z(:>;) - 11(ZI< ) a :~l:l J.
Thus, the geometry of spece-t tme delerm iile!l the possibili t)· 01 oh ~a in i ng
cODMrvati on Isws. In the ceee 01 lour dimensions (the physical sp.cort ime) only
spaces ",i th consllln l curutul'fl posses.s 811 ten integral eOll.'lllrvation laws; ; n otber
SPliCes lila number of these lews is lese.
Our analysis demcnsteates that if ""8 wish to have the great llllt number of to n-
served qua ntities, we. must rejeet Rieuu,nnian goometry in its general form, tnd
lor 811 fields, includ iog the grni ldi onal, we mIL'l l seillet one of the a bove-men-
tioned geometries of eonstant curvatu re as the natu ral one. Since the 8listiog
8l perimentai da\.B, on s trong, weak , a nd electrom agnet ic interactio ns suggesta
lbat for the fi elds related 10 these interactions th e natu ra l geometry 01 space-time
is pseudo-Euclidea n, we can assume At leest at the present level of our Ic nowledge
that this golometry is the universal natural gwme tr y for all phyaieai prot_,
including those Involving gravitation.
Thill assertion consti tutes one of the main theees nf our approach to the theory
of gravita tional interact ion, h obvinusly leads to the observance of all laws of
cooservalion of energy·momentum and angular momentum and ensures the exis-
tence of all len integrals of moUon for a system consist ing of a gravitatioll8llield
and oth ar mate rial lields,
As we will shortly show, the gravita tional lield in cur framework, lIS all other
phys i~ al fi elds, is cha racter ised by an anergy-momentum tenser that contr ibutes
to t he total tensor of energj--momem urn of the system. Th is consti tutes tb main
diflerenn between our apprnach and E j nst~in ' s. It must also he noted tht in th e
peeudo-Euelid ean space-time th e integrat ion of tenser qllantiti85, in eddit ion to
its geoeral simplicity, has a ",;elJ--<lefined meaning.
Another key issue that 8merrs in constructing a thenry 01 the gravitational
lield is the quest ton of the way in which the li.eld interacts with matter. In acting
on rnettee , a gnv itational field chang" the geometry of matter if it enters into
terms in the highest-order dlll"ivatives in t he equations 01 motion 01 the maUur.
Then the motion of material bodie.s and other physieal li.elds in tha pseudo-Euclid-
ean space-time under the actio n 01 the gravitation al field can in 110 way be dis-
tinguished from their motio n in an effective Hiemaun space-t ime.
Experi mental data !\Iggesta that the actio n of a gravita tional h id on e aue e
Is univeru l. This led us to formulate the geometrintion principle (_ th e Intro-
duct ion). Hence, the effect ive Riemann space-time will be lInivel'9a l lor all forms
of matter (see Appendix 5).
The geemeteteet tcn principle was Icemulated in Denisov and Logunov, 1982a,
\ 982&, Danisov, Logunov, and Mestvir ishvili, t 9!)h , and Logunov, Den!snv,
Vla90v. Mestvir ishvili , and Folomeahkin, t 9'19, but actnally the idea was lirst
put forward in !.ogunov and Folomeshlcin, t 977, The pri nciple means that the
descri ption of the moti on of scatter under the actio n of a gravit l tlnoal f'6ld in
a pseudo-Euclide an space-ti me Is physically ident ical to the descript ion of the
motioll of matter in th e apprnpriate ell"ectlve Riemann space-thne . In Lhis 8pproach
the glav itaUonai field (as a physical field) II excluded, so to l ey, from th e de-
seriptioll of the motion of mattEr, and the field's energy, fIgurat ively Ipeakin g, Is
~peJl t on forming the effect ive RlemeQO space-ti me,
Thus, th e effective RiemanD s paca-time ill a peculiar carrier of energy-momentum.
The a mount of 8neri\' nsed for creating this spae&-time is exactly equal 10 tha
amoun~ ce ntsined in the grll.\·ita tiollal li.eld; henee, the propagat ion nf curvat ure
waves in the R,emann space-time renecta common energy tra/Uler via gravitational
weves in Ihe pseude-Euclidea u sJl3ce-time. This meallS that in our eppmach Lhe
existence of curvature waves iu the Ri6mann space-ti me Icllcwe duec tly from the
existence of gravitational wav!\! in the sense n{ Faraday and Maxwell, waVE$ th at
carry en energy-momentum density .
We note allo th at when we introduce the golometrization principle, we thereby
retain Einstein's idea of the Riemann ian geometry of apace-time for matte r. This
does not mean, however, th at we must illevitably return to GR. T be genera l theory
of nl.Uvll )' eonltitutol puti.l n ali utl on 01 thlt ide- , ra ther th l.D the o\her
WIY ro un d . Heeee, the Id.. of I. a::ravil.l t iona l flald u I. ph )' 681d t hl U11l
carry enerp cbU('!lS our eonc4lplio.llll .bout . p _tl me an d ITI ..ity. T ile NlI. t l -
v ielie th eory of erl vltatloo, which l'8&liws t bo idea, maltu it polI5i ble to dNcrlbe
til. I ntire bod,. 01 d. ... ClD grn ital iona l u per lmalila... tDba t b. eorft5 pondl_
pri ne;pJ., a od Ie.ds to I. Dllmber of fuoda mlloLiI eor Ollilli es.

a..pter 6. The Geometriution Pr in cipl e an d Genera l

RTG Relat ions

Witl!oot km of £ellml lity, l. t lIS UllU ma thu tb. teoao.r dens ity ft'
of the mek le
tellllOf 01 lb ' Riemu n 5pIlc .time i.s I. Iou! func tion tltd dapeuds 011 l!Ho dellSit)'
f'· of lbe Il)etric \e 1lJOr of lb. Mioko wsll sp'C.UQlI Ind t be lIensity 4i'" of the
rr...iullon.I· 5eld teu sce. We assumll lh at tha m.ltI'l. 1 w gn ogi l o deD$lty LII
ill deJMlldent a ni, on the fielda <!l... 00 their fuosl-ordw covn ia lll der ivati ves. I nd,
in Tie. of Ihe geotlle lr ill t ion pr inciple, on j'-. W•• lao Q5l,IlM lhli thfI " ..,1-
tation.l-neld Lll,r'lIIiu. densi ty depe nds on. .ft',
on lh. L'lrst-onier patti.l deeiv-
li(v.. of yl/l,
on alIA, . nd on the fU1ll.-orde. cove. l.nt derivOlt ivt9 of al" wit h
resPllCt to the Minkowlki DllltriC. To deri ve f.Onlllrv.tion. lews we emp loy the 10-
Vlrl.Me 01 the I cti on int egrl l under infin ite!liml l lr ensilltioni of t he coordinate ..
Since for every i iven Lagran gian deol ity L the ect ton intel[l"l l J =- ~ L d"z 1,
a lICa llr , unde r en arb itrary inlin ite!lima l cooffllnlt.e tran.formation tile variation
6J 'II an lahM. Let Ull , tl . t by c.alculetioll' the va' lotion of the mlteria l Iction
integral J 11. " ~ LII. d'.z: brought OD by til, h ent! orma tion
.r'l _ .z:1 + t' (:r), (6.1)

""b. ... t l
(.z:) III '11 infini tesim. l 4-'-ec:tor of d laplac:e ment :

61._~ d".z:[ ~:.. if+ ti:: liL¢JA+ di V] ...0. (6.2)

Here d\ ..... Ilda for tbe d i.e ~1lU ter lllS, ""hich in the present cha pter p lay no
role iD Out d i.c ow ion.
TIle EtlllTlu. vuia tion b d eftDed in the ...... 1 ""Iy :
&L I I.. U I t.
1i' - , . -8. ' 1' ••1 +"_cl_1 1'.olI.~
The n .i.tiOM fir
and a L¢JA p DlUSted by lbe coord inate tn nsforroa tioll (6. t )
l u ily be calcol. ted if ..... employ lite h l lUforml tioo b 'lr.l:

6t.Z-= ?-D_r"+;'-O_t-- 0_ a",....),

6t.¢JA- - ~D_¢JA +~~:<PI O.~ .
Hen In d in ..bit loll o'n the 0. IJ'lI thfI co n . 180t deri vali vtll with relpec t to th e
Mlnkowski metr ic. Su b!Utu ti ng (6.3) and (6.4) into (6.2) end integn Unll' by parte ,
- .., -:"" i'-) - D. ( a:.)
01. _'J ... ( _"' [D. (2 6(" 4,'. ;:o

+ D. ( :.;~ F:; :,IP.) + ~D.I%JA. ]+ d;,,}=O.

Si n\:e the vector t- if; arbitnry, tb' cond ition 6/. _ 0 yie lds tbe foll owlog
atl<Iog Identity ;
D• [a 66LII 6," ) ,-'x- - D•(liii'AI'A:.
1"''' -. .. ) - D'" ("' 6L.. rd, . ..."', ) - ~
'" D ~
. '"'.., ,6.5)

whith ill valid IrJ1lllpICUve of wbeth el' or not lbe equltiOflll of mot ion 01 th e fullds
l ... vs lid.
Let IU !nttodll(.Cl the followlng IlO\lI UOll;

r .. 2:::' ="',..,T..,. .
1""- _ _ (6.6e )
- 61.. r-
T",. _2 - _ _ lL. - - -
• 2 ---;- = ,.....,...,.~ ,
6,-" 61..
Ybere T•• is tbe materi,l ellergy-mollleot um teDlIot dew ly In lb. Rieru lUllp ae&-
tl lDl aod i.lI luaowu ... th . H Uberto-tensor d_it y.
n . , allo w for (6.6b), w,
can rep rewnt t ll& l elt-ba nd sid, of (6.5) 10 the folio.-
ing form ;
- - I ~ - - - 1 - -
D. (T..,1''') - 2 t'·D.. T, p -~l (1 ",~ gU) -T P8..T I p' r
Th. n,h- hand l id, of lhis "'IWllloll een ~i1y be redueed to

iJ. (T_...·) - 4'-• • V. (r-"-- "1,,"r

-, - T,-r ..a.T.... ' - -) . (6 .7)

.h_ T _ i••
TO., and V, is th.lJ)' mbol of eouri l nt di Sef'llltlltion with r«spect
ee l.h' lIl,tric of tbe RI' mllI ll sp-.tlllMl.
OIl th e bela of (6.7) we tiD !lO W 'll'T iti till SWlll' Id,ot ity (&.5) ill the follo' iD&

In v i, ,,,· nf Ib, pri nc ipl, of least I d lOo the equ at ions of motion for t he mlterill
fields h, "e the for ro
". - 0.
iii; (6.9)

V. ,-
CombInIng this with (6.8) rllllul ts in the _ k ident ity
r-~ '--) =::0.
- T,-r
Not' tbat \1M! Ill tenso.- dllllSity for ~U.r, r-,
(6. t O)

in the R il llll UD
I pae.t-thoe is ... 1ated to 1- iD Ib, foll oYiAg lll . l11I.,:

V-- , r- - r-"-T
- t --
~' (6.1 1)
"Henee, (6. t o) results in the following eoverb nt eq uation of conserva t ion of matter
in the Riemann space-time:
V.. T"''' = O. (6.12)
Only if th e IIlImber 01 eqllatl oIl.!l for 8. material field i! four tan we. Wl8 in!tead of
the equations (6,9) lor this lI.old th e equivalen t equations (6.t2). The va:riat ion of
the 8GtLOli in tegtal (6.2) can be wrt n eu in the equ iva lent form

61» "'" r d' z( 6: 11 fJ Lib"~+ ~:If /lLV..ft+ ~6t.$A+ (H v } ",O, (6.13)

J 6Ql" " 6y"''' _ "

whore the vertettcns 6L aI"" end k' v"" generated by the wordinaw tra nsform a-
tio n (6.1) are
6t.a.--"..., ii).oo "Dl~" + etJ,v"V1i "-D1 lr'QYo"), (6. 14)

6L y""=1'''D_~'' +Y'"'Oli" - ~ ..nDl~' (6. 15)

Sum.tit ut ing t he expce.!lSions for the var iations 6"eb"'". 05 1,.:;" ". e nd 6..111" into
(6.t3) end integrat ing by parts, we arrive, in view of the arbi trariness of i", at
the following strong identity :

D. (2 ~Lld eiJAn) - D. ( ~. ) tiiJ. ~ +D~ (2 ~. );M

6'fl" '" WP 6y",R

- D'" ( 6t
6ioMp :"p) = -
D (U. , IJ: ~,,-)
1 ~ .. ; " W!I - u . D..'VA'
biii; ~ (6. 16)

....hte b , like (6. 5), is vali d Irr eepeettve of whe ther or not the equa tions of the motion
of matllH and lI'I'avi tational field are valid .
For an arbitr4rY Lapangian ....e intro d uce several nota tions and relat iQndl ips
that ....i Il be used lat er:
jsR= _ 2 ~L , l" " _ _ 2~, (6.17a)
6v",n 11j"", "

I"'· _ _ '_(f-n _.!..-,"'"t ) (6.17b)

V - ., z .
Since LM, depend!!, in vre.... 01 the geometrizallon pri ncip le, on y"~ only throu gh
I"'·,we can ea.,il y lind the re lationsh ip li nki ng f"," and ~M) "' " :
- I1",n- 2- 6t
IU . -. -T.p
- a_;u , (G. 18a)
6l""" ~"
....lo en we ha ve all owed for uennruen (6.6b). T aking loto account the identi t y
a;u _ :"'l-.q ,;p~
- --, y -.-
itv",. iI1 ' q
and combinin g it wit h (6.H a), we get

I-.... -p1 a;p

Clll = - T _. (6.18b)
Allowi ng in (6.t 8b) fo, idl nt ity (6.6 b) nd for th e faet thlt

-I.- "-...-,..
_ Ii . .
ii', -~
.... lind tha t (6. 18b) yields

to.,"" ~ '!.t" .....

Now. If we compare th e id.n tit iee (6.8) Ind (6. 16) a nd a llow lor (6. 111). we obt ain
(6. f & )

i... v.(T· ~ -t ;'·T)=Y...D. (l~I -i- ;·"~.l) +D. (2 ::,..... ¢;.I.)

-D. ( 6': _ ) ~. .
SimilArl y , from the l nvujauce of th e , ru 'ila ttolUll·field aetioo Illterral
(6. 19)

J, _
~ £.11"% u nder c.oordinlou. tnosf_ _ti on. (6. 1) it folio,.,., t ha t

- , (-b
l_.D '--
t (ll - T "" ~l j + D, ( 2 ~
" ¢l'.
- )_ ("l -
D.. ~ cJ)U' _ O. (6.20)

Adding (6.19) to (6.20), ..... ret

i ...v, (p ' -.r ;-"1')=;...D, (iA·-.yY""t) +D. (2 ~~" ~. )

- D.. (-¥---)di'-p. (6,2t )
Here lIod i n whit folio.....
ii" _ ;t.; +i~;)- (6.22)
Owl lll to Ul6 pl"illl:lpl. 01 lust aet ion. the eq ua tion. fot t he gr n lt..ltionll fteld
..,.m, the forlD

All owin, for too. eq uit lollll, 'Il.'e 1«0 th. t (B.21) yield s t he mOll! impl)l"t. nt equ ali t y:
'i...V a (TU _{-;:OoT)""1... D. (i" -yy.."t) . (6. 24)
Sinee lb~ dells it y of t he total energy-mo men t um te nser In the Minkowskl s pace-
ti me i. i' iven by t he lorm ul,
., - - ..
r - y .··-j..- 1-
-T ....-s, (U5)

eombinini' t b1lll n preaion with (6 .11) ... lind th , t (6. 2.(,) e-n be Wr\ In t he
follo wlq fo",,:
D..r: -V.. r:. (6.26)
n. lormul' nlpre5t IlU th e ~ttriut lon priDei ple , lIame ly. that Lhe eovar in t
dl-.-erpllGe in Lha pMudo-Eucl iden apace of the s ulIl of t he teasee de nsities or
tlllBJtY-Dlomenlum of llIa t tolr and en vitUiooal field taken togtlt her is e xact ly
equ al to t he covarilll i diveI'gl!nce in t he . !feet iv" R ielllinn Spl «l-t1 ll1le of only t he
enettY-lllolllent um 1I1I5Of d ensi t y of maUU. If t he eq ul t ioll5 01 moli on of ma tler
hold l ru" . we blYfI
D.r: - V. T: - O. (6.27)

10 our dbellS8lo n .... h.... U5umed that t b. *luatioll.l of llIotion of maUer I ,..
not l;ol'Olin lei of t b, equa ti ons (6.23) lot' t"-itn it.ationa l b id . lUlu oo ly [li thia
Cut will tu .ystem of eq uaLioll!l (6.23). (6. 21) be com plete for determinilli the
material , lid If'Iv iLitioul-field variables.. TIw c.onria nt eq llu ioll of GlUtei"
eo nser ntioll In the R iem l oD SflKHime d_ 1101 provid e . e1eu pic:LUrI of wh icb
qu....tity ia eolUef ved . whil. lhe I•• of e<uUerYuioll of u..
toal'lIeltY- momen lu m
~ ' : hi the &li nkowsk l ' pacb- l ima e1.afly at ate&: that the IU11llV"-mo lJleolulIl
of ma t ter ud Ifn iLationd field t.akllll top Lber i, COllltfved. Th ua. in the prue.n t
th eory t~ Riemann . pace-ti me elllerpsu . ruult of Lbe aet ion of th e grav itation, 1
lIeld on a ll (orm, of ma Uer. beeee th b , pace-W me it tha eftectiu RIemann . p _
lime of l>eJ d oririn. 11M" Iiultowtki spa c. tim. fillds its prec ise phYl ica l renect ioll.
in the la... of consen'l lio.o of the tenaoD of enl»1 y-momeotum .nd alliular
100menlum of mI ll ee and gr nitat iollal f.eld t.ken togeth.r.
Since in flat apace- time th ere are "n KlIlillf vectors , ther e mUlt be teo con-
served inteF . 1 quanti ties for. clO!led. Iy:stem of field• . Also .•ince the equllion
thl l re01lC1S th e COIlIIlV. tion of the tot. l energy -mom ent um teUlOr i n th. Min kow-
sk i sp' cl!""tlme.
(6.28 )

is eq uivel en t to the covltlnt equ. t ion reprOlenti ng ml tte r conse rva t ion in th e
Riemill n , pl ce-time• • od the latt",r ill equ ivalent to the lI<JuaUulllI (If m(lL! oll or
mltter, we C,ll use Eq. (6.28) i nstead 01 the eq u.tion of mot ion of mal tO'l l.
It mllst be et peel. lIy noted tb at both m a l~ r and F .viU tloll.1 held .re
cher ar;-
ta riled in the given thellt Y by ooergy-m omenhlln tensors Ind , thuelon. ill con-
trast to CR. thut! ea.noot in prioci ple emerge .ny pst udote.n$Ol3, with the reault
th lt . 11 nooph)llllc.d cOIlCeptions .bout the hn pouibili ty of localhinl: the If'V-
it . lion. 1 field Ire . bsent lro m our Iheory .
11 we ",we to tlke , following Hilbert . nd E the gJ'l vita lion . l-fteld
ra ngiaR deM lty In • comp letel y IOOmetriud fOtnl. lht is, depeDdior onl y On the
metric !eMllr IV. of the Riemeon ep__ti Ole I nd itt der h ·. liv es, uy L~ - v=l fl .
with R thellC& lar CUf""flt un of the Ri elll.oo spIce- lime, then the energy-momentum
...._ r deMi ty nf a fne r ruitatiol1ll field ill th e MlnkOwU i apK6-ti me .....uld . in
vi.... of the ftetd eq u.tions., n.Jli3h everywhere:
61.0- __u. l, - (6.29)
ft"" -""'Jiii'"'i?I'" _ 0.

Tltll' , if .e tlke th Minko"'-skl s pace-ti me .nd • ph yaicl l sereee field ~iolt

- rgy ud momentum, we Clnnot In principle bu ild. co mpletely pome~ited
gravi!. l.ioll. I-&eld w gJ'l nria n. Therefore, I th eory based on • comp lel ely po-
melr iqd Lagr. ngI. n canno t io pri nel pte dlM:r;}le a Cl'l'I" ita tionl l field
in the MIlM of far. day I nd Ma n te ll III the Millkowslri space-ti me. It baa heell
statad in th e literature (.. g. _ 0 rievewy an d Po lublltlnov. 1965e, t 96.'ib) th at
employi"g . teDllOr field with s pin 2 ill. the Mlnko Wlki space-tl me l"e8ultl UD.m-
biguo\1!ly in • Cft rra vita tion. l-fie.ld Lagra ngian equa l to R. However , auch
mtementa GUT)' lHl ph yt ieal mea nl . *'_ the i ru lUti(>.ll.1-6eld. ellerv'-
Ell OmDn\.l;J. m tellso r lutroclueed in th' .rrument it zero , u (6.2'9) cl ea rl y ah nW3.
Therefore , sne h ..-an;h it phys iG.l ll y mean ioa:l eslI an d th. res ulta an lM'rOOIlO~.

Chapter 7. The Basic Jdentit y

Aa ahnwn in Bar oa , 19M, a nd Fl'Onad al , HISS, the.)' mmetrle _nod·ran k tellSDl"
Ju. GI ll be u pan ded ill a dine! lIllIII of irT'lldueible I'8prese llUltlloa, 01Hl " ith spin 2,
GIle with apill t , and two wi th sp in 0:
r" -IP. + P,+ P.+ Pa·Il:'r-, (7. t )
where by p . , 8 "'" 2, 1, 0,0' , we de no te t b. pl'Ojedion operatot$, wh iGh sa t isfy
!.he follo"Ini al a.n de nt ~la tionahi",, :
P.P' _ 6:P, (he re th ere is 00 su mmat ion over I).
p:~ ", _ (2a +t ) , ~ P:~I_ - T (6:6:' + 6:"6~ ) Cl 6:: . (7.2)

It is GOllyenienl to urat ....r ite th l ope n tora p. i n the molllelltum tepotSenl.ll l io n.
To th is lo d wi intl'odUG.I the foll o,..1Dg eu zmar)' (projlC:lion) qUllIt itl..:
X,. _ ;11 (Y'_ - f~": ), Y ,. -
T. (7. 3)

I t ea n euily iKl de monstra t ed t hat t ha ope.atoJ'll P, n tisfyini (7.2) ee n be wr itteo,

vin (7.3), io ~h e foll owing Icem:
PS'f . I _X. 1XI.., P'Q!' . I -Y d}'- ', (7.'1)

p~ •• - ~1X1Y:' +X:YI+ X~Y~ + X~YTI , (U)

Prt ... - i lX1X:+ Al"X~ I-XdX-l. (7. 6)

For mulu (1.4 }-(7.6) abo ,.. tha t lhe p~, ar, aym matt lGi n tb , indi Gl:!l (lft l) u d (Ill) .
I n the Z:>Ol"$pnsenta l lon the pro jec:ti oo oper. t ors p . 81" nonl<Jt: al iotegrod i ffer-
Int i. l ope ra to ra:
( P;:'.(I~I) - ~ d'vPi!'~ 1 (z- rJr' (/I) .
Th e espnen elpre:.sion~ for ~';' . dzi an d P~'.I (z) havi the form
~~ ., (z ) _ ~ Ir-".6 (%) + (,-8,i. + ' 1. 1' (1") 0 (.I) + 11,11. 11'8"'6. (.l")I, (1.7)

pt., (z) - (6:: -1-'1'''''''.) 1I (z )+ tol8"'8,'~4 (z )

+ [.;. (6\a-a. + 6:''''81 + ~iJ-al + 6'1't"tJ.l
- ~(yl"a (i1~ + YI. O'8"')] 0 (z). (7.8)

In Doth (7. 7) a nd (7.8 ), 0 (z ) i. the Green fUlldiolJ of t be wav. eque tion

00 (z) _ - 6 (z), (7.9)
,,' .6. (.l')... ! ti l,D(z- ,J Df.I) .
We tbe refore hiv e th, eq~ ati()a

oa {;r) _ - D (z;). (7. 10 )

U,{ng (7.7}-( we all easily verl'y tbll the opentDMI p . a ad p . Ire conse rved ,
Ihn ie, obey tb, fol:lowiJl&' ident iliar.
a.P1~". (z) .. a"J1;"llz)lUO,
(7. 11)
iJ,l1-:,,' (z) _ a"Pl:"... (z) Ell O.

But the opera l.llrs P, I nd p . ' do not u hi bi L thi. property.

Ex pan sion (7.t ) lm plltll t hat If th e tensor field obeya t ll ll equa t ion
iJJ I.. _ O, (7.t2)

it does not cOIl~iD the I1Ipl"llllentl ti OllI ..ilh I p ins t Ind 0'. This mellU thu sueh
II teD!lOr field dexribe:s Doly I pins 2 lind O.
III ",i".. of (7.7) . nd (7.8) it cn NIIil)' be ver ified Ihllt ta opera lot'

o (ZP.-p.m" - - (61'r'- .,....,,,) 0 6 {z) - (.......0,8. t- 'F li""a") 6 (z)

'f' -r fM8"'il, + 6i'o"u. +6fo'"oj + 61'0"0,)6 (zl (7.13)

operuor 011 t he fuoeLi on fIlil _ (11ll) 'I'll , . wben If' ..

(, Wi! lind Lbu
is th e only MWnd-(lrdu operator tha t is 10(.111 lind eonliljrv, d . A.eUD\ with thi s
IDd II lowing for

....- . ~ 0.(2P. (:I:-,) - P a (z - r) ItT'I" II(fl - t " "9 (v) Jd"

- i1,i1p ll'"''f''"' + .,...~ - t"....~ - ..,.. ~¢Pl. (7. 14)
The sll"uctUrt (7. 14) for any ~ym m.tric tens e- ~ . Id ill noteworthy In tblt it i ~
Jocal au d Hnear, It con ta ins only seeeed -cede- derlvaUves, an d it sa tisli&S t he COil -
I8rva ti on Ilw. tha t Is , t he d lvllfi8Dce 01 'V... ill Idlllltica Uy ni l:

i1.....• ... 0. (7.15)

1.11 .. -hat foIl01l"ll,.....m Deed stnK:tu re (7.t,,) written i .ll terms 01 the i.nt
de' i\·ui..... 01 the metrle-Ie~ du.sily jt- 1I"it h I1!Spett to tht Mio kol'l"tki metrie:

J - - DlD" [7"";..-+ """;"--f''';- - y"·?"I. (7 .16)

Prom (7. 16) it follows th . t


whidl we will call t he bu'l: ,denti ly, .inee it pl. ys a lundamen tal rol e in t he
GOns~ueliOD 01 RTG.
• • R 1'G £ ...."' ...

Chapter 8. RTG Equat loRll

E lll!lt.eill dec:lared tb.a ~ the mettie lell3Ol" e Q of the Rielll.lDD Ip __Ume eha rllc-
le ri_ the gr...ita liolllil r.eld 10 GR. TIl'll, h, Wall a profound dehu ion aDd
It mll5t be d iK llrded , etece it il imp05lll ble to place phy aklal boundary eondit i(IOS
'0 11 the behavior of elk boc. WIe tbeir asym pt.otl es dependl 00 I he ehc tee 01 t he
.IIpU ial eoordinat.e sYltem. I n Ih is chap ter wa COn!l~rue ~, wl ~lIio l he fra meW<M'k 01 y ~hlllOTY IOd the geomet:rlut ion pri nciple. the ralat i..i.s lic equ ati on! fot
lllaUer aod a r...lta ti ona l Aald ,
The nlat ioashi p bet_n the elled l..a metriG of the !aId Riemann I pace-time
.. 00 \.he gr... italiollr.l 6.eld ~ o be eh_ . by delinit ioo. to be
(8. 1)
Hence. Riemaollin lrIOmelt)' en>ell'gel here u a etlta ia e lfec:U..e I lOmeky,
.generated by the K t ion of a ar av ita t iooa l field ill lhe Minko..-kl apaca-
ti me Oil matter, But for lh is eontlr ueli oo of an al'l eeti va Rlemamniu met.-ie ill the
.Minko"""k i apace-t ime varll bles to have physical mlllUl l!1i, we llllUt elUlu rl thl t
th gravih lionl l-Aeld e-q ultiOIU eonta ln l he Mlnkowskl apae.-tl me mal rlc yl ~ .
I II our l heory Iho t ensor tlI1k ;s t he fiold vadlbl e 01 th o grav! ta Uoou field, an d the
physica l bound ary eondi tl ona m us~ be for mulated for ~h ill varla ble. We ....iII
&Mu me !JuIt the er n l ta ll ooal 6.e1d in gelleral hu only eplne ~ a nd O. These p hYl i~ 1
fe!ltriel ioDl, AI sho wn ;0 Cha ple r " Iud io Galileao coord loa l" 10 the lollowi ng
'(KI, eq uationl lor th e lfr...ita tio na l field;
8,C1l'k "'"8,i'& _ 0. (S.2)
1111 Ri ellllll oian po_try of apace-li me i.I da~rlllillad by 6.r.i"i Lbe met.-ic-
leuor field f,.
(z) 10 a cerla lll 1)'ltl m oJ coorclllLlla ma ps. Although de Donder.
192 1. 19'26, IIIld Pock , t 939, 1957. 1959. WItd eOllditio!U of Ihe (8. 2) ty,. i n GR
(l hey called them harmon ic condi ti ons), they W en! DoL able tl) I how In which
..! pl ee-time var;ables those condltl ona mll5t be ,,"Ilten, NeVet l helMl, I'ock, [0
d uerlbing problems 0 1 the i.sll nd typ e, u much lIS cons idered har monic cond itions
10 ~rlDl of II10bai Cat le:al,n coordlne t~. But whi re did he liod g loba l Cartosll o
coordlna te$? Th,y hav e no placa in Rie man nia n geomeLty. Inl uit ively h, ml d e a
cor1'Kt move. but ha could 00 1 eomrwvheod il!l.tillnilica nc:.. I I he hid eleatl y under-
stood tha t Eqs. {8. 2} ne va lid only in an iDu Ual refereoct frame. lll Gamlllo eeer-
dlnates 01 the Mlnko.-sltl space-ti me, he l:.Ould have arr ived a t the l:.Oo« pt ion of
&lIravlla t iooal hid u & pb,.lc.a l la nsar fi, ld i n tlle Minko""ki s p_tillla. Fock
foeuaed apeeiallJ on the im porta nce of ba r.OIlIe eoord la ata l:.Oad ltiotlS for tblt
IIlluti OD of isla n4 pro blema. For 1D511 nee, he WI'(lU (Fock, 1 ~ , p. 351);
'nIe Uoq ....... m lnr u.. pri"ilortd 01 It,. "'.mODi< IJl I_ III -
dl........ oboul.d no~ be omd \<IOoi. la '''1 caM _ . t iod of p roh l~ ;t; OlI 01 tbe of
olbet c~ h.. !<' IJl'~ Notblng i. "'.... Ill 10 our "" iat 01 "Iefr than . 1IClo '0 iater-
p... ieu.....
And IUriher (p. 352):
...u.. .. '" harm onic eoonllDl1a, .. , I~oullb . lee . or prima'y Ih.on t.ic&l alld p... _
Iical lmport.o_ . does ....~ la U , .1' precJud. lli"a .... of olber, eoo-ba....ooic. -.ti utol
Fock .also wrot e (_ Fock. t 939, p. 409) ;
w. Wi~ illIl u.. ~ .iU l,~.. to boa aolIIlI II iD.l!', I" I t.. ee--ol • ...,
01 ~.UritJ' • • an d iaertial ~1 ...toI l)'ltaa I. I _ iq... _ .... .
Dn alop in, t his ide. , f ock could pro bably ha ... IlJTh ed at the CODCept 0.1 • rn " -
italional field jIO'SSeSSing fntl'Q -mOllla.lllllm deDS.ItJ_ But be did not. Did 1M>
atl.tmpt to conRder the fI1Ivltatlou l field as 0.118 01 the FU l day-M u wel l type 1.11
lhe Winkowski ~ pil~ti llll? No, h, .... lu from lh u idM aa d u plicitl,. Hid to
(_ Pod; , 1939, p. -t09):
w. ... atl... u.;. ..1.1 ia coutCII... wiLlo l-lle 'riIlo I ' ti_ (.. hldo . . ia .. _ ,
. , . ,) 10 P*c , 100 l.Iwlr1 of en'rily lot<> lM r of £ ...,..... . II*'" .

In GR, as Fed .....role (Me Foek. 1959, po 3$).

Gtnllaticn.l eaetn' un k "plnltod ..., III lIwl ' - of oddJUOOI I lHmS i. u.. :r
,...- 0111, in 6ci.J ... eDU ~l' blnz tbo eOOf1!imte' )'Item ... <1 ref_ ol.U ' "
pralIl.", ill such • .II" thot tbe raTlt.' I..... \ Mid ill tab, 10 k tuptri",poood 011 • IpI .....
1.1. . of ~ud pl'Optrtl JIIM aI •• dOIlI ;.11 NO', ' oo l... l beoty. The . dd iU.... 1 _ io 1M
t lHl 'lt1 leNOI' t ha t l"'.ul to pu lt.l ion. l ottn8'l do tOI Il'*a8 lb' properl, 01 eo-
...ri • • • • (1.• . thoy do oot fOf lll • tl"sot).

And furthet (p. 326) ;

Ac.eonllot to t he cholC41 of coordlu\e l )'lIlt'" the va l uell oI lMN term , .l l ,lv~ IPIce-Ullll
polnt m.y pro" \.0 1>0 rero or lI.on·. .ro. which ..O\lld ba l", poal. bl, for . temot ll.hl. I• •Ull
bot ~"".13W<ld by 10m. ~ -n. u Uoonl. Tbud<lnl rr n ll. tiODaI ""..., ....nOl be
1_l hed.
1.... ~lIv. of 80me ins ights . Pock was deeply u ent 1.0 both the idea of t he Min·
kowaki t pl e.timl and the idM of Ih, rrav1u. lion. 1 bid of the Far. d. y-!II u well
ty pe .. pl.yiol.ay «l l. ia th . l!teory of &f", lty. From lhItl.aodpolatof our lh.eclry.
' ock in IOlv iog i.aIUld problamt lIntoll3CfoU!ly dell t aimply ..ith ordio llC)' C. li·
lUll eonf1iIDll.e!I in ' n iner li, l nfenDce fll llle. and th. latter, as ill knOlm fl'Oat
the theory 01 tel l th·ll,. an pnf«red, of eoUl'Q. At 1 rentlt, in hi' ealcul . lions
lnvoh 'inl islaod sysl el1l!l, the harmOllit.eoad itions emerged .lI.ot lOS eool"lHn. 1.e eon-
d ilioM , 15 he beliend , bul . as ... lrilliatu see. as field .,qa.tioDS in Gamen COOl""
d illltea of Ul inerti'l refereuCi Irl _.
Th ns, foek conlidered hu mOQlc cOllditiortS onl, as pfllferred coord inate eon-
d il ionl and nothin g man, &ltd only for p«lblems of thl wland type. Thi s i5 unde...
stand able, since he. IUle . 11 his veat pred ece.sson , wat chained to Riecn'll nlao
feOlIle t,y, w!lith in pri ncipl. did not IUOW lor . del per peoetralioo of the ~nce
of th e problem. To tek e this lmportl nt steP and Idvll.llce tbeM cond it iolU as 1101·
venlli l nd covar iant, it Wei necll!Sl ry to repudllte tbe idl!<l logy of C R, gel o~~
01 tho jungl e of Riemannian geometry, ex tend, contr arY to the GR prescription.
tlle principle of rela ti vity to ~nvitati lm al phenomena, I ud introduce tile idea or
• i!'.Y[Lttional field as I pllYlu;11 fiold In the sense of Faradl Y I nd Mu _ lI, lll ~t
R, pos_inr energy l a d momentum. All this hu been done in our theory, wit h
en ub il r...,. d10iee 01 s~'ltem of word in.tea, hed on ly by th e met rle tensor '1'....
of lhe MinkoWllki I pl ee-ti me, as b common puct iet io the theory nf elementary
part ielet. EqUl ti~ (B.2) a~ unhtr5l.l in our theory. aiDea the,. a re Bq Ultiolll
rover"i", the , r,vila liOllIJ f'ie1 d and have no nJ atioll to the d10iee of Ihe eon...
dillltl l ,.s telllS. In lbe 'Uo.ko'nki space-time tlle5a tqUltiOO6 ea n be . ritWl in
eovlrilnt form as folloWll:
y -, D,CI)Ilo _ 0;r _ o. (B.3)
Only ill Cart.ilD (Gl lileu) eoordiAlle5 do th e h id equaliOM (8. 3) UlUml the
form 01 ha rmonic eondilions. Bllt e;oritillg the h. lm OQ!e cond itions trith :n the GR
framework in termll of Cartaian coordinates runs wn l.rary Lo the GR ideolOfY
since in tlla RielD.ll nn I pl c..time th ere ea n be no globa l ClrtMilo. COO!"l! inllllI.
I. RTC £ ...." . ...

0 " the buill of Ch.ptw 7 we u n U , thlt U,I field eq uuiolll (8.3) l ul.Omuie- Uy
n tlude sp ins t end 0' from the erevitet io nll te 4S« field, T hut. for th l lourteen
sought Vl ri lbles describ ing th e vniulionel fie ld Ind mltter e he ..e l ireld y
b\lil t folU Clovarl l nt eq u. t ioos (8.3). To const ruct t ile olher ten e uae • aimple
b u ~ Iar relchl ng anl logy witll the e lectromag ne tic lield. Si nca a ny vect or Oeld A ~
t(lIlt . i llS aph.. t and 0 , it u n be u peo ded 10 • d lrec t sum of I ppropd a le irreduci ble
Np resenlat ioos, Th is up.naion ee n be rlllliJ.ed .. II t he proJeclion opefltore (7.3 )
Introduced te Cblp ter 7:

. hen operator X:, is c _,,·oo. th at "" aa lisfi.. thl idlntiti es

8~,~ _.r.n. a O, (8.5)

while operator Y :' doea no L po!IlICIlII t his pro perly.

Fr om eltmtrooyoa miCll it ia known t ha t the ecuece of an elllttrom lgno ~ic field
A ~ Is I ClollllllrvfJ<! elec tromagnetic cur rellt r. T herefore. i n cODs uue li ng th e equ I -
li on of motl on of the h id it is ol tu ra l lo use the conserved oper ltor X:' . too .
Th is operltor ia nOll10ee l . hu t 00 ita buis we CI O bu ild I unique, 1000 L. lin.., . I nd
conse r..ed operl tor O X:, lhl t con tiIns OIIly lOCond deri".t, Appl y ln. th is
oper-tor lo A · , ..... ge t I D u Pfttl!..l on which in Iftms of c:ovuilllt ded n ti yes hu
tbe form
l'- O.. D.A" -ll"DooA"'.
Post ula ti ng tho equ lt ion
y"~ D", O.A" - O" O.. A"' _ 4111" . (8.6)
wa l rr i ve It l he well-known MuwaU equlUons,
aile of th o IIIGSt iOlporLiDt fee tures of l he el~ l rod )' nl m iu equation (8.6) Is
t hat it .i$ i nvaria nt under Ibe foll owi ng gl!.lge ln ns lorm a lioo :
.04"_" - +D-, . (8.7)
with 'P I n I r bi uuy .te. lar fu ocUon.
NODe 01 the ph)'aieel q UIPUties il I Rected by th l gluge lI"alUlforml Uon (8. i ) .
Th is lDUDI th at none depen d" on th e presence 01 s pin 0 i n the veetee field A ' ,
Hence. lhe gaug e IrlllUl rOrlllati (ln ti n be selected s uch tha l apln 0 would be e xelu ded
ence ami for all from t he vector fIe ld . This means introd ucing the condi t ion
0 .. .04 " QO O. (8.5)
Thus, 10 eleocu od)'na nlics cond it ion (8.8) U n be introd uced . but Ib is is not I nee.-
asa ry condi ti on beu.1I5ll apin 0 of lb , veetee lif!ld bill no e6eoct 0 11 ph)'aieal q Uln-
till . due to gluge ill Tlr il nce.
Allo.. 11I1" lor (8.8) in (S.6). Y,e a n i"" I I a ' y$te m of eqUltlooa
'l'....D..D.A· _ 4111".
D..A.. ~ O,
which deliltloi nes a vector pote nti al A " pOSMSlll ng ( 01 )' s pin I .
The Ll gra ngian form all sm th al laads to tll_ resulLII is wall kn own. Nola tha t
Lha idee of eOIl!truc tl llg I theory of illieraetio" 01 b ids (both Abe lil n Ind
1I0o-Abl!liall) baaed 0 11 gl u~ IDYlri an te proved to be n 1reme1r f",iUIII and is
baiol al>Cteesfull y de\'elo ped .
The probl, 1IlS U1at '" ellCO unUr in Jlul lll up lbe relUiniQl eq\l.ll iions lot' . gr....
iu t ional ~4SOI' i &1d I re 01 qllite . dilfereJlt ....IIIn , s.iDu tbllOurce of lh ia kid,
Ihe en~-m omelltum HlI5Or, is non; nvill";11l1 lI11der l ' uP lIallSloreall oat 01
field '$Ilo. W. .. ill d i5eU$!l lll i! a ped i ll greater de La H lale •. For the present , by
, n,logy wllh Mu wull', 11ect rodynamlu, wo will construct III. rema ining equa_
t ioll' lor th gravitation,1 LeIl!lO' field. Th• • econd· u. nk te nsor thlll i. eonea, ve<!
!II t he e ntrgy-m omllntutll t easoe nllllltter .fId grlv ila l iOllIJ lield in thiI Mink owsk i
, pl Q&- l lme, I"~. HeQU, It i. nat u.rl l 10 lak e i t ., t he o1\ ;ml 18source of tll'eru-
;tatiolUll fi, ld. Sillee. all aLabl islwd in Quopter 7, Ibe l illlpll'S! identically eon-
M'l'Ted ttllSOr lineu ;n r ill J- , by an.lorY . itll electrod ylUl",ics we U ll p<>&-
lu i. ... the va lidit)' of tb4i followlllr "'II' l ions:
J - a o..D, ll"~r + l"·,..-.,.,.r -.,-,.-"}.. l (~ +ltjjll. (8.111)
Cenerally ,,,", kiog, aueh • t ypo or I quation prt!lU pposes the au tomatic ..altd ity
of the law of cOllllCrvation of the energ y-momeotum ten sor of matter and i"av-
it ational fleJd In lh e Min:owski aJlf.u> UllIe,
D. {4:1+4';i'i) - D..,t"'" _ 0, (8.1t)
alHl , u a eorollary (_ Eq . (6.27», the n lid it y of Ih. 00....11111 w mIllr1'atioli la.
lor mailer In tile Riemanll s pKe- tim e:
V.r- _ O. (8.t 2)
Tile Hilbel t energy-lD omu t\lm llIl'1SOC r '" UlIl be specified phlnom enologicall y.
I n this cau Eqs. (8. 12) WlIlIti t\l Ul t hl IMjUatiollll of motion of matter.
Combinl0i: (8.3) with (8.10), we IiG t
"'PD~ D;g-· - - l.. {t(';)+ "Ml), (8 .13t)
D";- _ O. (8.13b)
Tb i'! 5}"Ste... of eq\laUOIII, {8.13lo) aod (8 .13b), ilIt b'llO!lght l ,.s tem lor RT C .
The role of EqlI. (8. 13 b) in RTC is _ nl laUy diBMe llt Iro ll1 !.he ro le tba t (8.8)
plaY' in , 1«lfOd ynlm i(.S. Indeed, I ltho u, h tlul 1e1l"alld sid, 01 (8.10) ill in-
varia nt under t he ' luge lr1I n$lormaUon
i-· - i·· + D"'f· + D"i"' - 1"·D~r , (8.1-1)
....h erer· - y -l'~. is the densit y of all arbUrary 4-vootor t" (z). in t ho t he(lrl'
,,'tl do Dot hive tbe I Tb itrar inest of t he (8. 14) t ypll sinu the Pirhl-hand s ide of
(8 .10) is oo ninv l r i&llt UDd H tU D!llormatioo (8 .14). Fm th is rl!1I..'101I, Eq l. (8 .3)
c.aaDot follow from Eql . (S.IO).
Meece, io RT C Eql. (8. 3) consti t ute Idd it iollal iDdepelldeJIt dYlll mic.a1 eq ual iolLS
for e e ..... v ita Uo....l flald lither tb &ll Wllrd iJUlte eoadi ti ons.
The mi la prob1e1ll (0 coll5lrud illl I Iheory II to esta blish whelM t tbere u illl5
I LaVl n, iln dellSit, lor a .......' lItioa al field with s pillS.2&lid 0 Ibl l wlllild alltG-
mltk-all y Iu d . vii lht prindpl8 III least act ion, 10 Eqs . 18.13&). Th e 10111 Lag-
raog illll dll<L' it y 01 a gr avita ti lln al fl8ld ;ji ll t hat d ~i be~ aflina 2 and 0 Ili d is
quad ralie ;11 l he U!1t deriva l ive! of th e field haa t ho form
LI - ai..i.:tPD1r D,i- +,,;~,D..iMDp; '-
+f;,.J.~·D;;'-D;-'. (8. 15)
I . RTG E'...ll. ... .
A ehlrac:wrill~~ I,nun 01 this Wgr'Dtiu 11 ~h,~ tllt eoo"o l u ~ioll 01 conl in t
Gerin Uves la bn . ith respec t to th, MillkoWlld .., tric Is , cllie".ed "I , the . f1\l1:Uv,
IDIItr ie \elISOriu.
01 ~'" Riemann $pace-t ima. 1L\:all b' ahowo \h al th ill restricUoll
Oil \h. gr n iUtioQ.ll I h id is ' I:OlUeq\leD~ 01 lb, p ome m .diO Il priDcipl • .ad tb a
stlUC~un of ~ha iUYitationa l li.el d. ",hk.b poueslII5 aplM 2 , ad O.
10 Yia. of U- prlDl:iple 01 lau~ nlioo. th ' aplAtm 01 equetio.ll$ for Ula ,.... il.e·
Uooa l Mid asrJ.nes \be fwm
6QI ~
_ ~+ '':11 _ 0.
e,ra 6fl•
(8. t 6)

• bare ..... hut .1I 01ftd for (!.t ). L,. is ~h. meterill WgraDtit.ll d_iIJ . IDd L.
is speei6ed .in (8. 15)_
Tn rtpttseAt th e sptem of equatk\1a (8.16) ill th .lona. (&. t3l) we must Mlac: t
ill aD u n' lIlhi,uou" lII.anner UI. eoastIliU 0 , b. , nd c ill tbot Lt.grlngiln d l D&i.
IJ (8. 15). T o \bill &lid .... usa lorm ol u (6. 17), (6.22), I lld (6.25) Ilid Ii.od for Wpl.ll.
,ian L _ L + L lil th e entre-m Olll6lltlllll t e _ d&IlSit y ,- for mitt...- aDd
v uit.tionf field ill ~be Minko'lll'llk i s pltA-t ime.. CtkollU Df t.h' Ytri. lioll of th l
101.11 LlgU ligiln 01'8r l.~ . we nlld ,ht ~
t"'· _2 Y - I' (1''''''-_ !.'''- T''' j ~£ +W-
2 ..... '
+D, ((2a+b )lHr,...... + Hr;-,....·-lIr".,..' 1
- 2 (ll + 21:) l··i~';lfD~ii'}, (8.17)
H r' - (g.., D;" ~ + ,ftIDI, ") i.l '
We _ t bat th' equ etiOM
,• • _ 2bJ• • + D, {{2lI +b) IHr'y"· + Hr",....· - m"Y"1
- 2 (0 +21:) y"'.g:u.;;.n~~') (8.t8)
lie equ lnlent to til. field equ lt iolll (8.t6). If •••lsb \be eooo Hioll.
D..' - _ 0 (8.19)
not 10 produc. I ny Ilew equati on lor fi"ld lZlfJI , s ince tbis would lead to I n over-
dettrm ioed syt...m of tq UIUons, It is nee_, l od I ulfk.ien l thet U- eoefkilots
a, b, Ind e set i!fy tb l foUoWi DI l:ODd. il iona:
. - - z b, e'-T b.
, (8.20)
If till cons lt.ots l no !lelte~ ill tlI il1 ml nller, ..... uei n at I II idelltity:
D .""~ ... O.
Th ua, lb. eq uetlODl of the motion 01 mltter foll ow dlrec:~I, from th e eq lll tions lor
the v nitltiona l 6ell!. AlIowiDf lor (8. 20), .1 find. l bt t (8.t8) UfUalts th e form
- - - -
- T- -t"');""' zr
D,D. (Y''''''' +.,...,..- .-,..' (~ + 4';,i)

- Jr ' . -- (B.2 1}
Th. H.Jel l";,,!; Th•• ')' ~f Cr~vl lell ."

Thill cetacidea with Eqs. (8.tO). which were written by analogy with electr ody-
namics, if we put 2b = t/A.
Thus. the Lagrangian density tha t leads us to field equati ons in the form of
(8.21) ia
1 - - - 1- - ~ - -
L I - 1r IKAqD,.gI"JDI'''''' - 2"1.,.g,,~lfI'D,~DI'g'""
1- - - -
+ " Kh ,K",g' I'D,g""'D..,g"']. - (8.22)
T he correspondence principle Impltee that
A "" - t 611 . (8.23)
Jf we allow for (8.23) in (8.Zl) , we get
LI e- ~
1 -. - --.. -,
[G.." D,("" - (""GooIG", ], (8.2-')

where th e third-rank tensor G~ i.!I defined thus:

U I.. "" T1 -gl'lo {D,.g,- ~ + D,g",l'-
- -
DoE,,,J· (8.25)

We can also writ e L. in t he fOl'lXl

LI _ _ j~ Y - gg"" rG~",G:"' - G~ ,,~ I . (8.26)

The first to eonefd er such a Lagrangia n was ROSlIn, 1940, 1963. T he th ird-rank
tensor G~ , in (8.26) is defined as follows:
~,_ y,g"'1' (D",gpl + D,I,. ",- DpI, ..J. (8.27)

It is 888;ly verified th t Lagra ngian (8.26) can be tra nsformed into the sum
01 two t erms, one o[ which does not con tain the metric coefficients 'V"''' and the
other. which dependa on V"'·, is written In the form of t h diverge nce of II vector
end, therefore, does not affllet th e field equa t ioDs.
11 we allow lor Eq. (8.3), th e eomplel.esyalem 01 RT G equat ions for matt er and
gravitationa l !ield is (see Lcguncv and Mest virishvil i. 1984, 1985a, 1985b, t 986b.
Vluov and LOIUnov, t 984, and vleeev, LoguDov, Bud Mest ivtrishv ili, 1984)
Y""'D.DAi"'~= j6nt"'~, (8. 28)
D.:i"' ~ ""O . (8.29)
Ob'V iously, in a GalilearolIys1em of coord inates Eqs. (8.28), (8.29) assume the form
Dr "= 16nt"''' , (8.28',
a";"'" .... 0. (8.29')
Equat ions (8.28) and (8.29) clearly show that the Minkowski space-t ime enters
into all the gJaV il.etiona l·!ield equaLiOlU in an essenti al way. But th is means
thtt it will find ita phYSical reflection not only in tho flllldomental laWll o r nature
but also in the descripti on of verio us natura l phenomena.
The general-covar iant RTG equat ions (8.28) lind (8.29) cl osely resemble the
generel-ecvartent equat ions of electrodyn amics, (8.9a) and (8.9b), in the absence
of grav itat ional fields. In electrody na-m ica th e lllec: tromagnetic field is a vlletor
8. R TG ~ ....,,...

h Id . ncl ita 5IOutee i' l b , CODMrfed elec: troml ,net ie CW'l'eft t J"'(~) . Eq u. tlon (8.9b)
excludes ~ pi n 0 from the vector i ,ld. hi RT G tbl (1"n ilatl o" ll Ii.:ld i.e I la MOr
field In d the lO~e is tbe CODllU'led tensor dens ity of l he l DeI'gy- momentum of
both mel lon en d gr.vit.t1C)1l11 fteld. Far th is IM.,n Eq . (8.28) is nonliDHI' even for
I free (1"1",ltlt ioI1l1 field . [q ullon (8.29) uc lud es spi n. t I lld 0' Irol2l tb e t.enso r
The equltion. 0 1 RTv end e lectrod y n.rnice . cq uire en IlIpeoe l. ll y Ilm ple for m
in tbe vlJiles n c OOl'd l na tes In eo inertid I1Iforonco fra mo.
If we wen to rest rict ou r d lllC UMi(ln to tho firll l l yslem of eq ua tions (8 .28 ), th o
d l'l"le1on of the mltr ic of the Rieml nn me into tile metrle iD th e Mln kow-
sk i lpace-ti me .nd t he !p"l vl u ti onel 18D8Gr neld would be of e purel y nom ;n.1 Ila -
Iu.. I lld wit h no phys ica l mu n ing. The seeoodllJS18m (8. 29) of loDr h Id eq UltiODS
dr u Uull y l!epar lta everythi ng th l t reffl'l! to fon: u of inertia frOID everyth ing
that refva to lb e 1Jl. ",ltltlonai field . T hl t" n lI}'stems 01 eq u.tio.lls. (8.28) . nd
(8.29), ere gt'Hr.1 C.llVU illlt. The beh ....ior of th . tlon.. &lId i8 ral riet ed ,
III usual, by 'P Pfo pri.te ph JSica l coo d iti onl iD I , iven, IIY Gllilean, ')'I le m of
coordlnltu . I II OR it is irup oulb le to formuJ l le t he phyelee l eon dit ions ImpOHd
on met ri c,..· if on . lem a i... withi n the b lm ewO'l"k 0 1 the Ri ema nn epKe-ti me ,
sloce th o uy mptol ic beh av ior of the metd c . I""a ys d epends on th e c ho ice of tho
th rell-d ime ns iona l ~yste m oJ cootd ina tes.
Le lllS now lind th e ex plici t for m of t bo .sys tem of CqU I UOIlll (S.i6). If ....e tlk"
Lagno, ian (8.22). it ca n be damou st. ated that
IG-G' ..G.,,I
.,. .
-::;"- I
:2 ""i!i" ool -.. -
.... il L a -'- [it:- _1 .._ ..... _ I .'G' ]
, lDJ,6"'''l
""' t 6a Y _ c..... Y ..... .. .
~( _ ': ' _ D.
6,... .(".. I LL
I (DI6"' '')
"" _
I R... (8.30)

wbore R",. is th e second -rank tensor of tho cur....t ore of th e Rie ma nn spece-Urne ;
R... _ D. G'_ _ D.G~ , + G ~ ..G~ _(f..,G:"' . (8.31)
Silltl iD view of (6. 6 b) a nd (6. tf l .".• hav e
2 ',:M
_~ ( T
r - I
__ +,._r) (8.32)

Eq. (8. 16) ylelda


tha t la, ..... h ave arr ived a t !.he sys tem 01 Hi lbert-Ei oB18in oqua Lions , the one
impor ta n t d ine renee be ing th ll. ~ eU lleld vllflo bl" In th e Hilb8J't- Ei ns le in eq ue-
110011 In our th oor y d"pc nd on u nivel'lla l s pot ial-temporal coord ina tes In the Mlnkow-
d l , pa ce-ti me. I n an 'lner lia l -ere enee fre me th... ulli vel'll. l cocmtln. te:s C' D bo
chosen to be eamon. It must he empbasi-ed tha l tb a sy,te m of eq uatio... (8. 28)
does not co inc ide with th e lI}', le m of H ll boert- E inMein eq u tiODll (8.33 ). Qnl y II
the IOnuak ovu lan t equaLi ons (8 .29) hold true d oes th a S)'llte lD of Hil bnt- E iD·
, lel D equ ati ons , lor m. lIy wr ittl ll i n G R in the ... rlIblq of the Min kcnnk l apac a·
time, n duee to the 8Y8tem of equat iolQ (8..28) , and these depend eS!entially on
the matri c tellsor of the Minkowsk i space-thne.
I t h as long been know n (see Rosen , 1940 , 1963, a " d T olman, 1934) that Lag ra n-
gia" (8.26) leads to syste m (8.33). We have shown, however. that for a grav itat ioll-
. t field with spins 2 and 0 the gnvit ational-field Lag rang iall de nsity (8.22 ) is
th e only one that leed s to a self-eonsiuen t system of equa tio ns for matter en d
lield, (8.28) end (8.29). Th is means tha t the RTG eq uatio ns are the on ly simple!t
second-order equations that ceo ex tet,
In view of the Importa nce of th e equi vale nce of Eqs. (8.28) and (8 .33) in th e
Millko\1ollki vari ables, we can give ano ther var ian t of the proof of the above . tU e·
mont based on direct calculations of th e tenser dell.'l iUes till' an d 1,7tj, prov ided
that (8.29) is vaHd. ,
II we takit formulas (6.17) an d the Lagrangian dens ity (8.22) a nd a llow for (8. t),
we will lind that the grav iU t ional-field energy - momentu m te nser de nsity in the
Minkowskl space-t ime is ,
~';.~ ... - 1~., J,,· ,::,, ~ { ,?.. ··t~ -'h"~,,"") R ~l' (8.34)
We soo that the ~ ond -unk curvature tensor R p~ of the R iemenn space-time h as
emerf9 d aut omati call )·. Sim ila rly , usin g form ulas (6. 17) and (8. 1) and the defin i-
ti on (6.6a ) of the Hilbert-tenece delllli ty , we arr"'e lit the foll owing lormula lor
the materi al energy-momentum tensor deJUity in t he Minkowski epee....ti "' e:
rl~)" ("fg)l/J ( ""'P""~-1: V"KY'~) (T ~~ _ ~ 'p~ T ). (8 .35)

Sub~ tit ut ing (8.M ) and (8.35) into the field eQ" uations (8.10), we get

( ,,"'PV~ - -} y"V )[ R ... - :-, ( Tp~ - i-gPlT )] ""O,

which leads UlI to the system of equ ati ons for ' he gravita tiona l field in the form
of (8.33),
The complete system of eQ" uat ioJU for ma tter and gra vita ti ona l f'e ld , (8.28)
a nd (8.29), is eQ"u ivalent t o t he lollowing system of equat ions:
V -r R... _ 8n (T"'. - +r",,, T) (8.36)

D,:r· - O. (8.37)
Th us, a lthough in RTC the complete system of equa tions (8.36l snd (8.3 7) does
conta in the system of Hil bert- Eillstei ll equat ions, th a co nwnt 01 th e latter chs nges
substant ia.lly, · since t he s pat id · tempora l variahles now coi ncide wit h the vari-
a bles of the Minkowski s pace-time. We mua t aga in a mphasil e that Eqs. (8.37) are
univeTS* l, s ince they are field equations deaeri bing gra vitat iolltl fields wit h sp ins
2 IIl1d 0; they unamb iguously se para te forces of inertia from grav it.lltional fields.
Wi th in t he framework of GR th is Is ho possible to do in principle. The cho ice of
the refere nce f.ame (or system of coordinates) is fixed by th e metric ten sor of the
Minkowski ~ace- time, while Eq s. (8.37) lay n o '9$trictiollS on the choice of th e
coord inate syale m.

• Eq UOUOll1 (8 .;lG) do ..<rt eO'll lol1l ", url e 1' . , . .. d it ill m...... ingl_ to of 1.. in GR .
Thi.l mpllt1 Ihn Ih. n atoll\ltlt of ZeJ'dov ieh alld Gri. he.huk, 1981\. UII.! CR <'liD be eoo,lru~led
Oil lho hu ill 01 IhII Mlllk<>wski 11"'u- li lllll is .m>ll.......
Now thd some u pec18of ~h c theory of gTlvi la.t ion in the M inko,,~kl llpace-tim8
have been considered in Gup ta , t 952 , Kohler, 19:'>2, 1953, 1954, P apa petrou , 1948,
Pugechev. 1958, 1959, 1964, ROB\ln, 1940, 1963, Mild T h lrr iog, 1961. However.
even ooientislS who were on tile rigM h ack 8 ~ the beginning fa iled to underuand
Ihia Bnd took 8. d lllercnt d irect ion in bu ild ing th e theory of grav itation, ad [reel ion
1llm t h u not led to 8 com plete t heor y.
In ecnclusto n, one re mark is In orde r. T ile syste m (8.3) whos.a vali di ty we have
postulated, does not lollow from th e princi ple of least OCUOH. Th e«lfore , in a pply-
ing th is p ri nci ph~ to Lagran gian (8.15), W8 were Iorced to a llow for Eqs. (a.3) by
introd ucing in the in t.egrl nd in the aetio n integn l a te rm of the Iorm "l,"D~l",
whert! '1.. are Lag ra nge' s m ult ipJien . An a nftly sis of t hi s pr ob lem ca n be found
ill Ap pend i:< 2.

Chapte r 9. R el ationships Betw een the Canonical

Energy· Moment um Tensor and th e Hilbert Tensor
Th e guv il.ationa l-lie ld Lagr angi an den sity de pend s on t he mateie-ta nser de nsit y Y"'" ,
the grav it ationa l. fleld te nsor dens it y d)-o' , and the ir lirst d",r iva l;vl1$. Under
a coordi nate tr alls!or m Bl[oll (6. 1) t ho var iat ion fif IlC llo n . IU •• is ~ ero :

6J. "", r d'}; [D~ J. + ~LI 6L41"~ + ~6L;;"~ ] = O. (9.1)

~ ~. lYv'""
J' m _ tP~+ K:.*Dptm . (9.2)
""here l lle ca ll1lllical tenwr de nsi ly
~L! D;i"" = -6:,£. + dL! Dp"i" ' , (9.3)
' (8~<\l'"") il, DU "~)

and th e t hi rd-ran k tensor deMity K:.* haa t lla form

K :'~ =2 ilL, (DP' - 6l:. ill.. $"
,,(,,~$m ..) d(8.iii'0,
+2 8L , y.~ _ 6:' 8LI ~'G. (9.4)
8 (/I• .;;m~) " (d,V'G)

Sub stit uti ng in to (9. t 1formulas (6. 14) ...d (6.15) for var iat ions 6 L ¢I "" and 6L;"~
and hearlllg in mlIId t hat the mtegr alion volu me n is ar bitra ry , we obta in t he
followi ng iden tit y :
t' [D.~ +~ Dpq)no' ] ~K='-D,.D.t"'
+D,E'" [ ~~D.K:'·.-2 fJ!:." (6rm + 6:;' fJ~" /bt'
ll¢>"'" oWl.I

-2 ":' V'"+ 6::' ":,. ~9I ] ""O. (9.5)

6ymO ~,
Since the dis placement vector " i.9 arbitrary, Lh a ln t uprElSllio n yields tbe Iollow-

ing s trong iden~i ties:
• ~L -
D.1, = _ ~ Dp<I>"' · , (9.6)

~ _ D Kb ~ 2 ~ ;r,.,, _ ~ ...!!:L ~1
.. , ,, 6iil"''' ~I

+ 2 6:, y.,, _ ~ ~:' f'l 1, (9.7)

~V'" " 6V11
K:f :. _ K':. (9.8)
Since th e metr ic-tell!lor density g...." 01 the eftecvive Riemann space-t ime and the
gravita tiona l-field tensor densit y '$.... are lin ked by th e relatio nship
we esn write

With thf-80 equations in mind , we een write

6L! _ g9' -,-c'"'~'s-:-- _c'~-:.

6 (D,,'"") 6 {D." Ji 8(6,;"" i
+ ItJ 6L, "T~ .
(6' Y"'"j
8 (D. i 1i) i
HeN the y':' are Crh tollel s ymbols fer th e Minkowski spaet-time:
1 I ,. ,
'1',.0. = y 'l" ( QY'J+iI.y} .-0!Y. ,) '

Elementary C81e~ l at jon5 lead 05 to the f~lI owin g expres9ion for K::':
K:."==- 6l.1 r: _ il.! ; ,..
6 (DpI'" ") 6 (D.,'" " )

+?"- [
a (D. , ' " )
1"'_ 8[.,
6 (D;I" )
+ 6L! V,.. [g."V'"-'gP"y.' j. (9.10)
a (DI~")
S ince the energy-mom en l~ m tenser densiLy or th e gravitatillo. l fleld is defined os
M. -
~,)" = 2 ~ v"-6.., 6 L-
..::;:Ly"', (9.11)
6'1''"'' &;oN
we can wril.a (9.7) es follows:
I'( 1"" = ~.. - D, K".. -
olJ;..." .. ...!f:L(b...
641"" . (9 . 12)

T his form estebltshee 8 relat ionship hetween ~he Hjfbeet- tensor densit y in t he
MinkoWllki sp. ce-tiUl(l . nd the cenonlce! eneegy-momentum tensor densit y.
P(lI' Ivtlln d ix ~io.llS it Ie u pedien l to inU'oduce the lollowm, quoli t y .u

• ebarac.teI"istic: of th e trav itatioll.l field:

~,. - ~ - D,.K"..". (9.13)

wh ich in the case ol. Ieee gr. vi ta Uoll.1 field eo il1oidM. in vie w 01 (9. 12), wiLh th"
Hil ber L energy -momen tu m Wns<l r d ensi~y .
The 8Y4t.em of eq ua t io lls (8.28), (8.29) l or luttar and grll,v !ut iDoal Field U II be
wrmen in a sowllwhe t different lor m in term s of th e H ilbert energ y-mome ntu m
tenser dens ity ill t he Rie01eXln ' pice-t ime. T o thb Ilnd let 1&1 u lclllate tbe third-
rink teasce denl it y K~ us ing formu le (9. tO) nd the wer'neiln (lUll by (B.2"')
and (8. 25).
Em ployllll Lbe fKt tbet
....~C "' 'it=t
-'--'=- ' [-G"_ +T'---j
t»,··G:.. .
• (o.T-- )
11'8 o bta in
t 6;o;K::' - ,;".c:...- ? ~G:"'l +
+;"I~", IS"'Y.I _?MY"I .
r".. (YO'Cr" - ",IC:")

Su bsti tu ting ~ up~ io n for G:... (8.25). we lind t hat

t 6f1K::' - ' ... D.<i"'.... -i"?·)

-1•• 0 • (?v" +"i"'-r'-- i"t'" - r "y"). (9. 14)

Combin ing this _i Lh th e de6.nili oll (9.13) of ~....

'" WI ar rive It l q lollowillll'

~- .:, -
"i'5ii"" D, cr'
.r - lJiI .,. ... J... (9.15)

whore the a n lillYll1 m e lri~ teusor dens il y a~ is de6.u&d 8.Il

ol.r - ; ..... D, (i""," - go;,'''). (9.16)

.od by J" "
deno te t.he well- koo wn qu e ollty (7.16).
SuW it u~. into (9. 12) lhe ex preaion (9. 14) for Kf: a ud pi ua 00 10 vetia lions
In Dl ltri e r.
we obllin
,.~ -~- I~" D,o".r-il;-l'...J.·+ ~ [m.- i- ~R]
_ V;-1 [ R.... yl.-+ ~R,...".]. (9.17)

Now if we Il58 for mula (8.M) e nd lower Dna in dex via mltrie y" "" we fiod t hlt

~'}oOO = - I~;I. y.... Ju _ )1;1 [ R.....,.·_ -} ~R,..f"']. (9.18)

Competing (9. 17) l ad (9. 18). we a n-iv, at th e lollowinr ,..le tiollSbip:

~- 1:'" D.ol.r"'" - Vii' [R~ -+~Rl (9.19)

Here th e un onlca l tellllOl den.!ity ~ i~ given by (9.3), th" is,
l=. _ _ ~L~ + i L, Dj P1 .
iJ{D; i ' 1j
where the Lagra ngian density L ill "'Ti tlen in term.9 of eovanant der iva tives Iu
th e Minkowskl mew-ie and has t'he Form (8.24). Empo lying (9.19), we can wrltt>
(9. 15) as
tfa)oo = - v=i[.
&I R M -
" J I.,
T6 ..R - "'ili< "t... ! . (9.~)
Earl ier we esta blished that ilia RTC system of equations {8.28), (8.29) for mat ter
ao d gra vitat iona l lIeld is equ ivalen t to the sys tem 01 equation s (8.36) , (8.3 7).
Equati on (9.20) ca n be neEd to wr ite the RTG syste m of eqUalions for mdter Bnd
gravita ti ona l field in 511 equival ent form , namely,
_ (0)
Y.dyP1D ~ D~g"1 - 16n (T;. + tl',)oo). (9.21)
D';..n _ 0, (9.22).
where r:, ill the Hil bert anergy-momentum tensor (lenelW (6.611) for matt er in tile
Riemann spllc... time. Obviously, in View of Eqs. (9.2 1) and (9.22), the la w of
ccnseevetron of the energy-momentum ten sor density for maUe r a nd grav ita tional
lleld bas the form
The covaria nt law of ma tter conservation in t he Rieman n space- um e can be repre-
se nted in equ ivalen t form:
V.T:.·- a.T:. - i- 1"" 0.. ' ., <::> D.T:' -GSo"T; _ O. (9.24)
Cumpar ison of (9.2.3) and (9.24) yiel ds

G1.ftT; ,.. - D.t(C. . (9.25)
T he last expression clear ly shows that matt u receives energy a nd momentum
diffi.'tly froll1 th e grav ita tio nal field. with the tota l energy- momentu m tenso r of
matt ar and gravi tat ional field beiDg eoru;erved en cl ly. Constr ucti on of the rel ati v-
isti c theory of gravitat ion UD the blSis of th e Minkowski sp aee-time lind the
geometrhatiOD prin ciple ena bled us to deal on ly with cova ria'nt q Ullntitie~ et
each s tage of our d i~uSll ion .
In conclusion a remark is in order. Using (9.19), we can write t ILe RTG Hil bert.-
Ei ns taia eq ua tions in the form
D...,:t' _ (T:, + -c:' )16n, (9.26)
where .r.... is gi "en by (9.16) an d const itutes a third-l'II nk tensor, llnrl ~, whose
expli cit form for Lagrangian (8.24) Is

~ ~ 3k- [~ (g"DJKwD;E'J + +gIPD,g"IDpgl.++ 'i1l;",;gl~ Dlg;J Dp i·· )

- (ii .po,"i"" + l"" D"tM + +Spi'ft'i·iO/'"') o,: i"'], (9.27)
is a second-rank teaser with respec t to K"nerai coordinllte tran sforma ti ons. Tho
tensor qoantitiflll ~ an d ,,~~ cont ain covariant detveuv es with l1l'spget to the
Min)co."aki $pacll-limll metr ic V l~ , bill in the dill"Bnmce 't:' - DpQ:l the depen-
dencll on th e metetc ~ ns.or f'~ cancels out If we ignore the RTG equeUons (8.3)
(see Appendi;< f ). Hence, the Hil bert-Einsw in eqUllHons alll'l ume the form
(J.<J'.I' ''' ( T~ + ~) t 611. (9.28)
Here neither 't:' DOr (J ~o:'P COlltaiD8 VIII and two have common part UlI deriva.
uve e and , hence, ee not tensoes with tes pecl to geMral coGfl! illate lr anslormati ons.
Thus, if we ignore t.b\l RTG equat ions (8.3), the Hil bert·E i ns ~i n equa tio ns (8.33)
call be represented only in form (9.28), since the in trod~tion of meLric v.. in GR
has no phys ical meanin g. The Hil bert-Ei nstain equ. ti(IDS written ill terllls 01
arbi trary coordi nates of the Riemann space-time lead to a dil'hlN ntial cOfl84lrva Lion
law of the form
il.{ r~ + 1~) "' O . (9.29)
But thi, law has no physical muning. a' lact th a~ can easily be verified il lor
lhe variables :t!' wa take apllericd coord inatlla, for eXl<Uple. Relation (9.29) can
bogiv en physical meani ng il we consider it in Cartl\8ia n (or Galilean ) cccedtneies.
However, in the Rieman n s pece-lime, a nd therefcea in GR, II is impossible to
int roduce g lobal Cartesian coordinat es.
RTG eq\l a~ iO n5 have meaning only in the cuuro inates of the MinkoW!!ki SP!lCll--
l ime, end thera is 110 way in which these equation s can be rid a! the metr ic tellsor
of this apacll-- lime. T he conseeveuo e law here assumes the form
D. ( T~ + 1~ _ 0, (9.30)
wit h 1~ a tenser (see (9.27»). Selecting Cart8.'l ian ceerdlnates leads IQthe lollowing
law of eenservauon:
il.(T~+1~) _0. (9.31)
In RT G, j l~~t Wi in other physical lheorios, the metric r" enters into the field
equat toes (9.22) and f,xelI 8 Gerwin chOlil\n class of reterence fram es. In th ie clen
the law 01 conservs rton i.~ uniqllely dellned and hn the covarient form (9.JO).
In RTG, in Galil ean coordi nates af the Millkowsk i space-time, the law of censer-
vaucn acquires the especially simple Ioem (9.3t) a nd, as usuel , the choice Qf
these eoetdinates does not vio lew th e GOv.denee ol l he theory.
Since Eqs. (8.3) conte in the metric tenser 01 the Minkowskl space-time, v" . l'Y
8uhsti t uti ng these equat ions into (9.26) we can reduce the b tt er to equations that
ecnt etn y.... The solut ion of RT G equat ions depends on the ehetee 01 the melrlc 01
the Minkowski spacll-- lime.

Chapter 10. The Gauge Pr tnefple and the Uniqueness

of the RTG Lagra ngian

When In Chapler 8 wa considered tha Lsgrengian densily (8. t 5) of the gravit.etionel

~ eld iiil~ , a Legreng ien density describi ng spins 2 and 0 (Eq. (8.t5) does aut con-
lai n covari ant dedvelives of the form D":;-) and quadratic in th e first deri...eti vll$
D",$ 1. _ Dm"il . , "'8 arr ived at the unambiguous conelueton th at only a Lagran-
gian 01 the lorm (8.24) leads ua to field equations of the (8.21) typ a.
I n thi s eha ptee, to construet the RT G Lagt anll'; slI densay L . lor . (t OO gr. v l!a-
ttcnal field, we empl oy D meth od q uite dilfe/imt from the one used in Chapter 8.
We will use the loca l gauge group of transformations of the gra\'its t ional field
Dnd form ula le Ule gauge principle.
Let lIS consider th e Hil bert-E inst ein equation in the week-field e pproximat ion.
FlIr iii'" · in the li~l order in the gl'D vitational toO"staDt G wo ha ve the fol-
lowing formula:

where IP'"" is 8 soluti on to the li near ized equfttiou (8.36). As IS knu"..n (Thl rr lng ,
1961), the lln eerteed Hil bert-Einste in equa tio n is (nv u Lant under a loca l gauge
tran sform ati on

whore th e 4-vec\.Qr eft (z:) is an arbi trar y inlinite!i mal param eter. When <11.... is
tr ansformed in t his ma nner, t hB inflll ite!!imal ine remen ts of ¢."'. and ga"
in a o
a pproximat ion lint !lt in G have. the fo~m
W~ _ 6r~= ~"'~e~+V"" Dka"_ D. (a·;"~) . (to.l)
For an ar b itr ary gnvita ~ion al h id a natural generalization of thll loca l ga uge
tr ansformat ion is
6.0"'" _ 6,i"~ ...g..· Vka~ +;.. . \7. e.. - v , (e,g" ,). (10.2)
Tld s e)( pr~ ion cen be obta inw irom (to.l ) if en the r ight-hand s ide of (to.t) "" e
IId d the gr8vlu.t ional field $" ~ directly 1.0 the metric-tensor dlln9ity ; "'. that
is, if a stretching traDsformat ioo

i9 performed. Since

,., (t o.3)

v. (a';'"') - D. (fi"'C'"' ) +C:"t'i"'" + Grpoe'g"~, (l OA)

the right-hod side of (t o.2) can be written in the equivalent form

6.(j)... -6:i"'~ _ ; "·O, a- + ""'D.a'" _D. (a·?",,) . (10.5)

Si mil!ltly, on the bu is of

,., (10.6)

D. (e·;-""I_a. (sA?,' ) +y~~e'i"'" +yf"e';'P, (10.7)

we obUl ln for (10.5) the foll owing represeutetio n:

6,$0" =6.C"" = raka' +i....a.e..- a (e·r").

k (to.8)
Comp.,ing (10.2), (to.51• • nd (10.8). .... we lb at lba rlgh l.-balld sides a N in.
,. .,Iallt uDder the tr allJfonu ti ou V, - D • • D. _ a"
aod V. _ a,.
Let UlI 11011' demolllU'ate lb at 111. operators 6, fonll a L. le aJgoebra . T o this end
.... use ~preell u tlOD (to,S). aecord in, to wh ich
6..(6.,;-) - 6.,i --D.&1 + ll",i'" D,Ii'-.: D, (&.,;-) - D,~"6.,;-·.
6., (6..'·~) - 6..r D••~ +60,,"'0.1:- - .~D. (60.;. ,_ D.~6';-·.
H t~8, for lb e Lie commut . tor "'e hUI the following form u!. :
(6..6" - 6, ,6,,) ,...~ - 6••"i"~ , (10.9)
.:.... t~ n••l -~ o,.: . (t}
V,ill( Eqs, (10.3) and (10.61. we ee n u sily demonst r. u tha t the (10,10) is 101 m-
1Il"lIll11t Ulldltl" lb. tll nsformltloos a. _
D•. a. _
9 • • and D. _ V, .
Nota tha t 'dalle for 6.1- Eq. (to.5) formlU y eoiDeides wl lh Eq . (6.3) 101" an
infinitwmal l nuement of r (z) pneraUd by eoordi n. u tr ansformations (6 .t).
101" r..HI r (z) Eq. (10.5) d illen Sllbatantially from .n inhite"im. 1 inc;tttlI ent
or the Iield, (fI.t4) . renltl"lUd by eoord llll U 1nInsl"_ l tiOllS (fI.t). HellU . gl\' l[e
tr . ruIorml t.iollS (to.5) I I I lIU~inltl.
W i .... nOW read y 10 I_ ull te the p uge principII . If th e LI V .ngl l n dtnSi ty
Gh ."g~ under. ,.uge tr l naform.tion (10.5) only by tb e d i ver,e~ 01 • Is nc-
ue», we will say tha i it 1Il t i!fies th e , .uge prin cip ii . 1t i. easy to sholl' t hft
unde r I gaur t ra nsform.ti on. that ~.
g..~ (z l _ i"~ (%)+6.rR {%) , (10. 11)
ll'll ha,i-- (:<) IIp<<Jf,ed by (to. 5). LI v . ngi.n (8.22) il t r. nlf"r mtd lUordi og 10
thl I.....

Heoce. the £r<ee-rr av itetico.l-field Lqraq ian denit y (8.22) found in OI. pter 8
utilio. th e g.u,. pri nci ple.
Le~ UI now the , ener. l requirement imposed on the atnlct un or • LeI '
tll\ii.n densi ty th l ' 1IIlis!ies th o g. up pr incip le. Suppo6e t ba t L. ch' lIg. ulMi...
• ttO.5} l ranslorm.tion onl)' b)' t he d iver£'lnce 01 • funcl ion. Tllen Ihe ....rI. lion
01 eeuc n for such en [" ill l6l'O:

o.},"" J6.!-a-(;"". ;-~. D.i '"") d' I' _ O. (1 0.14)

In the 5rllt order i n e' (,,), D."I (.1:). ~nd {:<} WI havl
a,La: - ':- 6,1-+ IL~ D. V (:r). (to. t5 1
"..- ' CLlu- ,,)
Subal i ~ll ti ll( (10. 15) llIto (10. 14) lod ioleer l tilli by pU U. ll'O obtein

I a..'- o. (to.16)
i ,king into aeeouM Eq. (to .5) for 6';-- and ;Qltrr atl q (10.16) by pn ts . wa eet

Jd'll:~(:J) [D, (2 :;:. ill) - D. ( ~~ )'jl1J..• O. (10. 17)

III. .. i, .. of th, It hi l Porio@u of If! (z ) we h....

D, (2 ~ &M) _O.( ~Lc11 )1".. 0. (to. IS)

lIc"- 61

~ (2 eLa ;1I)_i'ID. ( '.:' )-0, (2 ~. i''\-ful.i ~I).

oi" .. "I /Wil ' \ ~11
we u n rewrite ideQti ty (10.18) " fol lows:

0,(2 ~ i" )-?'D.{ ~. ) _ - i,"v,(z 6:r } _ 0, (10.19)

aria e,.iI lIc'u
wbere, .. lain ], V, ill Ib, s)'mbol for the covariant der iu t iYc w ith fillIpec l to
mllt!'ic I ••"
Iden tity (10. 19) Wfll tit ntes t ho r&q uirem ent lm po.ted On t be st ructure of • gr av-
itatlon,I·f1ald Lagra ng ia n dell.ily L 1 sl l isfyillr til , rl uif' pri nc iple. Clearly ,
" ny Ka l, r de nsi t y depend ing onl y on I ,• .nd/or the parli, l deri va ti ves of " .
sl tisrU:!1 (IO, 19). Th. simplest enm pJes llfe
(10 .20)
L, - Y=i R , (10.21)
where H Is the liCa la. curva t ure 01 the Riema nn sp_ lime, Dired substl tu tion
verWea lh al onder a lrsmlfonn aUoll of !.he (to. S) l)'pe e.• pression, (t o.20) end
(10,21) transfor m, ~pee lively, Heordin, lO Ihe foll owing I...·,,:
V=l -V - r- D,(a'Y - r). (10.22)
V="iR- V'"-=iR -D,(t'V =i R). (10.23)
II ta u . !.he lcalar dlllUit i.. (t o.2O) . nd (10.20 u t iafy lbe gaup principle.
/lowe" I!f", as DOted in Cb. pter 6, lbe c:boice or a La,rlngi.n densit y de pendin r
"" ly on t" . nd/or Ihe partl.1derivatives of ril; doe-nol, in v iew of (6.29), Slt i.ll y
0+" i. iU. ' requirerun ts ••ince in !.hill _ th !P'lVitatiollal field is 1101 of !.he
F.rad. y"",l n well typ£' Hence , In .c:c:nnlanee with our c:Doupl, it ill upe;l lant to
on beth r" . 1Id ., ' . lId on the Ii"t de.-lvaUva of ,iI
tOllJltnlc:t . Lqr.!Jfian dell$lty th al ill not c:nmpie~ly nomek iled. th at ii , depend..
aod .,.... It bal been estab-
j ilh~ th . t I\OI:h . soIUtiOll uill ts and illulliqut. (Ttl;,. .111be pro~ in App&Dd ix 3.)
Heee ... • iIl amplor lbe k1ID.'Sform.llion J. w (10. 23) a nd ellllJltruc:t • Lqr. llfi.n
dellJllt )' th.t is not c:nm pl e~,. geometr iud . It will pro.... lO be the RTG lAgnlllian
delUlily (8.24).
W. e'll ea. ily .sho.. th, l th e R iem.on-Cr~lOffe! curvat llre W SO'I" ean be e~preswd
.1 folloy. (IN Appendix I):
R. -D~a - D.G"...+ G~ .ci. - ~., (I O.~ J
where ~~ il f l",en by (8,27), and D . st and" as "sual, lot the cperator 0{ c:o-
n ria nt differentilt ion with respec:t 10 the Minkowskl metr ic.
Colltra l:tion of (10.2(,) 011 ,. ~lIul q lel ds to the R icl:i \em«
Rro• - R:',.._ D.c:.. - D..G~+ d..,.c;,.-G'..,t;,',.. (10 .z:i)

Mult iplying i .... "" V=r,.··

Int c (10.2S) and l unun ing ovef InditeS m en d p ,
",e f'm d the u prHSion for lhe sea lar I:urvdun density R:

R_¥=;R "" V _ ,,..·R. ..

- ;-(D.~ ..- D..c:..>+I- (d~i. - G'_ Gi',). (10. 26)
It is usy to Tef"ify thl t
-.l - D. (i·~..- ;-0:'.) - 26-" I G'.~ -d•
,....(D"G:...- D,.c" ..m.. I.
Colllbinin« th is wi th (10 .26) yields
R_ D" iK'""G:'. - :;m"G:''> - , .... r C~,.G~. - C:". Gi"..t. (10.27)
Notl th it eteh flO uP of lerms on th l rl«ht-b.. nd s ide of (10. 27),

,,' (10 .29)

cons titut es • •ul ar density, s ince under II genera l coord inl te lr. ll$forml li on the
1,..0 tr ansform ~p a... tely AlII acalar d en.itl ll$. Moreover, in contra,t to th e H,
uprl:!slol\l (10. 28) and (10. 29 ) ar e not com pletely geom etri ~ad , s iDce they eJi ·
plleltl y depend on""" aDd Lbe parti al deri vl tives of.,-.
S!.lIee und er a p ulte tunsformetiou (10. 5) delined by (10.2'1) ehanp! ac:o:ord iDi

to (10. 23 ). th e x.a lar Lacrmgiaa deDlily of Ibe f(lMll.

L . - T (R- D.S"), (10.30)

where S" is I. vee ree density conetructed from "'" aed D,.g- , saUIIi&.! the gauge
prlncipl". Note that L. (10.30) i. a ll o 110 1 comple tel)' Iteometrlu:d beca use D"S"
ie IIOt eomplele ly glOllletr lud eit her.
If we no,.. requ ire th at th e gravil at iona l-h ld Lagra.ngilln dellSlly be quadrat ic
ill Ihe firat derlvl t i". Dr , tben lleeessui ly
s-_ 'i'"PG:..- ;-"0:'.
Th l ri pt-haDd s ide ~ , '0.30) yields UO.29) multiplied by - I n., Illd If _ pllt
A _ 16:1, " e I rTive I l Lb, RTG Ltr l..., il n dl nsi ty (8.26) .
We DOle Ollce mon that the RTG wp"I.Dgi an dN lty (8.26) Is I _ Ill' wrl.llgi1 n
density fOf . rbit ra ry coordlnata tr l llIformat ioll, a cond it ion thl t Gn ee nne t eceer.
A c harecter i.tie feature of both the Lagra ngll n density (8.t5) &Il d th e Lagrall-
, Ian dlllllity (10.30 ) .ill th at Lbe convolutloll of t1I e I;OTari11l1 derivaUves D,ju in
thl'le dlllllitfes een bl carried out only by Ippl ying the . f1eet i,.. mltric teasor
'(-I, • cond itio ll. thlt l;I ll be exp laia el! by th l special " Iy ill " h ieb thl p u itl ·
tl ooa' ' l td leU u poll itse U_
In Appendix 3 we will consider the general form of tbe Lagra ngi an density ,
quad,a ti e in the lirst derivati ves D,.,}r(incl uding t he ter lJUllhat conta in D".g....)
with the convolu tion tB l1'i ed out via t he meLfie te'llJI{>r ft of the Minkowslr.i space:
uee, Then we \lim &lOW that t he gaugtl pr intiple unambiguously reduces the
Lagranll'iall dl!Il ail y to (8.26).
In the presence <» matler t ha RTC equations do nnl admit gauv tr all5lorma-
tions (10.5). In (hi.!! Tl!$pect these Ii'llge trall!formatiom diller from those u$OO in
eled rodYnaml«, ...h ieh attl " ,lid lor l b. cu e oj interectinjl' fteida, too. I n the
a bsence of matm the gauge transformation a (10.5) do not .lfee ~ t he lIuv ila ti onal
field equat ions but change thtl line element in the Riemanll apaee--time and, hence,
the geomet ric eha raeteriati« 01 t bis apace-time. It can easily be verified that
5, d£' = (j,g,. dz' d~ ,
(j.R J• - - RIlD.s' - Ru Dle - r-ID,Rll' (to.3f)
(j, R,.,.. _ - R~u ..D,r· - -R J....D,r· - RJuOD",eq - roDoR J.,...
Here oneean sec the diBerencc between trBIl.!fonnBl loIl.! (lO.5) and gauge invar iance
of elee trodynam iC!, when gauge tr ansformation do not aBed the physical ob5l"v-
:!blM. The ge<lmetry ol8Jlaee-time is unique ly dete nnined in the presence of mat-
tl'r , since in thi . ease gaugfl i rbitr arin8Sll is abM!nt. When eo maUer is proeo t,
the RTG met r ic \{lo$Or of the enecuve Riem ann space-t ime ia fixed only aftl'r
nonphysical com ponen ts 01 the gravJlat iona l field are ellml r uted by applying
gauge su pereoordinate transiOTIllatiol\.ll.
In Our theory t he equati ons 01 mot ion of matter follow from the ten equations
lor the gr avitational field ¢ii>. Thu s, lor le n nriablB.'J oj the grBvila tiollalfi eld
(ii•• and the four veelables character i!in g matler we he ve only ten equat ions. The
choice of the coord ina te sys lem in RTC is specified completely by th e metr ie
tensor VI. of the Minkowaki epece-uee. For the syst em o! equations to be complete
we need Iour mere covarl . nt lield equaUons. Slich Bq llal ioPa wen intrtKluced in
Chapler 8 as equ ati ons that deter min e the s truc ture 01 the va vitationl1 field of the
Far sd . y-Muwell type wi th SpillS 2 and O. These equ.t ions, "peeilically Eqs. (8.3),
l fe uni versal. When applied 10 a free gtl vitati ollal field , they rl!llt rict t he dIM of
possible ga uge IlI naIormatiolls by impO!ing on s' (z) the condition
t"~D ..D.$1(z) "" O. ( IO.32)
Thu s, tbe cOlllbi nation 01 the gauge principle s nd the idea 01 a grlvllaUon sl
field u a physlcallield of the ~'srad ay-M n well type po!SetlSing energy, momentum ,
"lid spi na 2 and 0 unam biguously leads us 10 the system 01 equ.tioll$ 01 RTG.
Nott th at Illr a s,a t ic and , pheric. lIy symmet r ic grav itatillllal lield Eq . (10.32)
ca n have ollly e le rO solu tion; hence, t he gaugfl arb itrarineM ill completel y lifte d
in th is Calle .

Chapter 1t. A Generaliza tion or tbe RTG System of Equations

In th is chepter wa approach the prllblem of constructlng the RT G sysle m of equa-
tions lrom l ool her angle. As before , we lS'!ume tha t the gravitat iond field is
• tensor lield contai ning irreduc ible repr esentation s, which correspond to st. tes
with spina 2 and O. Th ell! all! lour equ Rtions that determin e sllcb • struetura of t he
gravitationa I held, and they hiv e t he Icem (8.3). Tlla tot al nllmber 01 variab le!:!
of the gr...ia.tlonl ' field uti malkr an 15. 111, mlter i, l v'ri.b1 es are the three
eomponeo la of veloe I1)'. meryy densi ty . and pressure, while. the f...,llaliOnal
h Id is eh. r,e leriUld by the len eomponeo \.l of lb, symmetri c lenso, Insit )' lll-
I ntloducing equations of slate, we CaD find the relat ionship ~ ITo'een the energy
densit y and th pr essure, Th m, to eenst rue t e complete sysle m of equatioD.ll, we need
ten more eqUi lioll!l In . dd ition to lb , four equ ations (8.3 ).
To set up the lr_cr.vildioo, I-!i."ld Lagn u,l,n d'ml ll)' ...11 will employ Ihe
Clug. , rineip Je formu l, ttd as foil".. : • Larr. or lan dl nsity is Slid to ... tid y the
I l ure priDelpl e if und u CI UP transform .lions (to . I) it ehUlCU by I d ln'1"!D\:e
on. d aM of nc.tors .' (z) utisfyi.., cood iti oo (10.32).
AJlowiog for pro pertlee (10.22) lod (10.23), _ can wri te the fr.·gru ilJllionel-
field L,gr, ..,i' D o:I _lty ..t isl'yin l the glup principle in the follcwi lll rene , , 1
, (R
L' '' lf,\ - - D~S•)-l"Eft
, [ A -r-r-z
r -'+ TI
m~ '~-,
' ~ + Xor "-- 1J. (11.1)

whull we hi" " li ken Into ~OUDt Eqs. (B.3). To exelude in th e L'lll'angl.,. dellllity
term! cODt,ln ln, second d u iYd ivl'S, ....e selte! the vlldor den. ity 51 I I follow.:

( 11.2)
Combinin g (to. 2'1) and (11.2) yield. \he foilowlD' form ul, lor 1he rAe-In..!....
lioul-field L.gnllll';-.u dem.ity:
L, _ - -ffi. 811IGr..G :' -Gi',.Gr~ 1
- tk-[ A V=i +t mly,.;'~+O<o 1=Y). (t l .3)
TIle L. gnDlian density of lll'a vitdlon, l IIt ld and 1.1
L ... L, + L.. (U .4)
On ili. bu b of (11.4), . 1Ioll'~ for (8.t) • .,.,. U ft ealcllll t.e the _rv-mom" tum
dell$it)' of ma tt er ' Dd guvita tiOll. 1 6, Id, t-. in the N illk"" , ld IIpKe-t i rae. It
hu the fonn
I"~ _ 2 v=V (l'...y-._+,. .~,," ) ~L - _ ,_ J.'
&, ~. IISft

+rt. lm2g..-+xtY"·I, (11.5)

..bere.r- II delinfll in (7. 16).
10 1';ew of lb.. princ iple 01 lun .el ion
~ _0, (tt .6)
we han th e fol lowin g system of fQua tions:
R"·+{ A-:"+-t m2,....f·P'l~p "'" ;=; ( T"' ~ - + (" "T ) . (1l.7)

Stece i ll lbt ebseece 01 IIl.Uu (r' - "" 0) and itav i1.l.tloll. l field ($-- _ OJ
Eq s. (tt. 1) U1 ust be u lisfied automatically .we baY'
A _ - ..I . (H .8)
Thu l . l h' «>n'Ipll'..... ~)'~l.em of t'fJ ". LiQ"~ f<lr mal let" and gTI ..iUltionl l field 11.1.
tilt fOnll:
W'"--t ""'lr-("'\,--.,.,I......~ ("'·- i-rT) . (11.9)

D':;- _ O. (t UO)
W. $H l bat the metric l.tuor of Ib, Minkom i lIPKe-UmI lIQten illt.o bo\ll
Eq . (t 1.9) and (11.10). EIl"ltiolll ( I UO) MtI c1euly n_ a ry UIlUI oilly their
P..-IlCI _u"" that lb.e I• • of eneriY-lD omeotlim CGIlHr'I'lt ioo lot mi U• • nd
gr ni utioolli lieid combined Is va lId , which meaDll that Eq,. (11.10) arl in no ••y
rel . Wod to lh tl , auIII cOlldil iona . Th. ~stem of eq ua tions (t 1. 9}-{H. tO) .... iII be
CG mple1f at m '"" 0, lOG.
Si nce io the abse nu of • field $.. the guvl l.ll Uoul-field energy-m omentu m
tell !lOl' den. ity 11:-~ must h u ro, E ll. ( U. ~) yi eld.
><. _ _ ml . (t Ull
Com bi"! II&, (U. S) wtth (It.O) and (I t . H ),
liolll (H .9) and (1t. l0) In ' equ iva lent form
een N prellllol the S)'IIU m of equ.-

J .... _ m1iii·· ~ - 16:tr-. (11.12)

D.lii- _O. (H. t S)
It we IllCluda (11. 13) ill (11. 12) , _ get
,U,D/ +m"iit- _ t 6nt"'",
Note \hat Eq3. (11.14). (tt . t ~) contain th e metric tensor of \he Minko• • k i . pate-
t iml . Eq\lll ioM (t Un. U will u Eqs, (tt. t 4). co nLiin 10 unh o.n t Ol\l Llnt
PlOr. mI W ... t, whoa ph Ylin l mean ina .,i11 be d iK lIDId ll tll.
LI I U3 no. show that Eq l , (t 1.10) are nec:essuy . nd I w licient for Ih. C(I".ri.n t
I. ... 01 toourn \io n of \b e eIIlUiy-momeotum W05lM' density of rna ttet" to !It " I lid
V.. T"'- '=" O. (11.16)
Let UI write (11.9) in the for m
V=-; (R" - t ,-l'R) +f- Y - r [gO'+ (,-IPi" - {- gO'r"') l H]
_ 8.. T" , (11.17)
Sinoa V.r"_ O. V. Y=i_ O. I.lld V, (ROI - i-,.'R) _ O. Eq. (11.1 7) y ields

m' V=r (i" t" -i-,.rl"" ) V."..._ I6"'V.1"I_ O. (11.t8]

Contidll!l' the te rm III (11. 18) that CODtaills V" " , S iDell V" ... - - G'..,,,,,._
G'..",. w ilh c'.., spe'tilled III (8.21). we ob Laio
("'r" --rt"c") "1",.-,0.'" (D"... +G',.,..-,. (I Ll9)
If w. combiDe
wil h (t t.18) . ( t I.1 9) , a nd (11.20) • ."." get
w-,••,.uO " r _16>lV.r-u _ O. (11.211
W e see th at the eov&r ia nt con serv a tio n law (1I .t 6) is I direct coroll ar, 01 t he
syste m 01 I q "e t io'os (11.9), (1l. t O). Th ' follo win; aMt'r lion 1.1 ab o true. 1 (I l. Ill)
is v,J id , then (t 1.21), wh leh is • <:ot oll.l ry of (t t .9), nel:8!l4arlly ImpliU the system
of . qlli l iou (11. 10). Henee. Lhe theory des« i ~ . IO lM ivI ,ra vlt. Hoo.I !leld po.
saling only spins 2 In d 0, ainu lhl l y$~ of equations It t . t Oj u d udes the possi-
bility of irNMtucible reprtseotatiou _ respoo.c!flllf: to I piJ>l t and 0".
A ppl)' ini D... to (l l .t2) a nd a llo",11I1 for th e identity D,.,J- EI 0 , WI obu la
(t 1.22)
Th is f!q lll Uon sho wl lh at th e eovar lan t Ia", of t o!l5eTvallOn of the loul en ll!1l: ~'­
moment ulD telu or density (01 matt er end grl v italLolllll field ta ken toget her) in the
Minkowsld , pI ce-tim.,
( l i .23)
is . corollary of the s ystem of equ. tiona (H . t3) . Th is CGll5IlfY. ti on I. w . nd the
.~ lelD of eq u.liona (11.12) nee _ t il ), IN d lo £q~ (11. 13).
Wh u i. the pb~;e. 1 mean illg of th. panmetet m" 1 Couider thes)'.$1.el'll of eq u• •
tions (I L t4i) in l he wed-lield a pp. oxima tio n (C1l- is th e _u k lield ). III Ga lilelll
coord inal es. NOllllin.ll3b ip (8.1) r iolds the foll owilloi exp.,ntioas for ,.~ and ,;
g'" _ r :+ ltY"ft _+ '1'-«: - + C1l."Itl~

+{-y"'n (<Jl,.lb'" + +<P;(1):)+ .

t - _ t _ ~ + + (fl"lll" - + ~ + .
TI,ese upall._iol\ll yif'ld
2 ( O ¢r"~_ ..!...,
R- -...... .!.. I · · O"·)
• '
allod henee

I n thll fln l o.<lf" in field (fl". we 1111.....

+ ".:i"·++ ...I "'_ ,( ~"- - i-""'''') 1'... ::< + m~,",·.

Th us, III t he ""<'ai<-ftIoJ d appros ima tion Eq . (11.17) _limes tbe 1000m
(0 + m") ll>"' ~ _ O. (l1.2$)
We Bel! tlla' for a wea k ,...vHa li on. 1 field . onstant m is Ul. fTI" jl.Q n mus.
Eq unti on.'l (It .9) are ga\lgo non invari . n l even i n !.he . bM... e of m.lta r, T·~ _
O. Th is meallS th el Ihe inlro<! lOe tic>u (If a In. SS term lift" the degene. acy wit h
re,pac t to glo,e ~0 p"~oord i n . t8 tra nsformation s, olthou, h the free-grlYita tion Ol I-
lie lll La8, .II,ia n dens ity (11.3) ....lisl\es th e raug. pri nciple form llla ~ ill t h is
c.b<tpl l'T. Tbe peeseeee of a msss term mikes It possible to u nambieuously deter-
mille Ihe il!ODle l.y of lI~c. tim. I ud th .. g.....itatioll. l-r••ld . ..eri y-momelliu m
deu i \)' in l.he absence ol l'll aUel". I n 'l iP'" of Ul. b ct thl \ th e mUl t.erm li h s th•
degeneraey , I ~ lntrodll(,ti on m.y be tol\l idar ed • t.eehn k.l k ick used in ca lcu la-
t ion, . ....h en In the tin. l u pr" 'oD the te ll'll It nu llilied. T h ill a pproach autom-
. t iully lead. 1.0 • phy!lie . I.solut ion. Th form , l PU!laj'8 in Eq a. (t 1.9). (t 1. 10) Or
Eq a. (tt . 14), (tl. IS) \0 mass"" equ.1 to zero l..cIa III. resp«ti vely, to RTG equa -
tions In th fO«1l (8.36), (8.37) or (8.28), (8.29) . I n th lt cue, th me tric t CI\llOt of
the ellet t;... R iema nn . p_ t ime ouuide mllUer he I , . ure !lUJle",oordln ate
...hil....r(n eBS (to.5). with vectors e l (z) sa t Wy lni Eq . (10.32). Slnee the m a in
ob~t of in yalir .llon In OUl' theoT}' It ll'.vi~ li o n. 1 lield, tb, l auge 5\1 percoordl -
nate arbitnrin_ ce n be uwd to nelude Ill' nooph )..leal component! of the fi, ld .
Th . me tr ic lenIOr of lb. tll'~t i v. R iem. lla .p_time most be eOll!!trueted vi. (8. 1)
Qina only tb . ph Y.1lcal components of th e V.v ila tio n. 1 field. All t his "J11 be
ilI W1ttlted in OI.pter 15 when w.
consider (fu ll. linDII wne$. If tbl " UOD-
I J..-Hutance pri nc iple u n be .pplied to rrni u tlo oll lIeld. the modi term VIn·
isbell I nd th e CGlimoJoeiCII COlIstlnt 15 I hIlent .

Chapter 12. Soluti on 01 RTG Equatt ons

I%o J TIl e Field of I Sphericill y Symme lJk Ob)ed
In th iS dl lyl lr, foll owing Focl<, 1939, t lY-J9, Beli nfante, 1955, Beli nra ote I nd
Garrison , 1962, Tolman , 1934, 'vl eeev I nd LOi\ln ov, 19851, 198G b, an d Wein berg ,
1972, we eonaider the eelutfbn of RTG equa t ions for e ~ph ericI J1y sy mmetri c
objeet in t he cue of • messl llS!l grav itet ion a l jteld.
We eeleet th e coordin . tes in th e Mink owsk i s me in th e form
t, ;I; ... r sl o 6 e~ lt', y - r sinO.J nlt', 1 - r cllS O. (12. 1)
In whit folio" it will be expe dient to emplo y the followi ng nota tio n for lhe
coord inl tll.l I, r, O. and It':
I "" :ii , r =~ , 6 ... r, ( 12.2)

The metric coefficient . io tUIDll of tbelle cOOt'di llatn Me

" .. - 1, 'V" = - I , 7.. - - ,.. , 1'10 - _ r Nn "l't;
,... _ t , r" _ - 1, y"" _ - t/"', r- _ -I/r' sin' 8; (12.3)
" •• _ .,.- = 0 foc ", "" n , v=l- '" ain 6.
The nonzero Chriltoflel . ymbola are
.,:.. _ _ r, ,,;. _ _ r l in1 e , 1':. _ .,:. _ ,-',
r", - - s in etoile, To. _ co t e .
In for... ullll (12.3) I nd (12.4) and in whi t fol1o~ Ihe oumber l u bscri pts I nd l u,",r-
8Cri pts s lud for th e . pherical coord inat es aceord inr to (12.2).
T o sol ve the RTG equ.t io.... m..-ns to construct I n eIIeclive Riem .nnian mani·
fold, thl t b, find the met ric teD50r J''-' (z) of lb ll Rie muo s pace-t ime.
S ince the Hil bef t.-Eil\!lte in eq ud ions are incl ud ed In t he RT G s)'stem of eqUI -
tiOfU. "''1 will foc\l$ our d ten tion on tb_ e.quat loo•. T h_ willltllllb le UlII in the
future to dt ltr Dl (oe t he s ign ific. nce of th e field general-co"uiut equ lltioDS (8.37 ).
Such I n a pproach will result in cer te in concl usiona co ncern ing GR.
Let us now ind lhe ~eld ren ....wd by ...d atit; and .p~ ica llJ' . YlDmetl ie BOun:e.
HUll III. genual form of abe li ne ele ment (La ndl u IDd Lifahiu, 1975, TollIIan.
1934, Ind Wei.llberg , 1972) ~
.. - , wil" + 2,..dt dr + ,,,etrt + ,..... + ,.'14'. (12.5)
.mere the melr ie cOOliei,"t.1 ' N' .... . I n . a lld t .. u. fuoet ion. Dnly of lb. rad ial
v-uia bl, ~, whil, r ... depe""a on r aod aOl l, a. IAI u, Inlr oOuee the followiq
,.(,) _O (r). r., C') - _A (r) . t ,,(r) - - " ("] •
[ V (r) _ 1i(.j
' .. (f l - - W{, ), c.. (r, 9) _ _ IV(r) ..i n" e.

It t in he dernouarrated that the ncneerc components of tensor ,..~

for m
'( t
t"(r),",- U- " ).
- w ,
' '' (r)= - W ' g" (rl - - v ,'
t"(r) -
- IV' "'(r. &) -
-m '

an d th, determina nt 01 LIle mell'ie tenllOl' , • • u , iven u follows:

, _del,... _ -UY~$ill 'EI. (12.8)

Th. fullCtiOfla U (r) , V (r ), A (r)• • llCi W (r ) mIlS! 1M fOllnd fro m th e RT G equl -

li ons (8.36) . {8.31J. lA l wn" r i\.t Ole left·band si de 01 E q. (8.36) in ter IU of U, V, A .
aao IV. We slart br rll.d lag the nonu", co mponene.. 01 th e COll.Dee tioo eoe fll..iaDt

r:,. _+It (" J h + ~. f. .. - ~.,...). (t 2.9)

Emp loyi" l (t 2.6). (12 .1), a Dd (12.9). " e obtain

A ll)
f'". "",'iZi'l""--;;'" 1T
r:,"" w .JtJ( 1- 1JV
" j.
•• I ~A A ~V A'~
I " - - IT T" + WV a;'" + 1(iTjI7;:" ,
r "' A
--2i7jT """'j;""'
~w f!.. _ elll .:& ,,, .. .
T'. - FI TiIfJ ' r'., ~ - 2i7jT
A TIJ(J ' {12.10J
I '1'
1"',, -W + 3JiiT-;;-
h A' MJ
. .f .
' "" - VI h'"
r .' .
- sin
. ...
... ...
' '' ~ ' '' - W i;""" '
l 'IV
1"". _ - sin 8 eos 9, f".. _ c.ol. 9.
f rolll the def'i nili()R R~ _""R"", ..·il h
R", _ ".....'" - I. r".. + r;.r:. - r;..r:... (t2.1t)
combined with (12.10). we find th at
• I d'U t dV <IV I ( ' U) 2 I · .w dW
R. = w v d;I"" - "'4iJF"'bT -4[iii"" Is. + "'W'VW T T '
• ' [ 1 dW dJJ I <l'W
R , _ -W "WW dr'"T - w "";l;r + 2Wi'" "T
1 ('W)t +""'iVii1'T
I <Iv dW ]
-;r;:"' . (12 .13)

I I "'U I cl'W
R, "'" 1UY -V +WVd;r -
t (
-+.YUi T
'U) ' ' ('W)'
- 2VW' """Tr""
I dV 4U I <IV oW
- wvo "7;'"7;" - ZV'W Td7"'" ' (12.141
. , l "'lV I dWdV I i dW dU
R. - R . = 2VW -,r,:;-- ' ylW ~T - w + , vUW ~T' (12.H.)

All the other componenb of R~ are zero. Eq uat iol'ltl (12.12)-(12. t 4) readily imply

W.= -tr-fR:- R:J. (12.10)

U~ing (12. t 2), (t 2.14), and (IZ.iS ), we arri ve at the foll owing exp ression for It..:
• j d'U I <ill dlJ I ( '" ) 2 ..... 2 <l 'lY
R. _ R- W -;;;'< - WI" T T -2ifii/ -;;- ' TW """'d,.i"'"
Iso dW I ( "") ~
+ 1IvW" T -;r,;- - "iViiii" T
t <I ll dIY
- yrw- b ~ - W '

Now let U5 assume t hat the SOUI"(;{l of g ravitatio ntl fIeld is descrtbed hy !.he
energy"momentum tensor of II. perfect lIuid
1""" - V - gl(p + p)u" u"- g'""p)J, (12.18)
whel1l p is tile lIuid'. density, p the isotro pic pressure, a nd u th(\ <I -vector (If
"e l"city "f the fluid. Since the " bjec;t is s pheriCR lJ}' sy mmotric and s tatic. the
q uan t iti es p and p depend l}nly on T , .... "" 0 (0: _ t , 2. 3), lor .. o a od II . we hev e
(in " iew of the id enti ~y I .. . U.... • - 1), respecttvelv .
" - y_ = ----;:;
. u,, '" U.
y- (12.19)
v I'
From (12.18) and (12.19) it follows that the noneeeo eo mpcnene of tensor 1':' are
r:- 1~
r - IP, .... 1~ A(,)
' i ~-y - g (p + p) --;r- '
11 2.20)
T; - r: ~r, - -Y -IP.
For Ihe problem at ha nd the sys tem of Hil be, t,..Ei n3tei n eq uat ions 8Ssume~
the furm
(n:-+ R) = 8np, (12.21)
~ _ _ 8n {p+ p) A {r)/U , (12.22)

(R:_+R )=_ 8.~ p. (12.23)

(R:- +R) ~ - 8np. [12.24)

SilK" f or R: we hye <I2 .t6), Eq. (12.22) implies
A~') I{R: - R"J + 8.'l' (P+ pll - O. (12.25)

Th is equa tion Ie always valid in view of (12.2t) I lld (12.23).

We have, th erd"fll, arriv ed e t e o importan L resu lt, nun ely, tba t fOr . s ta tic
I nd s pheric. ll y symUletr ic problem the metric eoeflk ien L , .. (l ) co _ .4 (f') 1&
not determined by the Hi lbert-Ei nst,in eqUl tiClIlS u d, hente . In t he framework of
GR this coeflleie o Lm.y be I n ar bi trary (uDC li on of r, Th is n hittar illess leeds to
• , itua t ioD In which lb. Riemeon s Ul not well -dellned.
Let U!! ncnrr cons ider th e nlmalnillg eq uat ions (t 2.21), (t 2. 23), l od (12.240).

ette e we eubsm ute (12.12), (12.1<1) , end (12.15) Into Eq. (t2.21) we get

w(4 .) ~[(" ~W) I~] + ~ _8."Ip.

Thill y i, lda
....WTrt (12.26)
Y W( r) _ 2M(W)
M (W) _ <I/< \ pWd J! W. (12.27)
Sil1\iLarly, s llll:e

combi..; ng (12.23) wit h (t 2. t 2), (t2. H), an d (t 2.tS). we aet

~ d~ :, JIl(UYW) - 1 -8npW. (12_(8)

r aki ng io lo .eCOIlDI (12.2G), we ean wr it. Eq. (12.28) 115 lo11ows:

~ ./- 1+1Ia,w (12.29)
"yiii ln lU , WI_ If W_ Ul (W) ·

Th i! yiel d. l.he folio...lor U prt'SII ion for U:

U "" :iv up [ - ~
vW~~~~Wl d JrW] . (12.30)

He... 1I'~ _ II' (r.>. ",Hh r. the r.d i", 01 th e objecl, and C. b \ he inlt !rrllioD eon-
IU Dt. Formula (12.30) un be wriU~ ill a nother (equ iu lenl j form. T o thi s
eod 'We employ Ihe reltUo!l5hi p d61 _ b_ p ll' d yw, ...
hic.ll follow! from (12..27),
u. •
(IV) VW 2M (W)
yw (12.31)
wh 81'!!

lp(Wl _CuP[ _Sn

~ lHI'l Wcl VW
yw 2M(W)
]. (t2 .32)

a nd C _ C"(VW. - 2m). HIlI't a nd in wh . ~ foHowt we denote by no th e tola l

mn s of th e objed :
m _4ft ~ pWdYW . (12.27' )
Now le I ... cOll3 id~ Sq . (12.24). Since
n:- f R... - + (R: +R;).
• "8 cln write t he eq uation as foli o...:
R: + R:- 1611p. (f2.33)
Subst it utl na: (12. 1.2) and (12. U) . nd a llowi ng lor (12.26) and {12.3O}..... e find th a'
- w ~:~ - (P + Pl lM ( W) + 4lt ( VWJ~ pl l l - 2 M ( IV)/ V W r ' . ( 12.34)
" w
Tho I . Uo~ ton ~ li tuta$ the basic aq ul t ioll of Nuwl,Oniln hydr ics and all ows lor
grav ita tional ool'l'ectionll.
Thus, out of lh a three !\Inetio llS U, V, a nd IV th e ~y.tem 01 equat iona (12.2 1).
(12.23), and (12.24) does not determi ne the f Ul\l:.tion IV (r). We lL.vo de moll.'l trat ed
th a t th e Hi lbert-El mlleill eq ua ti ons for I eta ue apberie. ll y sy mmet ric proble m
are valid '01" ar bitrar y 11Ind !oll! A (r j 8lld W (f). Th e metr ic coefli.den lJl (12.6)
sa tialy ing Eq$. (t 2.21}-(12.24) neve the form
Y W- 2M (W)
t . - , (W ) ,",w • 1. , - _A (f).

' lI "' - l " W

[ <II -Viii'
,4'] •
. IW) (12.J:j)

I n- - W{r). b - -W (r) sin I9 .

with ", ( W) , i'en by (t 2.32). Since In mUllt tend toy.. ., r _ 00 , (12.3) lI.lld (t 2.6)
imply th ai lor large r' s
W ~ , t. (12.36)
SUPIJ'OH that the maUer GOlUidered here fill. the "olv t" of • s phertl of rad ius r"
Since by W. we deu oUl the v, lll' of W (I') at point ,. _ r •• for IV > IV. . . hu.
Wa no" briDe ill the follo wiog GOlld ition:
I . U' W_ oo)_y., _t. ( l US)

Comb inin, (12.32) and (12.M) with (12.37), _ _ tha t (12.38) g iYes the fol-
lowing v,l ue 01 the eoll5ta n LC in (12.32): C .- 1. He-oee, .. funelion <p ( IV) gu inn -
teein, th. t co ndi tio ll (12.38) UI met must han tb , form

'l' ( W)-ex p [ - 8t< "'"~ (P .t,I.)WilVW ) .

. V W - 2M (W)

Th e se t of met ric coeflieienl" defined in (12.35) ahow. th,t to each pa ir of fune-
t iona W (r ) and A (rl depend hIll' on the djatance r In lite Minknwskl apau-- time
there corrospond... cllrta in grlV il.ational field and , henc e, a certa in elfeetl n
Riem a nn spice-ti me. Thus , tho Jl IUNrt-EIMJtfn tq uatloM cdolll' do not ~M.bk IU to
&ttu ml N 1M f71lvU..t lo"'ll fl,.UJ.nd. Iwlll%, tM ~6"Uw RtenulIJ/I IPfU:~II1M .. 1Idm.-
b1IUOU$lV. l.(Il U!J ilI ust-u te thi' uMrtion by 110 ,umpl.. For thllllllk. of s implicI ty
. , will copsid.,. th. rqlon ouUid e th. objllet. In thi s _ .. ( W) _ 1. It! (W) -
III _ eon' l. ,nd. henu ,
v_ If'iii ( " .... W) • . (12 .40)
J1'w- z.. th

e nd the melric eoeflic ietllt lpt'Ci!led in (12.35)

, .. _ _ A (r ),

I n - - W(r) ,
f,, ~ - v~::.
I~ = -

(("t W )2_ AI J.
W (r) sinI 9.
(12.4 1)

Let ue ta ke tw o se ts of fu nct ions W (r) lind A (r):

W (r)_ r' , A(r) _O, (12.42)

""' lV (r) _ (r + In + J.)' . A (r) .. G. (12.43)

I II (12.43) ~+ - m. 15 ' D . rbiu ary par.mlller, .... hich melllUl tha i by usigning it
different values "." obt llin • oll.. p ara lll e ~ f.roily of fUlIC lions. KlHlTting th e
funct ions W (r) . nd A (r) {gin n by (12.42) . nd (12.43», we ce n 11M (12.40) to lind
t.o MU of so lu t ioos:
U (r ) _ ( I _ 2""r), V (r) _ (I _ 2/Rlr)-', (12.44 )

E~pressioll.B (12042) . nd (12.440). as well DS u preuiol1lll (12.43) . nd (12.45),

depen d 011 tli " .$Ime r.dl.1 u ri. bl, rand hu, th, Ulme asympt otic beh.vlor 15
, -+ 00, but eolltll it uta j~ dj8~"t lGlulilln l t o th e Hilberl.-E ins teio eq uatlOllll.
Thes e IOlu l[o.ll5 generate d ilf_nt lin e elellW!nts (U.5) e ed , hvoce, d ift_lI t all'ee..
ti"" Riem aoll splice-ti mes. FM solut ion (12 .42), (12. 4fl) Ihe Une ete mlmt (12.5) is
d~ _
( ... ). (t - -,-... r:
1 _ _,_ lll~ _ .
fb4 -"' (d6l +a.n2-6dV) . (12,46)

and lor aolu!ion (12.43), (12.45), l hill q...ntily I.

~ _ . + 1_.. dt.' ; : ~ + : d~ -(,.+ ... + ),): (J62+ n n' 8 dcr ). (IZ.' 7)

• , +1+ ..
Th e choice 01 w l utioJ15 ia nol I tr ivia l operat ion, , Ince t he na lure 01 ph ysical
proce65Ud ept'ods oDlh is cb oice. Belew we ..-ill d ir K !1)' Yeri ry t h is l Lliement .
AlI ia well koown. Rieman nian I/ooma l.l'y ill determ ined by fixing I sy mmetric
meb le tensor ria (10 • mani fold wi lh arbi lJa ry but l ully d efin ite arith met i18tion.
Tra o,;\ion to any other .rilhlll etiu UOD of th e man ifold b M rr ied out v i• • one-
to-one lranaforml t ion of coord i n . t~s a nd a respool iv a l rallld'or mati oo 0{ (lllaIlU-
l in aecor dinll' lo t he ten sor le w. Of COl1J'l!e , a deso:rl ptl on of Riem ann ia n geomdry
is poMi ble In pr inciple In a ny adm issible coord in ata syale m of m a ~, but for
ev ery sy slem taken t ba com ponents of t he motr ic tens.or in l he a)'Slam Me full y
determ in ed. Na tural ly , th a poalIl blli ty of dl!iSCribl 01l' \he ,eometry 01 apace-\i me In
any admiai ble s~te:m of m. ps d_ no t m U D lb at t hill deaulption ill of Iq lld
aimpli ci ly in any sym em. Depan d illll" on th e Slructul'e of Rieman nian geomet r y,
Ibere u i.$1 s~telD!l of mapa in .hich t he d~ip l.ioll is es pecial ly aim pie.
Ho. d_ fliemUinia n Il"Olll etry com a in lo pIa,. in G Rl Por a gin n a.rithmal i-
u tlon of space-time, thai I... for a , iv en syalem of m. p&, lbe Hil bert- Ei nste in
eq u. ti ona m Wit be solved . Howava.r, lb _ are on l y lall Hi l bert- Ei ostein aqua l iolt5,
wbi le th na ar e 14 vu labl.... Th ill mea ns t hat foW' co mpooeo ta of t he me trir; ~
(Iwo in the cue of apberiea l lJYllU"elzy ) re mai n arMln ry. Till&$, III a gi ven S)"lle m
of Ill. ps t he Hi lbert-Eill8lel n equa ti ollA Me aa l islied for a..y foor u bit rar il y cbosen
lu nc;tiollS. But th ill meana th al Ihe me tr i<::. is Dot com pletel y defined on the ma ni-
lold , so t hai t be RIem aon ia n lf1Iome try coo la ina an ar bi tr ari nft'l!l, ""b ieh clear ly
u nDol be eli mi nat ed by co mmo n eoord ina l.e tta nrlorlll at iolUl since no matter wbat
co ordi natet ar e chose n th e . mbi, uit y ca nnot d l.!l. ppe ar. I n G R th is amb lfully Is
eli minated by arbi tr ary lleleelioD of the four unknown com ponents of Ihe metr ic
te nsor. It is e c r llSually ree li l~ th at the ch oice pred et er mines t he physiea l con-
te nt of t he pr oblem , ernee there I, DO was in whieh such a choice ean be made
gen ere lly cevar iont In G R. The aeteeu en i n G R 01 t he way In whj ch t he four
u nknow n mot ric c~flie ien t4 at e chose n is known as the se lect io n 01 eoord.inato
cond it Ions . Bu ~ t ho coord inate eon di t ioIUl com monly used i n G R are com ple te ],.
ar bitr ary , a lld th eir choice HUrall y depends on t he Mtu tcs" of t he raseareh er. All
Ih is pr om ptll l he eoncl l2i on t bat GR in pr inc ip le can not r i ve u na mbiguoua pred i-
ct ioM of rrav ita ti oDal aftec. ta., which cOIlItit utes one of itll main d iH dvantagea.
Th e .Itua t ioll in RTG I.!I qu it e d ilfen!ot. steee lb. S)'SI.eQl 01eoorc\iDates in I P.e&-
ti lOC is hed b y the mellic; t~ "t a nd th e p " i te tiona l field sa tisfies the re nerll .
eo" ar ia nt eq oatioD (8.37). 1ft "iew of th is the ar hitrar iness in d el.ermini lll th e
el ecti va IlIetr ic t«lsor I ,t ill not pr elell t and th e ph ysiu l consequences an e n-
amb ifllOla.
n a .Dla in of t be Rie.DlaDll . p_ l ime is t he Ri em ann-QIr ist oftel
euna t ure Un!Ior
Subati hlling (12.40), ...e filld l.h. nOmeN eom poDfl!lt.s of th. elUYltuft l4!1I8Or
ouuide ml lter.
R... _ _ ::.,. (~ r .
..... (rl
R 11I 1 _ - ----.:'W . H.... _ Rf t " . Jn· 9,

R~ ,~ _ H•• 'I si n" e, R, ... - yii' _z.

• . [ I I
A (r ) --.w (T,'
dW)' ] • (12A9)

R.... _ R.... ain·e. R n .. =2m YW.i n2 e.

We see that on the !lDlu tioJU (12.40) to the Hil ber \-E i llll\f:IIl flqoatiOll$ \hI eom-
ponellt! of R ••, . 1ft IlXpr-.d 10 W CII 01 !.be Ifbi trary l uoel.ioos A (f) . nd W (11.
Let \II OOY ealeu l.te lb . IIl.,ari anl.5 of !.be eurntlln! teuor. GenuIUy. 011 the
!lDluti ona to equ at iOJlll R• • _ 0 !.be 1l01l1erQ Illvm'lIlS hn e the form (Petnl.,.
1966, I lld Weio bm'r . 1972);
I ,. R"""'R ,. .. . I.- V'=:
' I~- R• •"' R'I p.,.
(tV iO)
/ R R". P9R I R Ilnk"
. - ''''"~ ,G
" -
V-r J.. " ~ ll 1/',,,
..·pen e - II lOta lly I nt ll)·mmetr ie ,1lI1t tenso r.
Substitu l iJIC (l2A9) yie ldl

J,- 12( ;',. r . 1. =/. _0, lJ _ 1 2 ( ~i )' . ( t2. 51)

A reUlAtk eOJlClernlng (12.M ) II i n order . Sup~ t hat

A{r ) _ B(W) J VW
~ .
where B ( W ) i ! I n arb it rar y Iuuct ton of IV (r ), wi t h W (r) !IlIti . fyiua condit ion
(12.36) when r ill lup (i n I II ot hllT res peet! W (r) ill an ar bitr ary fun cti on of r).
Tlle n the nonzero met r ie coeffielllllil lpec il\ed in (12.35) lire

I. _,(Ul l""W vUI J yW

iti (W) • ," _ _ B (W ) ~ ,

1,,- - ,'Wvz,(W) [1- :l~](¥}' ,

" , - - W, , .. _ _ W einl e .
with th e resu lt thn (1.2.5) c.n be .....itten as fo1l011l"l;

d:l' _~ ( W ) y w V : (W) dl"- 2B (W)dV W dl

YW~~ (W) (I- :t::? )(d y W )' - W (d lP+IIIl2 tld V).

w, _ thll the d,pelidetlCe of U- 011 ,. has nlliabad I n 51 Weeqlli l"ll! tit, llIean illg
of spU i. 1 dilulI~ I n the e lh c t i" l Rieml nJI . pae..time.
Thi~ a nalysis of the H il ber t-Ei nste in eq\laLlolls as applie d to the gi ven problem
shows that t hoir 8olMions contai n t wo ar bit rary functi ons . with tho Tll!Iult t1,at
tlo e characwrist ica (12.41). (12.49). and H2.:>1) 01 the effective Riema nn space-
tim l.' are not well-delined . I n Cha pter 18 we will See t hs t 8 solution conta ining
l\rbi l rs ry functio ns yi el ds d ifferent phys ica l result! de pend ing 00 the ch oice of
these ronc uo ns. which means t hat G R in princ iple is not a ble I.Gpr ovide epeetne
pffdictions ooneern ing grav ita tion al eflect s. At the !ame t ime the pred ictio ns of
RT e arc physicall y well-deli ned and u namhig uous; RTC corllalns fh~ HIlb w-t-Eln'
sttitt rqual/oM (8.36) 0100 Ik general c~ilInt-fidd rquat IDfIS (8.37), t he IaUer
dell'r mini ng t he str uctur e af th e grav it at iona l f'e ld. What is even mOre important
ill t ha t lif RrG all field variables I" Eq~. (8.36), (8.37) tkfUnd " .. l h~ 6pal lo. l-lem pora l
eoordlflaUf In l M MlnkJr~1 un llM,".
Th is last fact is a conseque nce of ollr fun da me ntal hy pothesis t hat t he gra vita -
tiuna! fIeld is a ph ysical field, is cha racterised by II. certain value of the energy -
moment" ", dens it y, and like all nl her physical fields mus t be d escr ibed in the
Minkows ki space- time. The genera l~llv/lri8 11 t equiltio fla (8.37) com pletel y eumr-
nal e t he amb iguit y in the 8oluUons. where by the effective Riem ann s pace-time,
" 'hi ch appears in flTG in view or t he gaometriutilln prtuctple. is determined
un ique ly.
Nowlet U8 8 n8 1 y ~ e Eqs . (8.37). To wri te t hese eq uatio ns for fUflction. U. V, W,
an d A exp lic itly , we find the mett ic tenS(Il" density g..".For mulas (12.7) end
(12.8) )' ield
?o- w
(V_~l ainO ,
Ko'= - A~ si"O,
(t 2.52)
8" - - yuv:; W ain e. itz.., - VUVain6, ~ - - VUVlai" e.
To determjne A (r ) it hu proved convenien t to cOflSider Eqs . (8.37) i n Galilean
cooedtnates of an iner tial re leren ee fra me:
8.. (-" =0. (12.53)
For" = 0 t bi s yield.
{Jar" = 0 , ( 1 2 .~)
where we hav e allowed Ice t he fac t th attbe com pone nts of , .... are t i me independ-
enl. E mplllying t ho tensor tr ansform ation law , we ca n est ab lish tllat the ocmpo-
"'lilts of ("" in Galilean coor dinal.,. can be expressed i n t eems Qf the c\lmpo nen t.s i ll
th e spher ica l coordina tes (12.7) Il$ follower

gh = _ ~,t) '~. y - g... -h-YUV w, (t 2.55)

where X« (Gt ... l. 2. 3) are the ~ p~lill l Cartesia n coord inatt1s. Fr om (t2 .55) wo

[nleg. a tillg (12.54) over t ho apher ica l volu me anti al lOWing for (t Z.56), we fInd,
In vie... of the rlivcrgence theorem, tha t
, _ A (r,_W j r}
" Y Uy
= 0. (I _' . " )
S intt J:':q. (12.M ) i! val id born inside n o ontlli d. maUer. condit ion (12.57)
$hould be met lor a n)" v.I".
of r , Since W (r) i. nonatto , (t 2.51) im pli e!
A ir) = O. (t2 .r.8)
It ~ eonvH.iellt to wr ite the oth er wrollaria t hat !ollow from (8.3il ia s pht tieal
coord ina tes. To th is en d "'e 'A'T lte (8.37) in the 101l0win, lorm :
D';- _8...t-+.,:.;;-_0.
Allowina: for (12.4 ). (12.52). "ld (12.58). we find th at
:r(YWi n') ,..ZrYUV. (t2.59l
Comb ini ng thi s with (12.20) I nd (12.3 1) y ields
:'- [ V~ VW (V W -2M) d~W J-2,1". d y ", . (12.60)
Below the !olu ti on to th is eq uation is sought as r "" r (VWI, l lla ~ is. r aM .
lnncti (ln 01 y W . whereby i t is t nn\'e n ien t to wrtt e Eq . (t2.60) u
~ [V ~V W(V W -2M) ~] _ 2rV~. (12 .61)
dV W dV W
Ii we intr od uce the nota t ion <1l _ rV'" ....0 can WT itt (12.61) as

~[Y W(VW -2.'t) 4O»W -V W(V W- 2"')Q)~] =2¢l. (12.621

d VW ti l ' 4 y W
sreee (12.39) impl ies

b om (12.62) we lind tha t

~_ [V W{yW -2M) 01<1>_ - 4nWJll <p + p)¢)] - 2'1). (12.63)
d ~ w d ~W

A gene..l req llire rnen t of the so ilit ion r _ r(y Wj 1.(1 Eq . (12.63) i~ thal t his
so lut ion must he cOlltinuOUI and monot on ie. Sup pose that t he lllaM 01 t he ohied
is concen t ra ted iM idea ball of ..d ius r•. Let us con sid er rhe eet unc n to E q. (12.63)
ou~i d e t he ball , r.'"
r ~ .." . T ile corr espondi ng ra nge for YW will be VW. ,;;;;
y W < ..". Si nce wit h in th i. ; .. nge p = p _ 0, M ( IV) _ In, an d If { W} ... L
we hive <tl(W) _ r ( IV), a nd Eq. (12. 63) a!!Sume.! tlla form

d;W [VW (l! W - 2m) d ~w ] _ 2r. (12.64)

The (t llua l.olution to this eq uation i. the sum of t .... o part icula r $OlulioR' (Bel in-
fanla . I\JSS, . nd BeHm.nte , "d Garrison, 1962)
y iV __ I VW - 2.w
1+ :la e )lW (12.65)

..!..(yw -.) (12.86)

and has th e form
r (VW) - C, [1 + v~:. In VW=2.w ]+.£•q y W_ m.),

whar e C. 8nd C, lir e IlcbiLrary eonstant llu mbt.l'S. Slnee (12.36) mus t be va lid when r
hE'Gome.s la rge, we find t hat C t = sn. T(I det ermine t he va lue of e" we m ust lind
t he solut ion to gq . (12.63) inside matter. Let U8 "'Tile tbis equation in expanded
form :
y W (V W- 2M) (~)~ + 2 IY lV- M - 2tf (V Wr'(3p+ p}1 oI<JI_
d ~ W d-yW

-2 [1 +6n W lP +p)+ 2n{V Wi' d;W (P +Pl ] 4l _0. (12.68)

Tbe inv estiga tion of t he sol ution t (l Lhill eq udloD inside ma Uer ill I very i mp or-
tan t pr obl em in itself , but it depends larlOol)' en t he t y pe of Iuncrions p = p (V W )
and p ... p rv WI. whereby we will not eonsider it hero.
In what- m Uo",a we select a eolutfon tha t remains finite lor all tinite values
of VW: T hen we must put C, ... 0 in (12.67), whieh yie lds
r ( y W}_ V W-m. (t 2.69)
Combining (12.69) with (12.40) yields
U(r) = ~ + :, V(r )= ~:: . (12.70)
T h ~ s, the RT C syste m of eq u~ tiolls (8.36) , (8.37) provi des a ll unambiguous
means for dete rmin ing ~ ll the metr ic coerlicient:l:
U (rJ =~ V(r) ",,~ .
' +m ' r_m
W(r) ... (r+ rn)!, A (r)_ O. (12.71)
Then, in v few 01 (12.6) and (12.71), formula (12.5) yields
d$' = ~dl' _~dr'_ ('+ rn)! (dO" +sillt Od'l'"). (12. 72)
, +'" r _OI
Th e correspondence prillciple implies th a t the mess de l\.ned by (12.27' ), m,
must be eq ual to t he ac tive grav iti tio lllll mass of the object . Form ula (12.72)
clearly s hows U,at dB' is s ingular at r _ rn and loses all ph ysical meanin g for r <
m. Th is mea ns that in RT G there can be llo static sp herieally s)'m melric objects
with a radius equal to or las! th an m. Th is fact provides lor a lower bound on "Vi¥,
namel y, V I¥ > 2m. Th e componen t.! (12.49) oflhe curvat ure tensor and the invari-
ants (12.51) for wl uti on (12.71) are ulliquely de fined an d are
'"' , R "H. = m (,,-
R.",= (, +01)1 0j"
+ ", R. _ - R.... 5111,
" " (t2'3)

R",, '" _ ,':"" R,,,, =R,u, sintO, H,:n, = 2m (r + m) lIin' 0;

J, "" t2[ ('~"')' t J._12[ i,~m)' J'. (12.74)

Note tha t th e well-known GR sctuuon lor a stat ic s phericall y sy mmetr ic o bject .
fou nd by K. Sch war ~ h i1 d, 8amlll)',
1foo(r) - O ('l = 1 ~-,- .

g,,(rl _ _ V(rl _ _ (t_ 2; r', (12.75)

g.. (r) = - JI1 (r) = _,t,
tr not /I «llutLM Lo th e AT C s)'sl.t'm of equ l lio..,. " Tfn DIU' choiu of tht me tri<:
\l!hSOf .,10.. Ind eed , it un 8II.ily be lIho.a U1at the f Ulld i OM (12.75) do oot u ti sfy
Eq. (12.64) ,..hic:h W'U ohta lDed fr om til, field tlqU.ltiona (8.31 ). Thereto,., SchWU'I-
schi ld' . li ne .lelllMlt

( 12.76)

Cl IlIlO L serve u t he Unll element in t he RTC efleet lv. " 1l ml nD . p.c..-ti me. No t.
tha t Iccord ing to Scbwaruehil d'. sctuuce (12.75), in GR there ea n be no stat ie
spher icall y sy m metric o bjectll wit h II, r ad ius equal t o or IOillJ t han 2m.

12. 2 The Elltef'lor .blsyrometri c So lutio n lor I Spinn ing MUll·

Let II' no" cooaidet' the lIOlution 10 0., RTG equl!ont 'w
I Ip ilUlilll mUi '"
with InJular momen t llED _ . T his problem wu so lved wit hi n t b, G ft r...... work
by Ken. 1963.....0 found tbe foll owinr u pl'eS!lioo tor lb , Iioe ttt. mell' outllid.
th. roaD ClJle nC;III1111 lIOlu lioo):

U _ (1- ~B) 1lt1_2tlB dT_p1-d&l

- ~ 1(82 + . ")'-4"' ,1.,.01Ii ll" 9d; "

+ 2<: . in· (Id B d++ '7 si n' edTd;, (12.77)

where pi _ H' + II" cos' e, 4 _ 8' - 2", 8 + II", end ('" 8 , e, ;) _ HtK') are
lb. KtTr cooro iol.l u.
Kerr 'a soluti oo (12.77) does not aalid y the comple te sysllllllo of RTG equ. lions
(8.36), (8.37). Th ill esn .asily be ur ill'" if for lhe eoordin ates in t be Minkowslr. i
apace-lim e we take ~ll[l' u ... quired by RTG, ud s llb3ti t ute t he metric coefficients
frOID (12.i7) into lhe l)'Stem of eq uetione (8.37).
T o ohtela an u teri or u isymm'ktc "" l uti oD to lb. co m ple~ 5)'!1tem of RT G
equa tions for I. 5pinning IOU!!. we em ploy en , pPf'$.ell that en.bles us, 1il"I t , to
IIIe ah• • beady fOll.Dd IOillt iOil (t 2.77) to the system or H il bell.- Eill5l.eill equ at ionl
for cooau ueting I. IOllItlon lh a t wou ld u tisfy 5yslera (8.36), (8.37) ...d . MCOnd .
to IlP.nlll~ ously d , U<'JOi oe t he r. np of verl. blM ~'X l in tbe effecti va R iem ann
s p. c.. l ime . T he lau .r ~ especiall y ;'l1port a nt lor undlll"Stand ing m.n y phys i.
ca l phe nomena and , aa l be deme nsteated i n Ch. ptor 13 ~ing the grn it . ti on al
co llapao as e n .nropl., lu rk s . s illnitita nt d ifference be t w•• n t he predfclioll S Df
RTe and those of C H.
Note t ha t th e . ppro. ch suggesled her e for finding the "" lution of the ec mplete
RTG system of eq uaUo lU can be . pplied in . 11 c _ wh.n the iIO lut ions t o \1'1.
Hilberl.-Einsteir:t equatioT\lll koown III terms Df 10m• • ys l. ... of eoord illa tes , ' .
T be .~..Iem Ilf equ. t1ons (8.37) elIta blisba • eee-re-e ne rel.tioJl$hip between lhe
t oordl n. te5 " . nd tb. Minko.u.i sp.c~ti me coDr'din. u. ,r'. Th ill me.M lhill
lher. tall be only s lI(:b effect ive Ri.maon spaee- t hlles ., . re specirled on a l illli.
IUP. lay , in c..r... i.n eoordiDa~ of the " lillli:....sld l pec...t i",e.

• Sea "tao...... LoruDll'l', 19I!IJ .

In wha t folio"", it ill uped ient to nae the IlOlIIn,hU modlfi&d Kerr eoord in, tllS
WJ - {T, 8 , e. /f'}. (IUS)
_, (a __ j •
,, - +- l.lIn - .- +T " (f2. 79)

I n t~ ID' of theM DR' coocdiutes I I (below we wJII call t belR th e KelT c.oordiJIl-
ta), tbe non""o cOlD ponenl.ll of 6,. (;') M'I.

l.nll - I - 7 - , Io,(t') = - P"1&l+_Fj [plaI."+(P: - 2m8) (EP+.I)J.

f a(t'I - ; :8 lIi ..t e, f n {; l) _ - P".

.. - - ,..',i..' , I' __ '+ ....'~ -
(&+ _')'.....-_ 2m8) (8' + a') 1.
(12 .80)
f • , i.."
", (I ) := " (~ + _'> I
0 ..
111" _ 2mB (B"'+e") I.
" .,
t .. (;').: -T-IP"(EP+ 1I., +2nu. IB , in' 81.
and lhe nenee ee componen l.ll (If tl~ (l') ere

'-Ill ) _ _ .' ~~. e , If' (t l ) _ - 8";1".' ,

_ (,' , ... (28- "') ,, (, ') ,
II - p'(6 +"") • 8 - -pr o
r '"(t)j - - ...+. ... I)
p>( "'. • I D,,') - pr, o
• 1 2.> 611'
, u(t')_ - p:;;iDiT + pt (6 + "" j - pi (6 + ..'J'

Let 1M denote tile Car tes ian ( coord inates in tb. M.inko...· ui .pace- ti lll'
by '1"1 a nd I!lIUIl1e that tJle Kerr t:O<m! illa letl t l are func t ion. of z ' . T be D.lurl l
rlll<l ll irem~ u tb a t functiOJlt of tnnsl orma ti(llUl t l _ ~ in RT G IDll$t lIIti.sfy a..
U1 e co ntinui ty a nd e ne- ie-eee nltlUe of th", fllfl(:tiolll in t I.l "" tire Min koW$ki
un ivertO.
111. con<:rete lorm 01 \.be n. lat ionBhi p betwMIl the t l ud the coord iutea z ; of
t be Alinkowski 5p.11c.t i me ca ll be fOllnd froID E,.. (8. 37), wbielt esta blish botb
th e physi ci l IIlN niD, a nd \h I of \h I l (In lti . lly th e !Ol.utiOBli 1.0 Lb.
Hilbert·Einl toli n eq ua ti OM were ,ivl n in terms of lb. Kin" coordiultlS t'l.
S)'st~m (8. 37) CllI hi reprnealed idee tica lly in Cartesi an coordinates in l ba
follow-i lll llIanlH!l":
JI I ~ Ilf - , (.q " · (..r:j l _ _ t"{..r:j r;..,(.>:)~o . (12 .8:!)
r \-'
where r ;. (.>:) ill defined by (12.9). App lyiul tAe lrsMlor lIlatiolllaw to r;. ('1"),"(",1
fw th" t1bati t olion or t l(z) for Z', WIobta ifl rrom (12.82) lbe follow inl:
r". . (..}t'" (z) _ -Ot z" _ O. n _ O. I, 2, 3, (t 2.83)
.. bUt 0t if ' h, coy,d. llt d'Al embert ian opel'ltor In lh, Kerr veeteb les ~' :

0,_ y " lb V [V - tlt) ,,"'ro ~.]

- - ir{··sin 1
Ba: + 2(8' + " jiJ"IJ,
+ ~ ~.'ZB) a.a.+2Ba.+4~ +2(B - ...)a.
:z." tB-_j a
(A+ . ')" .+ 01+_'
1.. ., "
+[ l& ~:')' tl~~' +-.f.rT ]a:+U:+ cot 04. } .
, , I ,
Hue , , ,,,,, 8' - 78 ' iJ' -lifo and ,). - , . .
Wa lfill -X the v.riable z!>;:;:l I in the for m
I _ 'I + 1 (8) . (12.84)
SIIMtit" lion inLo (12.83 ) yi eltls th e foll g equatloD for 1 (8):
!l d'Jj.ll) +2( B -m) ~~hBl + 28 _0, ( 12.85)

.-hiGh een uel1y be in teva l.ed. T he solution I,

/ (B)_ - {B+ VOlt' G' [B. In 8;,8, _ 8_ 1n Bb_B-]}, (12 .86)

l .. hE re .... h ive int r od uced the nota t ion

B", _m± V...'l - llf. {12.87)
W. ~ee tb" • r. al .soluti on for t ... 'I + I (8) elll,'" only if
8>8 ... ( \2.88)
• il.ll B_ B. at ' _ T hus, th e Kerr vni,ble ~. _ B IId mita only tlu. lo ll ...wing B ~ < D"' It ... read ily noticed II" ,
:r _ to - ,?,)I\Ol'J B (12.89)
iI . !'lliution to Eq. (12.83 ). What rem. ins 10 be l oua d i. "I and r . We ... ilI _k
Ultlll in tbe for m :II:' ... Z (B ) cos ~ toW G a nd z* ... Z (B ) l i n " aie G. Eque-
iloa (t 2.83) fot "I then b«;om~

(OS " [ ,) '7!'"

~' + 2 (B- m )"("'~')]
T - (6 +_ " 1 -~ ..I. 2 Z

-aln" llo,.~
+_' [" .-. z]... 0.
71f- d+_i (t 2.90)

,tile lor 'z' Ibe equa tion is th, n llUl e;l;cept Lb,t ain " ia .ubstituted l or (Ol!! " end
oes .. for - .ill qI. Slnu the t wo eq uat ions mu el be va lid (or any vl l" e 01 " . we
wee-sufi! )' errive u
(12.9 1)
" d
4'Z li Z
dd81+ 2 (B ~ m) "dF -( ."
(<\+ ",1), (12.92)
Solving Eq. (t2 .9t), we get
Z (B) =V{B m)*+ ai , (12.93)
....hinb also sat isr'8S Eq . (t2 .92).
We have . therefoN , round tbe follow ing sol u ~io rl$ to Eq. (t 2.83):

J:'~I~-C_ {B + lr",~ . ' [B. In B.;/ , _B_11l 8i B- ]} .

;I' ~ V( 8 mi + a· GO.'I qlsinO. z' = Y( B m)~ +olsjn'i' $in e.
r _ (B _ m) nOll O.

Thi s 11.1..50 Illltablishes the ta lati llII.!!hip between the Kerr var iables H'l a nd the
Galilea n (Cartes ian) ceerdtnntee Zl in th e Minkowski space-lime.
In troducing Lhe spheroida l coordinate!! {; l } = (t, r -= B - m, e , fJI) in (12.94)
ins tead of the Gal ilean coordin atf>!l and allowing lor the met ric

1'. .. _ " +.' , _ (r l +o' coet 6), - (r' + <l,) sin· O) . (12.9::;)
( I , - "+0'«11"8
we ob tai n the following relatitulllhi ps linki ng the Kerr veetebt es (1, B, e, III with
th e s pheroidal uriablu (t, r, 9, '1') :

t = l+ {(r+rn)+ y m [ ('.. +In) ln ' -+'. - {,_ +m) JIl r_+,_ J},
., <s' '.m '_ "'
( t 2. !lG)
B ... r + m,
where r" = ± Vm" - a'. Accord ing to (t2 .88), the ra nge. 01 r i~
r+-< r;;;;;; oc , (12.97)
lind the Kerr variables 9 and " assume the values 0 ;;;;;; 9 ";; :'t an d 0 < 'I' < 2:<,
etnee (hey ere si mply tile sp herical ang ular var iablM 9 and 'l' in the Minkowl!l<i
~pace- t i me.
From (12.96) it follows th at th e eecereepcnde nce bet ween Ihe Kerr variables
WI ... {t, D, e, " I an d the spheroid al coordi na tes {; l} ... {t, r, e , 'I'} is one-to-
one a nd the 1acobian 01 the reepeeuve lra nsform ation , iJ (WtJ r;), is equal to
unity . _
Aftflr find ing the function s t' (:1'), which are solu tions to the sys te m (If equa-
ti(los (8.37), it is oasy 10 eete bltsb, (In the h sia of (12.80) a nd (12.81), the ,, ~p licit
form 01 Iho soluti on to the complete syste m of RT G eq uat ions f(lr the metr ic
eoefr.cienta of the e (fectivo Riemann apace-t ime ol.taide Ille s pinning ma...... 'To
th is end it is sufftcient to em ploy the tenser tr ansformat ion law

AilowiQ, here for (12. 96) and (12.81), ....e o hulll
(8" +,,0)'


- .

- ,,-• o
-' 0 _ 1 %.II'
prjiii1T+ ''(.H.. I)
(t 2.!ltl)
I n I sh:n lle r ma nner it ca n be demonstrated thd t he non le ro compone nts 01 len-
SOf K IA (i) ere
- 2JrIB - 2oI· ..·B. I"· 0
'00(.7;) = 1- 7 , , ., (z)= - p' &{4+ " ' l
- :!moBlin" -
1.. (%) =
- L
I,, (z) ""- - 4
• f n tz) - -p' ,
••... ·O
61pi(&+_,}. 1p14 + 2mB (Bl + .a I )l , (12. 100)

,~(:z) = ;~:~':i) 1P'(Bl +at)+ 2mBr4in' 9l.

- 11...· 0
b (z)- - ---,. IP' (B'+ 4") +2mB4' 91.

I n (12.99) , Ild (12.100) the it ies B , p', u d u .nmed to be knOWll Iuuc-
tl ont 01 url lbl. r. Note tbl t ,IJI
(i) ud t .. (z) do Ilot d epe nd on tim l , .
At lZ _ 0 the eolutioo (12.tOO) ill lll nal'o rm ed in to 1IOluti on (t2.71) fo r the metric
c:oelli.cle.nU or t he ellect ive RieolltllD s p.eo-t ime outside . s pb6l'iea ll y s ymmetr ie
objec t.
The U lerior ax lsym metrio eolut lotl t or a llpino ln, eleclr ieelly charged mass "' IS
foun d wi lh ln tlJe RTO h em llwork by Karabllt e nd Gbu","v, 1987. Be low . 'e ri ve
the me in rtllults of the s llld)', wh ich ceus tdered ••pln nlng mu s m with ' Drul er
momen tum m<l, ehergo Q, . nd mIa-litt le mo men t j.l ..;. I Q I lZ. NetulI lly, th e
proble m req ult M solv ing s imulla noou,ly the RT G equa tioll.l (8.36), (8.37) ",d th o
Mu well eq uaUoOl! for tbe e leelromagn etlc lleld
V~ F U. ... _ 41\1', (12. 101)
VIFIl + V,'a, + VA'" - 0, (12.t0'2)

wilen aa U!uI I V~ ill Ihe symbol for the oovarien t deriy ative with I'll!peel lo tb.
metr le I • • o( 111. err~ti Y . RleDlIll1lep __t ime. The oDly nDu ero tllergy-molllllll-
tllm teDleN' of m.lter oubide. the objec t ill the ele.etrom arlletle-fie ld etltlryJ'-mom&ll.-
tum tellSOt
(12. 103)

Wllh ill the OR fra mework l.h. ederlor 1I01uli on to Ih b problem haa belw foun d
by N•• me n and Kerr, 1965. Ja teems of l.he K err coord inates thie eolu-
~ .-
t ioo it
dr-(t- 2-' ,. 9" ) dt J _ 2dB dt
, -
- p'I(09)1- 1;"(BI 1""lit)' _ ,601 I ,riIl' 6j si" t 6 (d;)I (12. 10')

+ 2u inJ9dB d; +7 (2IIIB- QI)sill' 9 fhd;,

"h_ A _ B' - 2JIJB + +0' Q', .IKl th e oth... q u.n ~i t les w incid. with 01_
iotrod uced in (12.77).
Th. eleclrolll llglletie fie1d-slrlngth k~ 1:10 be wrilte n In I.I!Tms 01 the Kf rt
w ordinl lBl!l III
F _ ' fl h' A dr'
_ _ .12.. I( BI -OIt COSI O) dB A d..-~, B r.0I 9 sl n El d9 A d1:
" - a slnI 9 (B' _ a' cOl' 6) dB A d+
+ 21lB(8' + 01') sin 9 C01i9 d6 A d; l. (12. 1OS)
Th e NeWIllln·K err solut ion (12.t ()il) doell not " tllty th e sysle m of equ" ioDs
(8.37) in th e Kerr coordiol tes n tlll) . nd is , the refore , not . 1I01 uti on La th e Rl'G
equi li olll.
Pr oceedioJ ill tbf, lam. 1Il. lI.ntl" as ...., done l bove in tleri" ing t.he ullt ioMh lp
IillklllJ (:E l ) an ti {t '}, K.... but I lld OlngrNv, 1987, derived. on th. h.,is of
Eql . (8.37), the followiq lonnul.,:
zt_I _ .._{B + Jf - [B.111 ' : 8. - B_IJI ' : 8. ]
." .'-Q" s, .-
9' iJI. . -8.) (12. H16)
: Jf.C. ' _ Q" B- i.. '
.J:' - 1{B- m)'+a1I'IICOS 4'" in 6,
&4 _ I( B - m)1 +"I I'/J l ln lj" siD8,
z' _ (B - m) Cos 9.

i .. _ m ± y m'
ql-; - ta.n-' ( B

-:'" )-+- f.

We see lh .t t it real only if B > 0-+, with 1_ DO as B _ if....

If Wi! introd~e , III beron, the spheroida l eoord in. tea (i l ) _ ( t , r "" B - m. 8 •
., ) in th e MiAko\ll'Sk1 sp_ t1l1le, we ani ve a t t heloll owing nlllt lollShip:l be' ....een
i t , B, 6• ., } In d if, r. 9 , ,,}:
"< _I+ !(t+Ift)+ f - [ (;++lftj ln:,- -:. _ (;_+lftj ln :-;-]
I . '- .' - Q! "+. ,_+_
Q' I ,-,. ) (t 2. 107)
2 " .' .i Q' 11.......-::- •
8 _' +111,
It. So/..uu 0/ /lT e E,o llllo.,
The r. nl ' of v.lnn of T, .ccordin g 1.0 the Ineq u. llty B > jj~ , i.!I bounded below:

r > ' +' (12.t 08)

No... It is 6&5Y to lind th e ex plicit 'orm of tb "Iution to the RTG ,y'\G1ll 01
equ. tioll5 outsid e • 5pinlling chu ged Gbjed lor the{e eoellH:illJlts of th.
electiv, Riem. nn , pllCe-- tim •. To th is eGd Doe D1lUt only . pply th e taDlIor I.... 01
tr' lI.!Ifo,..u tiODl 01 th. Nnl'1Jullt-Ker r metric eoeflkients, bear illl in Dlind the toot'-
d ina te t rensfor Gluions (t 2.107).
Th. nonuro eOll'lpoDenb of I,. (;),
..-hic:h are 5OhuiON to th , GOGlple te sy. te m
01 RTG equ.tlo n•• are (K u. bnt . nd Chugl'lln', t 98i )

1. (z) - 1 :boBpi (f' -

' In(%)- -
- pl, Li (:t)- . r..' .
- , "(Q" . ')(200. Q*).in' e (- ) . (LoJI Q"llri... .
I., ( a: - _ _ . 1.. % - ... ,
"'A (.A+ .s _Q")
I .. (Z) - •
- -:;- - . ~',:'~{Q'S-"-.'L'"'".C':'..
1, - __ (12.109)
A p>.l,> (.A+ .>-(1')
I .. (-z ) _ - "A ((1'
_ _ . 'j sin' . •

P'A(A+.· (1')

'W ith l _ (8' + 11.')' - Q."ii . in'e. Hete 8 , p', a nd :i ' "' assu med to be kne wn
functi on. or r.
Obv iou aly, fl l (il
ill ind ependent 01 I, AMumillllh.t II. :00 0 in (12.109), we er-
rive at the exterior 401llt ion for . n elqetriu ll )· charged . phericall y 8ymmetrl c
object. T he asp eessron for the li ne element in the effectlve Rie menn epeee-u ee in
ephericel coordin. te. of the Minko...osk i .p. ee4 1me Ie

'" - (,-
~ -+ (. +....j' j d'I _ (~
'- "+ -"'
~ j- ' ''''
(12. 110)
- (r + 1ft)' (JlJ> +lIin' 9 dV'),
wilh T, e, . nd 'f ... ry ing With in the Jollow-lna ruga:
1"",LI1' < ' ''';;; 00 , O :li;a ~n , OI!O; .. <2JI.
Apply lnl Ibe ten!Or tra nafonna liOIl hrw 1.0 (12.1OS), ..., ean rind tb. eleetrolll','
net ic fi. ld· s trenet h teM<lr in ~pb ....old.1 coordi a, tts i;l.;

F _ - ~ (BZ-"' ~8) dr A (dt - ..iDle~)

+ 7 "B COII 9 si119d8 A (odt - (lP + ,,")4 .. - ' 1~!, " ){I1'- .,) dT) _ (ll-tlt)
6 (6 + .> _(1')
SIIlCe the c:omponeo.ta of the e1eelzic 6eld l'ec tor E~ and the magnetic inductioD
"edor nil> are defi.D.d as
E._ F. and BIJ> =_+ ( det (t'i!:' _,..-) r lll ~-F...,
.....can en n y est"b lisb, on the ~i! of (t 2.1011) .nd (12.111), the uymptotic be-
havior of !.he. COQlponenta lor larfe r ' f, In th e dipole . pproxim. t inn 'W e

h ave

E, ~ * + O (;. ) . 8' ~ ·';;· ' +0 (-10- ).

8a~ O ( * ) , B8~-Q~ne+O ( 7 ) ' (12, t 12)

Not\! that such a fleld te created by a n obj* t wi th chl rge 0 I nd magnet ic moment
11 = 10 la,

Chapler 1 ~. Gravitationa l Collapse

W ithin the frame work « lS'e neraJ reJaHvit y (Land a u Illd Lifshit z, 1975 , We inberg ,
1972, and Zel'd o"l ch an d Novikov, 1971, 1974) tha cuncleeioe is drawn thd if
• mallllive star ha.!!"bur ned out us nuoleae ' uel but has not lo,~t I aufBe ianl lrac tion
01 it!! rna&'!, there aril no forcea that ca n atop it fro m contr acling under gr a vitation ,
with lJle result th at th e de nsity of th e alar will tend to iofinlty over a finit e Inte r-
va l 01 proper (or loed ) t ime. Th i.ll atage in the evolu tion of cerlaln atars has become
kno wn as llru itllt ional collapse . M ~,nllr, Thornll, I nd Wheeler, 1973 (Bo)[ 18.1),
conaider gravitation.1 co U_pse an d the emergi ng aingularity as " the greates l
single criais of physiea, cent ra l to under3t anding th e nature of matter a nd the
I n this cha pter, folloWin g Ylaeov and Lcgun ov, 1985a, 198& , we will show
how RT G cha nge~ the enti re na ture of gravita l ional collapse and leeds 10 the
phenomenon of gr avita ti onal ~ i me dueueu. due to which the contract ion of a ma.s-
etve object takes a finite proper time lap se in the comoving reference fra me end,
mD.'lt i mportant, the deusil y ,ol met ter n' ma iD! eonstent and does not exceed
to'· gfew', the luminOll it}· of the object red ute!l, or the object ~bl8Ckerlll" , but
nolhl og unus ual ha ppens to the obj*t. Thus, the predictions 01 RTG dilf er dr as-
t icall y f!1l ID those 01 GR. Belew we give a brief d eacrl pt ion of the reault a of gravita-
tl onal collapse lbat follo w from GR.
T he li ne element in the reference fra me comov ing wi th a nc nste ue aphericall y
sy mmlltric object can be represe nted I I follows:
dr = dT'_ r'l"' "dRl_ lP{t, RJ (d{I1 + ain' fl dq>'). (13,1)

where T is the proper tilDe, an d R, e aud tp are the spherica l cceed tnet es in the
comovin! reference fume. It Is ex pedient for our dtscusalon to int roduce the
u nivera8 ecu ucn
(1, R, 9, q», (13.2)

Accord ing to (13.t) , the nonZllro metri c co. rr.cients ' ''' " It) are
8.. $ - 1, g,, (t1_ _ t"I. , RI , 8.. (1l - - B'(T, Rl ,
'tf"m... - W IT, R) s in' e .
Using (13.3) , we ca n ellllily flnd the (""m coellieienu that are noozero:
gOOm - l, g"(U " _e·ooo;·· Il), g=(ll=-~ (T, R),
r' (tJ - - 8""1 (T, R) sin-l 6.
The l uncti ollll (j) (t, R) lind B (T, R ) ce n be {(lund Ircm th o H il bert -Einstein eque-
t ion ~.
Following Oppenheimer and Snyder, 1939, let us consider the !impJest v ariH ll t
of gtllviht ion al co lla pse of sphe rica lly s ymmet ric dU!Llike ma lle t with t aro pre!!-
IIU"" The energy -mom entu m te nsor d en al ly in Lilia ease ill
1""'" _ v=8'p(t. R ) u" u". (13.5)
wi th p (t, R ) the self- ene rgy denaity , and u" lb e <I-vector of velocity.
Op penhe imer en d Snyder, 1939, demon stra ted th. t if p is indepen den t of R ,
then in the comoving eeteeenee fram e, or Lh e fra me in wh leh
u· =~
= l IL' = .£!.=
O lil _~=
O ' ,,_
= O' (13.6)

the shnpleet. exact eoluuon to t he H tlbe r t-E tns telu S)'.'llem of equations hu Ull~
for m of th e Tolman sol ul ion:
B _R( I _ ~r'! i f R <, R., (13.7 »

B _ { Rlfl _ Rll

l ~ ) :IJ · f R -R
t. I _ .'

..... . . II I ...
c·' (-'!!.)'
aR • (13.9)
R·• ..., ..!.l7lt·
2 ., (13.1 0)

wi th m th e active gra \'ita li on a l mass of th e object. Solu tio ns (13. 7) and (13 .8)
imply thn t th e rango of va luCl! of "f is hound ed a bove by the valu e t ... t . and
tlult 8 Ct . R) may lUSU rIU all valuel from 0 to 00.
F..,r th /l densi ty of matt er we 1' 81'e the following form ula:
p('t) = 6n \/ t.) " (13. 11)

which shows tha t p [t) becomes infmite at t = 1"• •

Rad ial fall of test hollies in metri c (13.3), (t 3.1}-(13,9) obeys the roll owing
eq uations (Oppenhei mer and Snyder, 1939):
dB ~ / 1iii" d'B '"
71 = - V Lf' 7<' = -7J'f '
These equa t ions she w th at the colla pse of th e falli ng d ust particl es to th e Schwa·
rzschil d rad ius 8 M _ 2m OC<:llrs ov er 8 Fin ite proper t ime in teeval 8nd , meet ing
nothin g in their movement th rough empty apace, the particl es reach th e cent er
B m 0 siw uhaneolL'l ly (wh ich res ults in t he en ergy de Ollity p becomi ng infinite) .
With in th e fra mewor k of GR th e conclusion is du wn th at a nonstat ic object may
hav e d imensi ons small er th en 2m. From the vt ewpot nt of an e xtet nal observer
tho reg ion ins ide the Scbwa rlll(;hild sphe re is "cu t ofl~ from the observ er, a ny
object th at finds itself Inside the spbere of ra dius 2m is gra vitationally "short -
cirCUite d", a nd no light ca n escap e born thelnuer rosion of the sphere. Such ob jects ,
whic h hav e in finite densi ties but possess no mater ial bound aries, becam e kn own
in GR u "black hoI08".
We ca n Il OW summar be. To an exter nal observ er 8 s pheric all y sym metr ic o bject
with a s ufficien tly large mass II) > 3M0' where Meia the Sun ' s maaa, will a ppea r
1IJ eoll ~ae\i ... with ou t l imit • • pproaching th, dimftJlSlol1S 01 th e 5eb.... rue.bild
s ph_ of n dl_ B, _ 2.111 0". ol in infl" it' tim, ;ntu't" al (i n th.. uffTllll ce hUll
l illk ed wiOJ th e 11 tem. 1 ohser"tr' ). Fro m lb' sundpol ot of the ob!llll'ver co mov-
inr Yilh collapsln, Old t. tblll slt ull ioo is qul lll qiftut!llt. Here t he Sllrf_ of
the sphere orr.d ius 2m is IlOt m.~ri.1 an d the Mralling- oburver croMelI i~ and
M!!I tlle sph ere 's eea ter In t he CoUrM of • fin ite ti me in l llt" al ; , t t he cente r
th e energy denait y becoUiu Infinit e .
From th e vlew poio t 01GR, every t hing t hat ba ppell-'to mat ter inside t he Sehwa tz-
eehild s phere unnot i ll pr incip le be ,"ognlaed by t be u letn al observe r. Ph ysitilly
lh il sit uat ion is l!ll Olen bll . ine l i t impoM'Sli m lt.ll 011 t ho lm owilldg'llof how ma tter
Let \U 1I0W IlifO to \he pid drum by RT G. T h, under l)' ing geomelry l or t be
Inv itat io na l 6..1d is th e pometry of t he Minkollo':!lk i space- l ime. The eom ponents
01 th, gravitation al fi. ld or , i n 'fi,w of (8. 1). 1bt oolD.pOllfn Q of the lIIf \ riO l.allltor
,... obey tile unl . ersa llield fquat i o~ (8.31). ill additioo to obeying tho Hilbe et-
Einstein equI Uonll. Tberdort , oDly a eoi ution l lld u ti$li.. bod l th e .,-ew m 01
equat ions (8. 36) 'nd Lbe syatem of eq uat io/l.S (8.31) has pllysieal mell1 ioj{ beca -
use i\ is th e 5)'s1.em of eq ua llonl (S.37) t hl t t. kes i nto account th e fu Del,mental
ro le of t he ltIin kowsk i sp at e-t ime , lMlpau te.l i nert ia from I ravi tati on . e nd IIxes
t he st r uct ure of Lhe H'ra vita Uonal "o ld u a Farad ay-Muwall phys ical f'eld
JlOSlIll.SS ing s pins 2 e nd O.
I t t an en Il,. be ver ilied t ha t l oluti ons (13.7)-( f3. 9) d o IIOt " t!lsfy Iho . yat em of
eq ua Uons (8. 37) if in s pher ica l coordi na le5 t h, metr ic 1' 0101' of t ho Ml okomk i
apate-ti mo is H'ivon in lb e for m (12.3). To . t ud y a ny pro ~ l o m in th e RTG Irl me-
work, one must sol ve EQlI. (8.36). (8.37) il'l t tr!D5 of th e coordinates of lil e Mi ll;-
ko.".k i !paee-l hlle.
A. tralUf« fro m Ol'le se t of t oord i n. tes to uo\h er i n t he Mlllkn wski I plICe-lillle i5
ca rri ed O\Ot by a one-to-one tra!Uformal loo with a OOORl'O J aeobi. n. RT G coo 1.ains
none 01 til.. compllea t.ed topologies in herent In tll _ iell dealillg ...ith t b' Ri, mann
apace- t ime.
Let UI cl}ns icle r a spheriu lly I ym met rie li ne e lement IIf t he gene ral l llfm
dr' _ roo (I, r ) dl l+ 2g Ol (I. r ) dl dr +
III (I, r ) dr'
- jjt (t , r ) (de' + sin" e dql' ) . (13 . 12)
wh ....e I is \ he U1 111 pllu l v,r i, ble, e lld r. e. end", e re th o spll, r ieal coo rd inehlS of
t IM Min kO'Qki spau-time . .... hic h H t of u ri e blN 1"0 deoote by zl ,
...' "" (t , r , e. lp).
W. 11.0." H ilt lr lllll vuil bl. Zl til "uiebl n ~t . lI'!Su lllill.g t hat
t _ t (t , r ) I nd R _ R (t, rl. (13. 13)
S iue. th e Illetr ic coeflicienls ,.~ (z') in (13. 12) are li nked with t he metric eoefii-
c ien t. (f3 .3) by 1 te nwr tr ansFormat ion l aw, 1"11 obta iD
s.. (1 . r) _ ( : : )' _ , ,,,, . II) ( 88~):'
ii'r ih 8R il R
1,, {I , r ) -T." -r. - It"C' . III-,,- T,:"'
(t3. t 4)
I " (I. r ) _ ( : ) : -root, ... ( ~~ ) 1 •

BV, . ) _B (Y. R).

11. G,.""./I,,• • I Coll.p..

For all admissible tr ansiormati on functi ons (13.13) these expr1lMions by defini.
l ion atic ally n ti'lfy the Hil bert-E tustet n equa t ions if solut ioll8 (t3.7}-(13.9)
ani taken into account. But in RT G the metric eoelllcients (13.14) must. in add i-
t'''II , sat i$ly th e general-covertant s)"swm " I \!quation! (8.37), whOlle soluti on makN
it possible to find the explicit lorm 01 funct i" n! (13.13) and, heaee, t o obta in
a solut ion to the complete sys tem of e({uati ons (8.56), (8.37) In terms of eocedt-
nalea of the Mink" "'ski space-\i rne.
Following vtesov and Legun cv, 1985a, 1985b, below we give a mere da tai led
a nll!ysis 01 aU these aspects than is given in Chapter 12. The present ation will
demonstra te the lim it ing nature 01the coordi na te condit ions u!I8d in GR and how
RT G lifts this limitati on.
We write the syste m 01 equat ions (8.37) in a somewhat di fferent form. T o this
end we turn to the well-known equality
r l l {;r) K"J(.z) = - _y '
-, -,~.
IY -UPl(.z}l, (13.15)
with r : l (;r) defined in (12.9). If we employ th e low 01tr ansformati on (or r : ,(;r)g"l(:r),
the chango in var iables (13.13) yields
f11 (;t)g_I(;r) ... - Oz' , (13.16)
where 0 is tha gtlnera lited d' Alembert ian operator,

0 - V~ V [ V=-c1FK"'ro ~~q ]. (t3 .17)

Compar ing (13. 1~) and (13.16), 'wa fi nd that

0"- y="= ,a~ IV
~r(zl z
- g (x) gpq (x)] , 9= 0, 1, 2, 3. (13. l8)

De Donder, 1921. 1926, and lat er Fcck, 1939, 1957. III solving island pt<l blama,
e mptoyed noncevnnant harroonic condi tions of the type
~:p rV- g (.z) eN (I'll ~ 0 (13.19)
as preferred coord inate cond it ions. But why must these cond it;oM be writ ten in
the Riema nn space-tima io wrms 01 Cartesian coordi nates? Naither de Donder nor
Fock could pre- tee an explanation, srnee there ca nnot in pri nci ple be any global
Car~18 n coordin at es in a Riemannian geometry, a nd they had no idea of the
funda menta l tmpoeta nce of the Minkowski space-time tc gra \';Ly.
On the besie 01 (t 3. i8) we can writa condition (13.19) 85 follows,
O x'" = 0, q = 0, 1, 2, 3. (13.20)
For th is reason lhecoord Xl satis rying (13.20) becama known as "hermonlc",
Remaining within the framework 01 GR, condi tion (13.20) cannot be madeeovar i-
a nt. In har monic coord inates the Hilberl.-E iMtei n system of eq ueuc ns simpli fies
considerably, whtch ap parent ly prompted Fock to call t his system preterred. If
we wish to retain condi tion (13.19) a nd maka it universal , we must write it in
Co\'ar ian t forOl, which as noted earlie r is impoS!lible in GR . The new field equations
ceo be found if we \.urn to the physical suncture 01 the gravitatinnal 6eld. III
Chap ter 8 !.his approech led us to Eq. (8.3),
V - It (s ) D"Uf - g (J'} gpq (x)l = ~ ,a p IV- I(;r) 8"(z))
- r s s
+...:'~ (;t)g"'· (Z) _O, (13.21)

whleh tha nks to (13.t8) caD be written thus :

O :tfl= -l'~ (z) ~ -W-g"/(t), 'I IJ, I, 2, 3, (13.22)
V?'ft (Z) - Tyr'(<1.. i'JI. + a. YJI,.- ilJlY",. ) (13.23)
is t he Cb.ri.!ltolfe l symbol f,n th e Minko\\'!ki spaoe-tf me. I n t he cese (If Galil ea n
coord in.t~, '1':'. = 0 and Eq5. (13.22) cnincide witb Eqs. (13.20).
Thus, our equa tions, (t3.22), imply th at the hrmoni c coord inates defined in
(13.20) coinc ide wit h the Galilean (Cartll:'lisn ) coordl n8L~ of thll Minkowsk i speee-
timll. Thill assertion rell eeu th ll Iundam en ral ru le a nd field orig in of Lhlllllf octive
Rie mann s pate-time. Eq uation s (13.22) are C(lvnrian t , reJlect th e true structure of
the gravita tion al field, and stre!.'! lhe fundamenta l natu re of the Minkowsk i space-
t ime. The role of t hese equations is highly impor ta nt sin ce they change the nature
01 tile predicted phenomena . New physics emerge! as a result , espectally in th e ease
01 Sl.l'ong fielda. T his will become especially evid ent when we study grav itational
collapse cl messtve ob jects and in Chapter 16, where we s tud y the ti me evolution
01 11 homogeneous and isotropic universe.
But let us l'flturn to Eqs. (13.22), 'which c on.'ll ~t ll te an alterna tive form lor the
general. covari ant RTG field equations (8.37). Employing formulas (t2.3) for the
metr ic coelftcien\.s ,."~, formulas (12.4) lor the ccnnecne n coefflcie" ts 1':'~ , and
fllrmu las (13.4) for the g'" m and llllb5titut ing all t his Into (13.22), we get

:t(rol !8'~) =d~( ~-";J~ :~), (13 .24)

-'- ( ~l fi!!!"') _ -,- ( r -.J!]J! ~ ) _ 2re"' I. ( 1 3 .2~)

dt ilTaH en
If we employ solut ions ( 13.7}-(13 .9). these equ ations assume th a foro'
aR h
_ s:
an [(!!'.)
-, lJ'.!'-]
dR '

Jt dn h
~ TN
' [(!!'.)'IW!!.-]_
iJR dB
')r dB
- 7Ti'

By solving these equa tillns we can esta blish the relaliuo8h ip th at exisl.!l between
th e eoeedine tea Rand 1: of tho comoving reJerellCO and the coord inates r
and t of the Minkowski space-t ime. Therefore, the eoluucns fi~ t he expl icit lorm
of th e admi99 ible functions (13..13) .
From physica l cOllsidera tions it is clear that f(lr a actuttcn tc eJlist the tr ans-
farmatlon! (13.13) must he one-to-one and the tem poral axes t and t must point
in th e same direction. These requirements lead us to the following soluUnns (Vla-
sov and Logunov , 1985_) Lo Eqs. (13 .26), (13 .27):
,, - -V1l+-VZ;;; (13.28)
t .. t- 2 y 2mB +2m ln VB -v "'"- '
r=B-m . (13.29.
Here for the sake of brevity \>'/1 ha ve not substituted tile explici t form of the
fun ction B = B (t, R).
Smce th e rang«'! o! th e nrillbles :If' _ (t , r, e. lJl) , which are t he coordinates In
the Mlnkowski apace-ti me, are ii.ted, the ranges of t (I, r ) end R (I, r) in RTG must
be sped lled in accord ance with the ra nges of th e Mlnhwski s pace-t i lD e vnria b l ~ z~ .
Th e M)llltion (13.28) u . pp litd to lh a ex terior problem i mplies Lbd m. u.u
i n • nonst.. tic . pheric. lI)' . ymmel.rie RTG pro blem oor.up[a, " l Oy Lillie t , • • phttll
01 ndiUII 8 thd i$ . 1.... ).. gTUler thn 2m. T ht valu e B _ 2m ill aU. lned 11$ t
i. en L to i ll ~ n i ty. Th us , we ean . 1"". )" write
B(T,R»2m. (13.30)

Genera lly , th ph ).. lu l mtllllLIl( of the YlIrlabl es E-, in term s of ..hlek the
Hil bert· Ein.llteln equ atiotll ate IIITiUell. , is l!!lublished ...hM we link \b4rrI to t he
eoon!i ....lelI :&" oI tbe Minkowski . pu . t ime via (13.22); lh . t ' become In add i-
ti on. l eoordill.lw ,,'Ste lll in the Iofi llko...u. i spac:..Ume. H ~ if Ihe SOhl U OllS I • •
to the Hil bt-rt· Ei nslein 8qutt iolU hold l.rUIl ill • certa in rante Q of var iables i.- ,
then Eq!l. (13.22) usu.lly Dl rr ow the ri nK' of t', Ind these n riah les, in view
01 (13. 22), are r" net ious not ooly 01 th e cooni lnl La r" but 01 the gr",ita tioll.l
field u well. The . , et l,l-te lllpocal rtg'ion 0 " in whlcll th e t' may V ir) ' , defined
in (13.:12). doel Dot colnelde wi th Q.
Thus, while i n ler rn.!l of .ll: ~ with t he metrie teMOr Y.. ~ (.II:) th e sys te m of equa-
tl OIlS (8.36 ) h u . $O lut lon ,;.. (z ) . io ter ms of t- with. th e melr ie tensor

,. _ro --;r tI... .,..... (z)

"" ~ (13.3 1)

tb e No me sys le", of<ms hIlS , soloUOo , ._ (t) o" ly ill Q- . H eeee, not every
so lu t ion , •• (U 10 t he Hi lbert- Ei nstei n eq ua li ons wi th , - E Q sat isliu \.he sys te m
of el!,"n ions (13.22) or, whieb is t he $lime. the .y. ~m of eq ua ti ons (8.37 ).
LQ t us now esta blish th e Ior m of the rectere teo$(l r y"," for t he MinkoWllk i epece-
li me i n ter mAof thll eoord inetea ," _ ('I", R, 6, ,,) of the eOfilo ving reference fume
by emp loy ing th.. tellllCll' tun sformatlon I,.
(13.31). Here , l(;Cording to (12.3) •
...;.. (z) ~ ( I, _ t , _ r . - r" s i,,· 6) IlDd Ihe rel s tlonshi p bet ween (t , r) ud ( I:, R)
is ~ 1"ed by (13.28) s nd (13.29).
We ah:ulate the transforma tion lJtalr i!<
., .!c o o 1
.., .,
"iF "" "i1f
.". n
Tif 0 0
0 0 I 0
0 o0 t
Combi llioc (t3 .8) wit h (13.28) alld (13.29), 111"1 obUt in

<h B (~ . R} '" ~ / -,;;;-

""i<"" B (~, RJ z-' "'1i'" - - V ~ ,
dl 1"::;]( ". 1 - -' -
7iii = -S« .R)_ii'l 'Mi = l "1f'(i;'""Hj '

I n v iew 01 (13.33), It es n eu lly be ,·"i!ied Ihllt

det {i;) .. v B {<~ *1"" 0. (13.34)

S u bst i ~u ting (13,33) tnto (13.31), we arri ve at the foll owing ex press te n for
'I' ," . (~) :

o o
o o . (13,35)
o o - (B- ...)~ 0
o o o _ (B _m)Zsinl(l
On th e hasss of (13.33) wa ca n writ f!
1\ 1:l (~ . R)
'1'.. ( 'o} -B(~, H )_ 2m
+ IJ"2 (2m)'
(~ , R}
1J (~,
B (l, R)
m] , (13 ,36)

') )1"'" [ B' (T. R ) ]

Y. , (~ =- ~ ( BlT .R) _ 2M), - 1 , (13,37)
IB \T,H) z", I' 2mB (l, R}
'1'1/ (l) - - R B iT, /I)l B (~. R ) 2mp

det YOl. ($)= - 8 (T~ R) /B (T, R)- m]· si nI O. (13.39)

For B > 2m the metric 1'",. (t) has n o s ingu laritie.1. A ~ j ngu la ri ty in 'I' m" (~)
e merges at B = 2m.
Employ ing form ula (13.35) for th e me tri c tensor '1'", . (t), we CIIn fi nd the ex pree-
aton for the Hne element in th e Minkowski s pace-ti me in terms of thecomoving
coord inates ~" :
We write it in the lorm
do' = d~' - dl', (13.41)
(13.4 2)

( 13.43)
wi th
(13.4 4)

Combi ning (t 3.35Ht3.38) with (13.44), we get

(82m)' B )"
XI1 - R (8 :Ln) (BI+~' ) +""!B ' X.. - ( -m-, (13 .45)
l.,=(B - m)~!j n· e . t.. ~ =O if a* ~ .

From (13.41 ) it follows th lt ~ 1.1 the ph ysi cal ti me (Logu nov, 1985) and, t herefore,
must be reel whil e dl' must be positive. s ince it is th e squ are of thl! spetfelsepare-
t ion bet ween two d 05B1 y lying poin t ~ in th e ord ina ry three-d tmens tonel space. In
vi ew of Srl vlll5 wr' s cr il.erioll, the qu adra tic form (13.'13) will be po~ iti ve definit e if
I n ' :t.. , and 'X u are positi ve. T h i~ im pJin B > 2m.
Allo wing for (13.4a) in l hll definition (13.43) 01 dl', we obta in

dll = (B 1,,~;:+~';+'''''B d R' + (B - m)' (d{l'l + s inl fl drJ. (13.46)

Both (13.42) a lld (13.46) im pl y th at a t ran sition to a eo movi ng reference frame

in the Mlnk owsk l sp ace-t ime is possible ouly if B > 2m. Th is mea ns th at . in
accordall"t with RTC (su (t 3.29)), in IwlW"t t lun cannot bt nomlallc spherically
symmtlrlc obltds with aradilUr t qual to or lessthaJl m, wit h fM m ull thaI thert can bt
no grtwil alialwl "shorl-circuiting" arid maller cannot di8apptIU from our ' pau . In
othe r words, acco rd ing to RTG ther a can be phy9 lcllJ o bject.s wi th a ' airl }' large
IIlBSS a nd pO!llle llll ing a n i n ner s truc l ure. Thi s ccmdus ino greatly d isting uis llllS
RTC fro m GR.
Us ing formnla s (13.8), (13. 9), (13 .28), lind (13.29) i n (13.14), we find thllt
, -_ m ( , +m
I .. (,) =~. g~,(r) _O . I" rJ---;=;;;- ,
(13.4 7)
I .. {r) _ _ (, + m)', I". (r, e) _ ~ ( , + m) Z s i l1 le.

Th o eqn a tions of udi al moti on of test pa rt icle s in metr ic (13.4 7) wil h a zero
voloc lty a nd lIplltilll infinity ca n be writte n 8S follows (Vlnsov lind Log un cv ,
198511, 1986a);
!!!- - -~ l/ 2m £!.."" _ m(r - m)(' - r....) (lH8)
d/ - r+m r+ m ' dl' (r+m)' ·

Th ese equa ttc ns 5Ugge:s t t h at it takes an lvl'l ni tc u me i nt er va l for a l.llst par ticl e
to rail on a s phere 1I1 rad ius r = m:

( "-
dl ) ,_'" _0. ("')
dl' r _", _0. (13.40'
T hi.s llrtcct can he ca lled Ira~'illl tillna l tlm~dilatilln [vfascv and Logunov.1 985a ,
Let ua ILOilo' retur n to fo r mulas {13.28) a nd (13.29 ). Wa N!illtroo uCe t he nniver sa l
g ra vi ta tiona l cc nste nt and wr it e the expression lor proper t ime in ler m.~ 01 t he
v ar iables t and r 01 the Mink owsk i s pace-l ime :

1: _ 1+ 2 VZmG(, + mGJ _ 2mG ln ~~+ V~ . (13.50)

1,+mG- Y G
W e see tha t G is i nclu ded in the expressio n for proper t i me, whic h mean s that th e
passage 01 proper ti mc T d e pcnd ~ on th e natura of the gravitllti onlll fIeld. Let us
se ll ho w the prop er ti me i nterval d1: is connec ted wit h tile t im11 interva l ac of the
Mi nkowsk i s pace-t ime.
S ince
d/ (• • HI
=.!d!.. .'js+f f"l I, .!!'.
dt '

wheN! the rate of rad ia l fall dB fd T ill tll11 (13. 3) metr ic with n> 2mG is
E!.= _ ~ ,r ];G
d. V B
and , ill vie w oi (13 .28),

-*"18- 1 lind :; I, = - v ~ ~,
we obta i n
" ,
'7f = '7f=ij;{[ .
Goi ng back to r vill (t3 .29) in Ih is for muls , we find that
dt _ ,-meG dt.
.+.. (13.51)

This (lX p~ion show! that lor 8 freely fallin g object the proper tim8 in\erva l dT,
with ' f'xed um e inLervs l dt of an uternal observ er, tends to zero as r appr oaches
th e hor il OD (i.e . u , _ mG) and, hence, all physiclil proees.'le.'l in t he re ference
lram e ec movt ng with t he falli ng o b j ~ts sl ow dnwn wi th out lim it . Aelu s lly ,
however , si nce in RTG the value 01 r is alwa)'! grea te r t han mG, the fall ing 01
• test body on anothtr object OCCUfll over a nniw time interval both for t hecomov-
log observer and en u t.ern al observer. Ti me d oes not ceese to now in ei th er reler-
eaee frame. Such a process is in all mpeets simila. to th e f, lIing of , test body
on the su, bee 01 a star.
We now use r esl.riet ion (13.30) to find the range of sdm issihle T'$. Since B (R, T)
aed T are link ed b~' (is.8), restJiction (l3.SO) mu ns t hat proper t ime r never reaches
T• . From t he vie wpuint of en utern . l ohserve r the sur lace of 8 spher ica l sl.8r, for
examp le, o( ~nd i us" R = R., . ppr oacllilll the he-t een (a Schwa raschild sphere of
t8di u~B (R" T) ... 2m) ever anln fllllte ti me int erval t, while for th e observer In th e
comovi ng reference fn me this precess occurs over a finite proper time illi erval

T~ -[ I -( ~ tlfo. l I 3.52)
Th is formula can easily be deriv ed (roOl (13.8) if we allow for ( 13.30). Thus, tile
RTG equatiOJls (8.3 7) l imit t ho r ange of T'S i n t he following ma rmer: T < to < 'r • .
LeI us calculate t he 1i00Iting value of density p. In to (13. t t) we sub., tit ll!e th e
express ion (13.52) for T~ , etnee th is expresetcn is \"nlid for R _ R•. We then lIa ve
I)",.,, "" 32Jtm.. ( 1 3.~3)

We see th at p does not become infini te because the new field equa t ioM (8.37) guar-
antee t hat proper tim e .. does not. become eq ual to t • .
Note that whi le solutions (13.8). (13.9) 10 tile H il betl·E iMl ein equa t iona have
meaning in t he entire ra nge of values of proper time, 0,,;;,; Tt;;;; Toj' accord ing to
t he RTG equat ions (8.37) t hese soluti ons hs ve no physical meaning ill t he region
fro m To to T, . ·
Fro m the vtewpeint o! an exter nal observer, t he l uminMit y of a coll apsi ng
object expooenti all y fal ls of[ (the ob ject " black ens"). but oot hi ng nnlUu s l lls ppens
to th e object since its density a lweys r ema ins finite.
• Thus, the S'S'fmCD I uI ~rdovlch 'nd Grishclluk , 19136, \.hi t ' H r y solution 1<1 , he Hil-
bi>rt·Ein, tein ",\ ualiOllO ,,"u.n ... E~ •. (ll,S' l .nd t ~. t Ih.. ~tuall on e hon~ outh ing is li mply
e' roUtou'. G,n 'tIltiOlll l coll, Pl'l' in IlTO iU... drao1lCllII)' from grovits liOll. 1 tollal'" in 0 11 ,
a l ~ u 10 lhe IOTllIer the...... n be 110 cotllstrophic WDlraelion uf .... u~ 10 an laulle dcnoity 10
all hor Ihe~ ' WOldiolw or l be WIllovlng word ioal . ~• . N, ithtr ClIO Iht .. be any oinguluitiu
or l'fIgloo. blocked fro", an e1~I'D. I obs&w,. In \.hia,..".. Il TO c,o c""ta ln nO such ob ~1$
til""'" u "bJatk bol.." in OR, ob;«:ta that dlpetld only onl h. ", OM ond cbs.g, of the o:ollll"l"ll'
object and thai have oellhe. maleri.1 boundar ;.. no. 10.... slruclure. Tho co)lapu 01 I n ob ~t
10 RT O asy", pl<ll;<.IlIy ttllds t o. " ote wi th . fmlt. y In d . 6n i~ Nldlua , Ihe lalter 11.....y.
helog g.....ter Ihoo M.G . Sucb aD o1>j.<Ialw. y. Iu.. a m_ten d hOUDdll' Y_lid 011 in_ ••• t .... I""' .
N"lP"'Ylu tional "oaI £od l'f,~i ti o(' Il i O~ l nd motW doea nOI dlillpp, o, from OllTspOet . A.-.!ing
' 0 RT G, lnllltun tho.... coo 1>6 n. II1>, r IU lic M r nOMIOl]c 6pb.rkllly symme\.Tle o1>jeeUl wit h
• ••diua I... then or oqllll to ...c.
Desp ite the fact th.t g:r..iu.tioDaI eontrac tion of • _ ive object to t be ! tu
of the respecti •• Schwl.n!C;ltild sph,,.. ,h.'faUltM' finite pro~ lIllI. iDUlru l Tc o
, kh is al •• ~ t hall ".. . . c.lI ll nuu •• y l hl t the object bu re.u:bId th is
SU te beeaU5ll ift RT C this is impossible in pr inci ple, llinCI,lJC;h I sta w eOllSt itu ~
• limit ...,d is .eMoved ooly ",hen u e e I in the Minkowski . p.e ...t ime bec:o _
inr,nite .
1.&1 UI now turn 1.0 t he problem 01 t lMl motion of \ l!lIt par t itl el in m.lries (12.99 )
. nd (12.109) . Fif1t , foll owina: Vl u ov lind Leg uncv, 1987, we consider the m oti on
i n metr ie (12.99).
To de termine the tr ljeclOor ia of test bodies in . pherold. l eOOl'd inllel (;l) WI
UK lbe H Ulill on-heohi "llI, t ioM

... (t3.54)


.,,-he re S is the eeuen in legnl of . tes t. part icle in lllI!t r ic (12.99) . Equ atl on (t3.55)
yi eld.
s- -
et+lIlql +S (r)+ S (8),
(" '''l' _ k _ a1cosI O_ (Gt slo e _ • )'
-;j§"""'" 5io l •

IISJr!1_ -+ Lt~-;. + 1"{f I4~+{r+,")11 -r 6 jl + (r+,.,j!I] .


lthen ~ II, . nd A: eee wnlI!.tnts. T il. forCllIlI. for as (r)/lir GOrn!lPllnds to Lb,
ClIM of f.llill' p"tieles.
Eqn lioll (13.54.) IbCII }"itkl.s
~:;;; V {s [ (ll~ + (r+ m )')' - a' 6 Ilnlfl] _ 2m4ul(r + mlJ.
[1(,'+ _+"')')
+ \_+ ..
_1' 61k +
_ . ·6 In 1 ~ (r + ..) •
(13.5 7)
~ 2.0lOI (r+ _ ) ....· ll
-;jj = . If. I+ \'+"')')' 7.1", I lAi It) £I;OI\r+ . j
. .. 11(.,+(,+ .,·,_ _ 1' 6 11 + (, + _)' )
- ~ + .· " I(a + ('+ . - I ~ I'" I Ir+ - J '
#it A Y'I . 1 <*l' It , . aioli ..w. ill
T = 11(.' +1 _+_)1"_._,,, III ' ll)-£;; (' T II) .
W, see th lt as th e pertic)es ' I ll to the horilon (r ..... r+ , 6 .....0). ~illl'l in the
Mlnko"... kl ap. c..t ll'lle ten d. ~o inllnity whil, ugle OJ' rIlm. inl finit e, Or dOJl/dt ..... 0
Ind dOJ'fdR < 00. t hat is , th e partlcl9'l take I II InfinHe Ume to f. 1l to the hori zon
and do not ~ w i nd around lhe horil on. Such dec:e lel8 t ion can he unden tOOli Irom

a qu.!itat iv, I n. lys is 01 t he forc8.I . et ing on tbe partlc ). in the v lc!olt y of ' +.
From th e uprelJlons (13.57) for lhe vs loch y cOlllpo neots of. p"t icl. in . phero-
idal coord l.lll'" we hn.

{Il"}- {V "~i~'tll* . y r:t + a' c(i;! 8 =, yr:t+41 $in8 · 11l (13 .58)
From th i' it read ily follows thd in the vicinity of the hori zon
V" :::.: 4 , di" ::>! e.
that is , as r--+ r.;., aeceleratl on and vel ocit y tend to sere.
Suppose ths t 0 '= Jti2. Then for the rad ial component of the eccelsration spe-
c ifil;s lly ,
N ' (b
"T<" - ~ 7i , oi ) -
y rt+ V=. + a' {di"
") ' ' (13.59)

we have in the v id nity of the horuon (r ::>! r...)

du' ""_0' > O.
di"::>! <l. 2iiOiTf (13.60)
while for lar ge !5<l pa.uions (r:::l> ' t ) we ha ve
of;; ~ ~ ( 1 -~) (13.61)
that is, relativistic particles and 1igbt (e' > 312) are decelerated and 1I0nrelativ-
ist ic part icles ( I ,.; e' < 312) aNl accelera ted.
As , hown by Kara but a nd Chugreev , 1987, th a mcuen 01 a charged test body in
metr ic (12.109). whell charge e ill opp()/l ite in sign til charge Q, is Similar t.o the
motion of a l.t'st body in melric (12.99). For example , when the tes t body a p-
proaches the hor ilQn (r--+ ";..;.), the componellta of veloc ity v" and aceelerat ton dv"ldt
tend to eere . T he radi al component of accelerat ion, dUldt . is positi ve in the vicin i-
ty of tile hortz cn (r ::>! ';:.;.), while fOr large sepat atiollS (' :::l>';.;.) it has the form

~ ~:-: (1- ~,)-~( et t _ I). (13.62)

for relativilltic p4rUdes ( e' > ( ~ r > 3/2 ) , as demonstraLed by (13.61) ,

ther e is bot h grav it at ional and elKtrOlltatic d ecelera ~ion , whil e for llonrolativistlc
pnti d es ( t < e <3/2) there is accelerati on , or a t\.raction . At e ,.. I accelera tion
(13.61) is tile supllrp~ i t i o n of the Newlonia o and Coulomb accelerat ions.
In Chaple r 11 we arri ved at RTG equBLiollS involvi ng a massiv e graviton.
IF the line elemant in the effeoct ive Rieman n ~p aC6-ti me is fixed in the form
d4' .. U dJ" _ V (d Y W )' _ W (09' + sin' e d<p') (13.63)
&rid the lin e element in the lIat space in the lorm
dot = ell' _ (r')' (d yw)' _ ... (dO' + sin' a d~J.
tlIeu the system 01 RTG equat ions (11.9), (11.10) lor a sphericall y symmetr ic
object ca n be wTltten In the fnrm (Vlasov a nd Legunov , 1988a , 1988b)
( "l"V)' ... V;; [t + ;:'(w- r') ] ' (t 3.64)

v : ' - -T [l - V ( ~ )1] , (13.65)

(r' V Wuj' _ 2r 'V"W. (t 3.66)
Here and below the prime on a sy mbol means differenti ation wilh respect to
Ii W, a nd by m Wi! designate the grav iton mus . The funct ions II and 8.1 are linked
,..ith lh e functions U. V, u d W Ih rOllgh \.he follo1l'; 01' rtlaUOIlship:!l;
II _ IVY V·' , III ' " UV . (13.61)
In Ib' approximat ion ..hi..
2M_VW<...!... .n d ,,,, <t, ( t 3.68)

"'hen /II i. th e mus 01 lb' IIOI1f'U 01 the &r" ,iwtionel li, ld , ..~ 1I" ..t

YD'_2m'MJ ln (t + ~t. ) - Y W_ 2Af. (t 3.G9)

,.,.,. r.
(t + y:- (13.70)

If the gravi loll maSll is ncrue rc in region

~ El z;;;w;- <: 1.

in the vieini ty of lb' Schwuuchil d !phere Eq. (13.69) yields


I> _ 4mI AP n/W - 2M). (13.12)

Combl nioi (13. 70) and (13.12) with defini tion (t3.87),
nil)' of th e Sch~i ld spb_
w. Iilld t hal in lb. "" "i-
U _ ",,1M' . I' "" /If <yw - 2M)..... (13.73)
On lb , basis 01 this WI! wDdude tha t the dete rlllilU..llt f = _ uvwr Ii ..' e
and the innriants 'uT Ill • R UTIlo• and R ,_",ll, T'" bav' • tree s ioplarily 011
the Seh.........h ild llph l!l'lll that eao.not be remov td by d100$ing a...pprop riate
ref_ntt Ir. me. Th ill implies the metric In iMide lb. Seh .... rudJi ld sp ltenl
dOf!ll nol coITft pood \0 eny ph ysica l gT.... il.eti OIUlI lIe-ld.
n we 10 ovt.t tl) the 'ynchronold rtiel"l!ote frlme of freely li llini test pl rt ld ea
wil h I lero veloo;;it y I t Infini t y vi. t he transf ormllion lormul u (V1~v In d
Lofunov. 1988a, 1988b)

'f _t + ~ d VWy ~ (I U), (lUb)

R .I+ ~ d VW V~ , (13.74b)
we find Ib n
,y. = d1" _ (I _ V) dR' - W (dII ' + , in" & dlJ'), (J3.75)
""bercl V m~ l be up~ III lermt of R ind 1 .
Equation (13.75) implin th .t for $Olu lioll (12.75) t he si nculari ty 00 lh,
& b. ld sphere d itlppeart. From th is the . dh.... Dt te Gil coneludea lh' L
th e rallillc obsen'er lnely U'OS!tf the SchlRl'UclJlld sphen:, which meaDS lhat
1flI"ltatlOllal colla . . occurs ' nd a hlack hole il formed .
Aa foll ows fro m metr iC' (13.63) an d th e tran.!fOTmation (ormulu (13.14.) 'Dd
(13.14h). th . rad i. 1 velocity of • particle fallinl alolll the ~h"l'UICb ild radi...
is liven by t be formul.
In CR , U Y _ t and U "" t - 2MIVW, which I mplie~ that the veloci\y of the
particle on the SchwarnclJild aphere i.$ finite. Since the J aeohlan of th e tr a n.'J -
formllti(m is 8190 fi llilll, one ie a ble in Gft to exp and the appliCJI biliir, region
fot Eq. (13.76) to the singulari ty In the curvature Inva riant R ' ~ PQR I " .
In RT G wit h a m8ll!1iv8 grav ito n, th e s itua t ion Ie enti rely difflmm t. S ubsti -
tuting (13.73) into (13.76), we o btatn

dVW '_ l / l"W 2M (13. ??)

d' "' M M '

From tllis it immediately follow! that point Viii _ 2M Ie th e t urning point

lor the rad ial moti oll of mauee.
Subtracting (13.74a) from (13.74b) and allowing lor (13.73) readily lead,
u8 t o tho following relat ionshi p:

VW _2M + ~ ,
which !Uggests that Y W >2M.
Th us, the fact tha t the grav iwn has II ucneeec WlW, irrespective of its magni-
tude, leads to repulsion of parti cles of mat ter fro m the &:h,,"arlSChild s phere.
In vrew of the s ingularity in solut ion (t 3.73) OD t he Schwsrzschdd sphere it
lo\l o~ the t i n RTC there Gin be DO spheriGa lly symmetr iG objects , either static
(I I nonste tiG, with a radius equal t(l or 1 ~ than th e gravita ti(lnal rad ius, which
abo m eens that there are no black holes.

,Chapter 14. Tbe Gravitationa l Fie ld of a Nonsrauc

Spberlcally Symmetric Object in RTG.
Birkhoff's Theorem
In GR it is proved thet the ext erior gra vitational rLeld generued by II nonsb t ic
s pherica lly sy mmetriG object ill reduced to the static gu vit et io;>nal field spacirLed
by the Schwalzschild metr ic (12.76), Th is userti oll bas been su bat antf eted by
Birkh olf, 1923. H(>wave:r, 8S noted in Ch pter 12, the Scbwaresehtl d met ric does
not sa tisfy t he RT G eqUlUollJl, wh ich force!! us to prove a similar t heorem within
the fra mework (> f RT G. Following Vlasov and Logu nov, 1985b. we will now
domonstr aw th a t the exterior gra vita t ional rleld of a nonsteue llpher iGe lly sy mme-
tr iG objoot is st atic 10 RTC.
Suppose that the Hoe element i.oJ given by (13,1). The n the functi oos w It, R)
and B (t, R ) In the exteri or of the object eonsltlered sa lillfy the Iollowing H tlbe et-
Elnste io eqllBtioll.oJ:

' ("
~ ., ...T+7Tiii
....,., 8if )' ' (H .t )

whaxe f (R) > - 1 i. an arbit rar y fuactle n of variahl e R, and m a positi ve eee-
aLant .
Note that th, collectio n 01 varia bles (t . R, 6, lp) used in represollLat ion (13. 1) Inr
me line element M coincidllll wiLb the Gollectioo of tomoviog coord inalell ~ .
(t , R, (I, ",) [see Cha pter 13).
To bd \ h IlOIIIt iOll tha I u lwy 1I0t oa ly Eqa. (f4 .f ) but abo RT G equa ti OAl 01
t.ha form (8.S7),
( f U)

""0 1nU81 tra lUl ~r Irom the comov iq tOOrd iDlltes to coordinatn z i = zl (l, c, 6, ~)
" Ia th e form ul u
I _ l {'c, R). r _ r ('(, R) (14.3)

and wri\t tbe line elemu.t 4" ill the fona

4" _ ' I fill + 2".dt dr + ,.# - BI (dOl + ai nl 8 0.'). (t H ,)
Ilur ing ;11 mind t hll tellSOr lnaafW' IOUio D la. and (14.3), w.
en e!lu blisb t bo
relu iotlllhip e10lst ing blltW8ell lhl lUa l.rit ooelfidll llU of rllpresellb Uollll (f3. f)
alld (14.4):
h ). - (Ii!
")1' .. , - hat h" - 71i
" 7lf
,. ' _. ,

..I .

r - (h ). - (71f
")' e-e, ,.. '

--7' ,
"'- -"'Ji'ifiifT.

Eq uati oa s (t 4.2) tlIen yMld

( ....,• .!!..]_
" " aN
-!.. [8'<-",.!!..)
l it ' (14.6)

*- [JPtM I~ ~] ,.. -/,:[ Bt,·_,.*,]-2..,..11. (14.7)

Not e t hat ai ' ( R) => 0 t ba systllm of eq lLRtiOll' (14. 1), (14. 6). (14.1) eoineidu wiln
t he s yste m (13.9) , (13.26), (f3 .27) .
No,.. let 113 h d t hll sol ut ioD.lJ 1.0 &qa. (14.6) and (14.1) for all val uM of / r uler
lhl ll _ f . W. wi l l _Ii: a mallie,U. (14.5) iooepaod' llt Ilf n r iab l, t:
~ , " (:1:) "",0. (14.8)

If ill (t 4.8) w. d iS_lI l iat' with respec t to 't and R, we ret

~" it,i~ " (14.9)
ik 81f - ~ 7<'
For (I . k) _(O, 0) thi s yields

""bielt im pl iea thlt r _ r (8). T berefore , ..... -.It th a 1IOIuti oA 1.0 Eq$, (14.7) ill tha
for m r ,.. r (8 ). We thell h. " e
;. (S: -2mB) + :; (2B - 2Jn) - 2r_ O, B >2m.
T h is ~qull i i oll has II unique regu lar eeluuc n (P~k , t 939, f 959, an d V[u ov an d
Legu nov , HlllSb)
r _ B _ In, r ;;'In. (14. 10)

Sinea in Vie. Ilf (14.8)

for (14.5) and (14. t O), _

arri • • at thf, foll owing nll ati o.nsbipe 1M
mll!l de pend 011 r, fJIIU.lII illg tha t e- "'" alld a1lowi.JIg
1 _ 11 "
lI'I d ollaR:
" )' - (71r
('it " )'("7R )-' (1+/) - 1" (r) El H (B) .
(14. ft )
!!.. 'l (")-'
,. h,B_ 71f 71f 1'+',, - 0.

(14. 12)
" (8) _ ~
l- holS .
The sl Ul ull.llD ei ~y conditio n lor eystl m (t4.t 2),
' ("if
Mf ' ("
" ) = ""if Tit )'
ena bltlll WI to lind tb , lund iClll 'i' (B ). lor wllieh we bl ve the following equat ion:
~ ( t--})+ '¥~ _O.
Takiq for the solutIon to the equatioll the function
'f (B) _ (t - 2"JB)- I, (14. 13)

H ID) = 1.
Then &Is. (14..12) yield the followi"l .lystem 01 equations foe- I:

. . = .y~
, + 1 ( 1 - 7'" )-' •
'1 '8'8 (1 - B2..
"iif ="lT "Tli"
r vm
,' (H .t4)

I.nteau t iol\ yields

t(B , Rj - - Vi+7 ~ d8' lf + 2mIB ' t'f.l(1 -2m/B ' )-' . (lIi.15)
For I pos it ivQ wo ha".
' IB R) 2m 1 Iallb( IJf2} +tanb,
, - II l.Ul1I (;;nl Will,

+ 2m. eolhY [('l - Sillh'll~ - 'I] '

f(R)_ainh *, (R) . CllISb .. _/ ~+ t ,

u.nh't-tanbl , _ (~ - t)( I + ~ r: t~J .
For I - 0 the u pre!llion lor t l im pJili.esI nd urum es \hI 'lInD
(13.28). T ILe expl ~it
n pr .IOll lor r ( B , R) whu/lt nerative will lIot be liven heNl due to iu com-
plu ll )'.
11. Graa>Uall. .. al W..... ..
S llbst ilatillg (t4.t O) alld (14_14) illto (14.5) , . . uri .... . 1 the _ght n t. ior IOlu-
t lOll to lb . ')'lI te m of RTG tqlll ti Old:

.+- ,+-
dr= ~dJI-
,-. dr' _ (r+ ",)" (o'8"+ Ulll e~ .

BIl\ th ll lOlu llOD. eorre:spoa dl to th e eQe of , .ulic .ph_leally sy mme trie ob ject
(1". t 8)

lite Ch aptu t 2). Hmce, Birkhofl'. Ib eorem hold. \ru. i.. RT C, OJ' e nOnlUt ie
sph_leell y sy mm etr ic 501lree pnu.tes a ete ue rr."iUti oo alli.eld in th e u leri oc
of th e lOUr«!.

Chapt er 15 . GravitatioDal waves

One of Ihe most imporl , nt pr oblelns i n th e theor y of &'Tu lu t ion ill Ibe pr oblem
of leoeration and c eteett cn or gravita t ional wevee. A eompreheD5 iv. t heoretiea l
;o vltll l ifiat ioll ll f this prohlom enee un tees a num ho.r of di fflil Ultl u priUlIlrH y l inkeod
whh the s t ro " l[ 1l0nlin . ariLy 01 t he ftel d equ lltlOD5 , a " d ooly 10 th e wel k-lIcld
. pproximd ioo hu it betin pOllll ihle to carry out . eonsill t en t invutill'atlon. Nobod y
hu yU dl seov ered i rn it. l ion. l wuu . A na~u ral elullIptio n is thai in vin.. of
Iho utre nWlly low inle M it y olrr. ...i ta t ioo.1 ""av. t he li neerbed field equa tlo ll.ll
pro ...ide an id eel too l i n Ihe be nd' of ..-areh ue.tudylng ( r.vnat ionel wa •• eom-
i..,. lro m sourc.ea obMr .... b1e in ou r Univllf!lOl.
Let UI ass ume thet i ll lb, en ti,. s pace-t i me. i ncludi n, t he ~lon ouupi«fl by Ib a
eee ree, lb. graviU tionllield e - (s") is wuk :
lID*" (z ) 1< I. (15.1)
M shown in Chapt er I I . hI Car la ien eoonl iaates end. III the wu..k -fiel d a pprvlli m...
l ion the aeneralioed RT G syat elll 01 eq ua l inu (B . t4) , (H .1S) ean be re p_nte<!
in Ihe lotm
(0 + m'l tIl · ·
' ..(1)--
= 16" r -,
= O.
II in rea lity t he gra v it.on mass 15 very small but fUlit e. the cOlltribu tlon 01 t h is
mu .. ....ilI be I quant it y eo mpau ble ....i th ~ecolld·order or h ighet -or der pertur bati on
l er ms a nd , hen ce, will h ave no effect on th e emwi oll of gravltalional ....U 05 III
Ihe li near ap pros illllllio n . On ly 0 11 the cos molog ic al sea l, ean th i~ term manifllllt
In t his cha pte r ....e wish to eomp. re t be rOllu l1llobtained in GR ao d RT C . There-
fo. a, wa co nsider t he "fetam of equation.
oe-' _ t 6n '"
r -. (15.4)
a..¢l"'- "" 0, (15. 5)
wbl eb 10110_ froro (15.2) and (15.3) ;r '"' I.5Sll Ule tb tl th. rrav it on mIllIS is uktly
t_ . '"
T~ quant ity ,..- on tha richlrb'lId side of (t5.4) is obt.ined fro m Ih.
H Ubart eDertY- momeotWll tell8W lOt' m. t let al l« . . repl ac' t"'" with ".- elld
V_ wUb 8_ in \h e l at ler. Th. eo1'ui.aot eeesee ... alion law (8.12) . .nm es the foll ow.
101: 1000m ill t b• ...-k-lield a ppro:o' mation:

r- - O. (15.6)
' 00
Let ~ _
4>"'" (f, I) . nd
the m ililani method of tolYiD.g Eqs. (i 5•.lij. W. write the tl ll80n
r- (r, I) 10 Ier1u of tlImpon l Fouri. iolegnla:
(t 5.7)

T·~ (r ,l) _
,-1o"T""'(r,~)di.l. (IS.8)
Sinee ¢l" . (r, t) .nd r " · (r , t) ... real, the Integr' l r.pr_ nt. tioD~ (15.1) l od
(15.8) yield
(¢l""'(r, IltW - <Il-(r, - 11» .
(I) CIl
(r- (r ••)) 0_ 1-(r. _ ...).

SlIblIt itlitilli (15.7) • .l)C\ (15.8) iAlo (15.4), we ani'" I t In 6ql1l.twn,

<v"+ V)lll- (r. ~)_ - t 6JIT- (r, .). (tS.9)
. hose so lutioll II well knOW!!:
r .... (.)
~ ( r, ..) _ 4 J l r T""' (r ' , IfleV, ' , (15.tO)
"'her, R = I " - r I. For the Foud er tr8 M {o r m 3 $ "'. (f , <0») and roo. (r , lol).
Eq! . (IS.S) I nd (15.6) y ield .
ilJll1ll'" {r, 6l) _ o..<Il" " {r, .. J. (15. 11)
""Tt'"(r, .1_".1.. . (., lit).
(. l
(15. 12)

Hft'l! &1M!. in 1I'bal follows the Week i ndM:es usume ..l ues t , 2, , ad 3. 011 the basb
of (15.1 t } ween us U)' uprtl$S ~ (t, II) ln tarlDS 01t b.upltl, l Fouriu trll1s1orlllll
~ (f, . ) tbm:

- '
......(r, lol)- - -;r iJ.fJ,fP (f, tI),

41\1O. (r, 1t)- - ';' oaOl"'(r, tI).

" (15.13)

(15. 14)

Thus, th, !IOlutioll (15.10) to the RT G ayslem 01 equa ti ons conta io. onl y ' ix teee-
pondent Fourier tr.nsfOl'lJ\s.
Th • • p. till Fourler tr. nsfOl"ms tJ)4 (e, \1» ca n be I'I'l:itle n in • for m th. t will
b ter en,bl. us to c1.molUlr ' le t he quadrupolo nature of ¢I"~ (r. I). AUowin, for
(Ui.12) ..... ean writ ll forlllub. (15.1O) lor t h•• p. ti.! Fourlll'l" tr.nsfOl'm5 .. follows:

41'" (r , It) _ - 2W 0 I f 19' Cr' .

• ~...It (II
Ill) z'<>z" tIlr'
21 • • • (I)
+ .cJ~ ~ T T "' (r' • .. )z'·:lI:" ~r·
I r ..... ( 1)...
- .. cJ.cJ. J Ii"'" T (r' . .. )~dT' } . (IS .15)
Now we ca n ta ke advantage of t he arbitrar ille!l:l in th solntio o to tb e ay, l.em of
equa tions (15.4) , (15.5). In the weak-field a pproxima ti on, r- (r, t) is in depen-
dent 01(fl"' '' (I , I); hence, if l1I"m (r, I) is a solu tlon to th e above-mentioned system
of equa tions, so ia t he fun ct ion l})". " (r, t) specified thu s:
$ ''' '' (1, II -$"'''( r, 1) + 8"'11"(', I} +0...... (r, l) - ,," "a . a"( r, fl, (15.t8)
where t he 4-vector 0" (I, I) sa tillties t he equalioD
Oa"(I, I) ... 0. (15.t7)
(t is a ppropr iate to note at this point that [15. 16) ia a 8uperconrd in ate gauga I. allll-
lormati on and hu no connect ion ",ith coord inate tnnsfor matioM.
Aside fro m (15.17 ), we must imp ose a condi tion on 0 " (r, I) Wit,! will guarantee
the weakn ess of field $''"" (r, I). Th is means that lor if"o" (r, I) the following
inequa lity must hold true:
j 0" /1" (I, I) I < t. (15.t 8)
Now i n t he weak-held approx imat ion observ ab le. mal' be calcul ated on an equ al
bU i' u, ing 11).... (r, t ) or " ' ing 11)"•• (r, I). Employ ing (t5 ,16) and (15.17),
we arrive at th e Iol lowtng Icemulas for the Fourier tnlll!forlM :
111' l1li (f, (0) _ l1J"l' (r, (0) _ j(ll ll~ (r, III) - 11,,0" (r. "1). (15.19)
11).000(r, ) _lDo" (r , lI)) -Ioo#(r , 1I)+8"aO(r, wJ, (15.20)
lD'O ~(r, OJ) ~(r, 1Il} + a"a~ (r , w)+o~all (r, w)
-"F(o.a"(r, wl- lIIIa' (r , 10)), (1 5.21)
(lI)1 _ 0,,8" ) 0" (r . w) ~O. (15,22)
Let u8 Be lect the 4-~<"Ctor a" (r, (1)s uch tllRt the <Il' 0It (r, (1)(0; ... I , 2, 3) and the
trace of 11)'''. (r, Ill) , equa l to$': (f, w) +
11)~" (r, t.l), venlsh. Calldltiool of this
ty pe im posed on the field 11)"" (r, lll) lire known as TT gauge.
On the basis of (15.13), (15. 14), and (15.19H I 5.22) one can easily show that
the field 11)' ''· (r, w) ""ill llt i~y the TT ga uge conditions if aO (r, w) and a" (t, w)
are chosen u foll ows:
aI (r, w} _ - ~ [ (JlGO ( r , w) - +I1)~ (r , III)] , (15.23)

o-"(r, (0).... - -;- $ O<> (r , w)- -,l;r a" [ lflOI (r, w)- +~ (r, w) l (15.24)

Combining (15.23) , (15.24), and (15.9) with (t5.21), we arr ive at the fall OWing
expression for ¢I'll. [r , w) outasde mat ter :
¢I"'~( t, ",)_ ~ (r , w) - ~. (8"a,..S,d (r, w)+ aao"s"°(r, lol})

+ ~ yoaaoo,ss' (r, 01)+ z:.. a"ih.a,ss' (r, w), (15.25)

wheTe we h a~ e introd uced t he notat ion
5" 1(r, ",) ... l1f'~ (r, ...) -+~~(r, (0) . (15.26)
Herll y"1 ..on8 ti tu~ t he spa ti al par t of the Min kewsk! mel f i.. wit h _ I elements
on the princi pal d iagonal. Note tbe S,,~ (r , t.l) is a traceless tenser, th at iI ,
y~ .S"~{r . <o>} = O. (15.27)
102 T~.< ThLO'I .f a,..vjIGlI"~

Now lel us d~vota mOre at ten tion 10 solution (15. 15). Exp anding R-l in powers
of r -' . where r 19 tho distance from the SOun:/l', eenle. to th e poin t wheu the field
is deLeeled . and assuming that the lino at d imensions 1)1 t he source li fe much slu lle r
th en r, we find tilet (15. 15) yields
lb~~{r, <.(1) - - z;" ~ ei"'R"'''z'~ '~ (r'. Ill)
(8) \ 11
+2t.r oo (1' , 1lI) + e.e"T "'(1' , wll d'r ', (15.28)
with e" = r>lr and e,Jf' = _1. I n going on fnlm (t 5.15) t<J (15.28) we have
dropped the nonweve terUlt, which (ail of! faste r th an ,.'. Subst ituting (15.28)
i ot<> (15.26), we get
S~( r , "') - - ~ 1e;..R(,1:'.%'~-+'f'lI'l:~:l:'O)
{OJ (1 )0 ( V)
x f1""(r ', (o)+2« .T · (r'. w)+e.e, r "' (r' , w)] d' r' , (15.29)
It can ellllH y be demo nstrated tht , to within te rms of the order of r""' ,
a"S""'(r, lol) = - IIM. ,s'"lI (r , loll,
ffS'4( r, w) _ _ I<:.Je"S"' ~ ( r, w).
Thi~ ~Oll ble8 wri~ing (1:i.2.:i) ~h u~;
¢lAII ~(r, w) ""~{ r , ",,) + ~~S"~( r, 'C<l) +t~~~( r, Itl)
- T 'I"~. " S·« r, "')++ ~"',~,SO '{ t, Ill). (15.30)

Introducing the project ion opetlllors

Pf - 6; + ~e, (15.3t )

P:-2, P,.J1 =p. , (15 .32)

we can rep resent (15.30) in the COlll pec t form
~,o.e.(r, \II) =(p~P~- -tpo.e.P<.)S ""( r, ~l) . (i 5.53)

Appl ying the Fourier ttlll1llforrndlon to both Sides of (1:i.33), we gel

¢I,d (r, 1) = { ~~ - ~ J>"dp..)S"·(r , I) , (15.34)
where, in view 01 (15.29).
S·'(r, 1)=+ :;. ~ ( ;i.%"--1-l""%~>;''')
(0) (O)~ ~
x [1'H( r' , 1')+ t"e~T (r', t ') Jrol tPr ' . (15.35)
H;IN and in what foll ows thB eubseelpt "rat" on U1a integra oo means t hat the
ex pNSSi on i D~ ide Ole squera bnckets must be taken at II ['iltllriled ti me I' =
t - Ric.
Let IJlI define the traceless tenser of t he generAlized quad rupole moment thus:
$<111 = l1'~ +2e.D""~ + '~.D""'·, (15.36)
'" LetQ DOWesU bli5h lb ' tra ll5formlt ion properti es of /I.... nod. rot a lioD of tb,
l ~d lmensloAaI IPac. ' boOl ,OI' z axis throuah an angle 9. Sioee tb' Doourn
elemeow III the ma tr ill: fell_ ting • rotation . bou' lb, s u i. are
a; _ COl 8. Q,"_ aiD 9, Q,' _ - S'll 9. a: _ _
9, ~ _ I ,
Il'Util (15,'5) we liDd th at
,,' .. _ A'" ... 11;>30 _ O.
A' " _ _ l ou _ 11." eo:!: 28 _ h" ain 26, (15.'6)
11.' " _ A" IUn 26 +/1;'·_26.
Silica ou l.!l ido matter 11.<>/1 (t , t ) u tbfi.IlI' bOw ogl llllOlIa llDflllr eq u atioG, l Oy lin",
comb ination 01 com pooeou of h'" I b o satisfies t his equation. Lei UI la ke Ih.
followh., combinatio ns:
11.", ... All ± fh".
For th eu (15.46) gives th o lnllowing tn llsforDl ati on law:
h;' _ (","Gh",. (15.47)
A!I i' ...·. 11 known, if n ndlr I rolali on of the lbree-d imeJUl ;onal s peee th rougb . n
' Oil, e . bout the d ine Uon of propagat ion of ,,' . ' uoGlion " is tn~
formed u
If' _ eiU 'V.

' bet! If' I. an e ipn!undioll 01 Ole heliel'y opera tor i ~ with I D eirennlue equal to l .
Tb us. (t 5. 47)l mpliee that " ,. art thu~..rl;lnctionl 01 opera tor i,
th at dteeliblt
th e IItaleS of the grui utiollal field 1rith heli e ll ies l _ ±2, repec:t ively. Tbe

s laleS of th e grav itational field wiUl he l icit.i~ l _ ± l an d l _ 0 have 110 phy.
mN nlna sln.ce th e torftlllponcllDC eil' enfunetiool ea n a lways be made equ.l 1.0
lJIrourh a ppro priate C. uJll u .nsform at ioll5.
Thill, lhe lIU percoonI ina\ll ttaD!lformationl (15 .16) h ave excluded lb e noo-
pIIy. ital components of <ll- . The f"." i u\!on. 1 lield proves to be • • pl n-2 lield
with helleill es ± 2. Only phy! i 1 rom pollellts of th i' field w ill enter into lhe
oxpre.sslon for the gr. vlt.lion.I, av e n ux, aDd lhe melri c te nlar for th e elYect lve
Rieman n space-Umo is eonatruet.ed on th e hR, ls 01 (8. 1) frnm Ille phy,ieal eOD;l Jl'O"
" t nts of the field. It is th illoature tbat fixllll tho geornot.ry 01 lhe Riema nn space-
t ime.
Now, foll owing Ei nstein , 1918b, wo ....1ll ee!culate the llllenl ily ol llTev ltatlona l
wav es in th e GR Irame work. Th e meth od 01 e. leul .tinc the inw ll5ity aUilf tllld
by E in.Ue lll IIld t he var ious mod ificatio ns hue ga illed wide aeeepll llCll end 11'0
, ive.ll In mllly ut ielell IIl d mOllogr. phs. I n th is cll aplft we e mploy \lie Vlrla rlt
wed In La nda u and Lifah i\.ll , 1975. As is well-known , \lie HHbert.-Eio.ste ln eq UI·
ti ons I..d to th e followiog cllfl_ lItill ClIll!ll!1'vat ioo l.w:
a" I-I (T- + r--) I _ 0, (tS. 48)
...ben ~ _ ~ is the werrY-mom,nhlIo ~udoUIlfI)r of the gravi ta tion.1
tildd. I nUpatillc (15.48) over I ....ffi&ieotly l~ vol uml l Dd ummipC th . t the l'O
is 110 tr l.llSport of m. lttr th rourb t be run.ce bou nd lDI th e ill~t ion volume,
.... obta in
Accordin g to Eim~l.eill, t 918b, the right-hand side of (15.49) a t Il1 = 0 is "for
certa ill the loss of energy by the mateT;s ] syste mn and , hence ,
-*- -f ( -g) '(lI<adS~. (15. 50)
Then the "'!DeIgy nu",~ Ilarried by th e gravl ta t iQnaJ waves th rough th e element al
5urfaC8 arn as.
is given by th e formula
dl => ( _g) '( 0<> dS. . (15.51)
If for the su rface of in tegr at ion we ta ke a s phere of radiusr (the as" _ - re.. dO),
then for t he int ensity of gT8vitatiollal wevea per unit solid ollgle we have

Jg = - ..=( -g) ",a"e", ( 15.52)

where dn ill th e unit solid angle. Cale ula tiog ( _g) 1:0" tr um, say, tho peeude tensoe
given in J;,an dau and !,ifsh it l , 1975 ( p. 282), we find that ill tho weak -field appl'OK-
Im. lion combined with (15.41) and (t 5A2) an d the TT gauge condit ions .

( _g)~ ~ ~: ( <11>;'' ) (~") . (t 5.fIJ )

This leads to t ho following tra nsfnrmat ion 01 formula (15.52) lor the inten sity 01
grav ita t ional waves per unit ilO lid angle :
dO 32..
( ....
)( ....
)' (15.54)
Substit uti on of ( 1 5.4 ~) into (15.54) yie lds
~~ "" ~n [+(~"e;o·"~· ;--+"ji~D~a+~",aD~·ii ""l ( 15.55 )

I n tegra ~iD g (f5.55) with res pect to the an gular ,' aria bles a nd a llowing Ior

~ dOe,,' a '" - ~ I'd '

) dSle..~,e ~ (1'..,'l'" ,+ y..oY~. +l'".,,~o)'

we alTive at the well-known quadr upole formu la lor t he to lal intens ft y, which
was first e~ la h1ished hy E inatei n, 19l 8h :
I . , . "'aJ
1 - trDdD , (15.56 )
wh ich imp lies that
1>0. (t 5.57)
Formu la (15.56) for the intensit y 01 grav iUt iona l waves haa been deriv d in
GR on t he assumpti on th at th e ;rA coord ina tes in t he ent ire Riem ann apace-time
are Cartesian . If we Were to select other coordinatllll in CR , we would arr ive at
a n ent irely d iflere nt result, whic h mea ns th at (15.56) is not a cOrllllary 01 CR.
T he deri vation of formula (15.56) given abov e in ttle GR framework is hued Oil
the de finit ion of energy n U ll: v ia (fS .52). And the la tter conUins thl) quan t ity
~ , which Is not II tens or.
An anal ysu. cond ucted in Dentsov a nd Logun ov , 1982d, aud vtasc v and Denise... ,
1982, ha s sho wn th at , dependi ng on tbe ch oice 01 thll ayste m of eocrdinat es, the
energy Dux ( t 5.52) thr ough every element of a spherical s urface of ar bit rary u d iu$
r and, hence, the tota l energy now (or toull nte.nsity) t hrough the ent ire spherictl
surface in th e ecurae 01 & finite and fixed ti me i nterv,l may be p().'l itlve or negat ive
or eere, in contrast to th e l5Ilertl on in Ei n"-ein, t 918b.
By selecting e n ap propria te reference frame in t.hll OR fram ework a nd lIarl/ og
from. Mfinillon (tS.52), in tile weak·field approxIm.tioD we een derive (Denisov
and Logunov, 1982d, and vleecv Rod Dentsov, 1982) tbe following formulas for
the intensity per unit soltd angle a nd tot,l int.ells ity 01 gravi ta t ioDal wavea:
41 1_4 [ I " ' " Il. l 'n . •• '" •.• "'''''' ]
dif "" "'Jij;:I .1" (t"t~D - 1~ + 2D<dD +e"t~ Dr>4 D , (15.58)
I . . .. , . . a
1_ ~" D,.~D " , (15.59)
with a an arbitrary constan t. We Be. th at only when a '" 0 do we get formulas
(15. 55) and (15.56). If, for ono thing. we take '" equal to +1 or _t, we fmd that
the inlen si' y per unit soli d angle di ldO a nd the tota l intellsity vani sh.
We have thu s arrived a t t he cooelll.'lion tltd lUI a ppropriat6 11hllice of refel"6Jlce
frame may result in t he arbi u ary sign 01 di ldO and I deflne d in GR , aCGordillg to
Eins1.eill, 011 Ihe basis of (t 5,52) or oven n nUify t hese tw o quanti ties, Thu ts
lIbsurd from tlte rlamlpeillt oj phyrles, d ll« radlatWIl, klllg a phyrtco.l reality, cannot
M " annthll<JUd" bV all appropriate trD.MJlN'ma1 /(Jn of coordlrnuu ,
In contr ast to GR, in the fremework o! RTG, as we will shortl y demonlltrat e,
there are no such dirficu lti es and th e formulas (15.55) and (t5 .56) ara str ict corOl.
lar ies 0 1 Dil l' theoret ieal idel5.
At the base of inlen sity ca lculati ons \lo'a place th . covar iant RTG eOllS(!fv Qlioll
law in th e (9.23) form:

D.. (T:" + t{llro) -O,
I n Chapter 9 this form of th e covariant cOl1llerva ti on 18wlor the energy- momentum
ten sor of matter and gravi1.8tlon al field take n together was shown to be io all
(t5 .60)

I'lI'l imilar to tho covar iant eonseevatle n Jaw (6.28). We h ave ehOOllD (15.60)
as tha form for the couseevancn law lor pu rely techn ical reasoos. For
already h VI the repJWentali on (9. 13), in which we have ~o:>l llted the term tb at
we '"Ir;,..
is the co:>varia nt divergence of the ten sor X'/..' , which is a ntisy mmetric in th e upper
indices, and tha~ , theretcre , cont ributes nllthi Dg t o (15.60), - U we allow fo r (9. 13),
formu la (15.60) ceu be rewr itten as follows:
D", (T:' + ..:) _ 0, (15.61)
..~• =- "L
~ I ' [G-' +21
+""'i&I - G-'~I ] D-"
I -"",Ipql"/ ~g, (15.52)

I n contrast to (t,) .48), t be left-ha nd side of (15. 61) ill a tr ue wnwI' aince it Is thtl
co varian t d ivergence in the Minkowski met ri c of tbe tenser q ua nti ties T;;' an d
T:, Hence, all intensi'y ca,lcula tion (or eelcalatlon of ot her ehuMter i! ti&.! of tb.
grav itational lield) based on (15.6t ) will Dot depend on t he eheiee of t ile sys tem
of coordi Si nce in the Minkowski ' pace-time wo oao al\V8.YS select we Carte·
sian (Galile an) l)"lw m nf coord inat~, (15.61) yields
am(r:' + ,:)_ o. (15.6 3)
• Term. .. bote ~ l n, g eft C<l • •" i, b. identic. lll' in "I. ... <I.I1 h.. . ItnlClu,.. Iltd \.0 no !all' "I
« ,o""ntIOJl,
Thus. in RT G, in CO lluut t o GR, the cc nseevaucn law (15.63) is 1l1.llQmd iG al1y
written in t erll\.S of Cadesia n e OQrdi na tllll. Integra t ing (tS .53) over a sufficien tly
' argtl vol ume and assumi ng th a t matter is not tra Dsport ed thro llgh t he surface
bou ndi ng the integrat ion volume, we get
ao ~ ( T: +1;:) dV =-f~dS... (15 .64}

Since at /I .,., 0 t he lett- hand aide of (15.M) is tho amo unt 01 e nergy lo»t by tho
sys tem, theenergll flux carr ied by gravi tatio nal WIVes t hrough the elementa l sur-
b ee are a rlS.. is
dl _~dS... (15.65)
If we select. t he aurface (If 1\ s phere 01 ra di ~ r u t he in tegra t ion s urface, we arr ivll
at th e foll OWing formula for Ulll in tensit y per unu sc li d angle:

dQ = ~ r~ dS.. . (\5 .66)

To find t he 8xplici t form of (15.66), we must e alcuiBte T: in tho wMk-lield ap prox-

imation. Wr iting (15.62) in te - ras of Cartestan COOrt!JMt ll.'l and emp loying th e
expa nsions (15.4t) and (t 5.42 ) in the weak-field eppeoxtme uo n combine d with
the T T gauge conditions , we get
,-: = - «k- oJlo, i1ch~ + k o,p"' d' h. ,. (15.67)
Since te wilbin ter lllll 01 t he order of 11r' and higher
d'h o' - ""'°010., (15.68)
eod th e T1 gauge comli lion! imply t ha t
o..h"' ",.O.
forlDula (15.67) yield s
Combini ng th is with (15.66), we arr ive a t th e foll OW ing formu la for HIe intensit y
per un it solid a ngle:
df " .. ~
-;Q' - 320.. 11,n 0ohlAl'
If we com bine tlli! with ( tS.4~ ), we arrive al (IS.SS) and,(i S.56):
-tfr- ~.. [+{t"t~D°"'JZ +{- D·.. a·b~ a + j! ..j!ih~aDO u ] , (t5.70)
I . o. .. 0",
1- D..~ D (15.7 1)
In RT G the exp rossion for the energy-momen tum te030t of th e grav iona l
field ;n an inert ial reference frame lorm8Uy coiocides, when writt en in terlllll of
Gatflean coord inates, wit h tb e expression for lIle GR energy- momen tum p!8ud o-
te n$Or if fnr some reasoo the s pat ia H empora l coord in at es in th e latte r ore declared
Car t8Sian. But in th e Riem ann spaCI!""Ume, lind, tberefore , in GR, there can be
no systo m of globa l Cart esian coor d inat es.
In the case of a wea k fIeld such a formal ecineidence enabled E instein intuilivl!""
Iy to find the form ul a lor the intensity of gravitation. 1 waves.
H' rM R. I<WI»WI. TA. ~ ry oj Gr.»if41/0ft

Chapter 16. A Homogeneous and Isotropic Untverse

I n th is cha pter 1" 8 consider a hOllltoglloeous an d isotropic uni verse. The li ne ele-
ment for such a universe will be represented io the follow ing form:

d&' .. U (t, r) tit' - V (I, r) dr' _ W (t, r ) (dll' + sin' e dip'), (16.1)

where t is tim e lind T, e, and !tI are me spherica l coordi nates in the M inko~ki
space-time. T he fundions U (I, rl , V {I. r' . an d W (I, r) lor a given distribu t ioll
of ma tte r mUllt be found by w iv ing th e system of equat ions (8.36), (8. 31). Ill.
what follo ws it is con venient to employ the syste m (8.36), (8.37) in a form in
whic h th e Ricci tensor an d the energy-momentum WAllO,. ate exprassed ;n wrms
of mi xed «lordinates:

Y-- g ( R~• -T• ~R

• )= Bnr:' . (16.2)

D,;g.."... O. (t6.3)

For T: 1"11 ta ke the energy-momen tum tensor d en8i~y of a perfect lluid (Fock,
1939, 1959 , and Tolm an. 1934):

r: ... V:::g({p+ p) u" u~ - o5;pl , (16.4)

where p ill the densi ty of tbe fluid, p the isoLrop ie pressure, an d u" the unit 4' \'octor
of velocity.
Acwrdillg 1.0 (16. 1), th e nonte rn components of th e melr ie t ensor K.." are
£ •• = U (f, r) . K,, = - V (t , r ). g.. _ _ W (t , r ), g . . ... - W{I , r) ~ ill·9.
( 16.5)

If we reea ll tha i g .. " g"~ .,. Il~, we can easily find th e no neerc components 01 t/"":

g l! - - V (ll, , j ,

with Ii"· _ 0 lor m ,* n. Let us assume tha t
u'" = 0, a _ 1, 2, 3. (16.7)

Thel!, in v iew 01 the ' aet tha t g",~u"'u· "" 1, we find t hat

l'~ = Ju' "0 - VV-. (16.8)

Combinin g (16.7) and (16.8) with (16.4), we obh in

with r: _ 0 1« /II *'
II. If w.
DOW \a kt into &«.OU lil (16.5) an d (t 6.6 ), ,.. lind
tll. t the 1I0llZB'O R iem llll.ll ian eo DlUltU OD eoef lieian ts . ....
... I lL' .... I ., ... 1 1(1 r' t it"
'. - W h ' ' '' - V h ' <.. = W- -;;" • " -Wa;- ,
I N t W t IM' tIM'
~' - "IiT "'ji""" ' 1".. "" Wh ' r:. = 7IT """1f ' l".. _ -nr -"
t ,,,, r:. - W ""
ro.. -lW"""'il '
t IM'
=mrT' '
1i. - 1W-;;:-.

I"".. _ I"'n " nI Q, r;._ r:. 5 in~6 , I". _ - sin 6cos 6,
I"'.. _ r.ol ll.

Usilli [orlllul as (16.9) and (16. t o) in t he covar ian t "eo naerv . tion~ l aw V .. T::' ... 0 ,
wll can eu il y o btain th e OI\4

p ~ p t - - ~ (JnYV" W). (t6. tt)

p+, """iT
iir •

....b ieh link p, p, U. V, and W. wt \IS . ...rl with

Eql. (16.2), (16.3) u d mtablbh
th e tel.tioMbi p3 !.bat eJ:~t belll'M1I U. V, nd W. W. wtlta (16.3) ill. Lb' form

(16.13) , :.
aNI th , C1uutoffel 'l' m bob for the Minb*i ap. e.-ti me whOM non ·
lIT Ocompo0ellt.JaNIlivea In (12.4) if apher eoord io.etM.,. ued. Si nce V=; ...
l'7iV IV , in Q <see (t 6.5) , .....
wi th (16.6) lhl\
lind frolD the defioitioD r oo v=r,.- combined

;- - VViU Wsioe. Kit ~ - yUTIT W l in e.

(16.t4 )
gD.- _ Jll.7T' sIn e, in- - VV'V (sille)"' .
S ubs ti t ut ing (12.4) and (16.14) Int o (16.13), w. ~t

~ (Vvnl Wj -o. (16.15)

j; <vV7V W) - a- Jll7V. (t 6.16)

Equatl OD (t6. 15) implies t ha t

YVW W~f(r). (16.17)

where I (r) " aD ubitr&fy IUlKt ioD th at d~ 1I0t d,pe u 011 I. SIIlCe i..D of
( t6.t7) .... hue Jl V W-VU/(r). Eq . (16.H) &.I D bI., ittell as fnUon:

p~ , ~= - : 10 VD.
, to

Th ~, the COUf illlt GOIISHn tioD la w V...r.' Do 0 aDd th e RTG equations (1&.2)
fIX p, p, U. V. I nd W y lb, folio_ lug n b tioDlhi...=
'_ .!O. _ _ -.-' !II"r U.• (16. 18)

p ~, *
__ ~lnYV. (16.19)

: orVW W)",,2rVUV, (16.20)

Y VW-YlJf (r). (16.21)

., .
Eq ua Ulln.l (t 6.t8) a nd (16.t 9) imply lb_t far th em to be va lid simull.aIl IlOUlIl y,
the follow!og eolld ltiOIl mllllt bold tr ue:
-C (p+p "li ) - 81 (p+p T
"' ) . ,
Note thlt condit ion (16.22) amused only d Ull" Eq . (16. U ) wu tllpreseo tlld in

t he form (16.18), a nd t h le beea me possi ble t.hallks to fo,oID ula (16.17 ), wbieh fol-
lows h um Ihl! RT G equa t ions 116.3) . Th is s uggtl!ll.a tb a\ Ihe d ill~nU.1 rtlb t ion-
ship U 6.n), whieh w nnetta boly Ihe eb radUbt lU of mat ter, p I nd p• • PIle" .
~l l y ollly io Rr G. Let 111 lIl U$trd e th q lad by u exempt.. We will see
,..h.1 r. t:r!ct lons are imposed by toud itio n (16.22).
Suppotlll that Ihe eq of , I,ta of llIaUe hu the fMIlI P (t, r) _ p" (t, ~),
",h~ tb. UPODtJl ~ Cl is I Ilumber. We ISSlUDI ttu.~ botb P (I, ~) I nd p (I , ~) are
sep. u bl. , tIllt is.
P (I, ~) ... P. (I) PI (~) , P (t. ~) _ P. (f ) P. (~).

Thill (16.22) yields

Thl. is poSllibl, only if a; .,. 1 or a; _ _ t oThe cue witb a; _ _ 1 mll5t be u eludtod

l ince I t P, (I ) P. (1') ... p ;' (I ) p , ' (1') £q s. (16.18) I nd (16.19) hsve no l olullo n.
Tblll . if t he I tale of m.tter il .uch tbl t beth t hl I nergy delUl ity p (t , r ) In d
the IBotropic pr essu re p (f, 1') ar(l l ep anble and In the eqult ion p ~ P" th e expo-
nent Cl ill nol equa l to unity , th e effect ive Rieml un I pace-time ca nnot a Hne
element in tile form (t6.1); . nd v ice versa , If the Hnl elemen t i. reprMented by
(16.1) IIld P (t , 1') I.lld P ( t . ~) treM pn. blll, t he expo nlu t a; in th e equl tion of I IIUI
P _ p'" b necl$5ll.f ily equil to + 1. If a. = t , (16.18) im med illel,. im plil!!l thlt
U (I, rl ill sepn,ble.
8 110w . . cooaider. foll owillJ Vluo.. &.lid Lopno..., 1986b, the model of , bomo-
aenen .! aDd Isotro pic unh '_ In wbich delll!i1y plod ootropie ~ p Itl
IUDCli oo! of only the t ime vni,bll in the MiJikowski " . ..Lime. In th is cu e
COltdiUOll (16.22) ~ sro lisfied , ul(Imll;Cllly Bod (16. 19) imp li M tblt
U _ U (I). (16.23)

Si nce U '* tndependeot of T. (16.20) . ocl (16.21) yield

{-U )- " v:r;:

Multlp lyinr th i$ Into UIV)I/I, WfI ha~
:, (-H"-" (--6-)'".
lI'h1d . yidds lb , lolla_ inl formlll, for V (t, r );
VII1 (t. r) - }lUTtJ f'/lCr} IZ (Tl + If (t}r'. (16.24)

z (~) _ 3 ~ rfl ll (r) dr , (16.25)

~ nd .. (t) .... an ar bi trary ruec nc u of t . Combin in"g (t 6.21) with (t 6.24), WI gel
W {t, r } = fIJI (r ) ViiI (t) If (r) 'I' {t) JI" , ( t 6.26)
V (' , j I' ('1 U (I) (16. 27)
• - Will, r)
We bye nOI yd dll&lI3Sed how thll H ilbett-E.ill.:'Ite ln eqllatiOIlll (16.2) tom. i nto
t he pletUl'e.. Lelll3 lumine them. Aaulll iq th.t III "'" t and Il _ 0 , lid em ploying
(12. 11) as I bu ill eombiDed with (18.9), ( 16.10), a nd (16.73), we lind thet
I"W 1n'1W 1 11' _
- ~+ 2W -';- "+ TiT T -;;-- O. (16.28)
Dh 'id llli lIlis eq uat ion by oW/Or I nd per forming ~im ple ml nip ul.tions• ..,. get

~ 11l [ ~~ *] _ O.
TMs yields

where" (r) i' s n nbl l ra ry fu nct ion depend ing only on r , If we .1I0w for (16.2 1),
Eq . (16.29) ca n be 'ATlt ~n th~:
.JW1;' a .~
- h- ""' Y r .... fl) ,,{ ~)l(r).
IltteJnti oo yield s
Will (t , r) = y l'i(ij [ f ~ c Cr) I Cr) b +b{t) ] • ( 1&.30)

wilh b {I} en arbit.rny func tion . Com pariso n of (16.26) with (16.30) "hows t hat
t.he two ar e .. alid .imult..ll neoU!lly if
b (I) _ 'If' (I) "" 0 , (16.31)
J,, {r) / (~) dr _{/''' (r) [ 3 ~ rV/ (r) ",r]"l . (16.32)
The lu t formul. can be used to det.ermin . c (r).
T. k illi ioto Keount (16. 31). we U D ",,. ite Eq.s. (16.2e) a nd (16. 27) u folloW!!;
W (: , r) ... U"~(t) W, (r), (16.33)

...... Y(I,r) _U'/l(I)Y,(rl,

W, (r } _ / 1n (r ) ZVJ (r),
(16. 3(,)

V, (r) _I (r ) ,Z-lf.I(r) . (I 6.36)
On th e basI! 01 (IB.33) an d (16.34), we CIO lIu ily e!Jtablish th at formul u (16.10)
lead to the lollowing Ilxprll5l! lons for the nODWJV RillmlUDian connection coeffi-
I'! j d1/ .... .... j dW ,
.. = 7iT T ' ' " "". i . - 1iV;"""'dr" '
r:, - ,)fl',. ",::. r:.- - sin (lcose ,
I'! W , dlJ
.. "" 00 "/' Jj'"
r',, -"'2v,"--;[;'"
t dV,
r:. _I".. sln: e , ' - ""Zv,'"
r ,,= I dW ,
~ .

r:.,= I':, = 1".. '" ~ '::' r~ =r:. !ln1 e, r:, =rot6.

PUlting m =II =O In (16.2) I nd allow ing for (16.9) and (l B.37), we get
""'[&P{t) - j (.!!'.-) ']~ _' i ; ....w. +_'_ ( "")'
"'iW'S '" W. Y,W , d,.. 4V,W, tk
+ t <IW I ..!!::L (16.38)
~ do d, '
Simi la rly, at m = " = 1 {16.2) yields
UI/' [8np +~~ _ I';'" {a:: n
~ __'w, + "iY.Wf
' (d;"""
'W, ), . (16.39)

Since th e lelt-band sides of (16.38) and (16.39) contsin l uncl ioWl dependin g only
on t and t ile rigllt-h l nd si d8ll conle in fUllc tio ns depend ing only on T, ""Il ha ve
8np(l) -1WI ,
'" )' _ cp -liJ, (16..40)
_' L, ....W, +_'_( ..., )2+ t </W, dV, =c. (16.4 1)
W, ",W, dr' 4Y,W: dr 2"iifiV';- dr dr '

8rtp (.)+ 3iji""""7!T""

d'f) j 5 ( ,")
- t W' --.u _C,
2_ U-lIJ
' (16.42)

-1¥,"+ ' (---;;-
~Y. W:
'W,)'= c" (16.4 3)

when! Co I nd c) are arbi llary consta nt!.

Le t us lI$6 (16.43) to find V.:
V _
<,W, + I
( 'VW;)'
d' .
(16 .44)

Subs utu ttcu of thie express lcu into (16.41) reveals tlla t thll constant! Co and c,
are linke d by the following rel atloll ship:
c, = - t Co' (t6 .45)
Since JIll (r) end VI (T) aTe exp ressed in t~rm~ of lh e uroe funct ion f (T) (see
(16.25), (16.35), and (16.36)), (16.44) is lletus Uy an eq uation for / (rl. I t wlll prove
convenien t, howevee, to take W, (T) lor the Independen t l unc tion rathe[ tha n
I (r) and to ftnd the solut ion with reepeev t o T as a fu ncti on 01 y w,.
U~ l ng (16.35) and (16.36 ). we can exPre'lll! (r) and Z (r) in till'ms 01 WI (r) and
V, (r) th us:
tv) -- W , yV;, (t6A6)
Z (r) = (~ V;')ll'. (16....7)
Findi ng th e denv e uv e 01 (16,47) wuh u spect to r and allowing for (16.25) and
(16.ti6), we get

Substi tuting (16.44) a nd perlor(!ling eerta in ma nipulations. wo wl1l arri ve at the

aought equation for r = r OfW I) :
Wd c,W , +1 )
: '
W, )"
+ y W,(3c,W,+ 2) d ,~
IT , - 2r _ 0. (16.48)
Tile metric tenso r g,~ 01 the elJooetin Riem an n apace-t ime is in RTC e l unct ion
01 the univefRa l coordi llalE~ of the Mlnkowskl .pace-time. T his m Dln~ tha t th.
Rieman n s pac&- time is ~peci 6 ed on a slngle (!lap and, therefore, (n I\ l' C the re
can be 11 0 closed homogoneoua and isotrop ic u n;v&$0, because s ue h a untverse is
covere d by a t least two map a. Thus, the parameter c,
i n (16.44) is nonn egative.
Lilt us seek the 1IOluLiol1s to Eq. (16.48) th at aN eouttcuoua , one-to-one, and
uu idi rect ional.
Th e genen l solu tion to Eq. (16.48 ) has tha form
r(YW;) =-,w;-~ [v;,~'
I ... ,
VI + c,w, - ~
2<, In (V c,W , + V1+t,WI)]+w" I

lor c,>O (16.49)

an d
(16.50 )

wher e 301ut ioll (16.49 ) does 1I0t 511tiafy our requtreerenta, a nd (16.50) u ti.!lfJes
them onl y rOf B, = O.
T hus, tho ad mi.asibla solution to E q. (16 .48) is
.v rttr
'H ' , ] / -WI' A, > O.
W' )-""T (16.5 1)

<In lim e t, th e feet that c, = °

Note that in the model 01 a univ erse COM ide,e d ben , wheN p And p depe nd only
WAS esteblished independently from Eqs. (t 6.4O)

value of toDstanl c,. Since , in view of (16.45), c, = °

and (16.42); he nce, there is no wa y in whieh the presence of matter ca n olloot the
Implle.'l c, "" 0 , If we all ow
lor these values ;n Eqs. (16. 4O)-(16.4 3), we fllld Ihat U (t) ill del.Orm ined by tba
fUDctions p (t ) and p (t), whil e V, (r) and W, (r) are ind ependent or these functions
( in othex words, complete separa bil it y is ensu red) .
Donsequenrly, the solution just found, (16.51), is valid lor empty space , too,
a nd t he cons tant A I is independen t of th e properties 01 mat ter. But s ince a l p ""
p _ the li ne clement (16 .1) mus t coincide with theli lle ll1e ment 01the Minkowsk i
s pace-ti me, do' _ dI" - dr .- ,.t (dOl +
sin' fl dot ), WIl find that A, = 3. ThUll,
Ircm (16.51) and (16.44) we finally obtai n
W, (r) _ ,1, V, (T) _ 1. (16.52)
On th e bU ill of (16.33). (16. 34), Ind (16.:12), we h.... . the follow ing f _ul, for
lb . line elem en t (16. 1) ($Ill! AP~ D d is: 5):
th" _ U (f) (it" _ 0 1" (I ) 1dT' T' (de' lio t 9 ~t)\. + (t 6.53)
II we now p~ 10 pro per t ime 'f KCordi na: to Lb. form ule
}"1J(ij tit .. d e,
.... Gall .....itt; t he Iiol el'mnt (16.53) as
dr _ th* - uva ro
Idr"' +,. (de" +, In" empt)I. (IU5)
GoOlpati fli (16.55) . ilh the ",·.II-kno..o 8'el\~.1 tor mu la for t b.. Robertto!:'l-
Walk er metrie,
U _d,' _UVJ(T} [ 1 ~1;i +"(dlF + ,i n' 8dV) ] •

..i~ eollSt.1It If. usum i"i nlul!!l 0 , + 1, . nd _ t o w.

wnclud e th et in RT G the
...lee 01 .t Is de l.ermloed uniq ulIly and is eqUil to eeee.
Th IlS, in 'l ie. 01 Eq' . (t6.3)••e, atrin a L tbe co nclus ion lb.t in
RT G the univene is lnbll. Ue an d net.
H WI introd uee the notdion
U" · (T) .. RO('f), (16.56)

pass In (16.40) en d (16.42). via (16.54). to prope r t ime T, a nd allow for t he feci
th e' c. _ c, "" 0 , we obhln
(RdT ,
" )' - a P(I ), (16.5 7)
I ~' II
/f "'Jf' '''' - T4" (3p+ p). (16.58)
T. k ing ~ll e der iu th . 01 bot h s ide!! of (16.57) ....i~" rellpee~ to -e . nd . for
(1B.58), ~ . ni ... . t t ho foll owing exp rUllion lor R -l dRl d"t:
I JR I lip
R ~ "' - 3(p + ,1 ?T ' (16.59)

One ee n .alIily veri ly t b. t thi.! coioeilietl wit h £ q. (16.18) . Indftfi , if in (16. 18) we
Let 11$ now in lroduu the Hu bble (uDelt on
H (1:) - ""If7i"'
PAM .. i . (16.54) to propel' Umo 1: u li . 1I0w for (16.56), we ."i..
e . t (16.59) .


For I'" preHo t lDOlDent ill tbt! . ...olutio n of Ih' uni...erse, 1: _ ~, the .... 10.1. H IT. )
ill kn own u Hubble '. COO$t.a1l 1 . nd is puiIIiU.... . Heaee, .tier .... u traet th e root
of (16.5 7) ....e mU.l.t .-Ieet the J>O$i tiv . ... Iue
, ..
7 71 -= T
(.. P)'1=. UHf)
If for ry 6nlt. r the fund ioo p ('t) d on not ... nish , the Hobbl. fu oction H ( t )
ia po.iI lt i .
Eqo. lioWi (16.59) .od (16.80) bri ng U.I. to ...... r. llll! nera l eonelU.l.ioue eonurniJll
tb. evo lutl oo in t im. 01 • homogeneous l od isolrople un iverse.
Sinet. H (t) it positi ..e, (16.60 ) implies that d Rfd1: it positi ve, 100. T hia me- Of
tb.l.l R (t ) I, .I. monotone ineree sing function of tim . 't , en d bec.tuse p +p is
posit ive, (t6.59) implies t hat dpld1 is negative, wit h t he r~." lt that p (1) is a
monotone decreasing fua ct ion of e.
If for every finite '" t he function p ('") does not va nish ~ n d li m (unetl o" p (1)
is nonnegative, t hen (l 6.58) Implies d' Rldr < 0 and, ernee dR ld," > 0, t he
function R "" R (1) is monoto ne increasing and the respective curv e is always
co nvex up ward . This means that over a finit e time "",In in t he PMt, R (1) as!lumes
il./! mini mu m valu e R oo l" (T.,'n) '"" O. I n what follows we assume '"min to be t he
refere nce point (the nri gin) for proper tim e 1 and, t herefore een put 1 .. ,. _ O.
Let US define the cri tical dens ity l o r e'·ery v~ l ue of T 85 follows:
Pn(1) =8ii"" IF (1). (16.62)
Com bining (16.57), (16.60), and (16.62). we get
p, (1) iii P (1). (16.63)
We ~ell i hat the modem val ue of t he dell5ity of ma t in Ule uni vel'lle, p (t.) =
Pt . must coincide wlth the crit ical value r, (T~) "" 10-11 g/cm' a t tha present
moment in ti me. Hewevee, Lhe observ ed dens ity of in the uni verse, PO' is
a1 mo~ t <1 0 ti m8$ lower tha n P. (1",). Thus, RT G predicl./! t he nJstence of a large
ulat.ellt m i n the un iverse in some form nl mat ter. etnce thi s lacki ng mess is
necessar y lor the identi ty P. ~ p. (1".) to be valid .
Lei 1I1I now stud}" th e system nl equat iGIUI (16.59), (16.61). Th e syste m is i ll -
eem plete sin ce lhen are on ly two equati ons in thre e UnMO OWIlS R ('f), P (1), and
p (T). Fnll owing Ze1'd ovich, 1961, for the t hiN! eq uation \\'1l tah the equa tion of
t he s tate of mat ter In t he s implest fOl'01 .

with \0 beillg 1C& t ha n ullity , s ince aceord ing t n t he hypo lhe'lis of Marko>', 1983,
t he density nf mutter ca n never become infl ntte a nd, hence, t he s peed of snund
must al ways be less Ih" n the apeed of light.
Subs titu t ing (t6.M) into (16.59) and in tegrat ing, we obta in


where ;;- (\0 ) is the con~ ta n t of integr ation with dlm enstens of g/em". Comb ining
(16.65) wit h Eq. (l6.6t ), we get
R (T) .,.161l<i'(v) (1 +vj,]1/3(1 +>'!TZJJUH I. (16.66'
Note th at at d illerent etegee in the e>'olutiou nf t he universe the para meter \0
and, hence, ;; (\0) have d illerent values. roe example, in t ha radia non-douun e ted
era, \0 m f13, an d in th is case
P (1") z;o aR- ' (T). (16.67)
where" "'" /I-U/3). and

I n the nonrelati\' tstic era, when we ca n neglect t he pressuf a in compa riMII to the
densIt y 01 mat ter , in (16.MH I 6.66) we must ~e t v eq ua l to aer o. This y ields
fJ (T) = bR 4 (T), (16.69)

'W ith II .. -; {OJ, and

T bt p~n l in th. evolution of \he vnh _ beloop 10 Ih~ e....

'I'Iw eqUt\!OIl of su te of Jil. Uer (t6.M) wUh tIS < .. < 1 may unt (if i t is
n!lli wd a t alii Dilly II tb. very Atly lUge i ll l b• .,.oI Uti OIl 01 IIHI Ull i'l' l rse, ev....
befon tM rlldliti OH ominated en, ,"d
' I • Ihlli ll lll ..alue af Ih. dllDllil y of
m. lu l' equal t.o
Pft - 5.157 x t o'" " em'. (16.71)
1\"oLe th.t equ.. l io.ll 01 . tat. wit h Lb. lillliti ol v.lul of pn l met er .. Ioqual 10
p ity bu bee_ eouldllftd ill 8eli w ii and o'f, 1972, I Dd B. linU il
d ol , 1985.
A parl l'Mter ofle D Ilitrodueed for to!Q1olOl'ieal lUea.wt'tm enU is the dlil tton
~' /("')'
q( t)= - R"'F #< . (16.n )

By u inr (16,10) ~11 e. n enily show tbl t It l.h. PreMllt !tIp in lh. 1\1'OIul ioil 01
tb. universe,
s .., 112. (16.73)

Anot her Impor tant corollary of fll' G un be obta ined .. follows. If w. combi ne
(16.33). (16.34). and (16.52) wil h (8.28). It II eall' to abo... that t"" _ 0, Lbal is.
tb. wtlll llllerty deMity 01matl<lt and g,avl tational hid lot a Fr iedma nn univsl'Sll
In tha Minkowski spa ce-ti me is w ro.
In Cha pter 11 Wi! set up a pair of equ all olll, (11.9) en d (11.10), th at desetl be a
ma!lllive llraviu tl onll field . L ~t us study th model of a homogelll1O l1!and l.sotropie
uni verse from tb, standpoint of thCSll equat ions (see Appendix 5).
Sinu the coull ant conservation I. ", V . r: _ lland Eq . {I t . I ll) ""' abo valid
lor a ma!llliu graviu tiolllli Il.eld, all lar mlll.. dlH'ived lrom tlIese equatio ns art
nli d ill thi.! cue. W, "' 00 to d6molUtrate tha t here, th at is, ",hell th' v aviton
maSll 1ft il nonzero, the I nergy deMity'" nn Uhes. Indeed, slllCe l"- , _
U (I) ,.a s in El for th6 liD' elemen.t (t 6. ~) elld. , btnu. r_ ,.al!io 0, end If w,
allow lOt tilt laet thu 1M co ,.. sio 8 ill apOOical coordinates, the n (8.1) yields
4i- _ O. 'Th is, toptber with (H . t ",), forus lIS to eond ude tb~ t for 111 ",, 0 , lor
a Friedmalln uni..erse, \he eDayy danaity ,.. of mat ter . nd gn.. ita li o...1 5,14
lakea topt h. is always Vl"O.
Wa will .!low lor the gru i toll m_ In the lollowinc W, will "-Ie
(i 1l.53) u lba u p~io ll for the Hilt eI,me t ia the Riemln ll aplce-ti m, an d 11M
Eq . (11.9) to futd U (II , p (II. end p (I). Up 10 l hla poi nt, in order to s implify th'
for mlll.. we. IIIed. tht aystem of llDiu i n which c _ .. ... G <::I t , bUl lor' the eUt
at blDd ..... WMI to the c:eoti mele!"-fram..-ond syl lem.
hi ...ha t folio..... it i. eOllvenilll t 1.0 ref... to E qs. (11.9) as vtTitle D in ta-au of
llli I ed COlllponen ts :

l"=r (R:-+6:R) + 7 (';' }2 [ 6:+ "'y_. -~ (j:~T'" ]=>17":'. (f6.14)

"here WI bave illtr odn«d the notatioll x ... StlGfel.
If in (16,54) we p 8 M to proper ti me and aUow for nota tion (fG.56) , t hen com·
biDIng (lG.H ) with (t6.9) yiel ds

(7f, d1 , _
,, ), =T,. "P(T)-lF(RI (
t)' 8'+2' '
') (16.75)

I d'R
Jfdii'" = t' t
- T >\P (T) - T IlP (T) -~
( ' )
1-1!' • (16.76)

Find ing t he der ivat ive (If both s ides of (16.75) wit h respect to T and allowi nli' for
(16.75) a nd (16.76), We arrive at the following express ion lor R- l dRfdT:
IdH I do 6
7i~""' -3(;> +,1<'1 dT' (1 .78)
which e!)ineid e" wit h (t6.59).
A qu al it at iva a nalyais OJ! Eqa. (t6.7S) an d (16.76) enab les dnwing • num ber of
imporla nt conclus ions eoncerning the evohttio n ~l t he uoivel'Sfl. To t his elld we
will consider the right-hand s ide 01 Eq. (16.75), hut lir.l t let us s tudy the hehevlor
of the function
f( R) .. ;. (R·-I)' (R=+Y)·
If we send R In tero ,
f(R)~~ , (16.79)
while if wlI send R til infinity ,
f (R) .::=: e. (16.80)
Also, f (1) ... 0 at R ... I. Sinee

-1k ... ;; (R'-1 }(W + 1),

t he funeti on f (R) monol onieall y decreases for R E10, II, assuming a min imAl
value equa l to zero at R = t. or f (1) ... 0, and for R > t monot onically inerea8ell,
asynlptot iedl y appro ach ing t he val ue (16.80).
In view of (tG.55), which ill • corollary 01 {tG.59}, and the equat ion of s tale
(16.M ), whie h i n t he centi lDe ter-gram~ond system haa tbe for m
p (t) ... vc'p (t), (16.81)
we conclude thal the right--hand s ide of (16.75) is positi ve if R (t) n tisli...... t he
following ineq ual it ies:
a m l 0;;;; R It) :0;;;; R mw
8. (16.82)
wh~ a ... l~ is pOliiti ve and R ..... IiniLo. Here the nc neero lower bound on R (t)
occurs because v < I , whila t he upper boun d always uis l.! beeau S& t he densit y of
met ter p (t ), . ecord ing to (t 6.65), mcnct onieally decreases, as R incun a, and
te nds to zero, wbile f (R) te nds to e as R -.. DO. This means t haI . Fried mann uni-
verse performs cyclic evolution, wit h the densit y of matter rema ining always
finite .
Accord i ng to E q. (16.75). in the range fro m R .. I 8. to R .... we he "•
= [~P('I:)-~
3 R'
(R' -1 )' (RI+1. )]'" ~'
whil e in tho l &Dge from R...., to R.. ,o we hav e
, ..
7f"d1 = - ["TP(1)-"'iji"
" • {R'-- 1)1 (Rt+ y'i]'" . (16.84)

Let us establish t he behaviOl' of tb e R VB. '\" curv e at points R = R",.. en d R =

R ", l~'
II P ("'1:) ;0. 0, for R >
1 the right.-hand s id e of Eq. (16.76) is alway. negativ e;
hence tl"Rld-t ' < 0, which means that t he [unctio n R .. n
(T) assumes ils rna xi-
mum va l ue at the poin t where dRldT: = O.
Lilt us determ ine t he sign of d"Rfdr at point R = R.. 'n < 1. If we allow lor
the &<Iuat ion of ata le. (16.81), tak en at point 1: '" 0, · from (16.76) we get
( .!.~ ) = -~
II dT ._G 3
P (O) t +2 3v -e ('--'-) . R'",,~

But s ince p (0) end R",," a ra li nked by the relat ionship

'; p(Oj - R" (R~ln-l)I ( R:'IJI +t) "" O.
a llowing lor it in (t G.85) yields

(..!..£! ) _ ,[ ~+3 ( 1-") _S (l+ V) ]

R ~t' 1_ 0 'R Olin 4Rm..n ----z- .
Sin ce 8 ""0 < I , we obtain

(~:~)"'I >O.
Hence, the function R = R (Tl essum ea its minimu m at t = O.
Let us now eumi na tb e behavio r of the H ubble function (16.60) for R E
(Rill'. ' R", u)' Allowi ng in (16.76) for ULe equatio n of state (16.81), we obtsin
I tI'1l
- -,
1+3v - t ( 1-
Ri . (16.86)
Fi nding (1/3) tl,q> (t) f!"(lm (16.75/, su bs tituting its value int o (16.86), and per -
formi ng rel alive ly s imple manipu ali ons. wiUi allow ance made lor t he defini ti on
(16 .60) of the H ubb le functi on. we find t hat
~ +3 (I:v11P .."t 't'( R), (16.87 )
wh ere
V (RJ ",,3{1.j...3vl +3 (j -v) _ 3 (t+ ,,)
---rnr- ~ ----z--. (t6. 88)
It is easily noted th at
poait ive if R < r.
'V(R ) is
I lam if R =l ,
Ileg>lti v(l if R > 1.
Si nce H ('T:) vanishes onl y at points R ('T:) = R." . and R (t) .,. R.,O', wh ile

H (t ) *,0 for oUter values of 'R belongin g to the interval (R"" n, R.,u) . Bq. (16. 87)
can be represented i n lhe form

-s (-}) +~=~'V( R). (16 .90)

• With t .. 0 we tilIociUe the vil ue R (0) .. RallO'

Since If (R) IS negati ve far t < R < R.. .., (16.90) yields the ineq uali ty
dH -'fdT > 0; he nce, the Hubble functio n H (t ) monotonicall y decreases for
R E(t, e,.. ).
Prom (t6.90) i t read ily follows t ha t H (T) monot cnjca ll y decreesea lor R E (8" 1].
too, with R , the solution to We equa tion
{ <1 + V) H 2= e'¥(Rj, (IG.9i )

and monotonically Increases for R E (8.. la , RJ, aince in this interv. l dH· lfdt < O.
Henee, t he H u bb le fu nct ion H (T) assumes its max imu m at R "" R . Le t us
find the value of R ,_ II we C(llll llina Eq . (16 .75) wit h (t G.65) and (16.M), the n
(16 .9:1) yield s
-,- ' ' ) R"I+lY
1+ ... A(_)_( Rr- (16.92)

where for tbo sake of convenience we introduce the oet. tion

A(v) = 32~A' ( ;~:) ). (t6. 93)

Since R, < 1, Eq. (16.92) yields
R. ~ [ t (I + v) A(v) J . 1/1ll _ V). (16.94)

Comb ini ng (16.83 ) wi th the npress.i on (IG.GS) for p (T' and substi t uting (l6.94)
into the combi nation yields
H =, ~ y~ (:; : )II! ( I ~ V .4 (v) l llU- V) . (16.95)

To establisb t he newre oj the t ime evolution of a Friedmann unh'erse we (lIII5t sol ve

Eq s. (16.8J). I t is convenient to seek th e solut ion in tb e fOfm " =0 T (R):
T= ~ ~ [-r c1xP (.l - ?- {~· -I)' (Z= + l f2)r!:. (16.96)
', "
I n the ea rly stages of the evolution of t he uni verse , when the value of v lies bet ween
1/3 and 1, so lution (16.96) can be written as
- ,
, _ y~ r "" (16.9i )
a II J I A %:I{ t - V) 20,' +:1>"-11'1"
m lD
where A is giv en by {16.93l and IlOOStitutes a large number, sin ce, as will sho rtly
be demonst ra ted , t he gn vi toD mass m is extremely sma ll.
In der iving (16 .91) we all owed for (16.65) . As not ed earlie r, sta tes with v n nging
(rom 1/3 to I in Eq . (16.81) may be reali zed at vltty ear ly steges of t he evolutio n
01 the uni verse. It is thertl(ore na tural to assume tha t
R ('I) e: (.4/2)"'(I +V). (16.9B)
I n view 01 thill, the integra l (t6 .97), which determ ines t he 'I \Ill. R dependence,
ca n be a pproximately rep laced with

,- Y --'I' • ""
[1 %30 - vl 1('" ·
lI .. to
For y " \'. os (11 -1I2}1(1I + 112), with " aD inUger gte.ter than unity, (t 6,99)
yie ld.
T- T'('
&" )1/1t=;-
I A -' lIt- ~)IIIII F( -t=';'i
, y" ; z : -I/. ) . ('6 • ' 00)
wh, ... F (.: b: c; I ) i. lite by (l@l1IlO..... tri c fuo.c.lion,
R ) 10(1-"1- •.
1I _ ( R;;; (16.t Ot)
,,' (t6 . t 02)
For v . ". (16.99) yields
(f) In 2&: I ; -<-'1/11 {_'I' (iT-VI" [(I +u). -'
1" _

+ v {••'"
t . ! (2lo 111!J1 +.1
1)' (
h _ l )l!

+ (2.o.;,;:llI In 111+ (t + u)tJ2J}. (16 ,103)

LeI u.s fint inved ir a Le Lhll asymptotie behav ior or t f R) in the region wbert
R ,. R..... th . l I" where 1I ,. 1. Sinell In IhlS CI.J8 (_ Abram owitt and SUlgun,
t!l64, ud E rd' lyl. 1955)
F( - - ' - ·..J. .1. . _u).:::.: 1-1+ •>1 u y!O - y)•
l - y ' ~ ' 2 '
(t 6.fOO) yields
1" QI:.! (.!.)'" _'_ II -' I (I - o'lIl' '*II I + " II I I _. ). (16.105 )
3 & l+ v
Combining th it with (i6.lOl) yield,

R (T) eo< [ lIa;(~+V)' ] 1/1I' +YI1::1,11(1+ " ), vqk VA" (16,106)

Sinet l,r_ ~3. the lea ding uy mptotic l.eflll (16. t06) in the explnsion or
R (T) i. inell penden1 olth. gr.viton mi SS. For v _ ...~ and .. .,. I . (16.103) y ields

R( ) _ [
T- 1(.. +}),
9 .·~A Jl h ...' If U. ttt .. ,w-

It ia ru elil y nol.ecll.hat (16.107) coillcidas with (16.106) iI in Ihe lat ter'" rormall y
pu1 'Y _ 'Y. _ Ob" iws.!y . (16.107) is a lso indepelldeD1 01 the (fuitoo mass .
W. 1I0W wiah to enmi lle the HYWPtotic: ~i1oo where R (T) - R. ... < P.. I• .
III tM. '* (16. 100) and (t6 .103) yie ld
• •- -II'll-'" if ..
t - T'("'j'n
"7'" x 1 _ '\1
_ .. v•. (16.t08)
{ C..A· ·'" If
v _ ......
where h~' C. wa denote a ftulDftriu l eoeflieienl.
C ~+l [ I
. - -,;-
+ 3(bo-
+n l(2n -I)1l ~ (. -
t)l (L :lJ" 1)1! ] ' (16. 109)
Solving (t6.106) {Dr R, we obta in
R (T) ~; -l IJ(I _ ") + ~ A~ll( ( - ")(t _,,)~ if ,, *,,~ . (t6.110)

R(1:) ~A-un"){lI + ~ ;i(""")II~I~ if V =Vh• (16. t 11)

Note that th ese f'm nulas e re val id for lew values 01 T:

..... A ~ ' X1- V) {i -v)'
.-'/' ,I' (16.H 2)

Interestingly , lor every lin d \'811111 of v var ying betw een 113 and 1 all th e ....ympt otie
re l8 t i o~
(16 .110) and (16.1t t l are represeDLOO by para oolas, which follows directly
from the positi vity of the second derivati ve IPR/at' at th e minimum point R ...
Rm l ~ '
Th e Hub ble function H ('f) in th is asym ptotic region is represented th us:
7 ; 11(I-V )(1 _v) 1' if V,p 'll~ ,
H (T) ::::':
{TA....· ' -q;-T il "' - "'."
.k ~ :loo + l (16. 113)

T he next s tep lu I he evcl utt on of the UOiV8rsll on the v scale corresponds to

v = tf3. In th is case the in tegr al (16.97) can be represented UlUS:
t ...-Ttll + 2 y i , ',\ ( (J-~,)(¥ •~')(" ¥1 )"' ds. 6
(I .H 4)
where 't,1I is ~h~ t ime thu it took th e universe to evolve !roro the beginn ing of
the exp enslon ~18 ge right up to the bllginning of the ult rerel ativ istic (radtatlen-
domina t ed) stal e of metter (th e val ue " = 1/3 in Eq . (\6 .81)), R' ll = R (r",),
an d y, . y~, and Y. are the roots of tiwl cu bic equa tion Ay - 2y' + 311 ' - 1 = 0,
whose ap proximate values ere

y,- ( T' ) ' " + '43 + • ii

(au)' ('J
+0 -;r ,
' ) tI2 3 9 (') (16.115)
11. = - (T + -r -(3ZA)'" + 0 A '
lIl -7+0(-1r) ,
with A -= A (1 /3). Since II e: (A/2/'/' , we heve I !JlII! 1<: t an d I YIY. I -c: I ,
and therefore (16 .114) may be rep aced wi tb
,( _ '1,!,+~
' (_~ -'_)'12
J ¥.
dll. (16.H6)
• 1111,
After eva luating the integr al an d all owing for the fact tha t Y. ~ lfA we obtain

l" _'1" J + V~[RVRi- A-' -R,,, 'VW, , A~'

+ TI 1n R+J!n' - ..(-' ] . (16.117)

R,I.+V RI..- ..(-'
SIIlCe lbe ra dil tion-domi nlled en in t he evoluti on of t he um v_ (v _ 1/3)
lieU in I fte r t he stege when lhe etl te of ma tter in tlte univ",. rs desuibed b)'
fq . (lS .8!) wit h 'Y > 113, It i. anI)' nJlun l to USWllI thl t RI/I > A -'.
Let lIS di5QIu I.he lim lti nl m od~ of (t6. 117). Fil1lt let TMn (16.117)R, R",.
R (t) .::.: (2&A. )'" ( t - t l/-JlfI. (l 6 .U S)
If q eo.llll.b lne lhi! with the notatiOlUl (16.77) Ind (16.93) lod the iOlll l,lllit)'
t ' t,,". .... p t
R (t).::.:(~ )'" tlJ1. (16.119)

whith eoineid.s witb (1&.68)- utabljsbed earlier for the esse where m _ O.
Now sUppo!oll that R _ R" , < R I/,. The n (16 .117) i mpl ies
R" .::.: Itl" + (2eA)·,1 (t - t il'> ' (16.120)
[t ce nnut be ruled out that the ent ire early univertfl wu tota lly ill tho ultn·
re!U lvistlc s tatl. This am
for I s ptlC il l iuveatil l tion. Tb, I'el! peeti vl formulu
can IIs ily be obtained Irem (t6.116) if we put t". _
0 an rl R," _
R" IG _ A9" ".
Then the ex pr_ion (16.117) fOf t I" um~ the fOfm
T _ l'b IR Y Jil- A-' + A-· !o (YA R+ V Aili=1 )J· (16.121)
Na klrlll )'. lor R > R.... fOnDula (16. 121) is trl dOrmled iota (16.119), wbile
for R _ R ..,. < R . u • Jorllluia (16. 12t ) yield.
R (t).::.:: A - '1* eA I{I~. + (16.122)
On I'" ba$ls of tAis it i. easy Lo tiD.d the u pllcit form of tlte Hub ble flllltt ion
H (1):
H (t ) =8 2e.A..,.. (16 .t U )
Not e lhe t (16 .t22 ) lod (16 .123) ere val id for tinUlI t < e+1,I1"' ........
Let ~ now ture to the nonrelJliTistic sur
in t he evol uti on of the uni v.......
when the J)I'955U~ Is mucb lower tha n tb & den sit y of matter end UIl be ilnored
(v ,.. 0). The illlegrl! (16 .96) een thell b& writl.lln tbus:

/ 2"
Y- Yn. .....l + l ' "&
r.I %' .1%
\8%I _h1+ SO"'I _I)I/ . (t 6.124)
R oo. '-l

wheee r . .... I Is the li llll i t took th& unive rse Lo evolve from the begin ning 01 th e
expans Ion st ail! ril ht up 10 the bertDllilig of th e lIonrfllat lvistlc sta ge, R. o" ' -
R (t •...,). and
B --..- ,...
32J'lCI ' ~ (16. 125)

b - ; (0). I n deri.illg (16.12.41) .... e!lowed loe 1000000 ule (16.liS) lor p (t) and sillCl
• is a relet i..el,. IarP COMtant. 8 is a lure par_me,.... IS wall.
lA t Il.I iotrod _ abe IIOtalioa
R. _ 1{tl2 - a ) B I'(I, (16.126)
when g. i, I. IlIn.lJl ~iti\·.
number. II un eu il y be verified UUlllor . 11 ulltn 01
R (~ ) beloll(ing lO the inl8!'\'.t IR_ ... R, l we ha vI BR' _ 2R6 > 3fl4 _ I .
prov ided that .... bnl! ,seleeted a. wcll that
a.>B-IfS, (1 6.127)
If In the denc rnluatcr of lhll inUgran d i n (16.t241 we discard 3.<' - I lIInd in-
!.elln te, we B'e ~
T-"oo",.'- 3~: {lin·1[(i-)'il Rl/I] _ !l n·' [( i- ) ' /~ R~ ]} . (16,I ZS)

For tlDJe!l T> 't_ rc• and R_ ... < B' P this y ields
R (t) Q/ ({- r" \iJt1l'J (f Vit). (16. 129)

lAt os esli ma" tb. mu illlum '0,1\18 of ,. 101' ..hLeb (IG.I29) SliU rem.ins valid .
SilKll R (T) mly reach the ...h.1 R. _ l{lI2 _ a) HI''', (roUi (t6 .t2 !1) we pi
TOeo: 2 (f jl/: ~ ' ;0- ' (1_ eI). (16.130)

For t imes 1" >1:, we "' ril o (16. 124) in the form

~ /T " ~·"z
T- 'r.o + V "&1 (8.... _ £4+ £ . 1,1,1 ' (16. 131)

We inlrod llCl! t he notation

R1 - (T8)'",.... (.1.)
U' '" . (t6. 132)

h u n • ..,; Iy be damouslnlud lhu lor , II values of R (1") bt iongilll:' to th' lnlerul
IR•• R,l we un di!ICud \h e t in the deno mi na tor of the integrand in (16. 13 1)
fo nd write
• r Z(
_ r ' I' d"
T_T.+ V .. ) (B_ :&>+3:z}',to (16. 133)
Tlt e appfOJ:im. le \"111,11.'$ 01 lh fOOts 01 th e eql,l atioll B - 2.f' + :b: ... 0 ano
ll',~ • ,.
"s.' - IF,
-T ± -' l'3
,- R•. (16.134)
R. - ( T 8)'" - (' I'" . ~ (16. 135)

We can therelol"l!l wri te (16.133) a.~ (ol1ows;

1_ T.+ Via)
" [r (R,..r)Jil' [ (r+ R,I2)'"+ 3{R,I2)t ]'" .
" ,
Apply lll( lhe _ n-,..Ioe t lteo rem . we obta in

T_ l.o +* ~ Ir (A,~rn'1' (16. 136)

...- ((,+-11-)' +3 (i'-ll'"· (t 6.137)

"",,- ~ is . numbe r beloDl ln, te tlte hILerva I IR•• R I. Allh ouJb . generally lJl'u.k·
illl. t be lue or II. de pends on R. lb i, dependence is extremely weak , since fot
. 11 t he Iues of R eonsider ed hOril the value of fl. ;s lim i ted by th e following in-
equalit ies;
' ( . )
}if l-T < 1'1< "'3 "
, (t 6. 138)

In te, . U ion in (t 6.136) yil'lds

1 -1e+ l""k r$in- ' ( R,;;,UI )-1;11-' ( R,; ,ur o
) ] . (t6 .139)

Th ia Ma ble. ealcula\iog Ib' ap proximatt value of !.be U p'-nsiOJ] period 01 Ibe

lIDiul'5e. Assu m ing t.hJIt R .. R, In (16.139) and Il kill( i nl.O l ocollnt (t G.t 26)
and (16. 132), we 6nd that
1,:::0: 1. + .!l1
1"&( T') '" . (t6.140)

Sllb:J ti t uti 01l: (16.130) and allowing for (16. 188) yields

(T' )''' (:\- (201'J ''] ;T

' < T,
< ("-)tIJ
J ;u '
;T (16. 141)

where e i• • sufficiently sm. lI posi tive Dumber.

w. note lb.t l be balf-period 01 the eyd ie evoluti on of Ihe universe. 1:" Is del.--
mined by the \,. hlll of Ihe rrav il on ll'I ass, in . ddit ion to the v. lues of n e -
1. 1 WIllI LaDI.a • • ed ~.
Let us .lIOW' e.t. bli$/\ lilt! upper bound for the rrav il.On mus. Bu illr our reason _
in, on t he wn dilio n thd the . ge of Ihe unive""', ..hich is determ ined vi. Hubble' ,
cOlUt. nt H ('t. ), must be ' ," 'ller t han th, cyclic b.lf -period,
, _('a )"1m<t"
1iflTJ'" <,
..... '
we a m ve ' 1 tile following bound on tbe anv lton rna,.:

m« T' ) \fl .
dH (~ (16. 1<12)
Exper irDenull y Hu bble' , eonsUllt H (T.) AU yet to be determi ned DIMe e:lactl )".
The CUrTftlt Taillfl of t he coasta nt lies !letwHn \.he folloW'illf ' '11'0 valuM:
(5.'i± S) (km /.s)IMpo <: H h.) <: (t 10±10) (kmJ.s)/Mpe.
Thi . combined Wil b (16.'<12) pro,'ld"" the following uppe r bound for the 81' lYlto n
(16,1<1 3)
NOI. th at the f. ct that Ille gr. vil oo hu • Iill;te m .~ inere. !Ill.!i the deficit of l he
" I. len t maM" of the unl v_ ff coUlp8l'ed to the cue of • muslf!!13 81'a vit on . l n.
dMd , accord ing to (16.15), lor lbe pcesent IROlMilt i n lbe evolulioll 01 t he universe
(R > t) we AU,
(16 ,1"")
where. by definiti on. th e cri tic al density is
Po(t ) ...
8.'16 ' (16. 145)
Al m = 10 -" II th e express ion for tll& IIflec~ive, gravitati onal density p. -
:.. (T)" yields Pa - 0 .72 X 10-· g/ems . W hllll, say , H ('t. ) ~ 75 (k m/a)lMpe.
the val ue 01 P. proves to be 1.04 X 10-" gtems, and th e " Ie tent m ess" deficit
iner&ase.5 twofo ld aga iTllll the value lor thY ea!lll of a mu !l ess gn,viton, wh ich
meaD.'! tha t th e "latent mese" defielt amounts to 80 Urnes tbe observable mu s.
Note t hat i f we 8Mume th at the to\.8.1 relit ffi8MI 01 tb e th ree t ypes of neutr ino is
110 eV, t he ori gin of the wa SIl defIcit can be explatn ed .
Let ill! now discllSll the value of the e:<perime nttlll y measurab le dilat ion pa-
u meter (16.72). For R :::> 1 thia parameter Is

, (1+ p< l~) )... . (16.146)

Th is dem onstrates that P, and, hence, the gr avl l on mass tan be exprBllSlld i n
terma of mea"uTa ble quee uuee. the dilat ion parameter q and the Hubble funct ion
H, All R .... R",•• , the dilation parameter q tends to +M, aince P. (1) t8n'ls \.(I
lero .
To eenclude this chapter we note th at Olb&r's para doit is absent from th e given
scheme since In the contrac tion cycle a t a tllmperature T ~ 4 x to' K (p :::.:
10-10 gJ<:.m S) hy drogen ioni18tion $eta in and tll& universe b&eOlll8Sopaque, which
8 11SUn'<l that tile integral luminosity 01 the starS has II finite value.
ThUll, lntrcduct ton of a gnviton with. finite mass druti< changllS th e
na ture of the evolut ion of e homogeneous and isotropic universe (Friedmann's uni-
verse). Sueh a universe u lsl'l for an Infinitely long time, oscillates, and which is
most important, the dllIL.i ty of ma tter In euch a uulverse will always be !illite . II
we tah this untverse at • certal n t ime"t ... 0 fOf whi<:.h R (0) "" R"" . , then ovef
a time interv al equal to '" I it expands to a value R ('",) "" R...., then contracl'l,
end R (t ) wlll return to R"", ov/lt I ~i me iutervaL 1, . The peeeeea is repeated in-
finite ly.

Chapter 17. Pest-Newtonian Approximati on in RTG

T he poat-Newtoatan a pproximation was eet up to study systllms of lbll island
type moving" wit h low, or nonrel ativi $~lc, velocities. Helice, to ecneteuet pertur_
batten llIlries necessary for problems of th is kind it is natural 1.0 1/('loot the reuc
Qfe .,. e all the small para meler. Si nce I ny correct theory 01 gnvita tion must IUd
us to Newton's law of universal gravita t ion in the l i lll i ~ of amall relati ve velocities
of the objects involved, and since in Newton'a theory
_ no
'M (17.1)

(lnctl r , the post-Newtonian a pp,ollimatJon may be used in the a\ udy 01 motion

involving relat ively amall lI eavenl~' bodies. As experimental det.a show, the value
of the dimansionlesa Newtonian potenual GAfIre' , 8ay, on the surface 01 th e Sun
(and. hence, on the sur!acea of heaven ly bodies 01 th e Sun ty pe), dQll;S not exceed
2 X '0"', . nd lor the E. rth thia qua nt ity at the 8urlaw is 6.95 X 10" . It is
also k nown th at in the solar s}fflte m the epecree pressure pfe'p and the s p9Cinc
Interna l energy n are of roughly t he same order of smallne!lS, g S ,.." 10-' . Th is
llIeR ll! that wilhi n ~he solar syste m th e val ue of e un be used ~ Ina s mall pllram·
etee in the perturbat ion senes expansions of th e post-Newtonia n type. And the
fi rst lew terms in the seri e-a expansions moy b B IlIpecled to deeertbe 8ufficianlly
well the ent ire range of phenomen a occurri ng in thll so lar aystllm.
A cha recteetatlc feature of the so lar system b t he fact Ihs t in the system o(
units ill which c = 1 th e velocili es of t ile various move ments do not exceed a,
which means lhal ill erder of magni tude tha s ()'llial aod temporal partial deriva-
tives are link ed by the following rela lioIl5b.ip:

81 -• II •
Qr" . (11.2)

T his formu la implies that a ll time variat ions 01 the qua ntities aM pr imari ly
associated with the moti on (If maUer .
Since lor t he SUIIl T syst em such cha racterial i<:s as t he dt mcnetcnlese Nuwtonia"
pcten ue r GM Irt:', the specifIC pressu re, the speci fic internal energy, end (vIc}", h " the veloci ty of or blt /lJ:mot iofl of the planets, are of the order of ~, _ 10... .
the aim of the post-Newtonia n ap proximati on is to find the correctio n ter ms in
th e next erdef in e.
In tlli s chapter we will b uild the post-N ewtonia n apprex tmaucn for Ih6 RT G
syste m of eq uations (8. 36), (8.37}. Ev en if Ih6 graviton rest mass is nnne, in
view of it s eI tre mll small ness il can play no importa n t role with in the solar sys tem.
Hence. it becolTl\lll sufficienl 10 s l udy onl y Eqs. (8.36) and (8.37). To simplif.v
mail ers, in what follows WIl .e eiploy a system of unil..! in which c = I .
We star t with the expenalc ns
t~) Hi }
gfC! - l+t.. + g.. + . (17.3)
t3) (I)
gd= Y<>~+Cd+td+ (17.4)
( Sl ( ~l
gll<> =g,,"+~ +, ( 17.5)
Here Yd is the s patia l par l of the Minkowsk i l1U!l.ti c " .. ~, and th e sy mbols g","
(k "" 2, 3, 4, . . .) on the right- hand sides of (17.3)- (17.5) stand lor ter ms of the
order e~ in the respecti ve expansions of C"'" . Note tha t under t ime reveru l, 1 -
-I, th e sig n 01 para meter II must abo be ellanged, whereb y llxpansions (17 .3) and
( 11.4) con lai n only even poWe'5 01 t and (17.5) only odd powers. The !ac~ ~ha~
g." dou '"
not conta in I t " seems nalura l s ince alreatl y the mai n (Newton ian!) ap -
proximat ion 10. 6." muslllot be lower tha n tile ~cnnd nrdu in R.
Let us DOW find th e e:o:pans;on s f ll. g _ de~g ",~ and g"'". USillg (17.3)-(11.5),
we cau show tbat
(' ) 1.1 (tl 121 l~) (I ) (I I tl )
g~ - I - c.. +g,, + g., + 6.,- goo+ glt + Cn + gao
(.) ru (2) (: l (: l'~) ,~)( l ) ( l ) (2 )
+ + gil + g~) -
Clodg " g,,6.. - t " t" - I:ut"
(l ) (2l (l)
+1::,+g:, + t:, + . (17.1;)
(') I II
,00- 1+ 6"+ '-'+ (\ 7.7 )
m ( ~l
(' ~ ... ~ + g"II +g"~+ . (17 .8)
(3) m
g\>O. _~+ gg<> + ..., (t7. 9)
H. P"'I-N.~ " ppr.d"'''li. ~ I" RTG

(.) (·1
whero the g" " are exp ressed In !hrms of the G",,, thus:
m m W (1 1 (1 1 m
g'- - - l.", K"' - - C. , Y""y'~, Jf'>~ - gOJy«I>,
111 (2) (I) (Il (I) tl) ( I)
g'- "" c"..- KIlO' jf'J_ - V'. ""'g", + V''''?'Y'~g.."go .' (17. 10)
m ( ~) (211') U I ( 2)
g....- - y"$Cot- + y<'61".g~ + V'"v"Jl""C~·
T o wri te Eq . (8. 37) fur the ter ms in npo nsi oll (17.7)-(17 .9) we must 6rs t fllld
r". Th ese expansions yield
m (0)

;"' .,.' +8-0+;"'+ (17.H)

III (S )
;....=;0..+;1.+ .. ( 17.12)
( 2) ( II

g..& =i4 + rJ +g;.~+ . . (t7. 13)

wi th
_ (11. I ( I)
_ ,II I II) (') I ( 0) I '2 f)
r -r+ T A, g""= ('"+ Tt"'A+ T A-T A' ,
~) (') ~) ( ~) I 1'1 (II !.!) (11 I (I)
8....- g... , gO"" = gO« +TgO<l:A, g"J = K"'J+ T ~A , (17. 14 )

_ (I) I (2l (2l
g"lI = R"J + T~A+T V'J
t (If
A - T A' ,
t (2» )

where we have in trod uced the following nOtllt ion:

(21 m (~ ) (.1 ( 2'
A='""- 1,,- gll -Cu , (17. 15)
, I) ,'I
(11 (I I ' 41 (l) U) (l) m
A -g.. - gu - g.. - Cu - g", (g" + g., + g..,)
(2) ( 11 (2. (11 ( I ) (~ ) m (2) (2)
+ 1/118.. + t"gu + g..g.,- r:.- r.,- c:•. (17.16)
In a Gali lean reference frame Eq. (8.37) yields
) (2 l I (Z) (3 )
r{JGt/.' -"2 y"l{)old - - y"JiJ..gOf> ' (17. 17)
I , ( 2) 1 12) (2)
T {JJIIO + T "(" {J.. t., - Y" iJ,t ..., (17.18 )
(21 (' ) I (2) ( 1) l ((~I 1 (Zl)] (ISle. I (3 ~ ') )
0, [ g. - loo-TtIlOA+ T A- T Al =-8.. g + Tl A , (17. 19)

a, [ g"'I+1')
T1 (lrJA+T
l (I) I
'f'& (('A1 - TI WAl )] =iJ.l..
'F. (11.20)
Now let us write the system of equations (8 .36) lor the g .... . First we find the
expa osion 01 tensor GI:,.. in powers et e, Si nce in a Galilean reference fra me G~" ..
n.", where
in view of (17.3)-{t7,5) and (17.7)-(17,9) we find that
t m t m (! ) (f l m
r:.= T 0ot"+ T (t"oolOll- g'~a~r.. )+ . .
I (2 ) I (. 1 (2 ) (f)
r:~ = T 8"gOll + T (o.,g.. + f'l"o"rool + , ··,
j (3 1 m m
ro...= T (o"g"' + a"g..... - (Jol..,) + (t7. 21)
t (! ) I ,.) ( t) t (21 (t\
r:. ~ - T ~~Ool - T y.da"g.,,+'f4iJol" - T g"BIJ,g.,, +
I (l) t til I (I )
r:~=TY"ao~gG9 + T ytU'oolr><>- Ty""lJ"g .. +
t UI (i ) W
J1., = T y"" (at>l" " + il"g'/I-iJ"g... ) + .
On the basis nf a ll thb we can find the sought u pluuion for the eecond-renk cur-
vature tensor R", ~. Sin ce in Galilean coord inat es Gl:,~ m r~ , lifte r relati
simple uleu lst ions involvi ng (8.31) we get
R., _-,.. ~.OollOO-T~ ..1l~I.. +Y"B;j.o"K""
t (21 I I. .

1 ( 2) (2) j ( 2)
- T 0" (F1l~.,,) - T F8.rJ(I/f..~
t m (2 ) 1 (2) (2)
- T 'l""'01II00""<°0l. <+T ,...,aa.g..o,s&'oo + .. " ( t7 .2.2)
j (2\ I \1) I III
Ro..=T '1"oca~g.,- ,-""O,jJ..l fI<J+ T ~oo..a~ g.,
I Pl
- T~o,;J.,g40.+ ' .. , (17.23)
j (2) t (l) I ( I)
R"F" - T "o·a.o,8~ + T "o<lJ.1lJ d +,- y"'OaU~I<"
1 (2) I W
-To"ot>l" - T Y"·o"o~g<.+ . , . (t7,~ )

Allo wing for (17. H) /lnd (17. 18), we fina lly ob tain
I (t} I (I.) I m
Roo "," - T V" BIJ"O,gH - T ~.o"goo-Ta.aogil'J
I J 21 (ZI I (3l m
+ ,... Y"",,' 1.,0.{Jolloo +2 yaBIJ"KoiJ,g.. + (17.25)
I 131
R.",'" - 2 y60a~f).lo. + ,, ', ( 11.26)
j It)
R d "" - 2 ,,· · f).o,Kd + · · · . (17,27)

To co mplete the construct ion of epprost mate RT C equa tio ns we atH! need 10
exp and the energy-momen tum tensor of mat ter in a power $erie! in l; . }'or what
follo WI [1 prove!! npediellt lo have the followinl u pall~io ll! of r-;
m. (tl
T"' _ JW+7"' + . • . •
II) (I )
r- _ r- +.,....+.. . . ( t7.28)
In (.,
r-· _N+f"'lI + ... .
Colllbi"lol (l7 .3H t7. 5) .... ith (t7.28)••,e . tr ive I t th e folloll'iag formulas rot T...;
(!l (:1
T.. _ T. +T. + ... ,
I II m
TJoo -T... + To..+ .. . . (17.29)
(Z) ( II
T••""T.,+ r.~ +.
lI) (~J m (ll m 101
T.. _ T"". T.. - 1"'" + 2r .. 7"'.
( I) II I til (I) etl (I I W (l)
T..,. - yd 7"ll, T.. _ , ... 1"'"+(I... + 1. ... ..> 7'-'. (t7 .30)
T.. _ , ..

S ince on tile rililt-h lnd .side 01 (8.36) h Ive the c;o lllllina tioo

5... - T... -
, , ...T, (17.3 1)
011 the bW I of (17.29) a.nd (17..30)
ellmponenl. of S • • in powers of . :
ta n usil)' find th. sen. u:pansion for lh'

t It J t m ( t) t tl (II
S. - 2 7"' + T(7"-+ 2t..r"' - y.,1"'f> + . . " (17.32)

S.. _ y..IT'Il +...'" (17.33)

I e' l ( , )"'
S., = - T " ..T" + l'u Y-' - T Y.,)'o< ra'
1 12) (2) ( I. (Z) ( 0)
- T (l'••TM+ 'Id ' ..,TOO + f d f'lll)+ . . . (17.31,)

S ubst It ut ing into Eq . (8.36) the u p.nsions (17.25)-(17.27) and (17.32H17 .3<\)
jus t esta blished, .",.." obu. in
(17.3 :'1 )

( 1l.37)

( 17.38)
I _, tt '
'" (I) ( 21 It) . m
For g iven 1'", roo, T"f', and ra., th e s ys tem of eq uatio ns (11.35)-(17.38)
com plet ely deter mines the enect tve Rle mllnn lall metr ic g"'. in th o Newton ia n and
post -Newtoatan approxi mati ons.
ASIlumi ng tlla!

'1"00 "'" - 2U, (17 .39)

wheu U is the Newtonian poten tia l, we lind Ihllt (17 .35) yi elds
V l(J ~ -4nGT"" .
"' (t1.<lO)
If we assume th t U U n;maN at infinity , the 8aluti on to thia ""lulltio n call be
rep resent ed 88 foll ows:

VmGI '" "' ;<'1""(.', I)

I" .'1
(17 .41)
Similar ly, (17.8 7) an d (17.38) yie ld

If",, - - 4G1".
J '"
<I'%'T'" lx' , l)
11 - a'l (17.4 2)

'so" » W Yu I dO"''''(,,'
I"'" ." I' I)
- 2y".U.
If we allow for (17 .39), (17.40), lUId (l7 .43), Eq . (17.36) ca n be wr itten in t hO'
for m
(~ ) U l (Z)
V2 (r.. - W2) ~ - 20;V + SnG (roo - 'I..oT<>a). (17.'i4)
Si nce g• • m Ulll va nish a t infinlty, (17.44) impli es that

H) .,. 2U2 +
I i1.
T.< • J
r ,,';<'U(1' , J) - 2G
1" _ ""
I ( 2) (2)
d'z' (T""- y" pT"iI)
Ix . ' 1 (17.4S)

Nole th at in "jew of (17.17) a nd (17.43), U Bnd t u are lin ked as foll ows: '"
j (' )
°oU- TY"'O·KOII' (17.46)

We hn e arrived at th e solut ion8 to the RT G equatio ns lor the compo nents of

the effective metric r .. n of the lUemall n s pace-lime in the foll owing orders;
goo to wit hin lllrma of th e order t~.
gG~ to withi n ter ms 01 the order El ,
K"" to with in teeme of the orde r "J.
As we w ill S&a shor tly , such 8eeuracy In de termi ning IOR R is prac su tflctent
for describing all the grav ita t iona l expertme nts conducted wit hin t he lIOlar syst em.
H ence, we need ollly Eq s . (17.11) a nd (17.tS) from th e sye tem of equ a ttona (17.17)-
(17.20). Noll! tha t in view or (17.39) and (17.43) Eq. (17.18) ts satisfied auto-
mat ice ll y .
Before we beg in al udy iag grllviu tio na l e ffllet$ in the p~t- Newtonian a pprox ima-
tio n, we mMt select a "model" lor msue r, Let ue assu me t hat we are dea li ng
with a perlllet fluid . Then lor r oon we ean la ke the expression Ior the energy -mc mea -
tUIP lentor lor I perfect Auld :
r-" -f(p + p (1 ~ n )} ..~.." - p r j. (I T.n)
Hen , u usual, by p , p. n .... de ee te the ;J</u op;t pl"USllre, the d8D$i 1 ~' 01 the
perlett Quid. I nd the spec;fje w lf-enftiy, respec tively. I nd .. ~ is the 4-ved or of
velocil, .
For Ih' energy"tI\Ornantalll "'uor r-'" and th e i n¥u ian l dturity II " ' f! III".
the following relu ion, h ips: !.be to n Tia nl coru;ervl t lon I, w
V.. r- "' . a.r- r::..r u r:. T- ... 0 + (I T.48)

u d the t'ov. ri lol cont inuity eq U. t iOD
-, 8. nl =& pu"') _ O. (17.49)

I n th, Newloni. n ap proximation , that is, when , r.v itl lion is ignored,
I +O {el ) , u"'= v" ( l + OCel ) ) , (17.50)
and thcrefoee (17.47) yields
,1"".. _ p (l +o (.%»). (17.5 1)

'",..1. 0(' "1. (11.52)

7'k .. pV"( t + 0 (e Z)) . 117.S3)
In deri., illl (17 .51HI7..53)WI . IIOTed 10/' \b e lI et Lb. ! the ra ti o pIp, Of the specific
isotro pic pressure . is of tb' order 01 •• ,
II in Eqs. (f 7 .48) I nd (17.49) ,., d isear d lenns of thl order higher l~ 1l e . ....
a rr;yp at the foll o...inl equat ion lor p:
~fII -+ ~.. (p/IO') = O. (I i .il4)
This imp lies tha t i n the Nell/tonian a pproximat ion the tOlal mass of I" object Is
M - J p dJ.t
~ ll d
Is conserved.
Comb ining (\ 7.51) and (17 .53) ...·ith (tHi ), (17.42 ), and (11.43 ). ....e get
III (J , (l)
too - -'lU, t ...... 4Ydyt' I d .. 2y.,U, t l7 ·55)
U_ G j p\1" I)
1,.- - ,,' 1
d'.t '

vt. - G I p~, I"

Ij "
,,' j
,pz' , ( 17.57)

Hence , in lba lo"'esl oroft" tbe matrie: c.oeffir:ienlll I . " of lbe elI"ecliY. Ri. manl
spl ea-ti me n il. he rt preaent ed as folio..., :
,.. "" l - W. "" - "'Yat "', l at -T., (I + W), (17..58)
U .... . ' Ir> ploy the mI tti e: c:oel6c:ie nts in lhis a pproximatio n in Eqs. (17.48 ) a nd
(11.49), we ca ll filld the componenls of Ihe ene!'fly, mom.ntu m t e/lS()r of lu tl er [II
l b. Qt!xt approximat ion. But ror t his .... musl first a nd in \.be Ne'101on ia n a pprol l-
mat ion V-g, uf , and the connection coeffu:ienlll r :. n• In view of (17,58) and (17.21)
we have
¥-g = 1+ 2U, u0..,t+ U--t v"lI" , (17.59)
ro.."" -o,u , Ilo.'" - u"U, I':o = 't'~ oaU,
~0.1 = - l'a~ooU + 2(i'~a +i'a.t1I} v<', (17. (0)
r:,... UsV"' + ~O.U _ 2V""l'a,t1.V·,
r"ko" ~ai1 t!tiJ ..U - Y""YI..a.u.
T hen tile covar iant conserv atio n Jaw (17.<\8) wi ll assume the lorm
(1) (Jl
t1.fH+ 0o.~- pO.U - 2pl!'o,. u _ O(~'), (17.6t )

and the con tin u i t~

fJoTo.I + a, (pI!')
eqne no n (17.49) the for m
+"f'fWIU = O(e') (17.62)

jf ~r [a. (p+ 3Up- +pVo. u") +iJ.. (pv" +3pu"U+ + I'u"~)] _0(e4 ) . (17.63)
To t hese equati ons we must 8dd t he equa tion of mot ion 01 a perfect Ruid (Fock ,
1\139, ! 959),
P(riot!' + vDOI!!") 0=> 'I'd (- Pa.U + alP) + pO(t ' ). (17.64)
P (o.n -t: vl{J~ n) "" - pO"v" + pO (el) , (17.65)
p=V _ gpu· . (l7.66)
Accord iog lO (17.49), P h t he mess deus ity and is conserved.
In t he requir ed ap prox imat ion ",.e can write

P = P( I + W -j- vo. v") , (17.67)

and th erefore in (17.64) and (17.65) we can replace with the invari811 t denslry p.
Fro m lhe system of oqua tions (17.60)-(17.65) we ca n ea! il~ lind the sol utions lor
l~) (J ' ( 11
7"", TCo., and T"e. These have the form
( ~J
'J"IO =p (2U+ n-vo.l!'),

'r" oo-
~ p~"" (UI + n- vave) + pI!' , (17.68)
rd = (JIJ"oe - "f~p.
Hence , (17.45) yields the foll owing formula lor >"g••:
g.,-2lJl + 1ii O: J
I r d'~ 'U (~ t)
I~ ~ ; I - 4oIl, - 4¢l. - 2lDl - OO\ , (17.69)
¢I, = -G ~ 1 ~~1 d',t', ¢tt =G ~ ~lPx"
¢l1 ""G ~ 1 ~ !n"1 dl.t ' , ¢l,=G ) I ~ !~'I dJz'
Bra known u the geue..liled gra vitational pol.(lIltials.
Sin ce (see Vladimi ro\', 19M )
I l' Ud' z' G r (. 'Ids%, r dOz'
""'E") 18- 8' 1 = -S J P !( , 3 \ 8- 1' 11&'- 8'1
_ _ oj p(,,· ,t)lx-x' ld'r ,

the final expression for g. , proves \.0 be
(I ) r
g""... 2CJ>. -~ .1 pIx', /) I x- x' I d'x ' _ 4$ , _ 411, _ 2<11, _ 6<11,. (17 .71)

Combining the IQrnl uJa! (17.58) and (17 ,71) for the metric coeflici alllS 1 0M of the
ten ser of the effective Rieman n space-t tme, we cbteln, to within the pos~· New t()ni B lI
ap proalmetion, the following;
s.. _ 1_ 2U +2U"_ C": ) p (x' , II I x-x' I iJlz'
- 4(11, -4$, - 2<ll, -6\l}, + 0 (B' ), (11.12)
g." = 4Yd~ + O( e'). (t 7.73)
fd- i',..(l +WJ+ O{B' ). (17.74)
Until recently the demands made on the va. iou.s theories (If gravi tation were
reduce d to th e necessit y of obt.aining Newton'sl ew 01 universal gravi tation in the
weak-fie jd limit lind of deser ibing thr$f! elled' aCceMib lll to observ ation, namely,
grav ilational redshi lt in th e Su n' s lield, th e bending 01 a beam 01 light passing
in th e neighborhnod al the Sun , and the Men:ury perl hello n shift. Insullicient
accu racy 01 measUl'Emen~ in these exper imenu end t h6 .'IIllBII body of e1perimenta l
data explain why we now have a large llU m be~ 01 theories of gn villlt ion t hllt
provide a auccll.lo3ful explana ti on for all of these ellecL~.
To test these t heor ies i t is necessary, 011 the one hllnd, to lncresso tha II ccuu cy
01 meeswamen ts in the old exper iments and suggesl new expe r iment s and, on t he
ot her, to deve lop appropria te theoeenca l tools, sinCll lhe present requiremenl s
imposed on th e th enries of gr a\·it.ation are clearl y insufficient heceuse of t he la rge
number of t heor ies meeting these r&quirements,
Lately , wit h the development 01 re levant n perimen\.a l lech niques , 118peciall y
astronau tics, and the increase in accur acy 01 measure ments, new possib ili t ie.
have emerged for more neeerse measurement of the parameters 01 the. orb its 01
various planets (prlmllrily t he ll.loon) and measurement of the time delay of rad io
si gna ls i o the Su n's gr~ v i ta tio lla l liald , and lor new sola r-sys tem experiments. These
experime nt s will enab le narr owing sti ll furt her ,t he range of Viable theor ies of
gravitation . To facilitat e compariSon of t he results of experb neots conducted wit h-
in the solar sys tem wit h tile predi ctions 01 the various theories 01 gravit.atinn in
which the Riemannian geometr y lor the mot ion of roalter is t he na tural geomet ry ,
Nord tvedt and Will, 1!l72, and Will, 1978, 1981, developed wht became known
88 th e parametri zed pcet-Newtonlau (P PN) lor ma liam (for the Ilistor y of the PPN
Icr mallsm see Misner, Th orn e, and Wheeler, 1.973 (p. 1()ol 9)) .
In th is lormalism th e Htemenn-epace-um e mel.rlc generated by an object con-
sistin g of II perfect lIuid is wri tten 88 the:rum of veto us geoera lized gravitatio nal
pole nt!als with ar bi trary coefficients 1< nown as post .Newto nian paramal.ers. Usi"8
modi6ed Nord tved l· Will par ameters, we can write the Riemann-space-ti me metric
85 follows :
'00- t -2U+ ~ -(2'l'+2 +~J +~') ¢I, + f.t A
+ ~1Il.. - 2 1(3y + t - ~ + b)I1\+ (1 +~) Q), + 3 ()' + ill $ ,1
- (1;< , - 010 - ~ uPw..U + O1o,.p~U~ - (2\1\3 -1;<,)ul"V.., (17.75)
1"' -T(41'+3+a, -a.+~,) l'd v' + T' (I+ a , -t,) N..
+ 2(a, -2a,)w.. U +I;<.wau~, (17.76)
Id - y~~ (1 + 2yl/ ), (11.77)

where the W" IA the spat ial component.! 01 the veloeity of e ",,!eren ee f. a mll with
r&spect to • corielll universa l rest (eeme of reference (for some theories of gravIta-
uon this is the veJoeity of the center of rou . of the sola, system wit h Naped to
the reference frame in whleh th e universe i.s at rest). In formulu (17.75)-(17.76),
in ad dition to the general ized gravit ational pote ntials introduced earlie r in (n .56)
(17.57), and (17.70). we have introduced the following potent ;. l, :
N _ r r l"'. (.a_ z' 8j(r"_z·Oj ,p'
(17 .78)
.. Y""" J I" ,,'I' Z,

A _G ( l"'" L'p (%,, _,,·.. ) {,,8 _,, ~ ,pI,' (17.79)

J !% ,,' I' '
U _G
(z.,- z'p
d' z'
• (17.80)
¢l = C f P(9' , I) P {% ", I) ,I [ ,, · - S- _ ,, _ so '. (J< _"') )d'z'd1r" (1781)
.. J I" ,,'I ' \fi=i'T I s' s' I J . .
To eacll th&ory of gravi\.lltlon for which the Riemannian geom\ltry is the natural
g<lometry for d88l:ri bing th e meuca of matter there ce rresponds a set 01 te n values
of the p03t·Nawtoniall param e te rs ~, 1, a" ct .. a" E.. Et , E., E•. and E... From the
point of view of solar-sys tem experi ments , one t heory 01 gravita tion diffllJ'S from
another only by the values of these parameters. Not e th al in order 1.0 compare the
variou s theories 01gra vita tion tho metric tensor , ,. " of each theory must be written
in terms 01 the used in writi ng the components (17.75)-(17.77). atnee
otherwi", compari son of the post-Newtonian parameter s loses all meanin g. Hence,
alter determining the metric l "u 8'enerllt.OO. by tile gravitaUnnallield of the solar
IIYstem we mUllt change to a "ca uonteal" coordillate system ill which the metr ic
tensor ,,." as/lume! the form (17.75)-{17.77).
A charac Ulrist ic fea ture of the standard post-Newto nian expaIL'l ion (11.75)-
(17.77) is the fact that in "canon teal" cooroinat.a the off-diagonal compcnente of
tha spat ial part of the mett ic tensor g"," vanish, while the nonzero components
of ''''~ do Ilot conl.llin ter ms of the type
il: ~P!X_X 'IIl'Z.' , (17.82)

Our ecluttoas (17.72)·{t7 .74) ,for g.. ~ cootaln, 'n cont rast to (17.75)-(17.77), a
term 01 type (17.82) in g•• . lie nee, we must cha nge to tho conrdin .t.e system in
which SOI UtiOR S (17.72)-(17.74) assume the form (17.75)-(17.77).
Porforming the coordinate transformation
z" =:l!' +~. (z), ",'. = z!>, (17.83)
with ~. (z) ~ 0 (t"), _ arri ve at th, follo..ill( for mulu for "lnIl5IOl1lled" maim
... - ,.. + 28.t" ,;. ... t .. + d. ~ t.. - 1." (17.84)
5.lecl i"i k (z) ill u.. (Drill to (1') - (GI2) iI. ~ P (II' , I) I I: _ x· I rP% aDd com-
bi nill( (17.84) with (t7 .71)-{l7 .74), we IiDd tM rollo lrillf uprII!l$iolU" lor the
millie _ Itidents t~ in lll, e&llllllical .sy3ka1 oj coord.lll.u es:.
' ;. ... 1- W 2(11- 4¢l, - <W>. -'NJ, - 6l%l, +O (c'). (t7 .lIS)

1t:.-{'dY'-.yN. + O {~). ( 11.86)

' ''' - ,,.,(I+W), (t7 .ST)

whel'll in dflri ving (17.86) ... . mploye<\ the ;d ,"~l ~r

8'~- -T (y~VII - N.J . (\7.881

Compuing lorlDld u (17.8S)-(11.87) obtained in the post-Newtonian I ppmI!.ma-
t ion I(lf UJ, llletric eoefli~ i. n ls I ... in th e RT G fr'llIework with IC!1D ulu (17.75)-

... - I, 1$ = I , "', _a.

(17.77), we arrive It the follow jl\i' v, luBiI for tb. po, t·NPl toniu pU l metert:
_ a~ - l, - ~. _ t. - to - ,.. _0.

W. 1'1016 ill llU'illlthl when l.b. ~IUU ol \.bl gn Yita u olla1 field is a apheriu.lIy

s )'lIlmelrie object of radilLS ' . l.hI metric (I1.85Ht7 .87) UJllmes lhe fOl1ll.
c.. - t--.- ""'"
"" +---;r-+O ( ) ' (.. _0. (17.90)

(••_ ,~ ( I + ":' )+o (~) .

wbml t be total _ M 01 tbe "''' lUI is delilled t bu.:

M . 4_ ~ pIt + 0 + 3plp+ W lradr.

To ~t.l.b lim ~be theories of llJlvitatioll l.b.a t In the po.Il·Newtooian ap proxi ma·
t ion I nl ble lIS to descr ibe all llDlel"-8)'l1 lt1m uperimen ta it U I lillieitnt to deteral!oe
on the bu is of all of Ih &58 u perimenl.l: lhe velll$So! \h e ten JIO.'I-NI Wlo n il ll pBflm-
eLe.' l od to select lIoly thON thenriea whose po. L·Newloni.o . pproxhn atioll
lu dl to Yelues of puametllrs eoioeidi nll with lhose obte h"d ill uperimen u. Thl o
t.bese lbeGl'ie.!l of llTavitatioli 'IIIll1 be indis lingu lllh.b le from the Ylelllpolnl 01 u y
uperiment.a cood lleted wi th po.u-Newtollien acc.urae y. F ur ther selecti on 01 Ihtorillll
of iTu ita t.ion will be n lat.ed .ith... to illl:reu inr \he accuracy still furt!let or to
_ k ill( poMible wep 01 atlldyioc lfuitaUonal w....ts and atudyill, vnlous
pb eoollli llil In IUgb grtv\Lotional field,.
As Ibowo I" Will , 197t b, lbe lae\ tha ~ \be p......... tel'l 0 " G•• ud o. aN eqlll i
to zero bu a ! pee1ne JIb,.!ul me&.ll lllg: em tUory of " ultat;oD ;D wh idl 0, _
co . _ G. _ 0 d_ Dot co nta iD • preferred unh_1 I1IIt fram. of refon_ iD
lbe po!\" N,,,olU an J iml t . In \hie cue, 011 pa.!t11 from. the IIDiTlrSlJ I'llII frame
of m.~ to e m01'i.ll( f",lIl e the meUic or lbe ell'~U"e HiemeaD ! pa_liD:Je in
lU pwt-Ne toDiul limi\ ie 1onD.-l n"ari&OI, elld the ",,,,,of th . DeW'sy.stlm of
coord in&tM ilb. lll:!ptK:t to lb ' ulIl'I'N'SIl Illl:!t "'ill lOot eater io to th e m. uie
explicitly. S ince (11.89) II ",lid, HTG beloDp to!lKh tIollOrlell.
TIle li near dependence of para meters ~ and a a lso carriell a cer lain physieal
meanin g. As &hown in Lee, Lightmall. and Ni, 1974 , if
a , _ 0, ~, - 0, a . - ~ , - 2~ ", - 0, t . - t"" (t7 .9t)
a,+~,+2~ ", ,,,,,O, 3" +2;,,,=0, ~ , +2~", = 0,

the post- Newtonian equatio llll or moti on make it possible to determine qua n ti ties
tha t are t ime in dependent. in the Po.ilt-Newtoni an approx imation. It hu been
demonarrated , however, (see nemsov , Loguno~ , Mutvirishvili , and Chug",e~ ,
1985) iliat , generally speaking, 'it is possible tll interpret these quantiti es as energy -
momentum and a ngular mementum (i.e. as integra ls of motion) only in thec rfes
or gravitation tbat cont ain the law of ccnseevatlon of energy·momentum tenser
of matter and grav itationa l fIeld taken togBilier . For example, in GR relatlonshtps
(17.91) ere valid but a detailed ana l)'sia shews that th a quanttttes that aNi time
independent ill the posl .Newton iall approximation ere 1I0t the integrals of mot ion
of the S)'stem cOlUisting of matter and gravitatil;lnal hid.
With in I.h e framework of RTG a n isolated S)'stem Is cher ecterraed in the P58udo-
EUClidea n spllce-t ime by all teo laws 01 cOllservation in the ueual SBn$8, laws that
in the post -Newtoni an approxim at ion result in ten integral s of motion of tile
sysUlm. The fact tlla t in Rl'G the rela iiollllhips in (17.911 a m val id corro borates
this conclusio n.

Chapter 18. RTG a nd Solar-System Gravitational Exper iments.

Amb iguities In the Predict ions of GR
In this cha pter we demons trate tht the predic tions made in RT G concerning:
grav ita tiona l effects art! unambiguuus and agr ee with the known body of exper im-
ental data and that the respecuv e pred ict ions o. GR are ambiguous.
The subject wa tler in tb is chap ter is organized as Icllc ws. f irs t we consider the
sta ndard eneete: the equali ty of the inert ial and grav itation a l masses, the dellec-
t ion of ligh t and rad io aigna l..s hI' Ule gra\'itati Ollal field ollhe Sun, and the Merollry
perihello D Sllilt. Ne:c l we .na l)'~e such effects as the time delay of rad io signals
in the gravitatio nal field of the Sun , tile period of revolution of a t~st body in
orbit , Shirokov' a effect , and th e precession 01 a gyroscope moving a long a circula.r
orb it in gravi ty . In soma of these effects th e ambigui ty of lb e GR solu tio ns mani-
fests itself in the very first order in th e constant of graYitational interact ion,
whil e in the other elIeets the ambigu ity manif ests iUelf In the second ordar.

18. t Equallly 0' the In ertial and Gra vitational MIUIlf:lI In RTG
Gravitational experime nts have established that tile devia tion from unity of th e
ratio 01 gravitatioo al mass to inert.i al mU'l lor object:! of labora tory dimensions
does not exceed one part in t o" (see Braginsky and Pallov, 1971). However , th is
does not mean that the grav lta Lional and ine.rlial m8.SS9S 01 an obj&ct whose di-
mens ions are great coincide with the esme accueecy . Fur objects ol lahorat ury dimen-
sions the ratio of the grav itationa l self-energy to the total energy is 110 grea ter in
order o' magnitude th an 10-" . Hence , with an eccuracy of one part in 10" it is
im pOlI.'lih le to lilly how the gravitationa l eeif-energy is distr ibuted bet ween Ihe
inerUal end gravita tioD8 1 masSes in obJ&ets of labore tory dime nsions.
The ratio 01 th e iner tia l mass 10 the gravi tati ona l mass for e~ten ded ohject s
for which the ratio of tbe graviUitlona l H lf-enefi Yto the total energy cOlU idera'
bly e. eee<Ui 10 - 21 will be disc:uased In Ch. p~r 20. He... we consid er on ly
the itnllnl w ro ll.r!", to whieh RTG I Dd GR Iud i n eon oeetion wi \h \h i. prob lem.
In GR, as shown In Chapler 3. the n lve of the iner ti , l Ill. . depen d, on 1M
cb olQ of eoord lnllte U~ in three-<lhneouioo . l sp a«l. which ph JlliCll ll y ill mean loll"
I~I. T herefore . It doN no t foll ow from GR \.b. t Inert i. l mus ;s equa l to th e ee live
rn: vitat ion.1 maM. 0 0 th e ot.hec h an d , from RTC it ro llo~ thn tM lnD1ifll_ u
aNI 1M lIc:lillit VIW ltollo Nl I _ 01 4tI oil/ ret flO/Milk.
Indeed . ,I RQ th e s pec ial prioeip lll of rel.tlvl ty fOf1ft.l th e h asis for RT C , the
inertl. 1 mUll of . n ls l. nd 1lJ3111m ~ s trictly delintd an d " giYEn by the foll owl o(
lorm n l. :
( l8. t )

In .. lew of COll*lrv. li on of the IOta l enM'JY·mom entum t.eJwor i n the Mi.llko..s ld

spac l!-ll lDll, OJ' 8,. (tr.: 1(: ,) - O. it " oh iou. th.t III,
is tim e in depen den t .
NoIll . 1Io !Jlu (18. 1 II ' ~lar . it h nlIpeet !.o the ln n&for m. tioD of s pat i.l ooor-
d l Qlltes.
Now In WI wri te Eq . (8. 28) lor Iielll $of in Carl.esillD eoordinatl'S. Sleee ill l hf "
case a>- _
<1>-1, 10'0 have
o~ - 11m (tr. 1 + tlfol)·
As is kn own, lar rrom Ihe ecueee th la equ ltio n may Iud to a so lut ion of the type
r-' cou s t only If tfr) +
t11.1 is tl mo independeut or very we. kl y depend en t . I n
aueh ccndtuons the equ aucn for QIOO lllI8Ull1 85 the Ior m
v %(J)OO - - 1611. (Ir,l+ tUll),
who se sclut tcu will be re presented as loll ows:
""_,I d'~' (1t:1+'nll )
1 .11: .11: > I •
~'rom Ihil we find !.hat
4l-:::,, "";" &5 I x l - r - .... . (18.2)

In view of (8. t ). lor i- we hav e the loll o_ in. lnr mu l.l:

;" ::.: 1+'; ' .
On (),e other h'lld , if ....e de termine ;- fro m (11.1t). (17. 14), an d (17.55).... ee t
r-:l/ I + 4U•
...·ith U the Newtnoju po tenti.L Since (in th. I)' 01 v.eils . ·ben! C "" G _ 1)
"... 1II. \·e U _ M lr far from the so uree . _ ith M . by definit ion. the p vi""ti onal
mUl 01 the objec l. we . rri ve. t the foll owing iden ti ty:
m, _ /of. (18.3.
wh ich ill what ..... set ou t to pro ve.
We IIOU in PUlIinl thai within the HTG Irtroework tbe quant ity
P" = J(tt:l + ~») d"z (ISA)
is ..., ll-del\ned and ~ollstl tutes ~. 4-VK\Or 01 - v-moment um 01 the l)'Stem.
S iella, l)', th e ' lI( u4. momentum of lb, system is ,Iso .. . lI-defioed in RTG Ill d
is. te~ wiUl respect to ny eo«din . te tn nsform&tions III lb, low-di meuiOllI I
Minh Wlllr.i I PI'ClO- t iml .
I II GR, as 11O\.ed in Chaplet 3. th , .. Ilue of tiul l Dllrtl d mua dlpeolU 011 th e
choice o' c:oonl. i.nltes io the tlu'M-dimlll!:iOlll.I space, I resa.h 1116ll.lliJlllt" Ito\Il.
the sU ndpoint o' physie. .
Now let ..,cmLSiderUtis problllD'l inlbe light of ~ rauluobtloinMl i ll Cbaplt'r 12.
w. ",ilI shOll' thf:t i n .,i.... of l.h' a:rbllrario ess III the ebolce of 3OIuUons 1.0 lb,
Hil bert-Bin.Utill 4lqILl.UOll.S, the lnert i,l mass (u dellned in CRI may, gIlnlu lly
.peak ing. aliIU llll Ill)' nhl8 I nd , t here fore, t h8l'e ea u be IlO eqWl lity between \h'
inerti al aDd lP"lvil.atlODal m uses in GR . As in Chap in 3, '" base our calculaUoll!
of th e inertial mus (in the syu , m 01 unl l.! in wbi eh ~ _ G _ I) 011 fonnuJ. (2.t1 )
writ ten in Illl'll'IlII of CarWllQ eoordiolles:

m, _~ h'o:. (:z:)dS", (18.5)


In Ihe I.., u preuion " I IuI v. letrcd ueed lhe nolll illG

...... (z) _ - u- (r l _~) . (18.7)

SIIl(A..ith . .peet to IhreHl i ~i oM.1 (spJlllaJ) ulnaforml ti oD.l'" is I,

r (>:) -D'r (z'). wbeN O _del ( ~; ).

a.nd r' -th.r'*t*"'

IUll lUM f orm
" is . lIKOnd-t lo k teaece , the u.llIiormllioll. I. ... for mS ' (z)


If lor th. 7:''' we take the .pheriu l wordio. les z 'o _ r . ::1:" _ alld z" - If. e,
then on !he bas" of (12A1) ..ilh A (t l _ 0 we . Tt'ive.t Ibe 101lo..il1f rorllluiu lor
Ihe • ." (z' ):
m" (z ') _ _ WZ siJll 8,

Ill" (r)_ - ...;~ (~ ~ )"Sill1e . (18. 10)

mD(z') _ - "'W"'~M (~r ·

......,,(r') _ 0 if .. .,v.
It u n be ahO WD th ot
D _ ~, •
ond. be ~, etJmbill;llI (18 .8) wi th (18. 10), "'ll it l

md(z) = ~
, [ ];iT"
~ "'i7'
'~ III.. (Z 1 ~ I?I"
+ ;;;or ,~ '" " ( ~~ I

+ ~ ~. m"(%»). 118 . l t )

Henu , t akin&" illl<) acwllDl th e .... lues of the elements of the tr. nsform. t ion PI.trll"
.in Ocos " sio8 si n lp COlI 8)
~= r eos8 cos fJI r Wllhin q. - r l ln 8 , (18. 12)
_r s int:!sln lp f s in 6 COll ql 0
we u rl"o . t
/11."(z) _ - 8 (r) s in' 0 COS" fJI - C (f ).
IIID (z) _ - 8 (f) sin" 8 si n" fJI - C (r ),
m" (z ) _ _ 8 (f ) eos' 6 - C (r) , (18 .t 3)
mil (z) _ _ 8 (r ) si n' 8 eos .. . in •.
mil (z) _ _ 8 (r ) s in 8 CAUo 8 cot '1',
m" (z) _ - 8 (,) s in 8 eos 8 si n '1',

B (, ) _ WI _ ..!!.. Vii' ( . yw ), (18. 14)

.......-- "'VlV 2J1 4< '

w JIW (.yw )'

C (r ) _ ,.. y'W 1M .......- . ( 18. 1 ~)

To calcu l. te lb e inerti.1 mUll III, of • sie ue sphllC"ic. l ly sy mmetric object, Wll con
use lb o form ula
• \ 0...· .,
z .. .....-r
--,- . •
1II'- - ""i'e1l1m
" . __
r {jz a.. -.In dll d'll, (18 .16)

whicll fOUll.... from (18.5) a nd (18 .6). 10 (18 .16) we ha ve a llowed for th e fl ct that
dS . _ - rz a s in 8 aedfJI .
Since Iho tu ns-form'lion matrix 8z' Y /8J hu the form
• ( ~ 8C01' ~ n 8~DfJI ~8 )"
-1;.-- r 'cos8 ... . r ' COll 811;11 , - "" s10 8 . (18.17)
- r'" ' (. in . Y-'1I8 ,.... (cos 'l'Yalll 8 0
011 the buil of (18 .13) .... . Colli euU, ca.!clliate th e in terrood i n (18. 16) i n sph eric. 1
coord l"ata ;
I ntPfl'" Uoll ill (18.18) ""lth respeet to angu ll e nri.bln yields the fin. l 'orIDot.
for lilt,:

If for W (t ) " 'e Ilike lb' one-paramel.llr fam il)· 01 $Olutloll~ \0 the Hilbetl·EIIl.lll.e;1l
equ. tions. or
W IT) _ I, +
(I +.l.) MI", (18.20)

where.l. is II ny fmlte number, then Irom (18.19) i t follow! lh c.

" ' I - III \18 .21)
in \he cbss of 5Olul.loo. (tB .20).
I n CIl. pler 12 It wu demOn!ll.l'l.led th aL th e Sylltew ol RT e: equu;OI1S lor IV (r ) il.l of on ly Olltl solut ion tbat toint;d~ wilh (18.20) . 1 ). _ 0 , wil.h th a ref ute.
Ibn i n !.Ill, sy;tl.em of equ at ions, in v ie..' 01 (IB.21). the io.rti. l llIU 51rl, is . lwa)·s
eq ll,1 to tb e gTlvila liooal mas! lot. Note th. t for Se/l.aruchild'. solu tio... which
tOlTellPO OOS 1.0 A _ _ 1 ;n (18.20). t IM inertial lOU! lilt, 1.1... c.oine idea with lh e
iT.vil.ltiolla l mUll M . 0 0 lIIe oUla' han.d. in GR, W Ir) ia ' " . rbitr.ry fllndi on
of Yariable " whenby solu tions (18.201 11.".
ntI sp«i. l illUDing for GR . " one
se lects W (r) Iu.~b Ihll Icr r _ CICI th . ss)"mptollc beh...lo. of W (r) Is

1V(r) - ~ [ I + a~ { v: l'" ]' . (18.22)

wbere <:l is an y finite number. tllen on tile basis 01 (18. 14) and (18. 19) "'e , rr ive
, t t he lollowini expression for the inertl. l mas s m, :
m, _ M ( f + a ') . ( 18. 23~

We _ lb ' l , i ll view Ilf t bfl.rhi l rui lleft in selecting a , tbe inart i. 1 mass m, may u ·
aIlme In G R an y lind vsfue IrII ;;> M . ,.·kicb illlmedi' ImpH. tbn lb _ enlriY
of . Sf. le lll may abo lIi!lo me any value: he nce, loo C1ISU lu obu illed by POlllomarev.
196:), arti erroaeoue.
In colltlusioll WI I h·e \.he asymptot ic upr1!!l!!iool for Ihe metric coefficients
(12.41) as r _ CICI. " 'hell A (r) "" 0 and W vI is liven ht (18. 2.2 ):

t.(z'} : :>! I_ 2:' +0 (# ),

: :>! -[I+ a" ( ~ t ]+0 (7-) ,
' " (z')
r .. {2' ) :::>! - r" [ I+20:' (8~1f )'!2] .
g,,(z') Q.:-r' [J + 2a' ( 8~ ) ' I~ ] . inI6.

T he reedee call now easily sea that

which im plies thlL lor t he .Riemann . pace-time with metri c (t 8.24) the .. u i5ts
an asymptotically na t Min k owd:i apace- lime .
t 8.2 The £qulin... of Moti on of • Tl'5l Bod,. AJOIlj • Geodes.le
In 1M S ilO" Gn" lta Uo.... t Flekl
In « leul. Li nl the aUlldud ell'actll occurrinr in 1II. Sun', Jfu iu Lional fteld the
Willmon . pproae h l.t 10 take for III ideal iuG mod, l 01 t he SUII . stati c spheri ca ll y
SYIDmtv ie b.1l ell n d i~ R. _ Th e mev ie eoeU\c ie<ltl for ob jec b pcmessi llg thaw
pn>po!rt ies determ ined in Cba pler 12. Then it w... . bo Dot ed t hat th e tolu-
ti Oll1 LO nOM but the H ilbert -Ei nstein eq ua tioltli i n tbe ut.erior of I ~t1e .spll. r i.
a lly ' y llllll.t.rie touree conu io t wo IU"bit rary h,lnet ioDJl , .... (r) ud W (r), l od
tbertfon 6 ft .:.annot In pri ncipl . ri... _ 1I-.de6ned pred idions ~rni nr ,ra"; -
... tional d eets. 0 0 t he ot her blind, tb. IOlul iOlU LO o.. .J}'lItem of RT G equatioas
for \hI lD. tric coefficien u of the efleet i n. Riemann spac:e-tl m. Ire ,..ll-.d e6.ned
.nd una mhlruous. HcM.e, i n Chapu.r 12 . . In i.. ecI a l I II important tooclusion.
namely, til lot i.s 110 . rb;11"11.ri. - in RTG. I nd, lh_'ora, th at for
u tiona l uperi men tl oonaidered bol low Ihe prtd ietioas witb io the RTC Iram ewOlI
, r,ri. ,h.
a re fa ll )' IUIlIIObi, lIOIlS, •
Lel us iII ustra le Ih ia ...·itb enmplee. To lM. en d 1.0 de!aibe grav iLal ioDl 1 eBeelJ
i n th !IOll r .ySlem ...e uke t he mt>lI'ie coeflieie nlJ to be
y'W"M - 2G''''0
, . (r)_U (rj _ vW'ti '
t .. (r ) _ _ V(r j _ _ VW'o
- ( ' VWTo)'
dr'" ' (18.2.5)
, I IV Cr) ZGM@
'u (r ) - _ W (r) , g.. (r , 9) - - IV (r) l in' 9.
Tll e~e form lila. t ran. form from (12.4 1) if we Jet
A (r) _ 0, ". _ GM@, (18.26) Ms> I. the Sun ', act ive llravi h,t ionl l mal' and G til e gravil.lltioll BI con.tan t.
The co ndIt ion A (r ) _ 0 doos 1l<I~ cban~ the etse nee of th e problem a od I. chOlen
onl )' to .i m pll fy m.Uel'll.
Wi t hi n the G R framewor k, V1V"(fj i. en arbi ~rat )' fu nct ion of r , while in RT C
u haa lbe lorm YWTrl = r + GM& Now Ih . t in l h' nter ior of lb , !!Duree
VlV (r » ZCM@. (18.27)
TI,a eq un io.... of motion of a m'leri,1 ptlr l icle or • pholon an .....i l tell in th e
form 01.-odnie ~lI. t i ons in the eBff; t ive Riem ann ' JMee-ti me wilh mlltrie (18.25 ):


I II met rie (18 ,25). th. nOll:llf'O connloC l ioo eoef&eienlJ ~~

1 «f I «I , w
~' - "1lT""" "'· - w "h ' r: ,=W "'h '
, OW
ro.. - - "'2V" "l;"" ' l'".. _ l".. ,i o18, (18.29)

r:. - r:.-"lW "Tr'""" , OW

r :' _ _ , in8«158 , r :. _ eol O.
For bre vit), 01 1I0talion in (18 .29) ..... h a'" left t he fU lldion U (r) ' nd Y (r) , Dol
Mlplacin r t h, m wiUl (12.40) . I n th ' li nal a nal)'si. , howe"lIr, lh e connect ion eee t -
ficientJ (18 .29) are nprened on l}' In ter m. 01 W (r) and 8.
Now Itt U5 write Eq . (18 .28) nplieit!y. Combini ng (18 .29) ""ilh (18. 28), w. gn
4'1 I JIJ 4J. tk
7,;i"+ lT T M 40 - 0, (18. 30)
1'_ . I
7Ol' T 2V T
III ( .!!.-)' +_'_-'!C(~)I_
a av d. dG
~ ( " )'
h 74
- 2~
':::' ("*)'5111 9_0. 1 (t8. 31)
~ ~r <l8
4<i' - -.a 5111 9 eas • +wI ...
( ... ) ' ,
liir 4;>- 0. (18.32)
IlW h ~
".. +-W-';;-
"1Oi dadii" + 2 74
" '"
"7d COlS-O . (t8 .33)
Sio te t he field Is isotro pic. wit hout loss of pn.allty .... can eeastdee Dilly traj ee-
tories tbal li, ill lh' equator!" plalla. Henn , In [qt . (18 .30)-(18. 33) .'e cuo Itt
e _ :t1'2. In Ihls case Eq . (t8. 32).bec:o mu an id'alily. whi le Eqs. (18.31) l od
( t8 .33) u suma the lonn
'" + TI7"
iG'" ' h e. (.!!.-)'
.. +_' _-'!C
2V t . (")'
"1ii _ VI ~
( .!>.
) I = O• (18 .34)

;r.;r 1 "W II, d'f
w T ~ 40 - 0. (18.35 )

Cnmbini nr (18.30) wit h (18.35), we WIll>' find lh, t

" ,
'dG- 1}"fI' (18.36 )

"'- ' '

do "' "iV'0"

...her. t ud J n f eonstl nts 01 Integra tion and , ISll inlairll, of mot ion in th e
probl em considered here By rede fining, a we c. n .h"'1S IltlSul'l c
in {18.36J Is equa l 10 un it y . Hence, i n .... hat foHows ...·e use , with out 10Mof ,en er-
olity, t he follo....1n, !or mlll,:

Su bSlilllUnl (l 8 .37J . nd (18.38) in to Sq • . (18 .34). we c.n write tIli$ eq .... lio n
at rollow . :
e - - "W"'h"
"'- " ( u, ) +W
' T''' ( 7ij
" )' .. '"'W
'" ~ (' W, ) _0.

Mulli pl yin, tIlis lllto 2V (dr /da) yields

.:.. [V( :' Y-uW+11;,)] _0.
which imp lies tJut

( " )2- """""""'

I' -.. t
lit,) +"U'T7:'<"-
...t., -£ (18.39)

is . Iso aD in tq: ral 01 motion i n the r iven pro blem .

Let us es tablish how the prope r lime ,. is lin ked 10 tAe par.U1eler" ,,' the tr. jee-
tory . We determi ne the propel ti me from Ihe u prtMion lor the line elem eot
th* .. K.dl' + I" dr + I •• d9"+I.. dry, {18.<\0)
with the m\l~ric cod ficicnts specified in (18.25). Stnee (I "" ll/2, we call writ e
(IS.40) in tha form
d<t~ _[ U ( :;)~ - V ( :~ r _w (·~f]dol .
All owing here for (18.37)-(18.39 ). we ge~
d," "'" E dO". (18.41)
Since fQr massless particles d,' .... 0, we concl ude thBt for a photon
E _ 0, (18 .42)
while if the rest Ol US 01 a par ticle is uoneerc. (18/ .1) iroplil!ll
£> 0. (18.43)
Using (1B.38) and (IB.41), we can lin k the proper t ime t aod the tem poral ooor-
dln ate I in the Minkowski space-tim e:
d," = £U"dt". (18.'14)
Similarly, from (18.37) and (1B,39), exclud ing parameter a and usi ng (18 .38),
we find that

'" '"
-.u= w'
I /'

(jF 71 - 1T +"W = - E. (18 .46)

The solva bili ty of Eq . (lB .46) req uir es t hu

w"I,j +e-....'IT'(;)
' . {IB.47}

Find ing dt from (18.45) and tillb sti tllting it into (18.46), we get
~(:;)2 - -ir + :: + £ - 0. (18.48)
Combining th is with (18.27) end (18.47) , wo Jina ll ~' get
4lil V' I' ( ' ,
~ =± """'W 7W- tv -
'j-"! .
"]r (18 .49)

18,3 Denedlon o f LIgh t, and Redio Waves hi the Sun'.

Grav itational F ield -
Sa ppcse th a t we wish to descri be the tr ajl1Ctories of parti cles coming in Irom oute r
reg fons of space and passing in th6 vicinity of th e Sun. Let ua place the origin of
the coord inate system at th e eeruer of the Su o e nd assu me that t he particle in
questiOl\ rnoveain the equato ria l plane Xli parallel to the z axfs Jrem + OD to _OD .
It te convenien t, to descri be th e tra jectory io terms of lp as a functt on o f r. Since
angle lp (r) is reckoned from the postuve dtreet ion of tbe % ,xis, it ill ohvio us that
lp( + OD ) =0 O.
I f th e part ic le were 1I0t denected by th e Sun's grllvltatio nallield, th e variation
of ang le 'I' over th e ent ino motion would be ll, s ince lp (_ OD) _ 'll ( + OD) _ :t .

• See LOgIlQIl'" I nd Leoku\llv , llllllk, LogllJlll'Y . Lookul./>v, ond ChUIV~V, 1986. I nd Wol~­
berg. 1072. a resul t of th e ecti on of the gravitationel field the particle In jecto ry
de..ieWII from e st n igh t li ne, LIId Lbe ml u m. 01this devluion un be ch lrlCteri ud
by the q ou tlly
6lp - 4 ., - :l. (l8.5O)
To uklth le .d., _ writ. tht 1IOIut ion to Eq . (18.49). which n pl eMe!l" in ter lllS
of r, in tha for lD

I "" (' ,
'I'- ± dr -W- 7iiJ- W-'"]r ' j-on
. (!8.5 1)

Combinin g thill with fOl"ID ulu (18.25) for U (r) a nd V (r), we obtain

,,-± ~rJ dl(W

I VW IW'f1(I - B) J " O' W- :lCM0l + UWCM0 1}1fZ ' (t 8.52 )
T his fOr lllul ll. gives the shape of the plrticle t ra jeel.or y io the Sun's gravitational
fiold. Far flUID the Su n, tb at Is, IS ' _ 00, we ha ve IV (r) ~ r' , In view of (12.36).
Hence, on the bni s of (18.25) lo d (18.46) wa have (n , _ ao):
U {r}_ l. V (,) _ t , ( : ) t _ 1 _ E. (IS.53)
Since In th iare~on of apace the PJI. tic la is in free moti on , the particla's veloci ty
rb'fdl _ " is comant aed, heOCti E -. C0 0 51, which co mpletely I gree!! wi lh tb a
mNlnlng of E as 010 lotegn l of moti on. Since for I ph oto n (In tbe a~ tem of uni ta
where e _ I I " =- I . we hi '" E _ 0. For a lUa led .1 particle 11 < 1, . nd . th ere-
fore, E < I.
Suppose tbat r. ill the c1~t disleDCI from the p. rt icl . 'a tnjectorr. Than,
beuu.w (dr/~).-. ... 0, .. I hne tb e follo wing formul. fot tha sq ua re of lb'
inleiJ'1l1 01 motill.ll J :
J• _ .,=-.
w. - llG·"'G
EW•• (18.54)

" 'here WI blVe u.sed (t S.48) .nd the for mul a t ha t li nks U with W {see (18.25» . nd
hlYe i ntroduced the nota tion W. "" IV(r,). SUb/lt it utina (18.54) in to (18.52), we
If (rl _ IW: ' J _ Ew , (Y W.-2GM0 )}t J
~ cl lfW llfW IWVl C1- E)+2E JVGMGl

x (vW; -2GM0> - I W~l l_ E W.(,V W. -2GM0)J (V iV - 2GM0)l~ 1I1 . (18.55)

Sillce WI will be ic te ruted ooly In Ih. de vtanon of lighl .nd rad io ... ves III tha
SUII" Inv itatione l field , io (18.55) wa must :5lt E _ O. Jo thu tLq we ha ve



we d n wri te (18 .56) ill the form

. . _!lin-' (Vii';
14',-14', J,n
14', '
(18.6 1)

_ (~VW,
1"14', W.
l'" ' (18.62)

F (v, V) - ~ (l - q111 in' W' ''' dl

is . 0 elil plic iotegral of the ftm kind.

SiJK;t the total ,.a d, tfoll 01 a nf1. ,,(r) Whln .. photo ll l ran ls from infto!ty to
point r _ r. an d thell goes on to loli.nily is 2, (rtl , for A, we hue

~ v, (yw,; -:lGJle
t'lv. y W;+6G.Il
F (v. 9)· (18.63)
In Append i" 4 ... sblnt' th.,. beD VW; :> 2J:;J(0) from (18. 63). III tho NcOnd
order in 2GMe/}'W';, lb u. folio... lb., U pIln!iOA

4G1I(;l 4 (GM& ' (" )

G .~/I; +l7lir.+---W;- t!n -l . (18.64 )

Sub5tit ut inr t bi! into (18.50), we lind that in 'th, lIllColld orde r in 2GMd YW;
~ 4GM@+ 4 (GM& ' ( 15 11 _
VW;; w. W
t) . (18.65)

For T, we ' lit, the radi us of the SlIn, and the relationship between W. and r.
will be assume d to be
WI _ (r , + GM's (I 1) 1'. + (18.66)
Yllt re .. Is all adj...,l&bl" plra ma" ' , For ;Ill u~ of). p tw y iog t he cond ition
r, :> CMr.:> 11 J. I + (18.61)
to ",·itbi" th~ _ d order ill. GMt:Jr. ~ h. n

--;:;- - 4
6q>~ ",.v", (ct;&' [(2+ "}-il" Jl]. (18.68)

I n GR the ranee of . d llli!llible ... 111. 01 parameter l ill (18. 68) is Iimiled ooly
by eondition (18.61), wi ttl tbe l'l!!Iult lh. t the p\"tdidioll II I GR w llU roinl lb,
deBec:l io.ll 01 lig ht ill tAil S un', rr... i~ tio ".1 fi~ ld tontlios. ;.11 the seeoll.d order
" _ 0211
'"in GMek.> an . mbl(Uity. In RT G, ou lb . other hi nd , pa nmew:r A m.y UlUme
oal y Ollie val u. ,), _ 0, . nd therelo.. Ih , prtd ietioll of RTGcollUrIling tb illpbeoolD-
UlOG D uruo mblpoUL Nole th at w luti(Hl (t 2.76) , ...hich ill GR lIf&lI 1000rtd by
Sc:hwu%xhild , eOnelpol:ld. to the UH w ith 1. _ _ t , Ind 1mIce the delledlO1t
of lich t in the Sun ', Crlv it.l..ion l field a lcul. ted ill the G R fr.Imeworlr d iller.>
from the RTG resuh by 4(GM(1')"' r.. If Ille .eel''''':'
in _ uring the dtlleet ;oc
of light aIld rad io . ifllils could be t a1Md to • leTel ,. which lIll&Ond-onler .fleets
t Una Into pl. y , th b . mbignit y would become uprt'lllll nu, l1y varililble.

18.4 The SlIiU 01 Mertury'. Perihelion-

Su ppose th• • • partlcl, 01 mass III.,. 0 is movi og aloog • e lOlled curVI ' . ound lhl'l
SUD. To des<:ri be this Illotl on "'" . pply for mula (18.49). As in Sec ti on 18.3 we th. <»ij:in of the coord ina te Iyl lem .t the Sun' . centtr l od "" pu poee th.
equUo ri.ll pl u l zy with the In ...icb the partid a moves. Sine " tha lr ajee-
lor)' CODlll itutes . ele..d curve, lh .... Ire only tw o v.:lues of r <ip} It _ hleh drld~ _
O. W. deDo!e U - values by,,,,. Tbotn from (t8.48) we hava
s» ,
E+W;-l7;" - O, (I S-59)

when W", _ W (r. ) aDd U. = U (r .. ). Th is t an be used kI find the i n l~I IJ of

1ll0Uon, E and P , which an flven by the foll owing fo:rmul tJ:

ID dMivl ng tb&e l wo for mulu we . 110wtd fOl' the rel etionl hip betwnn U and W
(_ (18.25)).
Th l l illie" (r) through wh ith the " dil" vector , of the partlde roLites (this
arlil. II rec:koned from th e dire:tiotl l peei6ed by , _ , _) un be u1 cub\til eoeonl ·
inC to lbe fonllult
Y1i'(;', ~ yiP
,,(r ) _ ,, (r _) + ' ~ (VW[W' f' (I _ t) _J' (\f W 2CMel +2£WGM ])'11. ' (18.72)
V~ e
'. ..hlt b emerges U I result of \nt egu ti nl' (18,49) wil h respect to r IIl d allowing
for tb l f9la tillnahip belwBell V (r ) end W (r) (s" (18.25» ,
P UUlng W (r) _ W -t In (18.72) and 11Iowing lOT (t 8.70) and (18.7t ), we o btft in

'II I)
r. - 'II I r -l - ( Y It', If\i': - 2GNw,w_ l"
e vii': e vii:

Y W. .. yw
X y k ' Vii' (VW- VW:! (Y W:- I'"W)(VW- WJ I,/I '
11' WM e vii': vW: (15.74)
. - yW. yw_ 2GM(';) v w: 2GM VW_ .
Integr at ing in (18.73) yields til, fnUowlng formula lor lp {r+) _ II' (r _):

( )-'ll ('.)- ( 2W,VW::

lp'. (., - J )''' F("2 )
,Q, (I S.7S)
GM e "w , IV

q - ( Wg(y' W: y'w.:
- ) '" , (18.76)
yw_(y w. wol
F ( ; , q)=""~ (1 - q2 si n~ l)" lS dl
is a complet e ellipt ic inte gral of the fil'lll kind.
Formul a (18.75) is true for.lI tv., and W. sat isfying the inequalities

V~> Y IV_> W. > 2GM@. YW. > 6GMe-

It is sho wn in .... pp endis <\ that whu y IV,. ,. 2CM0 . (18.75) leads to the 101-
lowio g expe nston for lp (r +-) - II' , _), valid to within the second order i n 2GM@'

(G M@l' ]
Vw:yw.: . ( \8.77)

The variation of angle (jl when the p art~ le moves from point r -= r_ to point
r _ ' " must be equa l tn the VIiTiation of angle lp when the parti cle moves back,
' rom point r = ' + to p(lint, = r• . This means that tile total variation 01 anglll 'J'
io l he (:QIH$ll 01 a cOlD plet e rotaHon ill


We ~ee thd the curv" aloog which the parlid ll lllOVI'lI is DOt elceed. It precllllSllll
i n the d jr~ti on of lhe motion Qf th e parttctes, and the IDu sure of this proce$S ion
in the second-order a pprox imal iQll i n GMe/V W", ill the quan tit y

, GMGl (-=-
&1' .. 1.\ 'fl - 21'1 ~ 311 ' +---=-
y'W. y ') -W.
w_ + -"8 n (GM0)" (' +-' j
51 (GMqJ '
+T" v w. yw~
w e select the uJ atloli ahip between W", aod,,,, ill the form 01 the one-pa ramete r
famil y
W", _ 11'", + (t + ;') GM0 1'. (f 8.80)
Then for a ll va lue.'! of Lhe IIdJ,\lShb le parllmewr ;. sati sfy ing the eeadtnon
r ;t > GM'i) ! f +;' 1
we ha ve ~he following ex pans ion 0)1 6qo in pewees of GMelr", to with in secon d-
or der term s:
' ' )
6,,~ 3:o.GMe ( -;::-+ -;:- +-,-
51" (CMq)'
+311 (GM0)~ (*-l) t.r+*). (18.8t )

The shilt g iven by (t 8.81) ceo be uprassed in te rms 01 the chMaCler istiea pe nd
t of th e tr a ject 'lry;

o<p = e"£;"M0 [ t _ (~+A~ GM", (1 + e~) + 9C;:", (1 + :~ )] , (18.82)

where 2p i.! the la flU Ttdum. (somet imes p ie call ed the IGeel parameter) and t
the ecoolltricity linked to , + a nd r_ through We foll owing relationships;

p- ,.2r.,_
+,_' ,,_ ~
- r.+,_· (" .88)
All (18.8 t) d earl y 8hoW8, th~ acnbigu ily in t he pre dict ion of GR con cor ni ng
the sh ih 5", man ifMts ttsell, llJl in th e cu e with ligh t dellect ion , ill second-order
terms in GMdr" , and d isapp ears in RTC ercc e here 1 "'" O.
App lying fl)rnlula (18.8t) to the meuon of Mercury ulm nd the Sun, we arrive
in the very rlt's t order in Glltd r,* at the foll owi ng vslue lor 6", (i n seconds of arc
per centu ry);
6", .., lr.2.98' !cen lury.
The result s Gf observ ation yield (Sell Misn er, Tho rne, and Wheeler, 1973 (p . It 13) ,
a nd Will , 1981) 6q>,uor coo (lr. j. l ± 0 .9)"/cent ury . We see that the present level
of experiments in th is fIeld Is not suffic ientl y high to s tudy the second-order corre<:-
ttens and, hence, to experimenta lly de termine tlte val ue "f ),.
Study of the Mercur y perih elion sh irt is f urther ecm pltc ate d by t he f$C t tha t
a number of other Iact cre, besides pcet-Newt oniana correct ion s in the eq ua tion
01 moti on , a ffect the perfhel ten shif t. Among th 6lle are , say , the gravitat ional
pulls of oIlier plan ets In the !(lIar s yste m and the d eforma tio n of the Sun (the
q uadrn pole momen t of the Sufi). Th e on l)' indet erminate lector is the value of the
qu adr upole moment of the Sun , since the effeet of all th e other (act GI'S can ba cal-
c ulated wit h sufficient acc: uracy.
T he ad diti onal Mercury per ihelion ah ilt brought on by the Sun', quad ru pole
moment I, re (in tee olld, of arc pet cent ury)
05"'.~d =0 1.3 x 10'1•.
Measuremen ts conducted by Dicke a nd Col denberg, 1967, 011 the SUIl'S appa rent
oblet enesa pro vided a val ue erure qua drupole momen t I, equal to (2.5±0.2) x
to-·, while later measuremen ts by Hill et et., 1974, (see also Will , 1978 , 1979 ,
1981) yielded the est ill"te I , < 0. 5 X 10- 1. A comparisOl1of the perihelion sh ift.s
of Mercury and ManI yi elded an est i m a~ J , <3 x 10.... (see Sha piro et al.,
1972a , b).
18. R TG .ad Sc l_ S pI"" Gr.vll.IIIM. l E~ /Uri m."I.

Th ,,~, the ... bsa nee " I d irllet mell~u re ll\e n ts " f the SlIll'S qu adru pole ll\omeM
re6ults in ... large indetl'!'mi, which mak es i1 impo!ll!ibl" to s tudy the Mercury
pu ihaJio ll sIIal with good llccufacy.

18. 5 Time IN la)' of Radlll Signals in the Suo '. G... vlLaUonal
Field {Shaplro'a Effect)'"
Th e purpose of the expert ment is to measure th e ti ma of propa gati on of a ra d io
signa l in t ha gravi ta tiona l field of the SUllo He... is how th18 uperlment call be
eealtaed . A radar transllli tter on th e Earth !lend s a ra dio wave out to II refiel:tor
elsewhere i n t he solar ~stem (Misner, Th orn B, Wheol&r, 1973, p. 11(6). The
refilleted wave is then eeeetved on th e E8rth . Th e roun d-trip tr8ve! ti me is measured
by a clock on the Ear th. This qua ntity is compared to tho rou nd-tr ip tra vel ti ma
in the ab sen ce of the Sun's gravitation8llield. In th is W8Y the t ime delay or r8d lo
signa ls in the gnvi t8 tion.J fleld of the SUll is determined.
To calc ulate theceeuo e ltj- t he ti me delaYll f ra dio signals in th&Sun's grav .ta-
etcnat Setd Jet us turn til Eq. (18.46). Sine\l for rad io sigllllis E ,." 0, Sq . (18.46)

We place th& or igin of the IloOl'd inate eyste m at t he S~n ' 8 center and a~ ma
lh al t hll ra dio signa l propagates in the eq uatori al plane ",~ . Lel r o be the dis tillca
froll! t he ori gin to the point where th e path of the ra dio s igna l come! el ese sr to
th e source of gravitationa l lield . Th an J1 ~ IVJ U•• where W. "'" W {r.) en d
U. = U {ro,) o It ia obvious th at in e xpet imenl$ of lth ia typ e we mus t ClllUider onl y
pa ths of ra dio s;gllala lllr which r.;;;, Re. I nle gr ati ng (18.84) wit h respect til r
and all lJwinR lor the relationships hetw(!80 U (rl . V (r ), and W (r) (se& (18.25» ,
we get
V'~ (v w )'!' <! vii"
I(r~ . rJ - " (Vw WMo/ l(vW -V w;J(Vw w ,)(yw WJ I"" . (18.86)
where W. end W . at'<! given in (t8.57) a nd (t8.58), .respec tively. This fllrmul a gives
tha tim e thlH it t ak llS the rad ill signal to prop aga te fro m point r. to poin t r.
Foe W. > 3GJ\f0 we h ave VWo > W. > 0,> W. , wit h the result th a t th e
integra (18.8G) can be represented thu s:
I (r o• r) = (2GM@)' I , (r) + (2GMO)" I. (r ) + (2GMe) I , (r) + I . (r), (18.87)
I.(r) = 2
e )(W. - 2GM 0l I jlw. (W, w.nv
(V w , 2GM

x [(VW::-2GM I F(. )-(Vw- wl n(v (vW';- W,)(W.-2G.IIq) ) ]

• e ,q . , ' e- , W,j( V w. 2GMe ) , q ,

1. (r) ~ I VW, ( w. W.l I.,.. F Cv, q),
(18.89 )

• So.. Lotun oy ud LOO kulOv, 1985a. t98Sb, 1118&, t 98lih, 1986., LC'guQOY, Loskul Ov, ud
Chugft.v. 1986, sod ShapiJ'O. 19M, t919.
I , (r)_ 2
IYW,(w, W, )l' /t

x [W.F(v, q)+(l! w.- Wt) n(V, Y:::~~" '1)] . (18.90)

I () ~ { 2W, (VW,)''''
• r ~ - ~p (1'14', l ) (PY W. tly w,- w,
: k- l F(v . q)
x [Pl"
+ WIW,-Vw.
V~ n ( ..., rf vi¥,
I ' q
I]l Pool '
whel'll q Is given by (18.62),
v,., aln-' [' (W.- W ,) (VWlTi- Viv,l] 111, (18.92)
(VW. w,) (Vii'"f,i 14'.)
F (v, q) i!! an ellip tic integral of the flrst k tnd, and IT (v, (I , q) is an ell iptic integral
of the t hird kind :

n (~ , Q . q) = \ .fa .
', \I + Oria' Il) Y t q' .i,,' ..
Suppose thu in the $elected rererenee Irame the Earth has cccrdlna tes (r. , ltl.)
and \.he reflectcr, coordin ates (r~ , <J'pl. In Sh~ piro's ex per iments th e reflect or was
Merellly in ! uperior conlunction ('P. - lI'~ Ql: " j.
On the basis of (t 8.87)--(t8.91) we arrive at the following formula for th e t ime
it takes the radtc signal to propilil'ate from the Eeeth to Mercury in the Sun's
gravitat ional field:
t (r" r p ) (2GMe)' If. (r. ) + ft (rp)J

+ (2GM0 jl [I. (r ,) (r.)J + 2GM0 [I , (r.)

+ ' 1 (r p)1 + If 0 (r,) + ' 0 (rp)J. (18.9 3)
If we select UJe paths Iollcwed by rad io signals for which r. Qt R e and allew lor
t he fa<:t !.hat 11
W. >- 2GMe-while in the g[\"en es peefment r, :> r o and r1 ". r~
and, hence, W, o W (r,» W. ~nd W p "",W (r. » W" we lind fro m 118.93)
t hat to withi n th e fll'!l t order in GM0 the follo wi ng formula holds true for t (r" r . )
(see Appendix 4);
t (r., r. )Qt(W. - W.JI/1+ (W. _ Wojl/:
+GMe [ 2 10 yi'f,;+VW;::W;+ (yW';- VW.r l l
vw; vw, w. YW + Vw;, p

+ ( Vw. - VW; )"J] . (18.95)

Vw. +Vw.
For furt her analj'$is we need the eq uat ion descri bing t he t rajectory of th e light
signal W _ W ('J'). Th is equat ion can be found from (18.49). If we put E = 0
in Eq. (18,49), allow for (18.25), and int llgrat e, Wll obtai n in !.he 1i1'51 order in
GMe t he following'
whe re


Subllt ltutl ng (18.97. ) inlo (18.96.) a nd retainiDg tCfllla up to the lirs t order in
GM f:). we lind ttl al
t fl!, JI) *' ¥W: sin t. + VW: sin "4\. - GMG (. ln tjl.+ ain tJ
+GMo IIt (!+ 1i1l tel (1+ "111 ~.J
{ 1-alll 'f<)(t - .ill 'hJ

'r o calcul ate the n riation io the 110111' of , jm. ~tUed by Lb. SUIl'S fravi t.tilllta.
fteld , .." m ust sub tract lrom (t8.97b) til e val ue 01 the time i l tikllS th, rad io
sip al to lI'II.-.1 from pollll r. 1.0 point , . ;11 the of lbe Still'. rral'ttaUGl'lIl1
field .
Send iAII' G 10 uro ill Eq . (18. 97b) ' Dd bHri llf ill mind that IV" , lOll. t .,. d..
pen d 011 G, toO get

'. - (tU7el

P.... ... li m
0 _0
V W"" ,
..... _ t... (18.97d)
Let us ll!Itab li.5h tIle meanillf of the limit iD¥ qlJ' lltiti es P... alId ~ . .... Si nea
the IIIIfI element with D:l(ltfie aKlflkients (t8.2S) lend. to
<h' _ dt" _ tip" _ p' (dO" + . in' 6 ~1)
8S G _0 end li m yW.. p, .nd Ute li tter coincides with tbe line element
0_ '
of the Minkowski s paell-li me In standard coord ina t&s (I, r, 9, <p), we eonel ude
tha t P 1;;11 e and , hence, P" r ., r•.,..
Putting C _ 0 in Sq •. ( 8.96a1. and (t8.96b). we lind I.hll
, ,
7 -p;cos ",. (18.981)

P. - li lD
_a VW; If - c_. t·

Eq llatiOll (IS.98a ) implitll

r. COlI 4>. - r.. cos ".. (18.980)
Yhe~ .. . ... Ull t.h. va illtll of lb' polu IUgle for the Eutb Ind Mere ury . raspsc.
t ively .
Subtractin g (18.970) from (18.97b), we arrive at the formu la for Ule time delay
of the rad io signal in the Sun's gravi ta ti onal field:
L\t = I (e, ).1) - I._ (t 8.ll8c)
But 6in~ th e function W (r, G1\10) ia not determine d by the Hil bC'l't--Elnswi o
equations, the dependence 01 W•.~ on r•.~ and GMo is unkno wn within the
frBlIlllwork of GR a nd , there-lore, t ile r ight-h and ! ide 01 (18.9&) ClI nnot be elll-
cula ted unam biguouily. Let us il lust rate this amb iguit y with t ho example 01
the olle-parameter ll mily of functi ons
W (t, GM0l = lr +
(I + "J GMo !', (t8.9&I)
when .. is an arb itrary finite parameter. It is easy to $00 that for such a chctce
of W (t, GM0 ) the solut ions (18.25/ at G = 0 are transfor med i nto t he metric
coeflici oot.s V"'" 01 the p!ll!Udo-E u<: ide ao spaee- time in s pherical coordinl Le:l .
Booring in mi nd the spherica l symmatry QI tha problem , i n view of which
'fl. + '4'~ = <i'. + 'f'~ , ....e in tr oduce the nQtation
~. = 'f'. - Ii, t~ ~ % + Ii. (18.98e)
Then, combinin ll" (18 .97a), (18.98b), end (18.98d), we arri ve at tbe following expre s-
sion for Ii in th e firsl order in GMc:f
6 GMe (GOI".-c ", ,,,,) ( Z - l. c<>l <r. c.,. ~)
(18.98 1)
"" (r" ln '{'o+r~ 5in 'l'~) t'05 'l'o coa",
Sub!lt itut ing (18.98d) , (t8 .98e), an d (18.981) lo la (18.97b) >'ields the following
Ils pres5ion for th e time the radio signal tllkfl3 to pro pagate in the Sun' a gravita-
tio nal liald:
r Ce, )I) "" r. lIin 'f'. + r~ lIin 'P~ l..G Me (lIin <:P. +sin "'~)
GM I (1 + lio",,){1 + sill "") (18.9ge)
+ o n (I . ;n ep. ) (I - llll '!'Il) ·
Th e la llie quantity can be e",pressed in terms 01 red ial d ista nces, which are dete r-
mined, accordiog to metric (18.25), vi a (18.98d).· Stu ce by definiuon

with r. the redtal eritb metiutiGIl number corresponding to poi nts on the surface
01 the Sun, we illtoe grate and emve, in the firllt order in GMe. at th e fnllowing:
I .,~ ~ r' ,1l - r. + GM0 1u (r•..Jrol , (18.99b)
whic h yields
I, - I.. ~ r , - r~ + GlUe In (r.!r~).
hi th e first order in GMe thls equ at ion allows for an tnve -atcn of the type
r. - r" ~ t. _ I~ - GM 0 1n (1,11..) ... II ,

and, therefol'll, Illowing for (18.98h), we eqily lind that

Subs ti tuti ng these expressions inlo (t8 ,99.). we find th at
alo ('I'. + ~ )
I (e, II) - a O<,I S""'-<05'1'o +J..GM0(ain'l'. +a in'l'.\
eM I (1+ .10 ",.)(1 +ili a "", )
+ (,) II (I . hl .f<j (l _ I;o ",, ) . (18.991:)
r ormulas (f8 .99a) and (18 .9ge) demoO!tra te that already in the fin~ order in
GM0 the mag nitu de of the time it takes the radio aigoal to tra vel in the Sun '.
gravitational field cannot be found unambi guously in GR since the Hilber t-
Einst eIn equations do nol fix the value of parameter 1.. Hence, the st.llie/Uent
made by lehinoiill and K am in 8i 8, 1987, that the predictions of GR are unam bi-
gUDua are simply erroneo us. Not.ll that the aucve-menncned amb iguity in the
prediction of GFl we! remarke d Ill! earlier (e.g.• see Brum berg , t 972), bUI no
meani ngful conclusions were drawn.
Sub:!tit ut ing (18.99.) a nd (18.97c) into (18.!l8c), we arrive at the follewill~
fermula Ior the utne delay of radi o signals in the ll'tavltatio1l81 field of the Sun:
(I +.In '1'. ) (I + oin '1'..)
tu= W M0(si n~.+sin~~)+G M0 In" , ". . " '(18.1008)
- . 119. . '11 'l' ~
T he presence in (18.1001l) 01 the indeterminate para meter). makea it imp e9siLIe
to lind I deflllite valu e of< M rDlWI llling with th~ framework of GR.
I n RT G th e value of paramMer). is well-defined ( i t is eq ual to 1ero). and thera·
fore for the time delay of ra dio signals in the Sun' s g,r8vitat ielllll field we have
an una mb iguoue Iormula: . I
1l+ ! ln'M ( l+ eln~J
.o.J "",Gflf0 In (I IID%) (I Il n 'l'~; . (t8. 100b)
Note tha t if the !'illative freque ncy shif t of a radio \!Jignal pro pagating;n the
Sun'a fIeld is caleulatlld on the bu is of (18.9&1), then In th e !irst order in GM0
we obta in (888 Lcgu nc v end Lcsk utcv , 1987b)

6•. ~ = ~ 1 ~ G M0( .L- -'-) . (18.tOl a)

'" " l' . '. r. , ..
We see th at 11•.1' is independent of the parameter J... We will derive (18.fOIa)
whe n eonelder ing th e amb iguities 01 th e predict ions of GR.
Hesa is an other exa mple. It is oft en s taled in the li tera ture t hat if the time
d els y 018 zadto aigoal in a gra vi titl olli l field , to t (r., r~), is u pl"flSSlld in terms or
t he peri ods of revolut ten of the Ea rth, T•• Mer'C ury, T ~ , and a test body llr biting
th e Sun along a n orb it 01 rad ius r co r. ~ R0 , T. , th en tot vv,
r~) is independent
0 1 th e chel ce 01 (12.72) Or (12.76) 88 soillt ion. We will now prov e th ill etalement
to he err cnecus. For the sake ols impli city W8 lISBurne that th e a~e noted object.!
revolve a bout the 9 0111C(l of grav itati onal field (the Sun) along ~rcula r eebits.
T he n , under the ebove-e ta ted ar it hmet iution of apace with li ne elements defined
in (12 .72) aod (12.76) we arri ve in the Iirst order in GIlf0 at lhe loll owing results
(see Logunov end Loskutov, 1986. , 1987a):

r •.•.~ (). = 0) .. 2n ,r.{/~

CM. )
/ :".;$:. ( t
+,..3 ~
, (f8. 101 b)
, 3/2
TI.•. ~ {). _ -1 ) - 2n ";~1i0' (f8. tOle)
We . , t!ll t a«Ol'll ing to Gft tb, periods of r1!VoiutioD of the objectll in tb, orb iU
p ro\", 1O lit, in \he vu i..bles (I, r , e. 'I. d i8eMlotfor dUlellllll melrlcs. II ill (f 8.tll1.b)
an d (15.1011:) W. paslI from n umbers I' to obsecv, b1et I.". aDd 6•.• • in terlDJ of
I"ese measura ble uri,blM th a mbi(uities in th. l.heoreti(..1 uM of T. ..~
rUllin . The di llereuee in the periods 01 ~ " olu li oo ~pondi.n& to melliQ (12.72)
Ind (12.761 can be u p4ined here by the faet Ib. t , Ith oli' " the ph Ylliq,1 ,.di.l
d ~laocl:ll to the or bit i n d ilfu enl llleLr ie. w ine ide (In tlwl fir31 order io GM~ ,
the velocity of 1 0 objec t di lfm from IDetlic to metr ic (Loru ne v and Lo!Ikutov.
If we now erpl'eS!l th e t i of Pro Plli.t1oD t (). _ 0) (o r I p. _ -1 ) i o t 8t1D!l of
t he period. of ~YOIU I;OD T ~ (),. _ 0) (or T. ..... (l _ _ I » eud i n trOlh~. for
tl,e l eke of simplicit y, the noLltiOft

L•.•.• _ 9
(V"'" T.... ~ )'" .
th en for both metr ia , (12.72) a nd (12.76), t he t VI. T rela tio n is the ~~ U10 :

t. V L~ - L: + Vv.=t:
+ GM {2InL,. +Vrpzi + ( " -")In+ (.!='.),,,). (IB.102l)
8 L. _ JI I.: _Li l; + Lo 1.-;+l.

T o decw min e We eDtl.'l cI g:rn i ta t iou l t ime dela, proper, which act ually con-
s tit utes l he ' 0lI1 of such .UldIN , one mU$l . tao isolate th4i tillie ' , ~y for the
rad iOIiloal to eev er the d~taDee frOm the Earth to M. J'C.W'y io the a bsence of the
Suo '. ,"vita lioo al field. Th is IlInn. th at ...e lIIW1t add it ionally cal culate th e
tillll', It would LUI the aigy l to pro paga te frolll (I!') to (,alln the Oa t lDlltrie ".
u ti U Pl'ftll !.his t ime, "II (t 8. t Ol b) aDd (tS .tOt e), ill Lerros of t1ae revolu tion
periods T, III Lhe illilial I ri th llleLiu lion 01 Spice,
,-.. Vri-=?';: + JI? - ~ .
Cor«llpor.din,ly. wilh me tries (12, 72) aod (12.76), th at is . with (18. lot b) aDd
( IS. WI e), we have'
.r -rr-rrr . r .........-r':" r(
1.. -1. . ) ' "
,. (1• • O) - r ,-,~ - LJ.+ r '-" - l.~ -GM0l ~ + ( L.4-' . ),,oJ ,
+L J"
(18. I02b )
Thill. the li me dela)' d ue to rrav ita ti on , !\ I _ I _ I. , ~ delintd d ifferent ly in
metrlu (12.i 2) and (12.76), For GM0 , L J" . Ind L, much s mi ller th a n L. ,. Wll
ob ta in .
( t S. I02d)

( IS. I02e)

Keno . . ia t.-od_ L .l. 'l ..1tt.1_ . 1Ir; "-e_, ..bea l!rI. "",,caUl" of th e Ta,1I1 "",""l'a
pl tb It ,• • ,....... the SuII' . ... rf_. tills q"atitl' can '" _ liud .... No . .. .. il iiU]"_ bodl'orblt·
lor tho 5.11'' lOll' a orlIll .. ith , - , J.'
The ca lculation of t can be earrie d out if from the star t we paM from cooedln ates
(t , r, 0, lfI) to vari abl e! (t . p. e, '1') . wi th p _ VW"'(rj. in tarlllS of which

rJs2_ ( I - ~
X M )
rJt2 -
1- T)
'tCM -I
dpJ- - fI"-(d9'-+ lIi n' 0 drp!). (18.102f>

On the basis (If exp rliSSlon for the lin e elemen t weea nobtain , in tbe rll'st orde r in
GMe. the followin g form ul a for t:
t= VP~ - P: + VP:-P:
+ GM {2 1n P,, + vpPPi + (~)'" + (v.-Po) ''')
e P. VP: - pl P~ +A. P. + Po
and for the periods T•.• . w we have
p~:~. ~
T•. •. ~_2 :l Y GM .
Although th e link between I and t he expeetmcntally measu ra ble T. ,•. ~ th at
{OIlD"'S Irom the above form ulas is una mb iguous, th e t ime dilley AI wil l again be
d ill'e re nt l or dillere nt mel r iell g, ~, since, in Lrod ucing th e metric ten se r VI. of t illt
nat space-t ilde in the u ithme t in tions r in order to calc ull tll t . > we aga in arrive a t
(1a , l02d) aDd (l a. l02e) if we take p to be equa l In r +
GM S and r, respectively;
an d the Inteeductio n of a flat metrie 11k (p) leads to a n am biguIt y beca use nf the
inde ter minQC y in the valu e of Po: say , for p, - GM0 we have
,, - -.
1'''' rP~ -P.t+rp:-P.1 -GM0
., - -. [( c, -.,
llI< + Pl
r" + ("P.+P
-".1 )"'] '
and (or 1',_0 we ha ve
1,= VP~ - P~ Y p: - pl. +
$(I t hat lur GIo10.' 1'.1' and p, muoh. s mall\!1' tha n P•. ~ we aga in arr ive at form ula s
(18. I02d]8 nd (18.102e) for A I , Note tb at th e value of AI calc ulated on tile bas is
01 (18,I02e) does not agree with the exper tmentally observed val ue (see Sbap;t\},
Fina lly , we note th ai in lerms of the vllri abl "" (t , p, e, 'Il) sul uti on (18.I02f)
is net the on ly solution to Ute Hllbeet-Em ste tn equ et tone. I ndeed, as a lready " nled
in Ch. apte r 12, th e funct ioo p .... ylY (r) ca n al ways be ta ken u one uf the var iab les
In whose terms the Hllbert-Ei nstefn equ auen is wr itlell, with the result tlla t
(18 .25) will a lso be a.o luti ons to tb is erlllati nll, Ibe onl y d ifference being that in
th e latler sol utio ns p plays th e role of r and the lu nct ion W (p) plays th e role or
It" (r), tha t is, ambi gu it iM in t a ~d lit emerge because 01 th e a rbitrariness in the
ch oice o{ W (fl), BlI w as the cue ur1ier in the in it ial arilh meti~at ion in term s 01
(t, r, e, 'l') ,

18.6 Period of Revelu tien 01 II Test Body in CkbW

To determin e the period of revol uti on 01 a te st bndy in nrh it we will s tart with
Eq. (18,46) and the eq ua ti nn {or the traj ectory
r_ p ( 18, l o.~)
t + . O O!l~~

SEe Logunov ud L<dkulov, l S811 b, t 986<:: , and Logunov, L"'k\lIOV, and Chu~;"ev, 1986,
'""' heA
p_ 2r:r~ • . "" ~ , (18. 104.)
r.T'_ r.+,_
q~ I-~. , (t8.t04b)
r. ill th e lllinitn.1 dUil.& nca froID th e eeowt 01 tb. sou.~ of Ita.-il.tional 6eld 10
the ~ Ih 01 the test body, and , ... i ! the muhu l d i, lI11ct.
S ine. Ib, 11'101;011 b 6nite, lor E a n d J ' ,.... 11.... (18. 70) and (18 .7t ), f't$peet i ~.J J"
From (t8.46) It ""dily folio"", th at
• ywv {I S. l OS)
7;" -l'iiIW_ J"U _EUWj.....
PI, eillll lb ' ori,in 01 tile eoonl i" . le system It the eeOler of t.hol sourat of I ",v[l.-
l iOlWl1,.,.Id . $lIpet'posiq \he tlqllat.ori.1 ple ne rr wilk tbe pl,nc in whic;h t h'" lest
body mo,'a , and Inteerat ing {IS. lOS). _ I lTive .1 th e following form ula lor til'
peri od oJ revo luHoll of th e lest body :

T_ 2 '\' ,kVWV
1!1J \W J'U EUWJ'/'
_ r'J i1t' IW u "Wi'£(,WI''"·
J 'fJ
(18. 106)
'. '.
T he orill' ln of the lu t interr.l in (18.106) un Ia ' il)' be traced if .., note th . ! under
• complete ""oIUlion , th.l I! , whe n OJ' ", ries Irom 0 to :In, the teII l body dOftS DOt.
I U<l rd illg 10 (18.t03l . rel urn to tJle inili . l poio l but is found at the point

" ""r(<p _21l) _ 1+ .!012"Q . (18. 101)

Allowlol In (18 .106 ) for the relati onship b~t W"ll funct ions U and V aurl tho
fuu et l(>ll W (r) (see (18 .25)) . we (> bUlln

WI V-)'"
rJ _ t"'Jrw, ) (t' W
(2 l"'W: '" w
2C"'1 1(l £}"""O_JO(VW_2CmI+W"' EW I'/o'
(181 08)
t'"w: vw::
where IV. _ W (r . ). W, "" W (r ,) . and no Is the mUll 01 the !o01U'Cll 01 grav itaU ona'
6eld. Substi tutll1g 10111 (18. t OS) the u pressiolll (18.70) ...d (18 .71). we find that

IVW~W_llY"'-"" IVw.- _)
w. vw.- 2Cm r w: 2C.oo y lt':)
l" (2 ffl:1r -.1.:)
y-w; Y""Wi
. _
X Il t' w (YW)"" _ (fB.I09)
nf w_2C..) IW"w.- YWl eV1t' - 1!K7:l (Vw- Wtll'P
iy _ w: JIW:
2C- ....
(18.U O)
• t'w.t'w_-2G.. l/W: 2Goo l' W::
For Vw:,2GIft • • ha ve w. < VW: , with the resu lt tha t T ca ll IIl'repre-
aent.ed al foll ows;
T [ (Vw:+yw.:l (v iv."-
2Gal WiiC- 2Gool
2COI(r W: ,' W-::' :C_ VW: 2CmllW:J
x {(2C'")'12i, (r... rJ- /J(r,. r. lJ+ (2Gm)1\2/ . (r... rJ - l o (r,. r . )1
+2Cm.{2i, (r+, r~l-i,(r" r~)I + t 2j . (r... ,.)_ I , (r,. r.)I) . ( l )
_ hert
(II W - 2c.) <ZG- - IVoil yw.: (lIiV: - IV0I1'fl

x[(vw: - w.> n( "' , rYw:- ~W:)(:ac;. we . q)

T 1l'W:- Wol (2C--YW.)

+ 12Cm- y Wj F(lI/2. q>] . (IS. lI b)

r. (r... ,~) _ 2 _ FIl'II2, q), (18.t1 2b)

I(¥W: W W:- Woll'"
I, I'... '.) _ 2
(.,rw: - w,W
IY W. "
x [ Of w~ - w,,) n (-T '
' ,(' '' ' r...) -=> - - . { _
VW: Y.!1i:, q) + W.;' (1t/2.
, .. (zW,- I)(z }"W:- I)( ¥W:- WoI'J"
Q)]. ( 18.11 2e)

x[{IV,- YlV:J n(2!.. . ( VW:- ! W:> lziV, I) • oj

2 (y w.:- WoI lz VW:- I)
+ W,I~ Y W.-I)F (:tI2 . o)]}... . (18.112d)
1. (r, . rJ ... _ , _
( YW~ - w.) pc.- Wol IVW. (lI"W:- W.ll'I"
x [ IVW: - WJ n (l . , y'W; t"',rc- iii- . • )
(y w.: - WJ (2GIn - YW.l
+ 12Cm- Y W:) F(X, q)] . ( & )

f, (r" ,_)_ 2 _ F (X. q), (18. t 131J)

I Vw. (VW. - WJI'J'
x[lvw. - WJ n(l.
(YW: -VW:1W
e» [ (YII' - ,]'" ,
. _ w,.>yw_
0 _
( (Vw..- vw: )'"
• (18.1I4b)

); _3; n. ' .,- - .,- ,- J'"

( v II'. Wolhw, ) II' _)
(V w.- W,)
( l8. t14e)

If the pat h of motion of the !.est bod y is s uch th lll r~ > Cm and', :» Gm and ,
hence, y IV", > Gm and V ~ :> Gm, the n (18.111) yi81ds the following Ieemula
lor the period 01 revolu ttcn (see Appendix 4):
T':::!lI (Vi¥.+V w.:),/' ( 1 + lIGm = + t IrVW:-VW';IWW';-¥W:lI'l'
V2Gm V i¥.+ yw_" YW. + ll w_
-i- [i-Sill-'( t-2 VII',
y'W; - VW::
VII' _
)]) . (18.tl5)

Let us 1I0 W tak e the one-parameU!r fam il y Y W (tl ~ r + (1 + J.) Gm 8 S lhe

soluti on to the Hilberl·E illllt ain equatio ns. I n thi s ease, ob viously ,
y W..... '''' +( I+).)Gm (18. 11&)
V'W;" - " + (1 +), ) 0"1
:=0: , _+(1 + ),j Gm+ ~
' (-'r.=- ) [ 3"'C.. {r.+ ,_)]%,
'.'_ (18. 116b)

wbeee we h ve allowed for th e approxima\.(l upMl8ll;on Jor " to within terms 01

th e order uf (Gm) ' , an expl'fl8llion tha t u n be obtai ned Irom (18 .107), (i8.1M..).
en d (18.tMb). T hen for all v..l.,es QI p..ramete r A satillIying th e cQndition
r~ > I t + AI Gm we QbU in. tf we comb ine (18 .115) with (18. 116a) and
(18.116b), the lollowing formnl.. for the period of rev oluuon:
T ~:I (, . + ,_W" { 1 + 3(1+I.lG.. +6 ~[, _ (-,=-)"Z ~] ).
J!:wm r.+,. '.+'. r. z".
(18 .117)
We see that the period of revol" tion 01 test bodies with in the GR Irimlework is
"ot dete rmined una mbig uousl y beeaa ee t he value of ). Is not fixed in C R. On the
othe r ha nd , in RT G ). = 0, so tha t the predic tion s 01 RT G concerning the period
of re,·Q I.,t iQ n of a lllt;t body /lfe unambign ous:
T-::x:n. (r. +._)' /' {t + ~ [ , _ (-,=-) "Z ~ ]).
V2G.. r. +,_ '. 31'.
T he last lurmula reneou Kep ltlr's third law in RTC with ecreectto cs.

18.7 ShI...,ko,,·s Effect"

Shiro kcv's efll'Ct is th at if a tes t par ticle moving in a spherica ll y sy mmetric grav-
ita t ional field a lQng a closed orbtt is ..cted upon by Dweak pertu r bation , it will
oscillate both rad ially and azimuthally. Th is problem is 01 interest to us from the
• S,.. Sh;roko". 1973.
mtlhodolOllcai ll'lgle . H ~ ...... will eonsider l si mpli version; we IUSU me
thd !.be U$t par ticle moves lUIi lorm1y al DOl' I Gin; r orbi t 01 r.d ius r _ ron!>L
To det&m1 inl Ule il\flllil.aimI1 4-..eetc e ~ ' 01 a d. "i" Uon from th s gecdesic . .".,
star l wi t h the deviation equ ation
I)t<.l + Rkll; UI~l _ O.
r;:r- (18. 118)

where J ~ tile pIlr.lnleter of t hl! tl'Ojeeto.y , and

, '"' . (18. 119)

wilh z' tlte . pberietll eoon!iDl tel, th.t is, zt _ t , r' _ r, r _ e, and :i' = • .
Obviously...I i. th e 4·,"eclo r of the rate 01 cha np of lb . unpertu rb ed to«dinates
"". with res pect to pataflleta' • an d Mtlsfies the loll o....i lll eq uation of mot ion (t he
geod8!lie equation):

"z,.. .
"'ovina lb' oririll of the eoord io. te ,}'Stem to t he ee-nUt 01 the sou,," 01 ITavi-

"- liond 6eld Ind JJIlper poslllg the equl l.oI"ial plane i th the plane in ....bleh the
lest particle mO'·I!!!. W1l p i e _ 1lI2. ....hi d! means that

" '.... u2... 0 . (18. 121)

S ince , by U3IImption, lb, orb it is eteeute e, r _ eODlll, I nd we hu e

ut a h -O. (18 ,122)

'" ..
Allo wing for the unif ormil y of the moti on In d tbe validi ty of (l B.29), (IB.121).
• nd (18. 122), we h d lIlu (18 .120) yie ld ,

""F(~ -"'h("''P - O. (18.123)

a nd (18. 23), (18 . 121), aod (18.122) are valid , we obttl in

U (r) {u· )t _ W (r) (utl' "" 1, (18 .124)
whid! , ...han eombined with (18.123). ean be u'IId t.o find (.... )" and (...I) t ;
("'l' ~ .".,- -,,-,
- a (_' ) ' (18.12:'1)

" U
( ' )1 1 M) t (18.126)
II. = 1iW" dr " ( ') •
"'"iT In ""'iT
Let u' now ret urn to th e deviati on equat ion (t8. 118). An identi cal form 01 this
eqUi ll on is
....' +'- r'. ,u. £+
-y u ,rI. , I' . U " - 0.
""'1ii' (18 .127)
Th ie eo mbln..:l wi th (18.29) ud wit h the lac t lhl t 9 _ 1112 yield.
~ ~,
-.;r- + ' T - O, (18. 128)
~. 4-

-p-+DT+ e ...... +fCI - 0• (18.129)

b' + ~ = O, (18 .130)
.... +k -s-
4' - 0 , (18.13t )
...:hel"Cl we hive i ntrod uud the nollt ioD
0. 211'r:.. b . 2I':'..u' . e _ 2 r~,u',
f - d~r (U-)l+ tIS,:' (II") ' . e_(,,_/", 1t... 2r :.uJ.
Note ~h a i in the eUlrenl prablem the eoeflic ient5 a, b, e, I. e, a nd k are eonst.nU.
Eq ultion (18. 130) }"l, ld.
t' - ~ u p (IUt), (t 8.133)
where QI .. e ud . by vir tue of (18. 132) and (18. 126),
I " lnU I
( IB. I34)
D"· V -;;r :. 11& (4-) .
II i n Ih_ rem l ining equ Il io". (18.128). (18.129) , an d (18. 131). we carry oul t b'
5uba titulloIU
t-- Cu p('_ ). l' - t u p{* ). £'-C up (I....). (18. 135)

_ ~ + ~ _ O.

-~+~+k~+1t - O, ( 18 .136)
-loO'~+iakt -O.
'fhe een dltten !hd t bm-e be nontri",i..l solu tions to theMl eq uation. yield.
(I)' _ f _ Ite - cb. (18.137)
S uppoae th l t we hnv e ta ke n the one- para met er fa mHy
W (~) _ [ ~ +(1 + ).)
Gm )'
as the seluttc n to the Hllbe re-E tnateln equ a tions , wilh ). an adjus ta ble ptrameter
ud m the ut ive gn.'· italion. 1 mn ll 01 t he source o f rr.vitationt! field. T hen com-
b ining (18. 134) wi th th e reb tioll5hl p (12.4.0) th t Hnh U wil li y W, .... obu.lo

0:_ l.+(1- 2) c;f:;+<}+ I) (;_1' (18. 138)

On lila buill af (12.40), (18.29). (18.132), and (t8 .137) wa can ..-rite the follo...IO(
formula far . ':
.. - -[z
,+(1- 2IG_
'+ 11+"1'" -
. (18. 139)

For . 11 ..alullS of I. ytisfy ina: the el\nd i tions

~ >Gmll. +l l . ~ > G"' I I. _ 2 1. (18 .UO)
formlllu (18.138) a nd (18. 139) yie ld
"' ~ O: (1 - ";"') . ( IS.Ut )

"' ~U: ( I- 3 (1 +~2) C.). (18.1<12)

wi lh
0: - GmJ~. (18. 143)
T his result. in the foll owing (ormolu for peri od. of n dial and u imll lh, 1
OlIl:i ll, tioN i n th e lint order in Gm:
T . ~ .'".e: g;-
.. [t + JQ. +:!)e-
fi J- ' (18. 144)

T "' ''' [ + .,,-

, - r . ""T-l:i;" t - J. {1.145)
We see l b. l in Gft ill the very first orde r in em, the lormw&lI do 001 pc'O" irle I n
uDl mb iru oUl ~r blll lhl ' in RT G, where 1 - 0 , we ha" . well-defined VIIIl "
for r , a nd T. _ r.:
T _~
• 'Ie
+ ~)

T._T._ . ~ ( 18.1 47)

18.8 PftceMlon of II G)'!'OlltOpt hI Orbit

SUPpo3e tha t a vy rosco pe is mo vin g a long a closed orbit ' round • ml !lllh 'e obj oct.
l 'heD th e cha nge ill th. s-veete e 01 the in lrinslc Ingular moment um S~ of lh,
gyTOSWpO I, doscr ibed by th e ec ueucu
dS. ...... . ...
""T = l .. • -;s;-- , (18.148)
whore Z- _ (I, r». wlth 7!" being lb, apheriu l cO(lrd i nlt~.
Sinca this prob lem lntere:su WI only froll) lh, Iland po i n~ of the u llbiguity of
RT G and GR p~letions . to SiOlpl!f)' mi tten we wlll assume that the gyrosc.o pa
folio"'" a eircular orbit In I qherieailJ ayllullel rie , rl vitllt!onal hid I nd lhn i ~
ls point- Hkl . Hanee, it is advisa ble to U5ll lhe term ~sp in" in rela ti on to tb e 4.vee\of
of the In tl in_ie ,nrullr momentum S . of lhe I'YfOISCOplI. Spin S . is orlhoaonal to
the oIi·veetol "," _ dr-lib 01 the yeloell)' of the ,yroseo pe in orbi~, lod, the refore
",·S. _ -U-S.. (18. 149)
Seltine If _ l:t In (18.t 4i8) I nd I lIo.,.in, fOl (18.149), Wll rel

-:. _ - ~...S,lI- -"'~S,-*=-+rLst"'"+rJ..s,..... (18. 150')

I.A~ UI pltu tb , origill of the coord inalAo system I~ the eeolel' of the SOun:l 01

gyroseopec mo... . In ~hil ease, obviouslr.

1 .
,rayitlt iooll Geld and su perpcee tb l equa.l«i al plana ,ith lh. pllll l ill whieh the
rrJZ and thfrefore
- 47 - 0.
Si nee hy Igumption lb, orbi t Is a eirel. of rldhl$ 1 _ Willi, ....e hu,

l/.' _ ~ _ O ,
" _0" 7
with th . r ll!luh tha t lh, ' ·,-eclOr of ve locily. ..-. aMulOeI th e form
u· _ {U-, O. O. ~ . (18.15t)
If W1I IH)W tIlke into aec.ount the u presaiolUl (18.29) fo r tb. con nec ti o n coe fftci ents
r:.•. lh. fad lh t e "'"
:lf2, .nd (18. 15t ), we ....i11 find th at (18. 150) yields
~ - -(r:, - r:J ) (S~ ..,,), (18.152)

" -r;,s "

W. _
" lIS.

that tb. com ponent S. u

' .
( f8. 154)

For th e tnjtc\OtY coD! ben ...-e already know lIl, ". loci l y CODlponf'nl$
w' a nd ... . Th . ... l ues are riv~ by (18. 125) an d (\ 8.126), rllIpeet iTe ly.
Multi plying (l 8 J 52)-(t 8 .1S4) by (..')-' an d inUod ueing the nob tl on
va _ ~/~ _ dz!"ldl . (18.t55 )
w. obuin
~ - -(r:,-r:,l S";, (18 . 156)

E... 0
" , -
is. _ ~;,s, ..
(18.157 )

" .
(18 . 158)

ObvioWl ly• .,; _ II- .... 0, while for 11-, in vi,.. of (18. 125) Illd (18.125), _ bave
" _( _'- '" )on .
2 yiii 77W
( 18.159)

Now let us prn e that Eq s. (18 .156)·{18 .158) Impl y lhlt th e llCabr prod ucL of
tho 4· veeto~ S"' .
is t i mll ~ Ild epend e nt and, ihtlrefnrn, is eOllMr"ll'd. A llowing for (18.25). (18.149).
(18.155). and (18. 159), we lind Ihat (t8. IOO) wi t h 6 = n/2 yields
S~ _ - y (S,)l-w (SJ' - , (w' - '
2II yw '''
4i1i; ) (5;I. .S
(1.1 I)
Finding rbe lim e derivat ive 01 lhis uprueion and a llowin, for EqiJ. (t8.t 56)-
(t 8.t 5S) yield.
:, (S..s-) -2v'S.s~ [-}{r:.- f"u) - r:. ( ~ -~ ,, ~W ) ].
If WII eDlp]oy (18.29). we ce n demonstrat e t lLa t
+(r:.- r:.J _ 1';' ( ir- 2U ~w it ~UW ) • (t8. 162)
whf teby
Ti" (S.,s-) . 0• (18.1&3)
• ·b lcll is .hat we sel out 1.0 pro""
. (.
Let us introd uce th , 3- vector Z ",ith eompon en ta
Z, _ VV S ,.
, ~ '" )'"
z._ - y'i; S o'
( 18. 164)
Z. _ - n"ne w - 2'U")'W 8,

....ith ~peet to . p" , riea l ooordi n"ts. It ean •.sily be sho wn th at

- (Z, Zl - ""Z. 7.. - IS. s-), (IS.l EiS)
",b ieh i mpli., ...ith the aid of (18.163), lhu I Z I II ~ed_
We now "'WI to lind the Cule!lian o;o mponenu of Z . To th is I nd _ em ploy lhl
"eclo:r l!'a ~orm. t ion la w
z' ,~ z ( tS. tOO)
' - hT .'
whe re the pr imn on t hl! ,symbo ls iod iu '" tl ii t the relIpect h'o qUIDt ic.i eJI ",fill' 1.0
• Cuwia n f )'l o f ("oord; "a~ .
S iMe Ihe mol inn oce" r. in Ihe Ir'. z' 1) (LI . 0 _ :d2). the trl n,for rnl t;oll
m' lrh aJ.'Afl;c" Ilu thl! form
,", 0 ,"
- .,..-
,,' ,"
, 0 ,"
•.,-' =
0 - "-
, 0
wilh Ihe ~u l ~ th ~l {IS. 1M ) yi ~ld s
z; _+(,," Z,_ z;' ZI) (18. 167)

Z; _+( .r'"Z, + z;' z,), (18. 168 )

z:. - - .
(18 . 169)

Subs lilutilt, tnf' ,~pn"!lsi ons ( 1 8 . I ~ J in Lo (18. 16;)-(18.169) ....ith 0 ... Jil/2, .....
ob tai n
, '[ ..-v
Z, - "7',,, S, + z'1' (W, - ,
2ii"'ji'T 7ViV '" I" S.], (16. 110)

Z;"". . (,,,
IT S, - zl' (1V"
, - 1ii')7W
. ~VW
'" I" S•]. (18. 171)

Let. liS de nolp tile c. r l~i JD

Z~ _ *S .
eomponen ts of the "eloe; t)' ..eet ee v ' by
(18. liZ)

v' a nd p" :
, tl z" U "
"" - -;t, ""'-71 -
h i f l!lISiI)' e$ubli.w.ed th at u' and u' are related to '" _ dtr!dt in th e foll owing
lII& nou :

.. p" = _ .:z:'V , lI'a _ ,..',"'. (18. 173)

Differenti at ing (18.170)-(18.172 ) with respect to I and allo wi ng for Eqs. (18. 156).
(18 .158) n d for (18.173), we li nd tha t
d.Z; ""l.. {S ,l' [_'_
f!i" , ' vy _ r:..(--'-
_ _W 'V_ii' ...jfL)"'
d }lii'
I IV, - ..-!..-...jfL)'"
WY ii' dY W __yv
L, (I';, _ rOll
' ]) . (18 . j 74)

a ; _.!... { lI':S [ -'__ r : ( , '_...jfL) "']

?I, ' Vii ""W" 2U "W ,q r ii'
+ u"S. [( ~ - 2ll ~w d ~w tt- Jv (1';, - r:.)]} , (18. 175)
dZ; 0
T = . (18.176)

Solv ing Eqs. (18.170)-(18.172) for S" S. , an d S. and subs tituting th ese into
(18.t74)-(18.176) an d all owing for the ide nti ty (18.162) yieJds
~~; - ~ r1 - (r~r:,-r;.~J'I·I (II" :<'· - v'1:z" ), (18.177 )

<11 ,' lr'" f "' - f .' , r')
.. '''I(IJ'~T' - lI' '%'') ' (18.178)
dX; 0 (18.1 79)
"dl - .
Hare, in doth- ing ( IB.I71) and (18.178), we have allowed for the ract that the
velocity vecto r v' is nrthogoolll to the rad ius vllCtor x ' .
It can be seen tha t (18. 177H I8 .179) can be wrluen in vector form :
Ta ' --;-
' (Z' 0)
• X u, (l8.18O)
Q= 11- (r;.f :,- r:.r :.),nJ( ~' x v'). (IS.tSl)
Equat ion (18.t80) shows that veeto- Z' preeessea a round vector 0 wit h a ra te I 0 I.
It for the solut ion to th e HiJberl,.Ein Slllin equa ti on we t.ake the one-para meter
fa mily of functions
W (r) "" Ir (1 + +
I.) Gm]', (18 .182)
wh ere I. is an adjUllta. ble paramater, a nd m t he active gra vitational IM SS of the
source , the n wa find that
10 1- lv' l l1 -rr:. .~. . - f'..f ', o!ItIZI ~ Iv') 1'_(r+(l. ll C"" ) "'I
'+(l + 2)G"' (18.183)

U the radius 01 the gyroscope', orbit is much greate r tha n Gm, for a ll valuM of 1
aat isJying the ec ndit ioll r ,. I ). + I I Gm Eq. {18.183) }'ie lds , to the second order
In emir, tho (on owing expansion:

, n l ~ f Cr"' l v ' IJ I - G; (). ++)I. (t 8.184)

Thi s e:rpans ion shows that the a mbiguity, d ue to the GR approach , i n the expres-
s hill for I fI J manifests ihelf i ll the seco nd order in Gmir, wh ile the value of I 0 I
in RT G is weU-dafUled because here). "" O.
18.9 GR Ilnd G'll vi!l tilmal F.Jfects in the So lar S)'Stem. ConelUSlon
Genera lly, the pro pert ies of space-ti me &8 11 be established in oxperi men "' _ In deed,
su ppose th at we know t he eq uations of a ll the tim elike geodesics a nd Illl the iso-
tropic geodesics in a eeleet ed sysle '" of cc urdln ates, Th en the space-lillIe met ric
tensor III th iS ' y.-;telu is deter m ined to withi n II. cons rent factor (for the proof of
this stat emen t ~6 P etrov. 1( 66). BUI from the phys ical viewpoint the geedeslce
are the Hn% alo ng whie h \.eat par ti cles move . Hence , by s tndy ing light prop<lgll ti o n
and t he mouou of test bodies i \ is poss ible i n pri nc iple to de ler rn; lle expe rim en t-
a lly the geometry of the effect h 'll Riema nn space-ti me.
Can we deter mine th e geo metry of sp ace-t ime il ...·\1 rema i n in the OR fram ework ?
Th e H il bet t -E i n$\.e in equation in a chose n $)'st em of coord inale:! is valid, IIM e.-
ally $peak ing , for any arb ilraty fun ct ions of IOllt metric coetfictenta. [n ol her
words, H il/)('r t-Ei nstein equatio ns do not deter mine the Rieman nian geomet ry .
The common a pproach in GR to de ter mtnlng th e Ic ur unkno wn metri c ClJef ticien\.s
in a giv en coordinate sys tem is to use th e ~o~a1 l ed eoordinat\l eo ndi ~ions, which
a re four ad dluona l ucucova r ten t equa tio ns for t hll metrie eoelfideM! .
The H il ber t- E instei n equations an d tile cocrdi neve ClindiUn ns ena ble li S to
deter mine, i n a given syste m of cocr dln etes. tile Riema nnia n gen llletr y nf space-
ti me a n<l to celeula t9 tllis n. anoth er grav ite tionaleffeet. Th e choice of th e coor-
d ina te condi li ons in C R is comp1ewJy arb itrary, and j ~ [s assumed IhaL this eucre e
does not afflll':t the physieal results in a give n syst em of cee edlnates . But th b
choice dOl)s i nfluence the fllneU<>n al Ior m of l he metri c coefficients and, hence,
depen d i ng on the for m of ui e coordi nate ClJn dition s in a given system of coord i-
natlls, we have d iReNlnl gwmetriell of the Ri emann s pace-Li me. And in view of the
s bo\'e st atement d ifferen t R ieman nian geomel ries lead to d iRerent predictions
concer ning the propaga tion of light and the moti on nf tll-St bodi es. All of thls bas
heen dern nnstta tCfi "si ng 8O Jar,system gnvit. lillna l eRects as exa mples .
Sum ming liP, we ca n say th al GR is incapab le, no mstter wb.t the nd voclltes
of th is ideolog y mil)' say , of mak ing definite pred iclions eoncer ni ng the geometry
of the I:liema nn splice-time end g ravitational effects. This ecus tlnuea s till e nother
impor tan t defect 01 C R .

Chapte f 19, Post -Newtonian Integf8ls of Motion in RTG

The covari.nt conserv . tilln law (6.2.8) for the tota l energy-m omentum tensor
den ~i ty t"~
in tl,e pse nd,, ·E ue!idean s pace- time ca u be writte n in ter ms of Car tesian
coor dinates th us:
(19. 1)

,.w the bas is of th is law we can easily deri ve th e eespecuv e in tegral

On eouse r vat fon

(f 9.2)

If l he energ y Dnx Ior metter and gra vita li onal field across the surface bounding
the volume of inlegretinD is n il in (19 .2), then

~ t<'~dS .. _ O (19.3)
IUId . e au;ve I t the II . of COllRrVUiOD of th e lo u l 4-a>omftQ l llDl of &II lao/ued

_h eAl
(19 .4)

I n \.hi, cue, 10 vie... of th• • ymmetry 01 the tot, 1 tner,y-moIUIlIUUln teolOr dens it y
t..•• the tRplat 1Il0lDt!ol UID telUOr of the s)"lIte m is .150 conM'rVed:
~ M _l = O,

. M · ' _ ~ [~·t"'- %'t"· l dY . (19.5)

Til' l. el th at the Moo. to mponenUl er. ecnserved impli" lhat lhe eenter of mau
of 1 0 i!lOlUtd system, speeifted by th.. fonn ula
X" _ S a-" .w _ pI>,- II'" (19 6)
1"''''' po
is in uniform reet.ilinur mOlloD whll • velocity

Tb ll!, to dll!iCribe th. moli on of an lilIOl,ted -rsc.m coIISlnl1lf of ....1... . I nd
g raY;b1tiolll l IiaId it ;• .fU ff'>elenl to d' lennin. the 4' mOmetltu lD p . ( 19 .4, . Note
\h it • rea l 1)'!5l.llm Un DO! be I t n ed y iso la ted beea ua of th e lllot ioo 01 iu co o-
lIti tuen t partt. ...bieb ....... Inll.ioll of grui Utional .... ve., ,lid beo:a_ • re. 1
-r1l1l m u cha nps m ll.lt8r wilJl Olh.r " 'Il.ems i ll the form of eleet rol.U IlAet ie n d ie '
t ion, pertie' ", and th a like. Hence, ill pneR I. we ea nnot il llore th a eoettY
no.l-u for matt er end I r, vi talion,l field. TIlere Ire es l ro ph ysi eal pro<:88Mt i D
which lh eee &nllll'g)' D"XN play t he lea ding role . T , ki ol tll em 10to .c<:ount en. bl"
u. 10 uhcler'l. nd and pred ict ma ny an I!t.rophyaieal phenomenon. Al t ha II ml
l im.e, 1l0 Wfjver , for . y, Lem, wi thi n whieh t he enerlY RUlC ea for matter MId Ira vi ·
h UouMl field • ..., s mall, con dlt ion (19.3) i, met Wilh • C$rl. ih degre9 ar . ccu ra cy .
Th en, with t lul !!arne del l'\! e of .ccuracy we c. n , ta te th lt the 4·moment um of . ueh
• •y.tem i. c:onaerved. t h, . y.Lems to whi ch the post-Newtonian for m. Ham
can be .p pli ed .
T o find the ex plici l form of t he 4· moIDenh m p . i n t he post· Newl on ' . 11 a pprolC-
Im,UoD, let U! tum to th e Idanti t y (6 .26). We wri te t b is ident it y in a Cart l$i . "
I)'Heal of coordiute:!l:
a..t: ~ v.r: . 1'9.7)
Mu lt ipl yi,,&, both .idea of <' 9. 7) by dV aDd il1 lqnti"l 0""" a .ufficiently lara-
",olum., we ob ta iu
a.! ~ clV +'r:dS. = ~ v.r.:'dV. ( 19.8)
AlIlJlu illl t h at
a.p. _ ~ V.r:d V , (t9. 10)

...heft In of the dell.D itloll (t 9.4)

P.-,.. ~ t"'dV. (19. tI )

Equ l lion (19. 10) is met to the sa llie degree u the eo8I'fJ nUI 01 maUer lI1d
11'&'I'1t.l l lon,1 field I CI"Il!lli tM . urtle. bollDdior th e illt.erra l ioll ' ill (19.18)
is cIOM to t,ro, tha i is, ,, (19.9) is valid.
Let U6 now amploy Eq . (19.10) to determine the uplielt form of the 4· momeotullI
p • . Th ~ Cl n be don. if WI rep~nl tha right -hud aide of (19.10) i ll tb. forD'l 0 1
the t lole deri vat ive or • cM'U ln expression. Sip CfI our &OI l ill th is Maple. i, to
find lhe integrals of moti on in th, post·N(lWl.on ian .pproJ[i!:nIUoll. it ie n.tufa!
to eOllsider the r ight· hand aid. 01 (19.10) in th is approd rnatioD. Let US write the
ex presaiena lor each component of V.. r.... for tb e enorcy -momentum te nsor deosl ty
or metter:
V..T'" _ a.r- + 8..1"'° + 1107"" + U :'T"I + rolljlT"', (19.12)
v.r- _a..,....+ iJ..r"-+r:.r- + %r'.". r<-+ [""toT''', (19.13)


U. ina: the po!I ~N 8wtoll;U1 I1 pa ll$iOD of !.he mettie. (t7 .72)-{17.74). &lid the rae,

d'"8. ~ p l J:_ J:' 1 dV_ lr_ V'" + O(r;lJ.

_ find lhat (19. 141 )·ield.s, to required aeeuney,
ro.. ~ -":tO(eS), lk- -iJ. UtO(v), r;; - O( e").

.... ~ V"

rg~ - ot
u = 4 ....,.., t(1-W)8"'U-
_ (6!iJP t lt..a,u- '1"""'1'•.8.0) t
t 2 (iI~y<' _y"°'l'a, iI.yfj
(} (el ) ,
+0 (15').
y il" IWJ- oill>, - 4<tl 1 - 211l. - 6lI\ 1

t t :' (N" -V'")+O (~J.

),Iouover , wil h po$l-NewtOil ia li aeeun .ey Eq, . (17.5tH t7 .~), (11.67) u d (17.68)

'fW _p ( ltu + n _ .j.I>.,p") + 0 «(1) .

ro'"-P&.- [ I t n tU- t ".,P""] t.w" + O(c'). (19. t6)

,.. =~., (I - tV~+ n+u+pJp ) -.,... p+ O (e') .

SU~tit u L i ll g ( l 9. fS) and (19.16) into (19. 12). we ebtatn
V,,:f"'O "'" ~ [p(I+ U+ n- ±vvvv )]
+0" [Pu" (1+v +n- i-vvv") +fXP]
-p ~- 2 ptl"a,.u+ O (e·) . (19. 17)

Si mila rl y, aubsUl ulion of (19 .Hi) and (t9 .16) into (19. \3) yields
«r: ... :, [Pv> (1+n+u- T /ytl )+p.,a.] Y

+ 0, [ pv"u'-pya& +pIPuS (I+ n+u-i v,Py)]

7 -~ V"" (
+ T P i / + P l +n + U- T vyv") rPU
•• • i'IJ
- 4pU i1'>(J p8U (2$ 1 + 2$. + lIlJ + 3Ib.) + 2p1'" "'1l
- t iJN" •
+Py --;;;- + 4pvll(oaV" - i1"¥a) + pd'U
+ 2plPlJ&{JaU+ PlJ'1)"'U +0 (1:"). (19. t 8)
The form ulu ju st obta inlld , (19.1 7) and (19.18), ca n he $i m p lif,,~d if we take
into eceount the cO lltinuity equ ation (17.49) and the Newtonian laws of motion
of an elastic h ody ,
• <1.1' •
P -.u ~ -piI'U + o"p,
an (19. 19)
p 7 "'" -pOp ,

Bud the foll owing rellltil)IIJ!hips:

0aV.. - u" Va= oaN" - fJ" N, .
p ~ ={:e (Pu)+ ~ a'"[a"u 8;; _ va" ~n .
The ~ult is
V...T"" ",, :' [p(l + n-{-U - t VyV")]
+ a..[p.,.:. (1+ n + u - T v~v~ ) .;- pv"

. I
- Bit
v",r- ="'jj [ pv'"
ii" U -or
" (1+ n +u- 2"'v.v"
I -A,iJU
au-+ 81i"Uo 81 j + 0 {~Ij ,
) + Pv"' + y, p" (N'" -
+a~ [ Pv"'I1~ (t .sn +U - ~ v",,') + pv" vD
V"'j ]

- p ( 1+w) i"+ ;" (N" - l"'>J

+~ ";;'" + 2p :, (U....Hjw'-U+¥JiI"U
. . • I -
+ p en+ 2V+ 3p1p) d'fJ -~V. -y~. (N'" - V'")

+ Po'"12Cf\ + 2dl.+ 4l~ +3¢l.I + O (~ . (t 9.2Z)

Subst itu ting th is into lbe rirllt·band side of (19.10), I II0w;lIl lo. Ln. id tn~it i e~

~ Pl n~,u+u.dl,l dV .O.
~ p tU8,v+ iJ.¢I. ldV . O,
~ [ p8~U + p".4J. l dV _ O •
.~ p [I'2O.U+ 8.dl1IrlV _O,

~ P"'d, (N"-Y"'ld V-O.

~ =: d'U tlV . 2 Sp(II'"(;+ N")dY _O ,
I ,l"'dY _ _ \,.,.UdP, (19 .23)

I p8P dY- 0,
~ lH'.o,V~ IW - Jfll',P.,\.... dV.O•
• nd u kiul inlo .ceoun ~ tb. taet \b at the volu me llller.,I, of sp. ti,1 div. ra; enee
vani. h d lllr tu nsJorDilt ion lllln '\ integ-rib , we obtain

(19 .24\


In der h'ini the Ian formul, w.

employed lb. faeL tha t the loweriol . nd t. il iog
of indica 10 (19.22) u n be achlaved by using the 1JI.U1e t ,,,!Of 01 Lbe MinkoWlki
. peee-HIDI. The 1iD. 1 ' lIpreeiona ' merrl"g from (19.24) .nd (19.25) I re

1" _ ~ p[t + n- yU-fll..»"]ev. (19.26)

pa= rJ ['JMP (, l + fl - y" U- y ".,lI" ) + PCO- + ypN

,. 'l dY . (19.27)
Oia pte.r 20. Do Ext ended Objec ts Move Along Geodesies
in tb e Riemann S pace-Time?
I" Cha plfr 17 _,Ive lorm uJu (t 7.7;'}-{11.TI ) for the md rle eoell>c ieoUl of l.l,.
Rle ma" " . pete -l lme In lectn.! of Soma of v arlo.... poer.Heed poten~; . 11 .... ith ten
ar bit ra r y coeffici en ts ~ . '\'. a , . <xo, 01,< ". i" ~I ' ~ \ ' a nd i ... k nown as post -N,wtclI\-
Iiln p ~ r.m et. r. (tile peremetri u d post- Newtonian, or PP N, jo.mel iam) . To eaeb
theory of gra vit l t ion in ttll. formali am lhlll'il eorreaponds I dof,n!t. sd 01 pest -
NewLoni a .. para met ers . Henee, by dele r mining t he Vl lliu of th ese param et el'!l
we can seleet from all th e rrav ltat innal u peri menlll only t hoM theor i.. whose
po$L-Newto nl a n I ppru imltlon lu lb to v, lues of th e PlIrem ete l1l w iroc:: id i,,&, with
IllOSS obu lned from u perlm ents.
III thi s eh.a pler we lirst eouider the n ti ll ol l be gTl v;uliollll mass to tb, inertial
mlSS and esu bll$h the n!. L;ollSbips between PPN ~n lMten I.tuI t follow from
the req uinmellt th at \.here mUll be polIl.-Newl.onia ll la"" of eeeserveuee. Th en
".l" s h. dy Lbe equat ions 01 mO lion of lluo tIInter of mau of aD e:a:lended object ,
lhe eq 'lat iollll01poduic moti on 01a point·lI ke object in l.he .,iei a Hy 01 the EarUl's
cente r 01 maM. tl1e deviat ion of the Earth' s· rnne mot;o o frortl 1l1e rerer·
Cllce geedealc, alul a numb er of quu ti ons perU loing to the problelllll i lhe moti on
of objecl1l a long lfeodesiea. We also aoa lYIe the motion 01 the Earth' g un ter of
rna" in gn vimetrle experiments a nd list th e effee\.s connectQ(! wilh the presence
o f a preferred reference freme and th ose lISlIoclatlK! wilh tha anisotro py ; n rtllat ion
10 the cen ter 01 the Gah';II y. By illvestillating these problems we ea n . rr ive at
bou ooa 0/1 the ... Iues of PPN perameters.
The prob lem of the ratio of tile rru ita tion. 1 /D.lI S> of .... objeet 1.0 itt inert., 1 posed by S ir b eee NeWlOn eo d to Lb[t day remaiQ e lDpie of thflOretieel
and n perimflltal atudies. It emerres pl1leliealJ y iD e..fT)' lh eory 01 I'"a..lta t. oll.
It is ~II k noWll , for ex"mple. tha t when Ne...t.on wu constru ct ing h ie thflOry of
g ru italion (MIl Newton . 1681), hl" was forGed . in oro,"" 1.0 ua-ime nU lly solve
tb' l probl em. to e41 lTy out a series of meu u relllen\.s of the periods of OIellla tiolU
of pendulu ms of the ume length but mede 01 different meUrial s. On the buia 01
these experi ments he illCOrp ora Ud inl o his theo ry a postu lata aeeordi l\jf 10 whtch
lh~ lon e of lIra"l ty is propo rt ional \<) the amollnt of matt er (or man ) in the ohjeeL
l rresp~t iv" 01 the eo mpo~ i l lon andlor site 01 tile objeet . Th us, in modern lerma,
Newton clear ly understood th at eaeh obje<:t is ehar.cter i1ed by two ty pes of mus ,
na mely. lhe iner lial IftllSll » the mea.sure of inN"tia in the object and U1. gra\'i-
lationa l masu l tbe meUII~ of .,.vila tioaa l charre.
At , _ t, ID the te.nninolOCY illtrod lK«l by Bondi, t ~7 . it ill ellS1.Om..ry ill
e,·eTy lhenry of grnilat ioa to i1 iet inguisb betWft'll three ty pes of mass: th' iDert ial
mn ll "' I. the peal..e gravil.aLional [II1$lI " ' ... ,nd the ae tive r ,...ita t lon al IIlUS.. ~.
The inert ia l mUll ehu ..eteriu. the abilit)· of a n objec t to l!equlre ODe /W all.oWr
eeeelerallon under tbe aellon 01 lon:es of e nOl\jfra,· ita tio nd nal ure ; it Mltera iol.o
Newto n'a second la.... m ,a" _ ,..., aod is defined by t hla law . The passive gru ' ·
II ti onll rna" cll.raetf:riut the efIect that graVita tional fielda h ave on tile objecl;
it i. de r' Ded by th e exp re9llion
F. _ _ "' p ~.
Finally. the l eliv . grn ill ti ou..1 mass 01 ao objeet eh araeter ius its a bili ty to
Itnera~ a gra.,it.tio a a l field.
I n d illerent lbenries of grav lta ti oD \h . illlArrelat ioD of theM three m. - ID' Y be
d iffer'n t. I n Nnrton i..n mecbanics, for inaUnc e, N_toll',Lbinl I... req u[rt5 tbl t
t he aeth'e and pa!lsi ve gl'll v i ta~l o na l ml _ be IquI I. ""hile the fl ct tbal lhe ))11 ' -
s i"e In.,i ~atlonal man is eq uI I to the inerti a l m. . is po!I l ula led.
Acl uilly , th e questi on of how Ih_ tlItM Iypes 01 milt rela te to each otbte'
com. dowlI 10 tb e questio n of how th e YlTi~ intanct ioll5 c:ontrib uta to the
i ~tia l In d VIV iLat iooa l m _ of th e ohject.. It b qll know n, for eu mple.
the I tu dy 01 the mot ion of Yl rioUi elem entary ))II rtie!" I nd iollS in eleetf'Omagnetlc
fields hn r' YH Ied. th at th e stra na. weak , Ind sleetf'O magDetic lnt,,",c\ iollt con-
trlbu l.e eq uall y 1.0 the inert ia l lUlU of a n objeet , the contri buti on beiol equ a l to
the entrry of each iotenclion diyi ded by .:t. ,...i th .: tbe apeed 01 ligh t in e mpty
But In pr inci ple th eN ia no ren o n why t hese in teru t ions sh ould c:o ntri bute
equIll y to lbe other two types 01 mu , . I n other word" th ere is no~hing thl t im-
pliflll lbl\ the field relIpon"ible lor one Inte ractten Cln uot be I "tro nger or weakel"
.s<lurc . 01 ,rui tationa l field , "II other thinga bei ng equal, Ih" n a ll o~ber mateTi. 1
fields. l n th is Case th o acli ve m..... of an object would nOI be equa l to th e ine rt ia l
rna". a nd the d iBerence WGuid be the greate r th ~ higher th e lracti on of Lll e ellergy
of th e , Iven tntera cucn in the tota l eneIliYof th e objec t. Hence. in the mo' t g,!ner-
al tlMI the possi b ility cllnnot bo u eluded tha t th e vlllue 01 the ac uve mll~~ of th e
o bject will differ fro m th ll of th e inert ial mass:

m. _ III,+ 1: ...

, *.
'W here E" b th e energy 01 th e field res poll$ible tor Ihe A lh inte raction. and,!...
b a diJllen.sion less p....Ol eler cha racterili ng the noneq\ll valence oJ th e eontri bll~i on8
of the Alb fie.ld 10 the ;Ilfttial and a ct ive rra vit.ti onal ~ 01 the objett .
By ana loeY. th e poaib!e d ilfen nce in the act ion of an exter nal gravita ti on a l
field on d ifferent typetl o f ml Uar un ba descr i bed b)' lhe foll owing fonn ula lor th e
puai ve c ru llati onal mass of a n ob}ecl :
m,_"'I + 1: . . p,o ~. (20.1)

Th",. on ly il ...., ,, ~ ....." _ 0 will the gravi lat ionl l properti es of d iReront form s
of ma iler ba the; olh er....ile gnvi ta tio nal inte ratthm tea~ to be " n i"erMI .
Num ero us ex periment s hav e been etlied to Ils ta bli ' h the I1l let iotUh ip bet ween
the vad oua typea of mU ll for the Mme obj oet. I niti a ll y the o bject s involved het!
laborlltory dtm enatons . The meat famous n per im ontll meu ured gravimet ricall y
th e rl t io of the passive IIrllvlt a tional ma" to the inertial mass a nd were cond uct ed
by BUlIlnsky a nd Pano v , 1971, Eii ~v iia, Peka r. ami Fekete , 1922, and Roll , Krot-
kov , an d Dicke, 1964 . T he ma in Idea of all 'the!le ezperim ents can be Ic emul eced
u foli o",•.
Let us usume tha t not a ll the Il,,, in (20. 1) '·..nith. Th en the paui"e guv iLal ioll'
al II)US 01 an obje ct is generally Dol equal to its 'Ilert ial ml Sll T he equa tion s of
moli on of a point- like object ill all uternal h omogeneo.... ITlvitaliona! field a!lllume
the Iei'm
lIl,e- ("'1 t 1: 'IPA ~ ) I'

This implies tb\ the aceelerali0A5

. - (1+ 2: ,.. : ;; ). (20.2)

acq uired by diflerent objects in II graviLatlo ll.1 fIeld will d iffer, a nd the diRerenel)
will be the greater the greater the change in the second term on the right- hand
a, de of Eq . (20.2) brought on by the change in the substance compr ising the object .
Hence , jf two objects with the sa me inertial mass but 01 different composition
are placed a t the ends of the beam of a torsion bala nce in an ex ter nal gravit atio na l
field, the resulting torsion pendu lum will bl' suhjectefi to II torque M=(ffl \p - "",pI x
(r X g) proportional to the d ifferenCfl in th e passive i nlvit ati ooo meeaes of
these objects.
Mellsllring th e value of the torque act ing on the pend ulum mako.s it possible
\11 deter mine th is difference at least in principle. However, to ensur e greater
accuracy in meas uring the rat !o (m,p - mt p)!m.h lhe Ileuiug is somewhat ch anged
in practical experi ment! so tha;' the torque caused b y the difference in the passive
gr~\'itel i onal masses 01 the two objects changes as a re!lult of th is nlOdif'catio n
aec:ordlng to a h n monic law with a freq"en c}· equal to the resonance freque ncy of
the pend ulum. To thle Gnd either the torsion pendulum wu rot ated in the Ea rt h' s
grav itBliollal fseld or use was made of the natu ral rotation of the Ear th (toget her
with the torsion pendulu m) about its u is, in th e seeced case the Su n was taken
u the source 01 the exlernlll gravita ti onal neld.
All experime nts of thia type ha ve been conducted over the years for a !arga
number of 5'lbstancea and have shown, with a high accuracy , the absence nl auy
depende nce of the rat io " ,., (m,p _ mtP)!m, en t.he t ~· pe 01 subs tance. Th e serios
01 experimen ts conducted by Eot vos and his group (see Eoh'ns, Pekur, and Fekete.
j922) between 1890 and 1022 yielde d all est imate III I < 5 X 10- 9. La ter , the
groups 01 B raglnsk y (see B ragi.naky and P an ov , 1971) and Dicke [sea Roll, Krot·
kcv, aud Dicke, 1964) estahlished experimenta lly that II] I < 10- 11 and 1'1 I <
10-", respectively . The accu racy in determming n achieved in these u: peri ments
was grea t enough to estab lish the fractional contributio n of the s ~rong, weak, and
cleetromagnetic lnt eract.iona to the passive gro \'iI8~ iona l mass and the inertia l
ma!lll of a point-like obiec ~. lndeed, since the rati os of the eaergiee of the strong.
weak, and electro magn eti c interaetions are dlflerent lor different subate ucea,
£ ,,, !m rc' - Eu fm,cl >I' 0 lor each of these interacti ons. Hence, assuming t ha~
the u pper bound on I I] I is caused by the nonequal conu-ilnulons 10 m p a nd Ill,
of on ly one of these in ter acti ons , we can lind the hou nds on the 1!1,,, .
Such a n analysis shows (see Will , 1981) that ~he strcng-inte ract fon energy lind
the electrosta tic energy of the 'nuclei provide equal centr lbuticua 10 both maaaes
with all accuracy of par l in 10'9, while the energy of the static magne t ic
f,,:ld GI t he nuclei provides equ al contribu tions tG both messes wilh an accuracy
of ab out one par t. in 10'. MoreGver, the accuracy achieved by Braginsl y's group
makes it possible to claim th at th e weak interact ion al50 makes a fai rl y equ al
t ontri b" tion (I]p., < 10- °) to the passive gra"itlltion al and inerti al maMeS of
an object.
Altho ugh these results are inter preted n proof 01 the equa lity of the inerti a l
and passive gravi ta tional massll$, this does no t O\~1\ n that objects wit h grea ter
dime"s iOM have gra vitati onal and inertial masses that coincid e with t he same
accuracy. For an object of la borat ory dimensions the grav it ation al aell -el1'lrgy.
eln lie st ress energy, and the li ke are ext remely low ill co m pa d~on wit lt the object 's
total el1ef'!i'Y. For one th ing, for an object 01 mass m and char acteristic di mension a.
the rat io of th e grn·ita tional self-energy to the tota l energy of the object is
G",' /. Gill c;p.'
--;;0;- = ........ ~ ""7"" .
where p is th e density of t he objec t.
T b.!I u lio ill eq ua l. b.)' order of marn itu de , to abou t 10 · " for objec b of labo-

inertial and .,..... it.tioll.1 m_

utor, dimem.iollS. Hl!oee . il the accu rac y of meas u...mant ill one Pllrt i ll l OU. 1I0th·
illg co be uld of hllw tb.• .,.l1'itall ona l _ If...nav ill d i.lIl.l huted bet ween Iha
01 tbe objec t. CoolIequu lly, Iha resul l5 of r r.YI-
mel rie mUiuremuts eall H'l"Te onl,. as prool t ha t Iha .,.aYltati on.1 m Ull ill &qu. l
10 th . lne m."., for all objec t ollab c>r.tor,. dimeMi.OG' . Ihat ill. an ob jeet _hose
. ra" it.t loaal self-e.neryy. elutle lIlr_ ell~, .nd t he Ilks .... 1I~li..;b l. if eom·
pared with t be tot.1e6l!fJY of th e objec t. To deter m ina Ibe r.t; o of the ....Yit. ti oll-
al mass to the inert ll l oa. for a n exten ded objec t. ...·e mWlL ei t her drnt k .II)·
r. ise t b. pree i. ion 01 ....Yi m.ttie e:rp" ri me Dtll inYolYior ob;ecu of I.botatory
d imeMlollll (which is i mpcm ib le a l Ihe Prelle1lt 1. ...1 of t«hnoIOfr)') Dr elIrry out
m. ..urem enU t hat ioyolve objec t.ll of grea le r di o' 81ll11011 , ....y plan . ts , for wh ieh
t he rat io of the grav ltaUon . 1 llell.anergy to th e l otl l enerry ia cOMide rably hi gher
th.ll for I)bjl:'C ts I)f la bor.tory di men! lons .
But . ince grav iuUOlllI1 meU UNlmollt 01 Ihe r lli lio of t he paMive gravlt at lon,,1
man of ,,1\ ext ended object (. pleuet ) to Its inerti a l m Ull ill i mpQ!!1I1 blf~. we must
look for phenomena in which t he difference betw een t h~ema !lSl!!lwll IDl .n l leal
Itllell. O no Ie t be eflect of dev iati l)DI)f t he m o ~il) n 01 t he.cente r 01 m Ull 1)1a n ex tend-
ed I)bjtet from a geodllllic In t he m a mann apace-time . The flrllt \0 notice t his poe-
.ti bili ~y Wall Dir ke, 1962, who ,uggested t ha t t b• •at io 01 t he 8""a yita ti on. 1 m...
10 Ihl) inert l,l mus lor u tronomiul bod ies di ll'er SOmewha t fro m un ll y H t he
8""",ltall onlll 1Ml!f·uev of sue h bod i... vades under cha nge of t holr po$itlon In
t he .,.",itet iona l fiel d of othet' bod in. Later t hb ellect Wall also studiod by Dicke.
1969. NOrd l Yt!ld t. 196&, .nd Will. t 97 h .
Ha YIn, in m in d furth er appllut ion 01Ihe "",ul'" of hll u lcllll lil)l1$ll) ll. e ')'Ito m
COllllbl i llf ollhe Sun alld a p lalloe\ i n Ihe w in lIystern. W i ll . I ln ta , dem oDlt r.ted
on the bui. 1)1 Ihe PPN form a lism lh at the equa tlo... of mot ion of the eemee 01
m Ull of .n u te nded object (. planet) in lhe a .avitat i.ollli fI.ld of a
3OUl"CO (t he Sun) II resl a"lIm. lba form
m,a" - "..rIIP.
where '" I ia t he i llert ial mallS of Ib, extended obi ec:t . m. ill lbe eeuve graYitatl onal
m Ull 01 Ihe eecree, 4 '" are Ihe Cl)mponMI! of acce lerat ioo of lhe cen ter of maa 01
th e e1tlen ded obj ect, an d R la t ho dilltance between l he poillt-il ke &OU I'CiI of Rrul-
ta tlon. 1fie.ld and the een tee of rna" of the ex tended objec:t. An um i n, th at th e
veloc ity of a sphe.ica ll y ,ym met rie ex tended obiec:t i. eeec, W ill arr ived al th e.
foll owing for mu la for yeotor p :

~ = - n" {I _ [ 4~ - v-3- o.t- et+ r.;- t to., H .-eJ] {)] , (20.3)

where n" _ n'"'1 R I. and t he lIpeeilie graYII.tion el u lf·e nl!f1'Y of t he n len ded
objeel mealll Ih e. con di t ion

c _ ~~ I ,!!:' I d',:Id· ,:I'< I .

Will . 1971a , 6.l'5t defined t he pUli v. gnY itatiolla l m. . in aeeardauee wilh th e
condlti oo /'" _ - "am ... Using Ihill de6.nition , ha . rrived at the r:onelusio n t h.ol t
~- I - [ '4I-.,- 3 -a,. -t. +a..-T(4a +~-eJ ]a. (2(U)

Wi Utin Ibis I pproaeh th. praleR«l of posl.-Newt.ollil R correct ion ~l1DS iD (2(H.)
..... i nler pt'6ted u I he l'e:lIuI\ of brtlakd o"m in aome Iheori n I)f graYih ti on at Ih.
posl-Newlon ian leve l of the equI Hly bH",-een Lhe pallll!"e i'tl vitat iona l mas• • nd
the inerti, 1 m•• ol i n "teoded object. Il w.. , 1110 ata t'" t hat lb ........lity 01 tb.
pus,"" r r. vih.tiona l mass a nd lb e inert i, l mass In Ih. posl.-Newton ian I p pro:ti-
mal ion W01l ld mu n 1b.1 the eee tee of mus oj the n llnded object mov• •long •
eeoduic. lI ere it re important to note that tbe moll o" of • test bod y oeeurs. by
utfinitlon , . long I geodH ie., ....hieh is determ ined from the principl e of INJlt aet ioD:
th , funeUon.1 S _ ~ L dt I. kes th e least possible v, lue on • podesie ecrve. T he
~ u. l i on or th i. ClOn e is " yen by va rying th , L.;rang ian '1l0e tloll

(" t -;U---;;;-
L_ _ nl U' UA )' "

over Ib, ( oord ina lee of the pl rtl ele of mISS m plae td in the gra vitat ion. l field
COrTe!pon ding to metrie Ilk in the Riem ann space-t ime.
In eond ltio ns of • re. 1 nperioll nt it ;s d il licu lt to determi ne whe ther the center
of mass 01 lin ex tended objec l moves along a geod..,le. Due a pproach to t his prob-
lem hn been to dete rm ine I~m exper imen ts the v.lullll of . 11 the req uired poet-
Newto ni an pars rueters a ud, using W(IJ' s Iormula (20.'1), lind the rat io of t ho pa8lli vo
g ra vit at ion al m a~5 to u.e inerA i, 1 m ~ oJ a o ex ten ded obje.:t . nd l'5ta bJish the
patt ei'll of molion of 1111 cent er of ml!l5 of t his objeel in rel. tion 10 ' s pec lr,c r eo-
dHlic i n the R ieman n s pace-ti me.
The Ilrst to ' \ligest al\ u pe,riment of th is lr pe "' 15 Nord"'edt. 1973. By eal-
cu b linr Ih a motion of the Elrt h-MO'Q n s)'lltem in the Sun's gr" vit. ti onll Ilald,
he I Ua allll.ed the n istence of • number of ' Dom"li " in lb. Moon 's mOlion ""hose
ob6e"" l tio n mi eht mah it ~i b le 10 measu re com bin ll iu!U of pcet-N e..... tolll. ..
para Diele rs. On l sueb l oom" t he polariu tioll 01 tb. ),foon' . or bit in th e direc-
l ion oJ th e Su n wi th a n . mpli tudl 6r ::.: "I , where t is a COIll5U nl 01 th e ord ~ of
leo meters , . nd
'l - ('~- Y - 3 - t, -a, +C;I- ~ (~ + !I., - fJ - ~;...
T o dhicover thi s aRee.I, an a nal ysis .... n mad e of the da la obta ined from mu sllr-
ing t he E art ll·Moon M'pnat ion by 1_ ra nging. As II Fesult onl grou p oJ !tieareb-
ers (~e. W illi am~ et III., 1976) conclud ed Ihat '1 _ O±O,03, whil e anoth er
lound a etcee result : t'j _ _ 0.001± O,OI5. U ~i ng these cstimell1S and Will's
form ula (21J. ~) fur lhe pesetve m. lI, a number (If re$('~ rc h ol'5 concluded t b ~ l lh~
relio (If the passiv e gravil al lon al m es~ of the EU ih 10 it. inerti al maM ~ h oil i d be
close L(ln ll;ly: mplm, = 1± (1.5 x I O- II). TI' ''II, the dlltll Irom Illser ran lllnil of
th e. Moon ....ou ld seem \ 0 5Ugl:1l5t (and Lbis done hy She pirc , Coun ~~ lm ~Il, and
K ing , 1976. and Wil Hams dill .. 1916) th s t in th o JlO$t-NeWlo nian a ppro)lim. t lon
the paMi,,!"g~v i lation81 ma~ or an ex lended objre t is equa l to th e object 's iner lia l
m U ll . nd lhat the center of ma..... mov e~ a long a llf'Od esic In t he Rieml nn space-
l ime.
ID ' 1. ler "'ork , Will . 1981, d id Il(ll assu m. that I h. ..eloeily 01' Ihe ex ten ded
ob ject is u ro and wrote Ih.. equ a,i ollS of Ihe moUOJI of lhe center 01 man of Ihe
e:rh ,nded object incorporat ed in I dou b le s)"lItem in Ih" form
'"ta- - -'";1'U + ""Il~ + m"':", (20.5)
...·hlJ'll lhe pPllive gra vit. ti on.1 energy m, of the spheric.lly aym llletric u lended
obj«.1 15defined _ as before, via (20.4), Ib!! oz:t, are genera ted by lhe gravita t ion. 1
$! of Ihe extended ob}eet I nd for a totall y cOMervat iv!! metric theory .re
u ro . U sta nda for Ihe Newlon ia n gravilatinna l pote nt i. l or lbe 5l'Cond ob;ee t in
th e !)'lItem, aud Ihe 1/.;. named iV·bod}' ac:.,..lerations by Will, cor uetn onl y <tf'ltl
(nflnkinelllu ie) pua melH cbtrkter;zing thtl ex tended objeet. its mes.. u d .t-e
independu t of lhe ob~t·. Inner lil ru&
Heweeee, Ihis definit ion 01 pus; .... mati ia incorreet . A, we .. ill shortl y show
(5M .bo Den i",.. . Latrunov, MeuY iri$hYili . and Cb"lf"Y. 1985, aDd Den~1i.
LopIlOY, and QU'gTeeY, 19861. if Ih, paMiv. m_ dl'fi.nfd in thi, munt-. coi n-
ci da " ith lh. ine rti. l m_. Eq. (20. ~) i. not l'edl~ 1.0 lhe eq...t;o n of podeJi.(;
motion 01 • part iele placed in I ~ to LiI (Tavital ional field of ' 9 0 u~nded objecl$
(uY . th e earth and the 51,10)11 tb e eee ter of m. . of one or _ (Ihe EUlb).
h . thel"dore, _ ID S Datll•• 1 to defiM th. push " gr .... i tion.1 m .~ of one
ul.end f'd ob~t. the Ea rth . in suell a manner tltat by Mui nlr it eq ua l to lh, reer-
li . 1 masswe eMure tbat the eq uat ion 01 motion of the eenter of ma~1i of th e Ea rth
coinc ides with thn eqUit ion of til, ieod~ i e motion in the tola l gravilaliona l r,t l....
Henet , de pendi ng on the ratio of tho pa" ,ve gr av itati onal m e ~ to the i n~rt i a l
mass , the cent er of m8.'l8 either fl}lJ ow~ a geodesic or d ~ not.
Th e " ovelt y of tbis a pproach Jles in the fac t lhat the equ arlon of ruolioll of lhe
cen ter of mass of an extend ed ObjilCt is com perd not to tlte eq ualion of a gOlldes;c
in the tft ~'div e Rieman " s pace-thn e, whose eurvet ure i. created only by the .eeond
utended objec t, hut to I he equat illn 01 a geodcie In th e tolal grav ita ti ona l r'er.I
generated by both objeelJl, illClud ing the one the moli o" of the center of ma$ll of
which l.$ being in v8!! tilfatlMl .
I.. tM, a pproach the for mula lor the rali o of the p~ive grav il alionel m ~ to
the IMrt ial TIl..... of the Eart h I n I.hll grav itat iona l field of the Sun assUIDes the
form (_ (20_36»

"- 'r .. )
~ -l+T . ~ -3-TL. U,e(O)+ 3 + ., - ~ + ..,. w ( ".) !Je,
whe rll U. (0) "'" P$dY/I x I I. !.he Earth '. gra vita tiona l ..ll.polenti a l al the
Ear t h' cent H' of mass. T hIl d illervlell bet....n tbi' formula In d Will 's liea h. the
preseo1Ctl 01 a tum pro port ional to Ute (0). Clea rl y, for tile ve lues 01 tbe PPN
paramalfll1l in Ih&RTG for malislll Will '. formula impliu thU ill the post_Newtoni_
an ap proxim at ion the i"ert ial and gr avitati onal Inasees au equal. while formula
(20.36) i mpli8!l thai !h i' is no~ !IO. I n th is cha plet we "'t Sl'£t specific physica l
expe ri mont , "'I IOlI<! result, will enable intet'p reting- th e hlotlon pat tern for ntende d
objeelA. For ob,eets of la boratory d imensio ns . whon the gr. vil . Lio"a l self-poten-
t i.1 is ext re mely loW. m p _ m, In RT G.

20.1 PIlet-Newton lan Conserva Uon LaW!! In Metrl e

Theorlt\$ of Grullellon
Met ric theories of vU it" t' on occupy a s pecia l placR e monl the dillerent th(!()rles
of rr.vita tl oll siDee• • l thoUih Ihpre can be many dill erent po6tu lates Iyi n, at
their bllSll, the e( t;OI\ of Ihe ftav iu tio oal field on mattu is -ch i...ed in the",
throug h the metrie lellSOr of the Rlemaon sp _tlme. HeileR, if the mel ric C'en~.
ated by SOUreBlI nl gravitet ione l foel d is kIlo...e , then to calculate the mot ion of
eanee hill the Ira me..·or. 01 e me!.ric th 8M)' 0 1 grevitallOIl there il no IteM 10
."0'" In de tail tb e hallie ~lIationl of t bi!l th~.
A eOllllD on approac h to e y.nlfted deseri ption ill the pOIl · Ne...loll;. n a pproli ma-
lion of mel ne theories 01 gra.vill tion is to emplo1tha PPN form alism in w!lich
Ihe metric eoeflieienlt of t he respeellve RillIDa nn ,pace. ti me . ave the form (17.7!l)-
(17.77) .
All M beequenl ealeu laliOCll wi ll be ca nied out 1ft . n ;"lIlti. ' l'efereRl;e frame
"hose center of mass moves uniformly and ..e dil loNrl)'. For Lbis the folio_ ill(
cOfIHry. lion laWli must be ...Iid 011 Ih, poIit-Newtollian l• .,el of aecW'K)'; t he I. ....
01 cOnserT" ioD of energy. cOll5UYalioo of momen tum . ' lId cousern UolI ol a lli'll·
er momen t u m, wi lli. . 11 Ih. . .pplied 10 ma t ter u ,d , .uit.tio"al field I. hn to-
Kethei'. Stric t ly !puki~. th e 1811'1 of cOm«Tatioo u isl ooly in t b_ malli e
theori es of grul lation in whie h l h. c.on rianl eq", ti on u pl'e$!li ng t he I, .. of con-
Mrva tlon of the materi . l t nel'iY-momen ttl m !flUOr in the Ri emann f i*c..Limt
&lin be r.preeoled in the form of • co.....ri.nt «IIlser\,.tioll II .. for the &olD ol Ihe
I )' mmelrit energy- momllotllm leG!OfS for th e rav iletiona ' field. t~ a nd maUu .
1('; ),_ in t h. I*!udo-E ud idea n space-t hne (a ll Log\Inol' a nd M ~I "irisb ..i1i. 19841,
Ima , 1985b. 198611., Vl uov . nd Lorunov , 1984, Rnd VIU()y, Logu nov, Rod Mest-.
\"' d , hvll ; , 1984):
v,T '~ - D, (Ij~l + l!:tl) -O, (20.6)
where V. a nd 0 , ar e th e sylllboll of eovu ianl d iffer enti ation wit h respect ~G t he
lHemalln;an and pIleudo-Euelidean metri a . For I per reet Duid we ha ve
Tl~ ._ Y='i llp+ p{1 + n)l u 'u~ - PIll) . (20.7)

Sinee in t he plitudo-E uelid el n _pICe-li me th ere e~t te n Killi ng vecrco . on the

bui' of (20.6) we un oblllin t. o eorrl!!lpoodiog ; otegu l eOIllerl.Iion 1' ''11 (for
energy, mom' Dtu m, . nd . ogul ar momenl u m).
Wit hi n 110.. PP N (_ I lism, M1we.... r, there n oolr u b t ......eI<SIry bUI ' Mill·
fieient condi tions for Ih. uil\.enu of ten eonser tio n I...... AI (20.6) im plitl$, for
Ihis ...... m~ t l'll PrflSoRo t tb. eouri&llt der;vltive of Ih. tensor dens' I}' T'~ h
respeel 10 metric ru in t he 10 / 1ll of t he ....m of I t ime dui ut h'e lod I tbree-d imln·
s ion, l d j ve rg~ term {Of _ iJl8z' io Cart ni.. n eoo rc!in..Ie5}. I n th il .._ tb.
q ". nt ities under the dillere nUaUon aigas ..,ill be tbe compon ents 01 th a Ie nsor
'::1Let+ II:'III:..wri te h poal_N.wton ian aceur K y Ihe eompo rllmlll of Ihe mltll,; ..1
energ y-momentum tensor denl ily (20.7):
~-p lt - { v,.v"+n+U+ O(e')]'
f<l<> =;""'[t- Y V.v" +n+u +l'/p+O(e')] ' (2O.S)

ra... p".v' _y«ap + O( c l).

whlt"' p V-=F '~ "' 9 ( I +3."U -~ v,.v' + O (e') ) I. the eenseeved lUaU den-
sity 01 110. perfed Duid , • qu.n tity th at ~ Ihe con tinui l)' equat ion
[ ..
V,ptl'= 1' ='; "FP -I- ~jKP _ 0.
.. ] (20.9)

At 1_0 t he eon r iant. eouerva tlon la w v,r'"

_a.T'" + I'_r-" =O es3U_
[p ( I + 0 -+.,.. · + 0 ]+ a. [~ (t + n - -r v,.v~ + u + p,p ) ]

• IIU · •
-P 7-'4KN. U - pO(l ' ). (20.10)
Let II! lflosfonn the lu t t wo tf~ 011. the leh - b. nd . lde of (20. 10). Employ inr
the equat iOftll if' d,U .. 4."9 . nd i1< a,Y*- .,. - 4n~, . e oble in
- "' - ' { ft.,p()+
PT+~.UIl!!!!l~ - ~ '
~iJ.Uij'U }

+8, {~ 8JU ":: + i;-Uilf~

+ (lll + ~) Pu"" + 2 -4~-" IW laoV'-ilfV' I), (20 . 11)

with III and 0; arbit ra r y tlu mber'll . Hence.

-[ '
!Cl+ ,rlfl "'p f +n - z ll,.u"+ ( I -o,) U ] + ,~ - ,
-;.~ apaou + pO(~')
I (2Q.12)

t{fh l + 1(1ll)=pII"
h • [
I + J1 _ y' v.v ¥+( l - a,-a,) U + plpl

4, _ 1 aau ..!!!L.+ ·'+·' 2 0 U (" ~ v"' _ a" V~)
" lui. I
- -GUa« :: + Po{t'). (20. 13)

At k _ (I , I rte r lengthy ca lcula tions, t be eoY, fi lnt eon!el'Vl li on eq uation is

t rndonned 10 t b.. follollring form:
VITia"",: (~+":v + :" «('f,+~,) +S", (20.14)

,~ +tl'.t-PeP( t +o- -} &1,.&1"+(2,+ I ) U +p/p]

- ~It',e1"Uatu - :" (4y +2 + lZl - ~+~, +4~ ..}8"U '::
+ ~ ap 8"UuP +-t.- (41+ ' + 11,) a.V jO"V'o _ ~~J, (20.15)
311 d vector S" I, defined t h us:

s.... [ ~n + (3;' + ~..) p - ~, - ~A * aJlil U

_ <ZJ +~ 2+ ~ "';'IJ,.vy _ : l ,t.~ .. iJ.j!'A _ 1I~t>" w. ] IrU. (20.16)

T he sum 4"1~ +
lj" ll is s)'m met rie in i edtees a: and ~ , but s ince we "'ill DOl need
il ln ,,'h at 0110'", we dQ Dot (i ve it upliei\ ly .
I t U Ol be d emonstra led t h. t vector S- c.nno l be represented III tlte fann 01 •
four-d illlensinn. 1 divercenee of • combin. tion of th e rener. li1ed ltMIv it.tiOfl. 1
pou. nliu. an d tbe cba racteri s liea of t be perfect Ould. Siau 10 metric lh eorl" of
Jlllvl t.ti oD c:oolal.a.i0i ten cOAMlTl.tlon laws yec:lor S- mUllt be tqlL&1 10 zero ,
tb il Impli. thaI th e P PN pu ame-tees in these tb eories necessa ri ly nt isfy tbe
cond it ions
~. _ O. 3t., + 2,. _O. ~I _ ~ •• t, + 2t. _ 0, (1. _ O. (20.17)
~ is know. , If we requ ire Ihat lbe angv.lar momenlum be conserved. thell Ihe
tensor 4:1 1t~1 mUllI be a)·mmu ric. Comparing (20. 13) ' Dd (20. 15). wa", l bat
I i -U IT
t;; + t:':,.,.t:; + 1(":, only if
lit -a. - G. 01, _ _ 20,. G. _ O. (2O.t8)
ThUll, l.Jl , nqllire ment th a l t h&«! be polIl.-~e .. ~n; ... conserv at ion laW!! luves
on ly three PP N !U'U metera independent : y, fl. In d t.- Th e other patlm , t.el1 Sill:
" - _2~ . , t , - t ... to - -(V3) t ... a , - a . - a . ... ,. _ O. Th i. Is whal i!.
known IIs lhe co mpletely conserv ati ve P PN Icrmalta m, an d withi n th Is formal ism
we will opeu te .
Note th .t , II t hese lim it at ions on the val uu of thl! P P N pa rameters were ob-
tained by Lee, Light ", aD, I nd NI, 1974.....ho IUed t he p:lJlu dOleOSOl" . pproaeh.
Th is approach , h owevee, is physical ly roe l nlnc 1ellS; • iea l review or It ce n be
foulld in Dmisov and l.or\IDO.... 1982d.

20.2 The Eq_,t1en 01 Ml)lSon 01 !be e-ter of M_ 01 a n

E:dnOed O.jed .
W. ~rt the deeintion of lila equation by defining lhe rad ius vect OC' ya of the
eee ter of mi st of the u \.ended Objllel :
7II,Y" "" ~(~) +trll)) X"' dY . (20.19)
where m l is ~h inerti al mass, or
m l _ ~ (tI.,+ttt.lld V .
For tbe fund ion q:) + ~ .... take t he u pl'1!ll!lioll (20. 12) trlUW'orrned to 10e.1I

"'h ich i5 llQi ly lntu preted ill. tha 10110"'; 11.' ma nner: ' p i , the df;lI.! it y of the rest
mn s of the objeet, andpn pU
the df; lIJIit ies of the in ternal and pote nt ial energies.
rO!lpeeli "e ly, . nd _ {1/2} Pliov'" th e density of th e k ineti e energy. On the basis
of the d illecen tial eonseC'll8tlo n Il w
• ('I Ii ) 0
hi tj"'J +GII -
... ani.,e I t I uniform ...d Noetili near 11I0tio ll. 01 th e eenter of mig of a doub le
syst em:
_~ -K,Il'j11+ - Ktl'1n .., J (IWJ+ ':~J1' _eoo st. (20.2 1)
~I . '{,I+ - 'W 5 ('(lIJ +t~4l'
In d dit ion to the inertll l ml$!l",e in trod uee the reer maM 01the e:tle nded ob ject,
!oJ _ ~ p dV, whleh , in .,iew 01 the eont inuit y eq u.tion. i. t ime independent . At;
shown in Foc:k, t 939. 1959, Ihe pee....Newtcn tan ".ri l~i on In the weigh ting lune-
uen in the deft n iUon 01 the een ter of maSl for extended objecU be! no efled on t ho
equ l tiollJl of moll oo of aphotlc. lI)' aymmetric extended objeel.l in ~he lowest order
in U R. _ hif:h Is th, rati o of t he charK lerlst ie . h , of sueh ob}ec: ts 10 th, ir Mptr. -
li oll. f or th is n.uoll.ll eal eul.Uo05 In.,ol.,11I1 the equat ion tbat dellCcibee Ibe
mot ion of the emlel' 01 ma!lll of an u ttJIded objeel will b. bued 00 rathu Ih, D P
0 11 lCl + tt\.}o
'f b, pollt_Newt oni an eq uiliODI 01 motion 01 • perfed Quid f;an be ohhined .
foll owinlf f od" 1939 . 1959 , by writin, th eo'. .ri anl f;oDllU'luion eqllat lon
V oT tA _ 0 I t It ... <1, I n lb . comp lete ly consern,l.. PP N rormal.lam .... hlVI

P~+<l. [ ~_ p.,.oJ( 1 + 11 + U-i- v,u"} - Pto'Y +""'pU]

+Pa-U - 2 ~+ y} Pail-V +<T - 2) pi!-U +.... ~

I- a"'p (n--} v...u-+ pip) - yv~"Pa'"U +(2y+ ll Pe-- '::

+ 2{1+ t >PvoIAl,tl + ' T+\ 3.. p ': + ~ P ' '';;

+ 2 (y+ 1) pul'(d.V-- a"'V.l + ~ _ Po (.-). (20.22)
where dldt _ ON}! + v,d' Is the convective de rivati ve, ."tI
tP _ (y + I - f. .. ) <!lj + f... (A - (1).. ) + {3y + I - 2~ - 2t..) <1:1.
+ $ . + (3,0 - 2t .) en,_ (2(1.23 )
Ln us co nsider two spheriea lly s ymmetri c obje cts thlt oecu py vol" mu V0
and VII. IhOH of th e SUD a nd t he £ ,rtb . an d /l te 5l!pna ted by I di.$ta"ee 'Dut h
.tute t til .... t h, E arth' . r adi u.s: RelR ~ 0 tel. T he co nser ved den sit y of m. . i n
th is ea5e ca ll b. written in th e form p (• • t) - Pill (ao. I) + Pe (t:, f) , . llh PI;
"oou ro wil h in t he En t h 'l volu me I nd Pe nOOlero wil b ilt t he SIIJI'S volul'lle.
W e denot l l he u d hl5 vee lo r eo noecti lli Ihe u nten of tlIl.!ll1 of tb e Slin end
l he E,rth by R" Illd lb e un it " ector d ineted a long R" by If" _ R- IR . Lei us now
integu te t he eq ullioQ of motio n (20.22) over lb e E lrth 'l ...olu me in l he geoce ntrie
no nroll tini COl11oYing (inulla l) rellm!'lIce tram e Ind upe ftd eacb term In Ibi s
eq u" ion i n power.'l 01 n ol to wi t hi n 0 (n .....). II ....a i nt rod uee notation for t he
inl ee rllis cb a rac leri l illi t he disl ribu tion of mi n er i n l he ex le nd ed objecl s,
' j r;::-;tT
O(11- 2M, P/Pi .....- t:,, 1 \J -
p Ul~ MI " •.
p ,.. -t: . • "" e , 0 .
V0- ~0 ~ l'e"",vz', ~ -~ ) Po::>'l d' z',
W8 I rr lv lI at an eq ua tion desc ribi"i the accelerati on or th e Earth ', eemee of on eill:

ofn- - ~f! /I~ [ I + ( 3 + y - ~ + f ~..) O$]+ Nc, (20.25)

wh ere t ill' post- Newton lan eontri bution to th e El r\.l\'. l cul. rlt ion is

H""" : ': {.... [ l'f+ I)Y0Y00+ { <... I'&f+fP0 -11e

- {t+"' -"ll +~ l-} ~+(~+ 2.., + I)"'dR
+ 2 lll+ ..,) Md R]-(21 + 1) "0y"'0'l-} , (20.26)

" 'it b th e E,rtb assu med 10 be I poi nl·l ik. object.

Th . ,bo... e Up""""; Oll 10• • r.1
rep. _ otll th e ec:celer alioA of lb e EI.lh ·, eee te e
o[ DIMS ."V'.ged 0'1.' th e m ort · Pt rlocl intern.1 motion of maU.r i n tbe two eztead-

, S>

ed objects. I n Ihb .:aM. as showu in Deni80Y. Logllnov. and Mestvirish YiIi, 1981,
the follo..iolf t eNOr ial th«l... JIl.S bold lnle:
3P.-De and ~ ~1I. d" - M0Y0<V"0 + 3P0 - %­ (20 .27)
T h_ . 'ere Il5ed in det>IYing (20.25).
T o a nn.-er l he q u~ti on posed at the beginning of th il sect ion a od nOel/roiog
Ih. moti on 01 t he E."h ·~ u nl et 01 mus , we must ca mp. ... this mot ion ..ilh 1 0
idealized paUe rn , namely. wit h the m o~i<ln of • tes t body in • R ieman n _pee...
time whose metric iJ formally equival en t to t he metri c.generated by two l!loving
extended objects. Th eil tlle fact thot th e llxpres, lon lor the ecceteraucn O(~I ol ille
een ter of mus 01 an ex tended obl~t coinci des with Iha t for th e eceelilrati on 4(':.,
of . point- like object would imply th at uod el' ~i m i br in iUal cond iti ons Ihe cent er
o f ili aD of lh. eJ.lended objec t (the Ear&h) and t he point- like objec t move a long
the u me Uajeelot y and a', goven led by tlul lIlI me la.. of Illotion. Sine. a polnt-
like object moves. by definit ion , alon, a aeooesie_ Ibe eeete e of ma.!!'i ill th i' ease
mov" aIOll( ' , eodesic , too. But if th a u pr-.iOM fot' "I';latu:l llc~1 di ller In po6t-
Newtonian corretlion ter ms , tb e ceD ~r of mUl of tbe u objec.t will Dot
p nera lly move aloq • , eodesio:: ill the Rlam aoD spae..t ima. Such an approaeb .
am0ll( IItbr Ibinp , lII.&ke.. it ptl!!I!li ble tn a llo.. oatura lly for Iha eonlri butl oll of
tha gru lta tlonal xlf-nald of a given u tended objllt:t to the , pN:e-ttma cu.....n ure.
20.3 The Geodtllic Mollon Eq uatIon
We with to st udy the ' noll Ofl of • potll...Uk. object in the " (cin ily or the E. rth 's
eenter of m' 5I!. Let us write the geodflllic aquations II follo Wll:
" '+ r'... 101..101 ~ - 0 ,
""7i" (20.28)

whr . e ar... (" , d~' dz")'" is th e inta...... l (or the inv, ri . M physin l 3t p. ratl on),
and 101' _ Ib' /th I, the 4· vrdo r of velocit,.. At i = cr. we have

"'\'" = iI"UI 1- ..,V:-1jV\Olo: - 2 <,+ y) UI

'"i'"oJ - -;;:-
+ 2 (,, + t) VIIlo lil"V"'- O" V"" I- iJ'"aI
_ 2 (1 + I} Vfllvt.~. U- (21 + 1)v;'11 ~

-T' ( .y + 3 - ~).!!:.
+ O (e'), (20.29)

" 'here v;'1) is the "el oeJt~, of the poi nt-like object ...ith rll8poct 10 the E arth' , ce riler
or mass and It is l iven in (20.23).
Wa ex pand all th e potenl ial' enter ing inln (20.2'9) in power eeercs in fl -' to
wi t hin 0 (R "' ). CollfCt illg like term ~' i e lds

l1\"'I """ - iI'Ue+ ; ; + ~': 1(4~+2.., - 1-~..) iflU. -~II~II"ue~1

+~{". [ - 1 + lvt.)V~", + (~ - i-~) Ua
- 2h + I) 11" Ve-] - 2 (y + I ) V(oll1. l'.
+(2,, + t ) ~.r0". + 2 (,,+ 1) Y0vt ll'o
- (~- i .. 2' '') n<U;- ( 1 - 2y -4~
+ 5t.) V il'Ue - W"'"p'Ue
+Jr (" .l ., + 2n.l•• + 3>101\.4.,) (rr- - ""r'd""Ue)}
+Jii"" ("- - 3Ie'"rtrl + N" + y - "0[(,...,..,." - Jr<>r<) ....

+i Il"lljn. (.,...,..,.. - 3rt<,..)] , (20.30)

where ,.. is the r. dill$ vector of the ta l body red ron!'d Ire m the E arth's ceoler of
m. u , U$ . nd trJ are t he Eart h', gu vil. tion. ' pctenu.... . t t he point thl!
point-Jib ob~l ;, situ. ted, and
t" ...\• p ~ ~ d'
~, M '"' ~. _
Ir rI
r. rvUe_
Th e poet· Newtonia n .«:eler.t ioll ';i~ is ea used complotoly by lh e Earth 's fira vi~
a li onal field:
; : _i1'Ue ly\1oIV... + 2 Cl' + .,JUe l
_ H'l(y+ 1- t,..IQ).. + (Jy+ 1-2!J H ...) ¢l,. + cPoe
+(3y -~) Q)iSl -(2'l' + l ) Vi, J"'.vl.
- 2 (1+ 1) Vi. )l't.JC'l.U. - 2(y+ I ) V"", (l1'" ve-B"'VSI
1 S ~~ (... -.;l "'''· ' ...+3 ZI- S PeI'·u. ,..-
- (, + ) [ JI - .'l" 2 I' "" I
_ 1+ 2t... "\' Pet.... - "·..I (. ·~ ..·'Jo1itU$".r (20.3 1)
-r- ~ I. ,, '. " .
The s ymb ol III 011 \h e polenti, l. Q)•• cP l ' $ .. $., and vrasig nifit$ , h. l lh'torr..
spondlng Interu nd conl. ios t he conserved density only 01 the E.rth.
We . ... Int erest ed in the ~I er. t i on of • poinl -li ke objet:l whose p....ition . nd
"c lottty coinc ide with th ose of the E.rth's center of m. SI. W ith pOlIl-Newlollian
aee.urllcy, V(~I ~ yt. +0 (,') , while all the grad ients of th e Ea rt h's grllvit . Uolllll
s clf- pou nli als van ish (see DeIlJ8oQY, Logunov, a nd Chl,la:reev, 1986). MOreOYEr,
v'I/ (0) - - (l iS} Y"VIIl{Oj. He nce, ;;: _ O. and the ex pression (20.30) joe t he
aece leullon or a poin t-li llt objl ct can hI writt en u loUow!;

• "J>[
4m= -1I" 1fI t - .,. '( 4tl - ")
3-T L V$ (O)]+N'".
- (20.32)

2U.4 The £artA" ~iTll! Gra vlta tlo",,1 MaSII

Complrison of \.he eI pres!lion (20,25) for 11(<1" with th e u pRSSion (20.32) for ..rl l
I Uggeets \.h.t the h ,'O' qu. nt ilin an not eq ua.l I nd , heoc-, the E arth ', ceeter of
nilS! does not move along. a:eodesic in 10 arbitrary compleUlly conserv ati ve metric
\.hlJOry 01,t io.., We .... iIl po:!! t pone th e diilCu. ion of th ill quest ion u ntil
Seclio.o 2O.S. Here we w ill only inte rpret \.hi' illlport. nt raet lh roua:h the in-
equl lily bel....een lhe E art h', inerU, 1 Oll.!!$ and pusi ve crnita.tional Illast .
'" W. lII11hiply Eq . (20.32) by l h. ine rt ial ma!1:5 01 tb. point-like object, whieh
KCOrtl iol t.o (20. t9) II defined thUf.:

"' IW .... .... [ l - y' U-' (0) - "2' 7''0 + 0 ("' )] •

with III . l he 1ft' mi . of the poio t-llh object. "The prodoc.\ is

• ."J>
",I(ol~ ••- - ml"'" ""1f' + "'o T""'jjOn- "I
[' ''0 (411-3- "T L. U19 (O) + I•~.] . (20.33)
Sinu a point-Ilk. object mevee. by d efm l~l on. alon g a jlllOdl!Sic. ns iner ti al In d
p '8Ii v8 Ira vi t . ~i on 8 1
mus es ue equa l, ....i th th e NlSUII th at we un re wril .
Eq . (20.33) In t il , form '

/11M! . ""-
0(11= - m/llOl""' ----,p- +.... ['~
TI't'It" (,-,-3- T -]•
"L.) UIl{O)+N'"
beelUse /RIOI - "' ~ .) 10 lh i. u se. Th i. eq uat ioD forms ' basis for delia •." t he
p. .l". p . ... it. tlon. 1 DlUil of I ' ext.ellded o bj«t. If we deflol i t in suc h. ma nnl r
Ib.t the lid of Ita equi lity . itb the inerti . 1 miss InlllJorms the eqult ion 01
IIlolion of the center of miss in lo I geodHK mot ion equltloll, then for lbe Elrtb' .
g.ulta l;ond mil . we hive , .,";tb d UB regard lor (20 .3"), t h" follo'lll'inr equation:

• N. ( ") _ ]
1I(ll- - _oO
"'1$ ".
[ '
T-F"" 'Ii -3 --S-~" Ue (O)+N" , (20.35)


( ZO.3I1)

Th U!, w" can s.y t hat t he dui. tlon 01 t h" motion 01 Ihe center 01 m.,. from
th e motion , lonr a eeod er;ie i:t due enl lft:l y to Iht! dev iation from unit y 01 t he rati o
of t he Euth 's pl.!l!ive eravi lat ione l mass to l he inerti el mL-"S. Let '" now give
el p~loll.S for Ihe!e masses:

'"..- .... [ h· fle- De- T ~ + O (••)] ,

(3+ 1- 4JI + "
(20.3 7)
1OI~-"'et- 1 +~ + jt.) a.
+ { ( 'Ii- 3 - ~ ~ ) Ufl(O ) -+ ~ +O(l')].
Fin all y, usi ng t he nu meerea l val ues 01 Ue (0) aed 'l e liste<! i n Dhugeeev.
1985, we err tve III the foll owi ng lor.nnl. for th e masa ratio:

: : _ I + (4ll -3- ~ t.) 7.6 x Hr "+ (3+ 1'-411 +~ t.. ) 4.Gx 10-1'.
Since in RT G p _ ., _ t ..lid ~ .. _ 0, in t he po'!It-N ewlon l. n appro:rirn.t ion Ih e
E.rth', pas.'!'i ye , ,... llItloll.1 I'll" I. nOI eq",1 to t h il1eorti.1 mas:

~ _ t +7. 6 xtO- ...
20.5 Ik" i.lUOn 01 the }(otloo 01 tae Earth ', Center
01 MUi fro m the Reference GeoOaik
Let \13 coosider the di ftert!llCe In the . eceler.t iollS of th e E.rth ', eee eee of mU!l
.nd of. point-like obillet moving in the v ici nity of the eee ter 01 mus. Eq ua lions
(20.25) a nd (20.32 ) imply lhal l hi. d i lf eren~ I. of the post.-Nevrt.Gni.n order of
llln allne$S. H ence, the deviat ion ,.. of the pol nt.-l ike objeet from the Ea rth' , " t DW'
()f mass can be u pecled to he . mall: ""'I«! _
0 (t.). Thi" mean. t hat for the eceel-
-e•• lion of the point-li ke object we ca n lak e itt express ion I t lhe Earth '. cente r of
m us. (20.32), bil l_How lor t he Ne wt onia n term iJO- Ue in it . Accord ing to (20.25)
a nd (20.32),
";.l-a(.) - ~ ~~ [+(~ -,-~ ~) ri'e (Ol+ ( 3 +Y-~+ ~ t.)o.e]
- ' Ue (. ) + O (10"" ~) . (20 .38)
SillU'" is ama ll , we un emp loy t he follow illl Ipp rni m. te lorm llI. for ",Ue (t ):
O"Ue (r) .. iI'(Je{O)+ if4ue (0),.. + 0 ((rile )' ), (20,39)
where a"'Um(0) _ 0 , and
i/'&U;p,/,O) _ ~ :~ (....... +3,..~&/r)ctlv+ ~P.1I(0) yd ... ';" Pe (O)........
Thus. ....e arrive a t the followiog equ ati on for the rld iua vtctoc ,. _ ,.. (t):
-::: +~ Pe(O) "' -&·+Q((rU!l)l'). (2OAO) the dr iyi nli: Ieeee lP it di rec.l ly proportional to Ih, d• .,iatio D frolll unity
01 the Tll io of th . E..~h·, p_h, er ayit .tional mass to th, lnertial m..., (20.36):

The l oi llti on l O
ho writ ten IS
&"_ ~ /I" ( ~ _ l ) . (20.4 1)

the ol\Cillatio n equa tion (20....0) with UII'(I init ial cond itions c all

"' - t;f(WIIwtt- 1), (20.42) the period of o;;eill. tioDl eonepoodillli: 10 lrequ eftCy w. is

T_:- V~ ~ 55 mill.
So lut ion (20.42) implin Ihal th e plane in which t b_ OICill.ti oM oeeur is
li n d by vect or n. ....hich rol. tes with . frequency eorrespondin.q: to. period
of one )'e...
The am plitud e of t he oacill ll.lions is
lb"' (
A- -;r
"'" ~ 101 [ T' ( olo~- 3 -T " t.. ) U. (O)+ (3 +., - 4~+ 3" ~ ) 0-]
==: 1.2 x to"'" (~-3 - -5! L.) em+ 7.5 X 1.0-- (3+ ..,- 4~+ T Lo) eln.
(20. 43)
Ahboueh this v.lull of the .m plil ud. Wl'ISti hl tes • sID.1I quan tity, 11$ I*t-
Newtolli.1I order of sm.lh,e511 ill rle, with tbe result th.t this efIect U II be de-
tected ill uperilDenl5 t h.t possess post-NIl....totiian acA:UrKy , WIl liso t10le tlLlt
the O!ieillition . mpll tnde Is indepeDden\ of the E.nh's rot i ll on.

20.6 The lA.. 01 MoUon oJ " ' Electrica lly Oluged Test Body
EJ PIl riment nlly, the . boylt-dillCuSlied effeet can be obse rved only indir ectly, for
In....oce, by st udying the moll on 01 • teat body ncar the Earth' s ! urface wit h the
a im 01 det erm ining the spectr..l compositi on of the l'1l1..livi,lic E. rl h tides and
isol . ting the .... ves lb.t musl be observed if .... e ..uu mll th.t th l! Elrt h's cente r of
m ~ moves l.Ion, I ~elIie.
Due to the Slulhln.! 01 the ~-Ne....Lon il.ll correction terlllJ in the ucelerll ioD
of ('I".. "it)', ,.t.btriq uplll"imut.1d..ta reqo ires . 1000g timll. Heeee, tbe lesl body
must be I I rest In 11l1.lion to lb . l.boralOl'Y, ....hleb mUM ","e mllsc WllIpIlIl5Ite
lor tb e eeeeler.. tlon of Crulty by . pplying I fort e of noncr oDiI n.. lura 10
Ihe body. Followin, Nord tvlldt, 19it , for such I eounterlore ta ke th• • ie
force I.(:t;n, on . n eleet.nca lly ehafi1!d tes t body . The value of the eleettlc lield
..trenelh will bIl direct l)" proportl on.1 to llle forell 01 , r. vlty .eli ng on Ihe test
ch'ree In d will be e:rpressed ill t erms of nop eJeetrom8gnetie quantit ies, with th e
result lha t our c..lculati ons hold tr ue for ordinary grav imetric instrumenu"
Th us, the eleetrlc counterforee is an I Uleillar y element ..nd ih IIJi(l is jlll ti fied
only beeause ... can the n eu lly eale ulete t he post-Newt ooi..n ee ereeuens whleh it
i n trod uc~ hlto the calculat ion of I.he eompoAllIl13 01 the lue lerat ion 01 rr.. vity .
wh ich lire d irectl y mlll.llun ble by gn '·'mete l'S an d til ted pend ulums. as we
....iII shortly _ on the aSlUmptioa th. t the h·s u.1.U of mU!l mo"'llS .. IOlli
• geod ll!:!!ic in the te lal cn"it lt iOJl. 1fiald of t ba E..rth . nd tM SUD, tne-l lIlplitudes-
of SOme relati lt tl e t idal . .,.. ebangf:" E:s: peri measurement 01 the m tg-
nll ude of web , e ivn III id... of how t h. Earth' s centu of m~ moves..
Let UI the II ",' of motion 01 • tesl eh..rge e of ma51 In in th e combi ned era'··
ita lio n.1 field of the E .. rth .. nd th n S ilO and in an elect ro magneti c fie.ld, en ..rae-
u rlle<!. by . '- poten tial A I, cru tlld ..rtif,eillly on tho surh ee 01 the T he
L' a ri ngian funcll oll i. well k nown lor thi' moti on:
Ib' u_ ) 1/2
L ~ _ m ( 1'_ d1 ""Tt"
, U' t r ,,- - , , ,,dV, (20.44)
- ' I •• A 71 - -n;;- J r - I ,.
,,'hare F l. "" V..... - V_A, il t be electtoDltgnrt ic &e ld-stren,th tenso r.
V.rying th• •etion thn corresponds 10 tb e L.a,nngi..n fu netioo (20, , <\ ), we
..ri ve at thl! Mu ..ell fltld equti DM i n the Rieml n.. spl.Gll-li mr.
Vl ra ~ 4:1.i-, (20.oi5)
If, lor tllll sUe 01 simplieity , we IlISU llIe th l t the eleetrom "aneli c currell! j .
II fll neralad by moving po int eh..rges ' • • Ihll is,
/ - L>
. .,
'l::\ ,~t. (r - "l
.f ~

"" i1.11 6 (t _ r. ) tl,o cerumen E ucli dea n dcltll fun ction and ' . th e radi us veetor
of Ihll .. 1.b ch'l'll"e, Ihen Eq " (20.oi5) for k _ 0 ..seu m,,",- Iho form
t"A· _ -7jr AI +h
LJ t.6 ( r - r. ) II +(1 -T)U I
+ (3- , ) 1J"A.' iJ..U +O (A'E-) , (20.' 7)
wi tb 9" _ a.a-. The solution to this eq uati on ca n be writ~n ....ith pot l.-Newl o-
Ilian aceUfllt.y .. folIo.....s:

A" -l: --"-
1 . - r~1
+ TI~
E t • Ir - r• l - ~
-.!±1 l: roUl.,)
I. - •• !
.' .
+ ~[~
z L.J Jr """'if.=7I
, ' d'"
1.'--'••1 - ~
U (r) L.J Tr'=f:i ] . (20 .48)
• •
We use th is solu tion to lind th e expresaicn for the law of molion 01 an e lectric
t eet ch.rge in lh e electromlpetic a nd gravi ti t iona J fields. Vuy ing th, t..rnngi a n
function (20.44 ) ov er lbe coo rdi nates of the cha rge Iu ds us to the foll owinl equ a-
t ion of motion :
(20 ..9 )

For I _ a t his eq uat ion transform " into

1f',I'- . .. ..
a" = djr_ lIill+ a..." (20 .50)

whet . "" is t he ra dius veete r of lhe teU charge unod frOID lhe Ear th '. ce nter
o( man . and 11['",) ia the eon l ri hu Uoo to th e . eulen li on ce used by gnvltt tio n. l
interae li oo a nd i , delined in (20.30). T he contri bution to the acee lerat ion ea ll~
by tbe Lon nu lorte and ill post- Newton i,n correc tions, which we b. ...e dtnolH
by ~ , is givt o by t be followi ng form u l. ;

.a::. - ; {a<'A ' [1-(2y+3) U +f '1" V., )O] - 2cNIA,

+ 8"A"V\o)O - it,.A0.l101 - -:r- ,40.} • (20. 51)

I n th l, form ul ' It Is s uf!i()ielll to employ the foli owir>g expression lor t he vec tor
pot en ti" l ,4o.,

whe re I':: ;s th. " eJoe;ly of the lest eh,~ in th... l:",oe",ntric noo rol,tilll co mo,, ;nl
reference I... me in which , II ea ltul. ti oll5 wi ll be ca rr ied ou t .
Se lecling tb e cb""", ' od ualS!l of th e l.e!It. body so l bet l be eI..>dric ttll'U eom-
penH I"" for Ih",. c..e.le"'l ioo of gnv;t y I ...(\ rest ricti ng lb e . e.eun ey of ealcuil l ions
by 10 -" (th o sens lli" it)" 01 th e CUlTl!!n l cro p of gr . vimete" i~ 10 -.°), WI obta in


where we bov e Intrcd uced the loll owing noutlon for t be lial t! K tl nll" on the
t~t charl:e ;
,. - . ... 3 (,CI - r:'l I I'C.k ("' - '~I·
E""_ ~t, l '- '.~' • ll£'> _ - T r t,
1' - ', 1'
• •
l:Iere we haY e ellcwed lo r the bel Ib' l, wilhin l he c:hO!en ll«ur,c:y, U (f.)'"
U (r) nd V: ... YI~" Th . N_Ionl,n pol~tial U a~ l h $lIrfeca of lh~ E.rth
;1 defi.ned Ihus::

20.'1 Tn MfonnaUon to Pb)lllc:t;I Coordln.etf'S

Time I . nd o;oordinal$"'. in Ierm, 01which lbe . 00.... n l. tioM have hem ....nll . n.
que nti li ... They Ire rela ted 10 Ihe ph)-,iee l ohler-nobles t ,nd l'"
• !'to eoordi". I.
th rough Ih, follow[ni formulas:
d11_ - (,..- ' -;::1 )d,..drf, (20.54.)

dt _ V-t.dl + V-
,. dr>. (20,55)

In t he poII t-N~w to n ian approxima t ion th ese formulu heeo me si mpler:

at' _ - 'd d,.. dt' ll +0($1)1, (20.56)
d1: _V =;';dll l+ O(r;I)]. (20.57)
NonllYedt , 1971, ulled (2'0.53) 10 inlegTate Eq. (20.56) &lid found !.bel (R il

l" -( I +l~)" - f ~ ""rl"' + ? ~ ",e,,*, (20.58 )

We ..ill use Ihis fnnnu!a la lrf . Noel', h01Je"u, Ih. l the . b5eIM:8 in il of. l.ecm re-
sponaible for Ihe o;onlrib"tioll of lb. Earth'. i ravitetion.l Field is dUl to Ihe lecl
th. t Ih e <:<>rtapollding post_Nell1.Onl.n o;orre«iolll 10 t be 'UIIlen lioo of en,,'ity
alll li mo independen t .nd. l l~fore, need Dot be t ak en into _ n l-
The c:orrec:tions to ,.. in (20.;18) hll"e . post- Neytoni, n orde r of sm. ll n-. H. nce,
10 .... rile th e equ ltion of mol ion 01 the cba rge in phyl ic, l coordiD . t~ it is suffIcient
to IlI DIIlorm ; nl o these coord ln. IM 0111)' Ih e gr adil'nl of the Newlonian potenli. I,
iPUfj, end the electric ftell! E" , T loe q U'lIlity />$(r) d"r is t he element 01 , he
Earl h'8 rest mI.!!;, with t he rtl;ull that pl£>{r) cPr _ Pill(J) cPl. Combilling th i'
fao;l with (20.58 ) y[eldB

qm(JfB (r) - fJ<>Uft (I) (t + 2;o .!:;-) - t nQ ~ 1,/jIUIII

':;p-l"n.iJ<lJfB- t + JtI""(-yd+3m"mJ)
J iLMr;'\
n. +0 (lQ"'lr), (20, ,)9)

.,hue M" _ ,.." I. uRit normal 10 we su rhco of the E. rlh . aod J e -

Met Ii! ~tPr is th e mOlMllt of iolrt' . of lhe £lrl h pol uoi l mll.S$. Similarl y,
tIM' Ih. elllCl rie fie ld tbe Ir. osforml lioo is
~-.: ( M M )
E-(r) - :E ... Ir - r. l ' _ E" ( I) t + 2;o -=p. + 2T ~ rlo~

+l.:;p-('1"'1<6 "'noEJ +0 (10- 1111,
Nole th at lorm ul. (20.59) coi llC';ides wil b tb lS resu lt of NordtYedt , 1971 (an ived
.t in aoot her ma D"",). while in the . leclric; field lnInrlorm al ioli formul a obtti ned
b)' Nonl h-./ t th . r. ~ 110 lu t l«m. of (:20.601.
T h' t4 rnctio o m .llu t h l tmfrp at I. result of I.h, 11'a12.llorm ati o- to Inn rilll.1
t ime h.... the form


20.8 A Formula lor lb. Strength 01 the Compe_tl n, Eltdrle Field

Let UI. 1I0 W wTile the co ndit ion for tile cum penee tt cn of t he accolen l ia n ol l[rav il y
in 'll Inerti al rel e..... nee with te~ pl)(ll III whicb t he Eorth rol l.l as with I." ang ullr
velocity Q:
~ _( Q X to X I»)'". (2(1.62)

Thill eqUliOD dl!!lCri bei llJe . oa t iOR of vee t er I of eOIlJI.n lle~ b abo ut veeree Q
..1111 • co nst an t angular veloc ity 10 I. Lei us Iiad lb • .teeOod derivative d.
wit h resped to I. U~i nll: the defi"it ioll5 tJr-ldl _ 11.,- V; an d d.1P/dl _
V. - I'e aDd 1111. oroeN,o(-m.,pi tud a t:!ilimates /tIe/ll ... 0 (to-I), rl R _
o (10"). aDd • • ( V~ - V<;)) :::< 0 (feVe) - 0 (to-4j. wilh ~e - 0.1111 l hll
/IIlUntJieit)· 01 Ihll IlGh ptic, . 'e obtl in
~, -
"'"ii' (,-: .. -
---;li'""" ~)
dl (1+ 1 ~
R ) + 0 (10-- 01 1). (20.&3)
BelOI1l we writ e t he llns l expression for t he st rength of t he cOIn (lenslt ing eteet r te
field. l evera l remark. are in order.
Fin t. let us &: 0 over 10 the positi ve sc; a lar pr oduct of IWO " rc tl>l'3. I · b _
- 1I. b· ;;lo O.
Seceed, i n vi. .... of the s pheriu l symmetry in the distrib ut ion 0;>1 maUer in tlt l'!
Ear th , we employ Iltll following u plnsioM or t.hl'! gra" ita lio"" t poUnl ;11 and
their gradie nu lor I I l ;;lo Ie:
if"lJe - ATel"/fS.

r4 - ~ 1Il"' ' ' -!.f- "*" ("""+3M"''''' I]. (2O.M)

(p(j.~ _ ~ [3m""" "'. + .,..Jm.· +~m'
- J e -}(m...,..,.+IIIllyG' + "'"V"" + 5"' ''''''11/1.") ].
Th!rd, we em ploy in our discusalun the Newton ian ... ,Iull of th e elec l rle field
8trenit h:

Fo urth , .... Dote th. t Will , 1981, Itas ana lyaoo lb . R- I· posl· Nt ...ton i,n eOG b i-
buliOJl \.0 tbe ac:eel.... tilMl of gr.... ily. U1illl ibe dl ta obtailhld by War burt on and
Goodk il1d, 1916, <_ aha Melch ior, 1918) tIlrougb th e elOplny ment of l'Upen:OA-
dUeli ", grui b. establi5hed th . upper limit on .... PPN para meter ; . :

\;"'1 < I()'-J. (20.66)

Hence. in R "' -po!It-New toniu terms th is partmelu can b' _ I equa.l to zero, aiMa
i f ....e alieno for t his limil th e ~poDd ing lff ms ...i ll be. tlll .lI" than th, limlU Ra
v, lue of 10-1. , .
Fifth , .... Int roduce . nn ' notation (01" lh , Euth' , o. bita l Vt100!!}" in lb . helio-
cent ric rereeeee frame IV isth. S Ull ' S ' -d oell )' in t he geou nl ne refe~1I« fr,m e):
r0 - ~ '
With , II lh_ ..ernuls in min d , "" u n ",.I U! the final form ula fOl' Ihe eerapen-
~ Il n lf , IK lne field strellgth in the followi ng form (t _ ~);

M •
: E:' - T + (DX{UX 11>-
_M~, {"''' [~~ - 'l'-3 - 3~ (f +JI!')J
+ 2t."n" m· n (t - J$) - m" (171 ' n ) l~ (2- 5/f1) )}

+ ~ {(3 + 'Y - 4~)[g$n" + +~: (n<>- m"m .n- !f<n"-3m"m.I'I» )]

+ ~ (m ..
+ 2 (V+ t) [v" II. (R X 1) - ,," (0 X I) ·

_3Jt"nl . n)
, M~'
- "2 ----f..1',.a+ 2M"ftI . n - 5lOl" {m· n)%1+ 0 ( 10-1)1). (20. 67)

No le th ,t the I ~t two rrovllS of t,r1ft! are the NewlOn. ln quad rupole (oe n -a)
a nd ochl pole (IX R"') t id, l Kteler, tioM. Th e l\Ib$cri pt "ng" 011 the elKtric tield
l'trt nlllh slr nir.u lb. t the Earth'a eeater of 111"rnov. _01. .long • geodHi c and
the Iccelerat ion (>f the cenler 01 alan is d~ribtd vi, ('20.'25).
Let us now see hollo' th e elect~ie firld strvltth Id ire.:t1y proportion.llo th e accel-
eration measured by lIr&villlemc iostrumeo13) ehlnllM II ...·e /l.S.'Ju me that the
E arth's tenter of llllW doe!l move alonl: a geodesic. For Ihis we ooly o~d to sub-
sli \ d l':"OI (O)/dl, th e Icc.ler.tion of a point_like objKI. t the E art h's center of
mU 5 deeertbed via (20.32). for accelerat ion dV'"e/dt (... ..r, )). This chi llies the field
d TC llgth in compa rison 10 ~ . U can cu ily be ded uced from (20.25) e nd (20.32),
br tbo following q uanti ty:

; .e:,-.;.e:- - Mwt" {i-(4~- 3- ~ L.) U11IIO)

+ (3 +' -'11+ ~' ")llo). (2O.68)

Th is dill'ertllCe is t'qu.1 to the driviug foree in the oecill . tion equ .tlon (20.1111)
' Dd pl'ilporlion.1 to the de.. i.tiOfl Irem " nity of the ra tio of the Earlh'. pU l i"e
£,.. .. il.tion.1 all'lS 1.0 th e Inert ill ml!lll.
On lh l !luis 01 (20.61) lAd (20.68) "'e CID uri....t • formula for by per-t::
fnu n ing Ih. followilll IUbslitution io llle formull lor E:.:
{3+.,- ~)0e - 3 (3 -.<\~1 Ue(O). (20.69)
2Cl.9 Slu 6)'lnl lhe MoHon 01 the Ea rth 's Cenlet" 01 M_ b)'
G r. .. imdrl e Experlrtte nlJ
As is know n [see l\le leh ior. 19i8). lh e ",,",iul proj ed ion 01 \ he .c;(llIleulion of
gruity is meeured by an .. imeters an d th e I\ori1.OlI U I projec\ ions , b}" ti lted (heri-
:lOn l.l) P'l!ndulum,.
T he verti<:.ll projection of e:. i, gi "en by tbe foll owinll iorm u l. :
: E., . m ~ "'zl +lll HQ · rn)I- Q1.)

_ ,v~i' 14~ -l-3 - 3L.{1 + J~) _ (IIl. .n)t L. (t - 31 e )l

+ ~P {(!l + "l'-'~) n,. n (n.a++ M

t l l)
+ 2 (;0+ 1) I(m . v) n . (0 )( 1) - (m . nH O X I) '''I }

+ ~ 1 1 - 3(rn. n}·1
3 M_"
- T ~ ( nl' II) 13 - S{m· n)"1+ {Io-n,d· ° (20.70)

H,.. we a.. intllres t8d only in the spec tru m of \be post- Newt Ofl la ll term propo r-
t ional to a ll atnee . h5,ol ule measu rement in . ".a "im,uit u peri mln t of l be bu -
moni~ cOlTel5 ponding to \ hill term will Inlble ~ 10 answer tbe qu estion of wbe t her
t bl Earth ', eeat.... of mass mO\'61 alODe a geodesic.
We denote the si de rea l [req uene y of t he E' rtb '_ rolat ioo _bout iLa uia (i.e .
ro tation eOlli idn ed with raspeet to ":ud staJ$) by D iII d Ibe si d erea l freq uency of
the Earlh 's revoh ' lIon abou t \b . SUn, by l1oI. If _ lUIume IheL a t 't _ 0 th e E arth
i , at periheli on , \heo in tbe poulltrie ecli ptic ~ rdi n_~. e s ystem ee ne ra lly
accllpt.ed in aslrollomy, the foll o~ing exp reilSio Ri (see Duboshin , t 975) for vec ton
n , m , end\' an d tbe qua ntity R -' hold true:

n _ - [ eosw 't+ ~ (cos 2t.rT- 1) +i-e& (3 coa: 3l.rt+ cos"', - 4)] e.

- [ . in mT+ e$ Sin 2"" + f ell {3 Sill3""+ elll wT)] e,+ o (ell ).

m _ ells Ocos (O, -<p) e. + lco~e co_a sin (OT - (Il) + sin 0 sin a l e, (20.71)
+ (SiIl8 cO$ a- c0$9si n a sin (OT- op) Ie. ,
v _ (.sin lIlT e, - COS I>ITe,) {"fe/p)"l t t + (ee )l,
R- ' - r ' It +.. cou n+4! (cos2wr- I) +OCQll,
when 9 an d .. I re the geognphic la titu de and longi t nd e 01 the poln l whenl lhe
c....imeter is
posi tio Qed, Ind a _ 23"27' ill the obli qui ly of the ecli ptic. T he unit veeree e" poin b to ' he perll\l!lio n an d Ilea ill tb. eclipti c, th e vectO'" e. is
ortbOfOllal 10 Ib i. plaDe, a nd e, i. Dormal 10 e~ en d e, . T h. Q lronomic;al unit p
i , equ a l to 1-'96 x 10" em.
F rom (20.70) it foll ow_ l bat the apee ln l compositioD of the a s-term i' dete r-
mined by \he sce ter product m · D, src ee ....ithi n ure U$uro", dee"" of
. ceur. cy wc can ncgle-ct the annual variat ions in R and I"Umll that R = p . Sub-
s ll tu ~ing the expansions from (2O.7t) , we obta in

(l-oC>ll a ) oosO
111 · 0 _ _ 2 c~I(Q+(O))T-, 1

- - , -(1 +ccsej eos[(0 - w) 1" - 11' )

- sin II ~ ; n (J. ~ in WT 0 (t~). (2O.72)
Since (I + cos 0.)/(1 _ CO$ el) .. 23.1, in what follows we consider only the
(0 - w}-"'·a vII. Its amplitude i~ mu imal I t II =- if, that is, s t the equa tor. In
this case, using (20.71), we arrive at the following llxprm;;un fur the Newtontsn
wave at this frequency (in the theory of tidal waves denoted by (S,)a):

(S,)e-,._ *" Mr,$ (t + cos 0.) (23- IOC05 el- 25 cosl a ) cos [(O_w) T- 't'l
- -O.65coa[(Q_IH) T_lpln Gal . (ZO.73}
Here we lise the unit 01 nanoGd to measure the amplitudes 01 tidal waves:
1 nCal = 10-' Gal, I Gal ,.. 1 cmfa', g = 982.04 Gal.
It is characte ristic that thl! Newtooian quadru pole (2 - loll-wave ("" p~I'
which generally haa an amplitude of about t ()O nG, I, is lCTO , 1 the equator, whi C
t he octupole wave (20.73) is equal, in order of magnitu de. to the relativ istic
(f.! - w}-wave, whose a mplitude is
M", ( " .
&Oo o.(Q - wJ = (3 + 'I' - 4~) 7 ~+ 31 I e ) -I +-CO&
r -<l(OlI [{Q- w)T - '{I1
= 0.11, (3+ y-4~}c~ 1(0- bl) T- Ifl nGal. (20. 74)
II the Ear th's center of mass were to travel along a geodesic, th en, according to
(20.6\1), the gravime ter would have measured the followinll wave instead of (20.74):

AL I' '''' -~ [f (4~-3)Ue(0)-+(3+ 'I'-4~)~ Ie]

1-+ «JO a
X 2 coaI(O-w) 1 -'{I)
.. -10. 48 (4~ -3) +0.14 (3 + 'I'-~)1 .:osHO- (0)T- '{II nGal. (20.7:»
Note tha t lor l' =- ~ = t the wave A~!.o.(O _ (0») vanish" in RTG, while A I ~ ••
bas an ampli tude 01 0.48 nC11.
If in a gravi metr ic experiment no non-Newtonian addilional term to WI\'e
(S,) t-o' is dtsecvered, Ihi, is proof that the cente r of m .~. don not. move along
a geodesic. Note else th at no choite of Iatt tu de can make the relatl visuc (»-.... ave
eommensurehle with the Newtonian e-weve. For Ihis reason we do not con~ idcr
the relatiVistic e -weve, just as we d o not ecnslder the (Q + wl-harmonic.

20.10 Studying the Mollon of the Earth' s Center 01 MMS hy Tiltm eler&
Using horhon tal pendululJI! and ttltmcters, we cen measure the varia tions in the
tangential components of the .accelereti on 01 gr"'it y (3IIfI Melchior, 1978). At
present there are many tYPe! 01horizonta l pendu lums and t lttmeters (Backer, 198<1,
and Melchior, 1918).
Let us pTOied the pnenl upt _ ion (20.67) lor the eleel rie M id st re ngt h ont o
the uni t vect or u tanltOn .1 10 th e Jurl aee of the Barth:

: """ '0' _ (0 X tOx 1») . g - 2E.. ~ ~ (m 'Dl (n ' lJ)( I - J..)

+ ~{{n . o)(3+.,- 4~l[Oe+ T ~: ( l _~)]
+ 2{,/ + t ) 1(" , 0) (n ·(0 X 1»)_ (n ' lI) unx Ij ' '' )I }
Mr:kr. 3 .\f~ ll..
-3(n · o) (m on) ---n
r - T (n- o) (1-5 (m . n )·J~
+ 0 (10-" , ). (20.76)
Th e plo jectioll 01 the eled fi", field streng th lor the cue .. here th e Eart h"1! cente r
ot mUll t r. ". 1.!1 a long I ~e!ic uo be obu h~ by Inl rodueing th e subs tilu t ion
120.69). Lei U!I . rl u vector a in the IIOllIKttd eoon! inl'l Iystem:
0 _ - (sin p sill(Sh _",) + . ;o ~ eos p ws(D t - 'f)J e..
+ leo!IIl1 (si ll pcos r.;h - . ) - lio " COlIp slo (OT-Of»
+ " n,,- _ " coapl e.
+ lelKIIcos " COlI P - sin (I (sin p COlI (01: - . )
- li n" cos p sin (Ot -.))] e, _ (ZO.;7)
By dir«t sub st itut ion we ean see tha t o' _ 1 and (I·m _ O. Vedar (1 is eh rk -
te d ted by an ut hal ang le p Buell that p = O' when 0 po;n L.~ north.
T he spectra l ecmpcetuc n 01 tile torms cha racterizI ng the motion or the Earth's
te Mer of milS!! is specified, DS (20.76) implies_ by t hesesl.t product n·o:
n . o _ ~ Vsl n~ p+cD!ii psiD I &c<» I(" + "')T-6-lI'l

+ ~ V .tint p +(.l)i2 p ain' lh05l(Q - 60) T- oS- 1F 1

- siD Q (. O$ eecs p Bin II I +O(~ ~ (20.78)
wbe re 6 _ taa - ' (t..., plain e ). As in Setti oo 20.9 , w. d o not considu tbe (0 + ...)-
By selK tin g two pa.ametel1l , lati tud e " nd azimuth, we mun lind u peri menla l
eonditioWi in which w e backgTound Newt oni. n wave la minim.l and tbe rel.tlv-
ist ic one is max im. l. Emp loying (20.71) lind (20.78), we ca n easity sllow 'hal at
e _ O' aDd p _ ±OO'" the Newton ian qu ad ru pole (0 _ w)-wave (oe p _O) Vln lsh ~ ,
whi le the cempote t idal (0 - w)-wavo (oe p- ' ) is
3 AI"
(S,) o_O',lI-to. - "'!Z ~ 15 COl' " - 3Ocos" +211s in [(0 -",,) l _ '4' 1
_ -O.23~ in 1(0 - ") T-",1 nGal , (20.79)
a nd t~ I'Olb ti.,istie {Q- ...)-wave is

A"'-o"_ - ~ (3 +y -~) (1 + «lOIQ) [Oe + i- ~(I -~)]

XBi n [( 0 - ") T- 91
- O.93 (3 + 1' - ~) . i nf(Q - .. ) T - .. l nCal. (20.80)
'"For" = ~ = 1 tile last wave vanishes and, hence, it ill theoreticall y predicted that
th ere is no deviation from the Newtonian val ue (20.79).
If we were to assume that the Earth's center of mass moves along a geodesic,
then inst ead 01 (20.80) we would ernve at t he followin g e xpr esaton for t he rela-
t ivistic (0 - ",)-W. "8:

Ai.. e-,p.I.v... ~ (t + ecs a ) [ ;;;- ,3 - J e l (3+y-4~J + 2 (3 - "~) Ue (O)]

xs i n [ (Q -IIl) 1" - '9)
_ [O .48( 3-4~)+O.H (3 +V-4~)l sio 1(2-111) T- Ifl nCal. (20.81)
At" _ p _ 1 t he am pli tu de 01 t his wave is 0.48 n Gal, whtcb is t wice t he Newt o-
ni an ampli tude.
II as a resul t of ex penmente DO suc h harmonic is d iscovered , it Call be stated
thQl the Earth '5 center of mailS does not mov e al ong a geodesic.
I n eonelllSiol\ tet us give an expression lor Runual waves at t he equator, where
there is no Newtonian quadrupole wave and tho quadrupole wave (Sa) is ecmm en-
eueable with the relativ ist ic wave:

A;~O" (...) ... - ~ (3+ y - ~) (Oa.+ ~ (1- J3$)] stn e etn c r

"" - 0.41 (3+ 'Y _ ,, ~) sin ((IT nGal, (20.82)
(S. )<t_ '= ~
16;" si,n a( 12 -5 sinZa ) s in (JlT=o 2. l l sin ll/T llGal, (20 .83)

AI _O' (<11) "" ""3p' sin a [~ , .
2l (3 +y -"~)(3 -Je) + 2(3-<lI') ] .
Ue(0) Sln .. T
_ [0 .21 (3 -<l~) - 0.07 (<l~ - '1'_ 3)] Sjll lo>t nGal. (20,8<\)
At ¥ = j) =1 t he ampli tu de6 of these waves are, respectively ,
An, = 0, S. = - 0 .41 nGa l, AI = - 0.21 nGal.
l( the wa" ll AI is absent from such me83u~em 811 ta. we can say t hat th e E arth's
cent er of mass does not tra vel along a geodesic.
ILmust be emphasiaed that the relati vist ic tidal wave! Oil the Earth oOllsidered
ill th is seeuon will become delecta ble by ffill/lSUrements when th e present accu racy
of gravimet~i c and ttltmeter'meaeurements has increased by a lector of 50 to 100.
Asid e from the vadations,in the accelera tion 01 gravi ty at the Eu th's surlace,
the fact that tha Earth's cente r 01 maM does not tfavel along a goode"ic may be
studied by invest igating the post-N ewt(>n ian eorrecucns tc the sepe rarton between
the E arth and an art iliciel E art h satelli te.

20.11 Studying the MOUOD of tho: Earlh'l:I Genter of MR!!16 in an

Experi ment Involving an Arli ficla l Earth Satelll te
As in guvimetri<: studiell of th e l:I<:ee lerati<m o[ a test body that is at rest with re-
spect to a terre st rial laboral !)ry, a n art ilkia l E at~b 8ate.! Jite may he consid ered.
in the firs t approxima tion, 10 remain at a fixed (in time) dtete nce from the center
of mass of the pla net . Extending tbi s analogy, we can sa y th at in the case at hand
the cenreiluga l force plays the role of a coun terforce compelJS.ll ting for the Ea rth 's
gravity. Tile dtnerence here Hell in the fact that the tes t body in a grav imeter does
1I0t mo." along . ,todl"ie because a eOllot, rfOI't. of • noug rlVlt ati onal origin "Is
00 II, wbile Ill, lIlot ioll of .. drift-lree utiltc: ial Earth N lelli la e. n be d~i bed by
.. , to da if; iOll. Mor lNl" er, in gr .... imetric UperilUllts the ~'Iy lIl euun bko
qU. lIliti .. are !.he t<lm po~n ls of Ihe aeuleration , .bU, in u pl!riml nts ioyolYi o,
an H'ci. 1 Earth ..t,lIites t he meu \ , qu u t il )' is lb. Elll lb-MteUite separ aUoo.
Derintion of th , uperimentall y meuun ble qU&II litl es in t.bls c.ue generall y
. (lU o.... lb, ~ tt.rn IIUI eou.idered.
fint 1.1 WI 1I0t . lJu,t u • resuh 01 Ir.mltlTi ac 'tOm ' b, eoo rdillaLtl ..ari,bl. I
a nd r \0 th e pbyaleal vuiab l. l" .",d I tb. aeeelenlJon of th e ..t,lli...,. bee(lIn85

~ _( 1'1- ~ ) (t + T!!t- ) - 21' ~ Vi.1(V. · ')

+ 2l JJ/rt;$.....(......)+O {tD"",). (20.8:i )

Her. 'Ill' hut . 110...-0 lor lhe fad t h' t lri t h I II KeIU1lCJ'1UJ6eit nt for OUr
Vle) · ,n - 0 aIld \7.) _ Mii/l for all. ani flei.1 Earth u te lliUl Irl veling . 1001 •
pu t~

c ircular orbit of nd lllS I wilh • ulOll ily Viol (lb. re' ,reou Itame Is t btl sa me u
WI will eeed thl following eombinl lion 01 grldienu 01 ftnitltionl l polen t ia....
",h leh (;I ll eu ily be ea leulat ed il we employ Ihe llet that thl Eart h is spherically
s ymmet ric:
+ VIII + 211.'1'l1li + 3D.",",)
(n,. j ~~,.e - j' j''''''US)

- ~ (-i- mtJ.{Ill· n)· (1- " Ie -}) + .j- Il" (m. n)1(3ie"*- - 1)
+ m." (m. n) (T' - / e if- - T /e v" )

+0" (+- I~ I...}-+ /e ..})} , (20.86)

. helll Ie - Me /$ ~ p.e.r'dV b the rO'dueed fourth -order energy moment. Sub-

s t itu t ing into (20.85) t ho Upres&i cm (20.30 ) for dV1". ldt and dV8/dt and I mplo)'ing
th e t r."storma li on for mul a (20.S9) for a Nnotonian pot en ti al. we f\lld lb at tbe
satellite ac«J.,.l ion In t he geoeenuie la m ia! tef elllllCll is u p.-cl th us;
Nfl' N ..-"Col
_+lo" + ~lno-
- -p (4J -l - 3- ~) +2t.n"' (.. . n)

_3110_ (. , ·)'1

+~( -~(3 + 1 -4~+ ~o L.)

+~[ i-n& (~- 3 - .,- 3t.~ (1D•• )Ij
-"''' (m ·o) (2tI- t+f+ft. (IIl· .r -~~) ]
+21l'i1 (0. Vw ) + 2.{'l'+ 11(It"(VlJI' .-)--11"(n. VIII))}
M~ 3 Me:)'
- JiT""{I" -3IV' (I. nJ) + T ~ 1 2."( .... n) + II" - 5n"{m · n)' 1
+ O(t o-u , ). (20 87)
' 54
The pOiM- N,., l oni all. ecreeeueee, which we denole by 6·, .,. due IKIII:I)' 10 the
Earth '. l !'I v itationll fiel d pr oper. Si nce th ese UlrllUl 1111 ti me independ ent (in
• refeRDCe frame 'hit rotltel \oi'tlh er 'lII'ith th e Earth). they will be of DOinu resl
to lIS. It mU51 be emphu ilM thlt th e lel lM d iXlrded In (20.81) , lid pro port ioMI
to .cond- ' nd fourth-order momeou 01 inertia provide I cOlltri butl oo ue-.dilli
10 - 11, 001)' lor s.l.telliles ill. neu -E u th orb i U.
FonJl.uJ. (20.87) r ives the aoc.elU l lion of an artifw:ial Earth sa lellh, with re-
l!:pecl to the Earth 's Ullw of IriU!l. WbOMmoU oll i n tu r n is l plll:iJied by !Sq. (20.25) .
If we U6l/.me th et th e Earth '. eM ler of mallll travel! ,10Dg I geodeie in Ib, total
gr....i Ultiolltll field of the Suo and the Earth, then io (20.87) we Dlust introduce
th e l ube li t ut ion (20.69). lA! us DOW uleule' e the posl-Nu rt onia D co rreelio DI t o
the E.tlh·utellile IIp3rat ion.
W. auume i n the lin t approximali on th at t be Il lallit.e is mov ing along I ctr-
cular orb it 01 • constn t n dius J; the pr.lle of tb . or bit is fixed b)' the d irection
tn which th e COllSllrved (spec:iI\c) angulu moment u m L _ I X (dl fdT) poinl•. In
ihe eeecnd . pproximaUon we' have
I (I) _ l+ e ('f), L ('f) _ L +"
('f). (20.88)
Allowi ng for tbe fact th.t the foree of gravity is compeMlted for by • ccn t rifugd
bar rlft!', or tb. t
we find th.t
'" _ _ 2 L ' ll h
~+ ....._ , . + II. m, ~ - I X6, (20.90)

where tb' - .m . t ioll Irequ llCY a coinc ides . ith the or bit.1 r.".oIut ;oo freq uency
of lb. U UllIiUl, a = (MeJl")\JlI, . 1k1 6 .taod. for all pos l.--Newto nian and tida l
co rrec tiollS to the . ccelen.tion.
11 th e pro~t;ons of the .bove q llUltilies 1',,,,
accOl'dlng 10 the barmoo ic I••• or
6 · m _ A cO!!;'I: + B lIin ; '1:, (20.91)
(IJI x 6) · U L _ CWlI;'I: + D lIln ;;;'1:,
e(T)'" A- 2 lU I O COll;;;'f+
CO_ to'
B+2 IQ~l C
lIin ZT. (20.92)

The geostal loll")' orbi t i, nlon sulte ble for obller ving . ..te]Jite. l n sueh .11 orbi t
th e sa telli le appeal'll to . t. ti onary ever a point on tb e E.rth' , equ ator U an
al ti tude of . ppro:lirn. II!Jy h _ 3.6 x to" km. In Ibi s eeee, the r,d ll obser vat ion
0 1 thi sa leU;\e ia Ilot 1'1llIl rieted by the ti me of observetion. The d istaoca 10 th e
sa telliUl il determi ned from thi li me i t t.kell the pu lgel to trave l by llIulll plyinlf
thb Ume by lh , spMd. of light, .ince.... shown by B'lerl e!n , 1967, . 11 relat i. istie
effectl U!OCi at~ with dfDectloli . lId del. y 01the bu m In th e Earth' s gra \'it.tioDll
fifld un be i&'oored.
Le t tl6 liD. eoiWder th ' hu mol1ie composition of the llCfI l... p roduclll fII·" and
L· (", X n], ~illCe lhMe prod:uc:1l dete rllline the Eerth' JlteJli le llfpua tio n hl r-
moni cs to .bieh th e t.lInu ton1a ln ill&" Oe ud UII ('0) con tri bu te. Em ployinJ
(20.7 1), •• 6nd l ha t
m . n= - - 1+ r
_ - 0 COl!I (0 _1ll} T_ ~CO$
t -\\<*o (ll +ll) T,
(20 .93)
(nl X n)·lJL _ ~ {Q - ..) 'I:+ ~ lin (0 + 61)'1',
.- il h Q . W, and a df finf'd ('ulip. ""hpn we d ....."fIe'd th l' moti on 0( the E. rth's n n .
In 01 Ill.... ill rra " im elrlc pS llf'ri on.ln~
Let u, t'oll5id p, th e (0 _ .,,-ha m.Qtlie or lil" E. rt h-Nllf l1lt" H>pa ra t i op. A,tOl'd-
inl: 10 (20.8i1 and (20 .9t)-(20.U3) ~ "a ~ (' ,

"' (1) _~~

~ ~
{:i(3+,- 4H .!.!!.
3 t.,,) 0...

+ ~lil (3 + y- 4~ + ~~ (3g eo,:/,I. - 42e05(;1 + 1271) }

Xi ' + o (wln) ] e ,,~ (Q - ~'} T + lo ( T) . (20.M )
In tb o elU(! of ~I'l.du;e Illnl ion t he u pr cllI' inlO l or lhl' (0 - IlIH IU monic <I I l ~ (-I)
is oh 'af nt'd by in l. od uGi nll lh e s\lb,tll uti nu 120. 6~).
Till' It.1U d('nol.....1 in t2lU 14j u t o (t) i ~ \110 N " "' l(ln i ~ n eOlll ri bution , .. (' t t ):
11> ~/c:4'
c. (T) - t5'" ~( I + ros a }(3 cora + 14 t'll.'I a -1 3)
x I I o(... U)I n...(5:!-..) 1
_ 16A .M (Q_ .. ) t lU. (20.9.'\,
I n HT G l' ~ II I .",1 t.. -. II. wh('n"lI )' 10. 1101" IlolOll'l"OlI ""'if mot ion o r l llo t'l'l ll,.

of "'IllS n ,.. "" pMllion . "" j" rqua l 1(> n,r N""lnni. n veiue lIr t " = ' . , ......i11!
il l l... u nl, 'r oe m ~~~ Ir H,·.. I~ " I .)l~ ~ l=f'OllC'~ ir (with Ih .. :loH llhl YRh."" 01110.. I' I' N
pnralU.', .....' ,, ~ " ..
I J .., I :; , \ I ~ r(l~ {U - <01 T m.
II all" n'" ,,)1 (If "1,,11,,11\'1.1 1'' '':'''('1\.<; 1111 <II t he ,1" 1,, on l ho Enrl h-u l\!Jli ll! "..p" rnl iol1
nn I " f h h " lr' ",rh' r ," !lll i 1'''1,,1 "'rm i" d i]l(o Y.,.".t . Ilti" rart ili a)' II('. \' OII" '" l Illd i rlX~
;n oJi c" Il"" ,111,1 lh .' I":..r, h·" n''''"r " f til,,"" ,l ~ li nt 1Il0"'e Illon/i: . g_ I,.,.I" .
Th., modl'rn 11''''''] of .. ~ fM'ri mC'n l,, 1 1.'C'h niq ",:, e- V_ I, I ~ I pro" i,t"" It,,pc.
th " l t h" "" lp lHlr " ):p". i" ..."t ""~",,, I I'<I hl'l'~ " 'ill _ " be reltliled.

2O. l t E/I~c11\ ~ " kocI h the' ~ of 1\ Proelftftd

lWf~ Fr......
" thf'CM'r 01 ~r" .. il _IIoll in ",hi ..10 . 1 11'111' our " l thl' ~ r_nlol en< 0., . 0.;.. Of' 0. . i~
nOnl l'rO pn ~ prd..nwt " 'fen'" ,,e In .on•. P....,t"i" tio"" Ilr !'l'rh Ihl'<l,; ..... of /:"ltY.
it"Ii"" rotlrr n lillll rl nndn d ('111'&1" ""ill ...oi" r ;d e wil h tltr "'.",lt ~ of .. 1o,IPr" . " 08
on ly il 11,.. ,oo l" r ~r~ I('Hl ;" chesen ,," t ho pll'f",rt'd rr f. rt' ne" r'Bm• . I I" ..·....... , it ;1'
molrt' ." lll'Oll. ble 10 ".....11I1l\! ths t til . l'Olar ")',,, ,,''' , wh ich m n" ~ ....i lh I't'l'pe<: t 10
ot hur "h,llllr "}""l r tlll', i" " 0 difl"l'('lI! , from "n eh ~ Y!'I" on ~ Mhll, t herefore, Cllllllol bo
tn kl'l! lO S t he prer..r ....,l llnl\'f'r><a l r""t· fr."".. for ~ll clt I h"ori C'1l , Sinu n prt'lrr red r(l~ t
Im mEl U\\ , ~t In m illO ....l')' 1Jo di~li ng ll i ~ltll ble fro m other r eference Iromc.., i t i$
r<tll"Oll ab )tl 10 link tlti! !)'~ I c m wil h t llo ceol er of UIU! of t he C..ln y (>r eve n l ite
Iln i......Il'f. I" Ih i" ClUle the "o l. r ~)"ll "m ""ill bC' movi ng wilh rt" pecl 1<1 Ihl' prdcrnwt
rest ' rume "' il l. n " pe1:Il or . 00,, 1 10 -' c, "'h idl i~ of t he s;t nt\! order of m ~tIH lId" as
Ihe or bll a l "Jlf'fiI 01 ti" ....1• • "y"lrm wil lt l'elI~ l \ 0 II•• tenler of m ~ of th .. <:. 1·
uy. TI' ;$ cna bl"" Ih. o ~rnlioll 01 II lI\.m~r of eOeeu _ i_loo ... il ll t he mot ion
~1. li Ytl 10 Ih.. pr. r. r........... t h a,ne (_ '1 i$n..r, 1110!1"" . nd W heeler , 1lri 3), ""hl"h
llllkft, ;1 pos:<ible 10 l!':' lln late t ho: p_", mf l etll 0." Q. . . . . nd 0..,
In Iht"Ori l'll ,,,1 llr... ilal ioll wi l l• • prt:ferll.'d ~t frillre t he ~n i l . l iOOlll coo -
st l"t G. 1II. llSlIretl in "'u" ]I",, al u peri m" 'lt:s, "'ill d llpcu d 011 the E l n h ', molioll

in relation 10 am I res t ' ",me. f or the fract ional chang. AGIG we (Mime. ,
Thorne, and Wheel...., 1913)
~ "' {~+ (l. - <J, ) • .v
+ fa.., 1(•. ".)1+ 2 (.'e.) (y·e,}+ (w , ',)*I,
"'here .. is th.. Earth', orbital viloeil)' ... the "Iloeily of the Sun _ iUl respect 10
the p~erred rut frallll , an d I , the u nit nc:tor diNeI" from lite gTlrimeter to l b,
Eart h ', eeeter.
Beel llH lhe Earth fa"'U abo",! ib u is. ve-e tor I . changes it! orient a tion. wil h
Te!pecl 10 "«. ton .. ud _ , which l'1I:!uJts in . periodic vari ati oo 01 tbe !lul.r prod-
Utt! V',,, nd w-e, with . period 01 . pprox imatll ly 12 hOIln!. Th is leadll to re-
, peetive periodic varia tions in tb, value of llCcelent ioo of s r",it )', nalne]y. lor
a pDi la of obsoervati on at the ld it ude 9 we hl .. a
, ~ ::.r 3a , to--cos29 .
By llnll y~Jog t he ~lllts of gravimetric expe ri ments , Will. 1971. 198t . found
th at t il, frac lional change in , does not uceed to-B, or 1 dg I'g < 10-". T hill
yj~ld. the foll owing boun d on 0., :

10.. 1< 4 X 10-'.

T ha motl OJl of the Earth atoll Qd the Sun abo IU d5 to periodic varil tiOM I•
..... " wit h . period 01 a bout one yur. Theee "a ria t ioll5 ruuh in t he E arth be1ar
!tRtched aod eomprel!led ,.-hleb. in tum , Iud! to periodie "ariatlOlU in !.be a"ru'l r
n loclty of Ihe El rth 'a rota ll on du, to tba \'atlat ioll5 io the Earth'. Dloml'llt of
:- - 3 x to'" lo.,+{-CIt- Cit).
From tha l'ellu ll. of ohlletVll ion. il follo....s that
1a,+1- a , - a , 1< 0.02.
Thl motIon of the soll r ll)'1l lom wifh teS pKt to the uniVel'lJ6' ll center can Iu d to a ll
1lilomalouI I hilt In tb e peti h~Honll of the plan eta. For Mereut)· (Will, f981), the
add it loDll1 eonlMbuUon to the per lhelton llhift (in I lIC lmds of l te pet century) b
&P. _ _ 1230., + 92et, + 1.4 X 10' (:1.. + 63 ~ ...
Compar ison with obJ!er\·ed results aDd unifica tion 01 I II the bounds on the a '.
J'.1< 2 x 10"' , l a , I < IO"', Ja, 1< 4 x 10·' , la.I<2 X 10-1 •
In RTG a , _ a , _ a. _ 0, Ind , therefore, the d~tl bed e!feeta . re DOt present .

20. 13 El'I"~ AsIIoe" ~ wlttl ADl'JDtropy wi th Rspcct 10 lbe

Cen &er of .~ of the Galart
hi tlaa Ih!'Orics of gr..,l lItion in whieb parametH i.. ill nonl UO there elD be ao -
i.!otropy elhcu _ il tad ...itlt the I ru itat ional fiald of tlte Calaxy (Will , 1973).
If we oUlu ml th at the mati of lb , Cain, it eo_nltlted It its eeetee I t , dia-
renee /I. from the llOln ll)'ll tem, lh, "'1"ltatlonal hid renera ted by this mUll will
l ~.d to periodic •. .. ri.tionll in the readiog of a" 1l'ilb. period of 12 hours,
T'" - to. (t - "')M
-;;;:r T (e, .e,f ,
""here K, m. 1"0 rare the mome nt of inen;., Ibe mISS, and th e r. dius 01 the Earth .
respectively, e, i ' the unit v«. lor direct ed from the gnvimetu to the Ea rth ',
cen ter, and "" _ RIR .
Another elfect of this k in,1 II t he anomalous periheli on . h lft of plenets . I . hift
CluSlId by t he a nisotr opy associat ed wilh th e Galax y:
6of. -~ ~ CO!l~ ~cos~ (Ol -}.I .
where 1 and ~ are l b. . ..gular eoord in aus of tbe eeat er of the G.lny, .n.d III ie t he
perihelion 1..,1, aI • plallet in ~Iltric wordilllte!l..
Compari50n . itb the result_ or obserYationa yield. Ihe followi ng uppte' bound
on t ..:
I t .. l< 10-1 ,
I n RT G t .. -= O. and , t he~lore, el l t he . 1I«.t t, associated wiLh t he anootro py
cauud by the gra vitat ional f' eld (If the Galax y are absent.

Chapter 2t. The Pet ers-Mathews CoeHicients in RTC

All is "..ell k noWll, ill lIddiUoQ to GR other van l nla oj the th lOry 01 gnvitl tion.t
in leraet ion ~ being aeti vely dilCU3Ied in th.lll.eralo ..... Al ~t th ere ..... /"mI11l -
Iy 1...0 ",·ellue& .Ionr ...hic.ll re!lI.n::b of rnovilllt iiln then rl.. iJ belli( dOD e: 0 0'"
eu mine. the elteDt to ,,·bit.b thtl th eories obey itDera l IhlOl'et ielll requ iremanla,
nlOlely, the cnOlplel.eneu 01 • th eory lIIId iu 511!If-coDsislenGy. the eovan,nee of
Ih. bu it;; equtioos ,nd . ddit ion,l eolldi tions. , n .n.lysi s of the !IDl utioll to lbe
problem of the Ine/'fY-momentu Dl of. grn itltiona1 6eld. an d other si mila r a. peeLs.
T his work liN Olde it pou lbl e to n,~w th range of theories requirin g further
Im' esli gation a nd . at Ih e sa me time , brollght to light !.he logical contrldktioll$
in herent In tht IhlOreti ca l eeheme of GR from t he sllind po i n~ 01 phy sics, prim . ril y ,
the absence 01 conservatio n la W!! for . nd gt'a vitat ion,1 fi eld li ken tOiethe r.
Th e !eWnd .venue . nalyI es l b. u lent to wbleb t he pradlcti ollS put forward by
nrl ou! Ibeoriu If(Te6 with lb. rauh s of (fU lllltioil. 1u peri lDl.llts . nd seeksnper-
Irnenllli situ,tlons io whieb dlne ....n t t heoriell Dl~ provIde different pred k tiODl.
'fbe Interest in these aspects u s gnr<ill eonside....bly eieee experimen t.., .ehiend
post -Newton l'lI lICGuracy .nd theorists built lbt: P PN fonP .li$oI, the bulc the-
oretieal IDOl for . .. . n. l,.s is of post-N....looi .1I effects. Th_ s:t udlell hue fu r1.her
n .~..-ed tlJe ra np of viab le theories of rr.viu lio n Ih l d . im to eorrec tly de-
~i be pb),!ic. l rulity.
Al present , in con necti on wll h th e d i",ovuy of lbe bin. ry puiMr sys tem PSR
1913 + 16 . nd lba possible u ist en,e of simil ar ~s1eOlI, lba li terl lll ~ cont' ;ll!
studl.. 01 ~be Jl'IIAJblli t i/ll of employi ng the re,lllJ13 of obaerv euen of I llt h syatema
IS. new expe rimental tes t lor v.r ioos theorlCI of grl vitl lion. There . re two
rel5(lll!l why reseuc hers Ire Interested in these ayl tt lJUl , f in t , in the cue 01 I com-
p.c.t bin...,. syl tem illi I pU1!IU, there iJ the possib ility, atl t i! tiCilly I nd -
yIi ng lhe udi.tion emilled b)' t he pul!IU. 01 d.thminilli th . parl metets of th e
orbi t of elleh compollfll t in the 1 )'lt1l1D with. high 'degrn of lICCunc:y. Second . the
, h"lcteriatid Ilf bi".ry COlD plott I J!tena (Ibe eOmpoMll t m.- ~i lll rougbly
eqoll lo the SUll'1 mISS, 1111 lin of the or billl on the ord er 01 the Sli D' S rd iu"" th .
rev olution periods small , aDd th e eecent rlcuy sufficientl y gl'll aq make th ese 5y$lems
th e mort fa vora b le objec:lB for ob!lerYing 8 numb0r of flO e gravitationa l efle<:t:!.
For ODe t hing, t hlly offer !.he p~i b ;lJ ty of ind irectl y measur ing th e energ y los t
by Buell sy!tems to gr av ita ti onal waves. .
In addit ion. we ma y also expect th at direct d llted ion of gravitational WI" M
e mtt ted by binary systetna will bllCorJ\a possi ble. T hen esta blishi ng the rad iat ion
patter n and spect ral chara cte r istics of gravita tional rad iati on will fur th er broaden
e mp loyment of l1Ie results of obser vati on 01 s uch sys tems as a crucia l lest for tho
maj orit y of t hec etes of gn vita tion.
T o an. lyl ll t he IlmiSl!lv e power of compac t binary syStem ill different t heories of
gra vitat ion an d comJNlu t he results of observ ation s, Wil l, 1977, suggested using
th " following gener"l expressio n for th e energy lost by a bi nar y system to gravj-
I,ali onal wans:


where k, and k. are the P eters-Math ews coelfleients , k. the dipole radiati on coo-
licient, 111 and It! t he reduced and total masses of l!l.e syst em, R tha separa tion ba-
tw een the compc nents. u a nd R" rPIR t ha total and rad ia l relative velocities of the
cc rnponenta. and I'l, and Q. are deft.ned. as usual, via (20.24).
III such an approach, to each theory of gravita tion there corres ponds a delinite
sat of valUe!! of eoeme ieol.$ k" k • . and k d th at character ites the lh eory In tb e weak
graVitational wave approxi mat ion te tha aame ed ent as the set of post.--Newt onia n
parameters characterizes lhe P.OSt- Newtoni an limit of this theory . 8y comparing
the valu ll! in thi s sat wit h th a values found in experone nts it will be possi ble to
.esta nlb h a correspondenca between the pred let ton of each theory Qf grav ita Uon
a nd tha resuJl.$ of observa tion .

'fenerall y, not a positive qu a nt ity : lor k, < k . Or kd < °

As (21.1) imp HeIJ, the ene'llY lOIl t by a bina ry $ystem to gnvi ta tional waves is,
t he rlg ht-hend s ide of
(21.1) may b8Come negati ve f9r soma binllr~' s yste ma. Hence, in theor i8!l of grav-
ihlion in whkh k, <k. Of kd <0 there may be an emiSS ion 01 gnv itaUo na l
wa ves c arrying negat ive enargy. which ia physica lly mean ingless. He nce. such
theori es mus t be exc luded.
Arter the values of the w elfwient.'l k, . k~, and kd are found from th~ results 01
observa tion of binary systems 01 the PSR 1913+ 16 ty pe. the ~tr;cti oll3 impo$ed
on th eories of grav itation become more rlgurolU. Let IU find t he va lua of these
eeefficteuts fer RT G. To th is en d we conaider the caw or two neutron stars movi ng
alo ng a n orbit in the grav ita lionallia ld geoera ted by tn- Slara. We wiah t o ca l-
culate the anergy loat by such e sy$tem to grav ita tiona l waVe3. In accordance with
the modal commonly used III eueh eeses, we /I.'lS om.e thal both stars are spheri ca lly
!lYmmalrie and static. In add ltion , we assume th at the grav it at ionallie lds gener-
a ted by the311 sLars heve a s\rength that enables U$ to use the post-New toni a n
formalism in de t.ermining th e, mot iQna in the syste m. Since in com pact binar y
syatema the value of th e g rniLatio nal self-pote nt ial at the aurface of an objoot,
V"'f' fa COlI$ide rably higher t.h an the pote nt inl of grav itational interact ion, U,."
wa will assume that 0::::< U.. or ::::< e and l/,u ::::< eO. T hia meana thet the ratio or
th e cha eecterts tic d imension L or each $lar to t he separation R bat ween th em
mu s t coincide, in order of mai:nitude, with e, or LfR _ e.
The comp<lIlellt! (15.M) of the gra vitational field call cou"en iently be wriUe " a$

where ' is ,1>0 distan ce from th. center 01 mOl 01 the binary .ystem lu tl'e o~­
" . t lon point.,
q=r-+b1. r+n..n,T"" , n- - X'"/ 1Xi. (21.<1)
Let tit r,nd tl.e post-Ne-. l.Oniu Up" RSion 01 , . If lor the energJ'· mo meo.t ulD ten -
$01" ' " n pa nsioll (19. 16), ..-e get
q- p[ I + +u"+n + U + pl p+ 2n,.u"' + (n ,p")"+ O (r) l (21..!J)
Since (21.3) conta ins lhe N In de<! va lue of (21.5), we mWit. aUo"fing for the GIl l-
mil"" II ~ e, u p.nd 1,1,., in the j' elghborliQod 01 the rel arded time t' _ I _ r:
[,I ... = q (I') - +
i,(") n.X· + 'q (f) (n.X ' )I + pO (e"),
where X' is t he r. rlill ' veelo r 01 the point s of the obJecl.S in t he reference Ireme eon-
neeted wilh tho cente r o f ma!lll of the binary Iy.tem . From (21.5) ud (19.19) It
foll ow! l ha t

1'1 ),•• - p[i + + vI +n+u + pip +2n,p"'+ (Il.,.d')" + 2n,X' ",.,rU]

+ 1l... :Cif, ~) +i-(n..X")" ifaiJ. <Pv-c.*)
-+ (....x")· 8. 1- Pi'U + alIpl + ;".n.X·cJ. CPu-v")
- 2n.x'n.8"p + Po (a') . (21.6)
Su bstil" tl ng th is int o (2.1.3), in t.e&n tina lbe lll5ult. a nd a llo wing I.,., th . rat;t
t h. t for SUllie Jlpheriea lly symme tr ic objee l.l
P U1 - "j" ~Il ' """
' ''(1)"'""3 ,...IIQ(jl ,

in relM ivll Vl r ia h l~ (_ Denlsov . Qd Loguuev, t082d) we obt.l in

E"~ _m[ t + i M,f1'1iM,Q, ] R'"R~

X(, + (I - ~ ) '; + M'jjM , ",'+ (I- ::; Hi-)

+ m( t _ *} II"''''' {nJl~)S
+m M l :;/' , n,.R~{ ....R'+ ""R")+",RtO (r) . (21.1)

where III - /of, + M s . lId '"_ - IoI,MJ

M /i1. Usine lh. N• ..,lou il n int'S ral or IlIlIlfl Y
T - /f -E "", eoJlll t + O(r ) (2t.8)
an d i ntrod uc i ng t he not. llOll

.... un eoannlently write (21.7) in th e fona
...- ; .... (1 + (,- ~ )-i-+ M'lt' ....l
+111 M'ii M, ..Jt· (... R'+ "'~1
+111 (t - ~ ) ~(....,R")a+ ", HtO(el) . (2UO)

To est. bllsh the componeots of th. gTu lLat ion.1 lIeold, we n nd \.be IMlCOnd time
de:rl\·.tl". of (21.10) .Dd •• Uowi og for th. post-N.wtonln Ilqll.tioRi 01 mot ioo.
SIIbatitut. thi . denv.tiv. Into (2t. 2). A5 • ruuh we

~ (p"~_ + POO'P ..]

41..... _

x { 2u"~ [1+ (2 - ';') 4:-- _2 (I-..;.)

+ (I _ ~ ) (11.11'")"+ M' A/' ....""]
* (n,.R~f

+~(R''''' +R''''l [( 3- t: ) R.~ - 4 ( I _~) R,,'-""IIf,'"

S(.II,,- N.J n.R" -3 (t _ ~ ) (n.,.R")' III]

+~ r ( .. ). ( •) ( .. )......
- 2+ 3 2 + 7 71 - - y. -
4 +'11" &>"+6 1 - 7

+z(t - ~) JI {-;,1P'~ S tll,;;JI.J 1I-'Z.~ ]} +O (~l. (21.11)

To d.termine the .,..f6eienu "" "., .nd A;. in RTe .... m....t reta iJl in (2t. U)
OAI)' term . of the order of 1II."' ro
~- - ':" [p:~ -+poep",){l1'u"- ,II:;~ +O(c') }.
Find log u.. seco nd ti me ded,"t lv, of this expression ud S\lbst iLutloll lhe dorh-
ativ. IMo (15.53), we . rrive .t the followi ng u preulon for theln l.enaity of en.1l[Y
em iss lOll In the form of gr. v1u.tlon.l waves by • eo m pae ~ bi nary syst.em ill RT G:
dir - .... .1/. { ,
>OR' lPR'-.RI(nyll·)I-~uI (n..R ' l"+" (n.v·)I (II. R •)'
- ~ (Hy&>"'I "-6R.,u· n.,II'R _,...+ * R.,u· V (R..n-l"

+-Jr- ( R.,u")"( R_II"f + ~ . (R ",,')" ( R..,..")' }.

lou p t lll& witb ru~et to th. IOlid '1lI1e100 .1I0wina for
~ tIO"",..t_ - ; .. .,..•.

~ <Qn-......... _"* 1.,..a,... + ."..·.... + .,....".I. (21.t2)

~ daft..,.lI,,· _O.
we get the follo wing 'J: pression for the eoergy lo:st (per uni t t im. ) in • compact
binary system to the emission 01 ..... vitlti onal wtIYea;
a 8 . -/11'
-T =I'f ~ll2£,:Rl -t l (R,P")*]. (2t .13)
Compvilli (2t.1 ) wi th (21.13), we obtain ok , _ 12, k _ 11. and kd _ O. Th IlS,
theee can be no dipole gU 'l'it.fl tiool l wn e in RTC• • tb. PI ~-!l(aLheWl coeffi-
cients «In be found from tbe result. of observation of the double pulsar syslf m
PSH 1913+16.
A fioeI rem. rk te in order. If in OR w.
assume tb.l l~ sIHlCoe-time eoordinate!
are C.rltsi. n (which ts impossible in principle beuua 1\0 glObal Cu l.e$i ' D eeer-
di n. 1.eS CI II be introd uced in I Riemannian geomlll,ry), for the case of • weak gr."- lon. 1 field we obtatn formula (21.t 3). This is n plailltd by the fact th. ~ if
we u s om. th e epeee-tlme variable. in ento be Cart.e5I,n , the energy-momentum
peeudotensor is equal to the gravit ati onal. field energy-momentum tensor in RT G
In Ga lilean ccordfnates. However, in oth er genenll y I dmlssible coordinate sys-
Lenu ~hi 5 is not so, with th e result th at form ula (21.t 3) for th e energy loss does not ,
genen Jly . pe.xing, ' 011 0... (ro m GR. And, in general, whi t form ula for rl dll tion
een there be in GR if lIlllection of lhe proper nfere~(e Irame is able to dllStroy the
gravitational field ? Whal we are dealing ...ith here is one of the most profound and
bu il: delua;ons in thenretiu l ph)'Siee. Apparen tly, t his is beeause doglDa ti' Q:I a nd
faith peneln ted GR !lO deeply aod too k $11M Rrm root that EiMtllin' s ideas re-
ceived no uitiu.1 analy sis or IIeoMeIry c.reati ve theoretieal develop ment for a Vet,
lnlli ti me. It will take considerab l.lime before this dogmati lm passes into history .
Appe ndix I

Hero we detnQltstnlO l bat l hli R icmann-Chrillollel cur U l urt t CllllOl' R:'.,..

l he
R icci tensor R",. , and th e tea l., cur u tU11l R . ,... form · inurit nt und.r Ih. 8. -
D,. t n Mforrnat loll, whe.. D . Is lb e optrator 01 coYar ia nt di llerenl ial iOll wit h
l1'lIpet't l8 tbe mclr !oe 01 the Mlnko....s ki space-li ", a. We abo u pn!:!Il R",. an d It
i n lC'rftlll or ;-. a ud r i... olh., IlRful uPftSions used iA th t lA. i n tn t.
TIte defoniti on of the Riemann-CIulslolfe l curvatu re t eMOl' is
R"_ . _a. r".. _ iJ.r"..,. + 1"",,.11, - 1".,.(1.. (A t .t)

wlol!<e t he eeneeeuen coeiflc ienl.$ ~. are exp ressed in t orma of t he metete ten sor
I .. . in Ihe follow ing m ' l me~:
r:..=7,r' (oJ " + iJ. If~", - o,r..,.)· (A1.2)

Ac.c.ordi nr 10 R, 'C. t he y.,iables ~ on ...hlclo I •• , ""'. , 0,. And ot her q u uli t it's
depend art curvili near coordinates in t1~ Mlnkowski s p:oc:e-l imt, Hence, cOlAbi" i lli
a,.I,. _ D . I , . + ,-:",,,, +.,:.,,, (A t.3)
wil b (AI.2) and P"formiOif I'f'llll vely l in,ple u lcullliioua )'ields
~. = c"_ +V:'. , (A lA)

where the connecti on c.oe[Jjeienti V:',. can be expressed in lOrlDs of ure lDetrie
tenser of Ihe Minkowski I pae. ·t ime, V",.: t hul :

.,. . -+.,..(0. '1'''' + 8,.." .. -8,,,••), (A I..:;)

(AI. 6)

Note Iha' IIIe d'.. «l ll5l it ule a Iltird-n nk UnlIOr ..ilh .... pec.l 10 p nen. 1 ecce -
d i"ate traosrorlDllio ns.
II (Al A) is l ubsl lt nl«l ;"lo (Ai .I ). we , et
R~•• - 8~c:.. - a.c:., + G~.d,', -G~A. + .,t"c'.,. +.,:".d,'p
- y~.d... - .,~ .c:~ + a,"~n - a~ y~ , + Y~nY~.- i'~vi':. ·
Th e IRst rOlif ttrms in t his u prusion eonuitula the eurva t ure lcllllOl " I alit space
. "d, hence, Ire Idenli el Uy eere . so th t ....e pi
R:"'p_ apc:.. - a.c:. p+ G~C:. - d• ..c:,. +":.,G~ +l~~c"~
- l~.d.p - l~/a' (AI.7)
A, noted . ar li"" IIl.~. coostit.ute a 1.0!lOr, in vi. ... of ...hleh for ilpc:.. we h lv,
op'_ - D,.c'_ -l~"'. + 'l'~" + ,:..c~",. (AlA)
Suhs ti tulion 01 (Al .8) Into (AU)
R" Dpct_ - D.c:.p + G:....~p -G~•. (AI.9)

W e "" ~hll the JH~m.n.o-Chri"offel cu ...... tUl1! lellsor does 101 c/tInge undlll' the
ap- D p tnuf ormtti nQ or, in olh er wonI" ~.p i.e for m-ioYariant WIde!" sueh
tr~onn'liOD .
lAnlnle tinl (AI. 9) (In th e inditeS Ie aDd p yields th e Rieci teasoe
R... - D"G:" - D.~ + d-G1p - d.,cr.. (A1. 10)
S imilarl y . contraet ion of the Ri ec:i I.eMDI" .,.i!h th~ _lIie te MOl' , . . yields lhe
follo willl u preahm fnr the _ lI r c;u..... at.u.l1! R:
R _ , -R.... - , - (D"c:.. - D.G:'p) +,... (G',..Gfp - G'."Gf,J. (AL it)
Compl rini (AI. IO) .nd (At. l l) ...ith th e su ndard U preMillnl rOt the Ricci tensce.
R ...._ tlpr:.. - o.r:.p+ r~.rrp - r'",pl'f. ,
and rhe !IeI1, r eurn ture,
R _ , .... R... _,. . (apr:.. -nor :.r ) +r"'. (f"...rrp- r;"pl1'n),
we S\l\I that these qu antit ies Bt l [or m-lnn d a nt u nder the 0. _ D. tr anslor-
ml tion .
Le I l iS now (lst.blbh . 0 impor tr.nt rtl1lliin nship bet ween tile co"a ri aut de elv-
alive. D.A'::;::. a nd V"A =,· ·:.., wllere V• • u ncb lor the opera tor 01 eovlril nt
dUletenti ttion witll "",peet to metri e I", •. By delinitioo ,
V. A ~ :: . _0.A.::'·::.+ ~,A ~ : : . + I'".. A~ : : . +...
- r~pA~·::. - r'_A :;J:::- .. .
R.p1acinl the r:.. wi lh (At A ) , we get
V"A::'·::.'"" o.A::'·::. + ,:,A::;::. + ,~ A~ : :. +...
- ":'~::':. : - ,:"A:1:: :- " _
+C:I A~ :: . +c;:,A~::. + ..
- G'..rt:::::- c?...A.:J::: - .
Combini,,&, lb.i' with the defillit ioD of a covariant derivati vll D . A ~:. , '11! II'
V"A::':::._ D.A~: :. +C:1A=";::. +G"'",A~'; : :_ + ..
- do...,..1", · _ C·_
A . . ..... "'u.
A~ " _ ... . (AI.I 2)
If we rec. 1l th .t V. ,.. ... 0 , !.ben (AI .t.2) y ielcb lb.. follo. illl well-known for·
mula :
Let U!I
g'''" - r _ g (" n ,
- .
now expreae (A1.tO) lind (A1. It ) in term s of Lb e tenso r densities
- , .. " - l~ 1m. " ( AL t 3~

First. bowevee, we will der ive a num ber of e :< p reslIiollll for the dellsititll 01 the
met ric te nsors of the effecti ve Riem ann s pace-t ime, or (Al.t3). Obv iotlsly,
; "'''; . _= 6::'. (ALl4)
(A t.l5a}
(Al . 14) yields

D" (g....·gd),... a.. (i-'g.. ~ J+ Y;ii H'; .. ~ - ,.~g""i..,

... a,i""g,,_ +g-"a;.. ~ ... o. (A I. ISb)
Consider the formul a a;g..•... 8 (V=:f ,.."). W" write it
p in the for m

8,' ··.' ,(V-,( ~ r:)]

- (a" V =-v) (Vgr,;,..")+ V -=Yap(V gf,!r"'"). ( At .16)
But a, v=1 = V=V ";_ and ,· in view 01 t he fact l bst V=.,"/(=.,')(("" is 8
t BIl.IIQr ,
8 (v=; "' )~D (yV -v
- , ,••)_ V=; ",,'" _ V=; " , "
p 1"4 p V- 1 " v::.v ""
(AU 6) yields
a;g...,, _D; .... _y~ g. n _y~r + l':.i"'n . (AU 7)
Reasoning along !l milar !in\!!!, we CII II s how that

0';",,, - D.~m ..+ ,.~gh + ~..g ~ ..- y>".g",", (AU 8)

Substilutiog {AI.t 7} a nd (AUS) Into (A1.t5b) y ield&
D p(?'"id) ~ Dp"'";d +i.." jjp;~. = 0. (AI. 19)
We wri te (AL 17) in t he form

D,i"· =ilpy-::::g s'" + V -gop8"'''+ V - 1(,,/;''''' + ,,/;:"g" . - ,,/:"g"'.). ( A l. l1~ )

OJmbi ning upV- g ... v=C 1""... wilh (AL4 ) lind (At.1 7aj yields
Dpg,,·_ 11 -g G"...g'"" + 1I=K(il,.(""+ c""r;:. +c......r;.)
- V-=; (gA"G:'. + g"' ·G~). (A t .17b)
O n th e ba sis of (AL 2) lind (At.G ) comb ined wi t h (A1.I5b) a nd (AU 9) we ca n

easily demonst rate th at
(Ai .20)

(AU t )
H eoc.e, (AI,l 11l) yie lds
D;-" _ )I=-i( D~" +d,..,-). (At.22)

SillliJ. r1y , ue rti ng with (Al.t 8), we eao . bow t bat
- I ......
D"g ",. = --;r=- (D~ ..." - 1IP-1..,,)' (A 1.23)

Let us u p~ c:...
in terms of i •..
To tbis end we 'alet D " •• from (A1.23)
alld aubsti t.ul.e i t into (A I.6). Th e JNoh il
..... :;<0. 1 . / I • • "" 1- - ...
'-- - "'- + 2 6;,G",+ 2" ......ool- T s.."'"too . (A1.1A)

G~. - i- ?' (D,: i, . + D:i p"' - D';..,,). (AI.25 )

Cont n etion 01 (At .240) on Ind ices Jc end n yiel d.

C" G". .. (AI.26)

.... heN
( A 1.28)

Substi tutin, (AI. 27) inl o (Al .I O), we errl ve . I the followinl' u prasion for Ihto
Ri« i 1.8D5Of:
R _ ~ D;;:... +i- D,<i....,.~,I- G:..Gr.. + .}Gt- a:.
- T
1-II .,.-o.
--,- 1--:;:;1-
~c:.. - T , •• r"'II.,G{.. (AI. 29)

]f .... co mbine thi' 1¥il h the RT G equa ti on

D; "" _O, (AI. 30)
we obtai n
~J 1- - - - 1- - -,
R..._ _ T I"'D, (DJ •• + D. ... ..._ D" ...) +T I"" D... <I...Gl,)

-~-Gr.. +-t Gt-P_-i-i,.f-G'.,Gl, - { ;"'I;-G'",Gr... (AL31)

.HICG u d in wha t 10110"'' ' lb e symbol (0) abo... t he Ricci t.eMor a nd a oo" , R "i,-
Il i ~s th lll Eq . (AI.3O) h u been ta ken illto aceoUD t.
Let us now go on from q uantitiu wit h thG t ilde mark 10 qua nt ities wit hout that
mark in (AI.3 t ). Comb ini n, (AI. 23), (,\ 1.24), and (At. 26) wiLh (Ai. SI) , we ,et
Itl I
R..... _ T ,.. D. (DJh + D.l~ . - DJ • • - C'. ., .. - G',.J~"J
Contf1lCtiGll of (A1.32) wilh ,". yie lds
l~ 101 t
R= ,-R... - ,M,..·D, (D..t h - T D_r_-c:..r•• )
+,- (C:~_-C'..,.c".. ). (AU3)
If w,' _ Eqs. (A1.3) llnd (A1.4) . ,Id perfu m l unll i" t non.sfur nllll ions, we
u n wrl lt. (A1.32) • •ld (A I .3.'l) . , folltlWll:
H,. • .- 1"" r'* Ill. (dJ A. + d.r. .. _ 0. 1.. . - f""-.l"h - r:..,•.J1+ r:•.rr....- T:rr:..
- {K'" [G~rl';'T'• • -+ '.rY;"I'~ -+ '.r\'~rt. .] } .
,..R "" , "' , '" [8. ( 8",g... - T, i}~g•• -r""lg~. ) ] +1."". (r: pf"l....-
(A1.;{4) ~)
_ {.I.'r".I.'. " r g.l y~ ~.. N-gn' y:.. I~J} . (Al.:l;,)
Th ~l'l' Ionuules sho w thllt if ; 1I \h /l u pressio lls for 111/1 l\icd tenlM,r ..." ,1 ~h .... ~ ... llI.r
<. 1 , 0)
c" rvnl ilfl' R we a llow lOr t he R'f G eq lla ~i oll (AI. 3O), H .... " ml c.t 1lll8 \.0 lJI' lorm '
i l1 v . ri' ll ~ under D... _ a..
t,. rlSfor nl... ~i OIl" .si roee Ille n pA'1lS iolls ifl!lidl' Ihe brACes
in (.\ 1.34) . ud (A1. 3:) . /'4I 1101 idt'llt iully UfO.
Thns, we _ Jba\ . 1l...willJ fOO" Eq . (8..37) i n Eq~. (8.3G) m. ke Ihe latll'r Ill'-
pc" d"blll on the melr it It nlOr of Ille !\.IiokoW$ki l!p.Cf'-t iml' f'J;pliei lly.
V.riou ll q llt:!l, iotlS w nUfllt'l1 wil li ltT G require ... inr d i R~Dt lorn .., of Ihe
lI ieei U~ R ... "nd the .111.,
r urv lwre R. A stllrtlni poln l for obtllillh.g the
dill"erelll forn" of R•• • ud H I. l ilt. Riema nn -Crisw",l tllry. """, I<! I..... ill for m
(A 1.9). S lna'

D~. _ D.c:.. - 1-- D.,- (Daf•• + D. K... - D.,t•• )

- T /).t". (DJ.. + D",... - D~I .., )
+:r t"'(DpDJ.•• -D"D.,I:",~ -D.D.., .. + D. D~Ii .. ,)_ (Al .36)

Iur R'",np" li l. II:'. ,. w, have, ill yi~_ .... or (A U ;), (AU!) . and (A 1.36). th o fol-
Io.... ing:
Hlou l' ''' T (D,D..CI. - D,D,Ii... - D.D..GI'I+ D~ DI'''''')
- D,.g.~c:. . + D.Klfc:.~ + 110 (c:..(,~~ - c:.,l.-:"), (A1.31)
whe re ....., b.,oe allewed I" r t ho for mu la

.....hie-II un filSil y bt. ob uintd from Lile condi t iOIl ~ltI _ li~ c:ombi ned
(AU 5I) ..lei (A1.3).
Di recl ly lu hslitutinr (A I .6) ""f u n show Ih.\
- D,K.A.+I,~c:..(,~. - - ,_.,c:.~ .
(A 1.39)
D. I"Gto- g"c:.,c".. ~ ,_~c:...c:l '
App".dfz 1
wh enee
R f "u 1> - T (D"D",gl~ - DJ'Df''''~ - D"D...g"r + D~ Dlg,~,, )
- "1 (~nC:l - ~. ~(). (Al. t,O)
Co nv ol uUo n of (A1. lo0) with te usee s" brings U5 to Lhe following formu la for Lhe
Ri cci tensor:
R ... -. , IP R I ... P =+i " (DpO",g,. - DpD"m . - D~O",g!" + 0.0,1",,,)
- g'l'g'9 (~~G;I-c:.,.G~, ) , (A t At )
W e in trod uce

whieh is aeontrava ria llt vo<:tor. If we ta ke tnto account (A1.38), we can rep rcscn t
(At A2) in th e form
G' "" - ( D~(" Gl,('~ ), + (AI A ~)

Compari ng this with (AI.22), wI) get
(;; = _ ~ / I D~?'l. (AU4)

Note that i! ;:-1

sati~6es the RTG equat ion (8.37), than G" -. O.
Comb ining (AL43) wtt h (AI.38), we call easil y arrive a t jhe following ex pres-
s ion for th e covar ian t veeto r G,,:
Gp _ 61>9(;9= s"·O.IM- G~. (A1.45)
La ter we will need the equation
gMD.lpq _ D n In (- g). (.4.1. 46)
Let u ", prove it.s valid ity . S inee (Sell (A1.4) and (AI. 6))
a...' ... T~-'~ D.I'l "" r'... - y..., ,

th e well-k nown
we obtain
repreIllHl La t ioIlll~. -. 1- an In ( - g) and v:.."" + x

' ''D.61. ... 2~

""'["g ' , In-=v.
( - ' ) ( AL " )

Sin ce In (-g/(-y) is a sealer, a~ on th e right-h and side of (A1.48) ca n be re-

placed with D n • and s ince D n tn (-V) _ 0 , lor m),lla (AI A8) y ields (At.46). Thus.
in vie w of (Al .48) , we have th e followin g repeesen tauon:

G"ftlo "" + D~ JIl ( - g). (AU9)

Note tbet O ~ In (-g) is 8 eovuian t vector.

Act ing with O m 011 (At .46), we get
gP<lD..D~,p. = 0",0,,111 ( - g) - D",r'D. g~ •. (A l. SO)
Nol.e th al steee D• • 1Id D. romlll.uta, (AI.~l i mpl i.
D.zI4D. , ,. -D. t"DJ,.,. (Al.51)
W. could have . rr ived . t the !llllII.e l't!!Iult II (A1.38) wu ulltd as the sl.Uti ng
equat ion, since tb. laUe< cln be wriU. n In some",h.t dilf.rfl nt forD'll:
D,'.I _ - '~.IJ.IDpK"· (A I .SZ.)
0,,·' ~ _,-.,.ID.".. (AI. 52b)
Subsli tuti lle (.-\t ."9) Into jAlAS) .1Id I. ki ne the co....ri . nt derl Vlt i..e .....Ith repect
to T . " -e obta io

DI~O~,,.. .. +Dl,,' (O~l" + D., ,~)

_ DI ,.~ ( , ~ ,G'q + + Dpg't ) .
...... un re",. ito (AI.53) u
- ~' 01 0~1" _ D,t"'" , G" +
+ 0 1('" 0 ",•• -D,G,,-+ DID" In ( - I ). (AI.M)

All owini for (A1.5O) . nd (Al .54). "'. ret

+ t" (O,oJI . - D.OJ,,+ D.D" .., )

_TlD..C" + D. G..l- TCi" ( D..g" ,~,+ D",''',..,). (A1.55)

Lilt us defi ne the covlr lln t !IllCond-rank tenaor C,." thus:

G... _ + l D"C. + D~G ..) -G'_ G l' (A1.56)

Th en, co ...bininr (A I.55) 'lId (At .58) wit h (AI .4 I). ".• obtain for R_ Ihe
foll O" 'ing form" l. :
R... _ -i ,"O,.D,,_ -+C',"..(OJ" , .. + D~i"~",l
+G_ +r ",•./f.,p..,. (Al .5i)
w. see th .t on lhe righ ~hl nd aide 01 (AI.5'l ) only the first Ilrm cont.l,.. • co-
v.rlln t second-or der der iu t iva 01 g.. ~ . nd t ba t III tertll! of D" t his ter m I'll.!! t he
ateucture 0111'1, d'A lembe rti .n cp era toe. Th, other ter m! cOIlt,aio only covar i.oL
[1I·:it· order deri v.tlve! of Lhe Illelde teosor of tile Riemal.n s pece-ti me.
L' t us now e mploy c:..
tc iny oo uee othe r te ntOr qUl ntHie$:

G p• • • ~ I""c:.~ - +<
0..1••+ D." ..- D.,....). (AI.58)

~ _ ,..·,.,.C" .. .
c'.u _ ,....,....d_ _,-,,,,,r"G,...,..
(At .6O)
Combi llio, (A1.60) . it b (At.52b), 'We ee n eully obuiD the foUowu., repre·
&enUtioD for Cl,kf:
C' ,I, _ +(" ' 0,.,-' _"" 0",," - "- 0.,'1), (A t ,6 1)
Wo defioe th e co vllrle nl seeo nd-rec k ten.'lOt A ",~ t hus:
A.. ~ _ ,...," (O" ..,O.Id - C" ... c.,.,). (AI.62)
If we now a llo. for the formul.e.
D." .. _ G,.• • + G. " . , (AL63)
....hich ca n e..ily be dtrived ~lD (A1.58) , . . fiod tha t
A..._ f"'r" (G,...,G...... + G..,"0,,••). (AI. 64)
If we employ (AI.59) lind perform etlrta ; n lunllforma tion" A .. . ce n btl writte n
In /I somewha t. differe nt form :

A... - f G~IO,.." ,.+ + C:D.,," +~G•.,. . (A I.651

00 Ihe baii, of (AI.52 b) a nd tA l-59) we u n easily e.sta blish th at
c:: DJ r, - - DJ" G•. ,1'
T hen (A 1.65) yields
A",. _ -+ DJ"G •. ' , - -} D. t/'''G... ,. +G:'-G•. , I ' (A I.66)
Equ a t ing (A t.62\ with (A l.G6), we wet
K",'"D,., ..,O.,tU. _ G~.'G •.". - - ~ 0"., ''''0. , N- + O~~IC...."
+l"'C"...cI ,~" (AI.&7)
If w.
a llow for
for R", . :
Ih~ identity in (A1.51), we uti.,. , t the foll owing re ~ n Leli o n

R...~ _ -+ r'D,O,r",. +G...+,"r "O,.,.. ,O.I"" - G~"G. , I. ' (AI. 63)

.... inding lh e cova rIant deriv eli v, of (AI.38) an d performing IlIleli v, ly si mple
tr, n,fOrJ:lI /1 l le n" we ,el
I.. I' "O, O,t:'" - - D,.D" +,...(0" ,.0,.,• • + D" ..,.o,.,,,,.), (AI.69)
where by for R... ..... b.... a ll . I a lh' e reprewn ta tion :
R..~ _ -} , ..." .1"0,.D,t'" + G_ -(;'.: 0 . ,1 , _ ( At,10}
I h ; ~ing tho ; n d ic~ i n th i, rormul a yield.! th o followi ng upl'eSlllion for \.he ce n-
t ra v.r i e n ~ Rice; tt>neor :
R..• ... +gl ' O"D,g"~+G"'ft_G .. ,>.qG:', (Al ,71)

." 1I_' 1..l1
'" No w IIlL lIS ...nUl lb. su l u corvd UN ill dlllet'eDt ' Gl'm l . B y dlllini t ioo , R _
f.,,~. to u. at (At.7t) implies

R-+"'Il..nDpDI""'+ G -G~or., (AU S)

where G I l anda for \.he convo lu tio n
G_ ,_C-"_D.C" + G'..c-.

Tald ol In\O ar.c:o\lllt (At.44) and (AU i9). .... pt

G_ _
, -, ..D. "- · .
~ D (A1.75)

II we wrne (Al.46) In !.he !orlll

opentor D a , ..... lflI L
-' ,.0.. ," _
D .ln (- g) a nd ac t 00 it wfth

,,:.D. D~ - - D. D. IIl ( - t ) -DJ "D. t" .

SllhJtltnthl, thl. ioto (AL ? 3). _-e .rrlYe , t th, foll o..illl UpnI!ISlon for R :
R_ _{-,I'O,D" III ( -,) - +r'Dr,,,,D,.¥'V+G -~c:.. (AI .76)
It tan be proved that the loll owlol Identity holdt lr nll:

- + t"D" ".D~t- ~r. _ -+ D""'G".

.....leh dIu ~b!l\llu tiOll hllo (At.76) ),ields

R_ -i-r"D,D"ln (-I>+G-i- O"""c:',. (AU7)

Add ln, and sub tracting (1/2) G"'D. In (- g) on the right -hand sid e of (A1.77)
and in lr oducing the notat ion
K _ -+ O..gA'C:, --t<7D, ln( -tl. (At.78)

w.n p'-lll (A t. n ) ill the form

R_ - 0 (111 Y - , l+ G+ K, (11.1.19)
whel'1l Q i.$ the poerllli ud d ' Alembl!rt i. n epeeeter.
O _ , "" D..DR_ G"D R_
, - , D.. IV -
.t , ,,""O,,!. (Al.SO)

hi' eas y to . how lh at (Ai .78) un ba wri n eD in the for m

f( - r (O'.,G': '- G'_G".,.). (AUt)
Compu i nr !h ill u pJ'lllIllion with the RTC Lagrarqlan (8.2fl), we lind that
L1 "" - ""il;t - , K. (11. 1.82)

I n «/Delusloll we note tha t . lne4I D.,"

"anishes ill RT C , we ha"e 0, G_
a- ... 0, and G... _ 0, . nd for th. R icci \elllOr au d sel lar en"'a hu"e we hloT'
App .ndi z 1
in th is ease the following representatio-u:
(~) t ......
R... - 1' 1.._I .;t'PDpD1f"' - "'C•. _" (,

lll".n _+ fIPDpD,g"'" -G'", ""C:., (AI .54)

w_- 0 (lny' -1) ,+K, (Al.85)

On ~he been of (At .M) a nd (At.85) we can easily derive an u plieit expression
for ure Hilbe rt tenser:

~:"·_ {g.."W_ t I IPD,.Dlg""- G" ,*'c:, + i s'" 0 (In V -g}-ti'""K.

Note thet \bll tenscra (AI.83HAI.86) depend e!Sllntiall>' 011 ~hll metric tenser
of the Mlnkowski apace-time. Tbey assume an 8l!pecially si mple form if Galilean
coordinates are used in th e Minknwaki space·time,

Appendix 2
The poo ~ulated syst em of equations (8,3) for th8 gravitationa l field is 1I0~ a corol-
lary of th e pri nciple of least act ion. Being uni versal, therefore, ~hesa equatl ons
muet be taken as ~addi lionR ln condit ions in t he principle ofleaet ecucn. In ctbe e
words, the varia tion of act ion

e ver the fields ib"'· or, in view of (8.1). over the it""
must be carried out on a
manifold defined by the sylltem of lJ\luations (8.3), O",f"' n = o.
It is well k nown tbat such a varietio nal problem is eclved by Lagrange's method
of multi pliers, A s tan dard approach here is to add a tenn 11..0.(0. to th8 La-
grang ian L in the integrand of (A2.1), whim! the 11.. are Lagrange's multi pliers,
and to apply th e pr inciple of least ecuen to th e integTal


Since var iati on of (A2.2) means ~h at we must vary the 11.. and th e components 01
the tensa r deDsity B"· indepeudentl y, we flnd th at
" -"2,
-sr-: (D"'1.. + D..." . ) = 0, (A2.3)

0;;''''" _0. (A2A)

Fur ther !lnalysis will be carri ed out using th e eu mple of ~b e Lagrangian L =

L. +LM, where La is given by (8.22) and IJ)I is she matter lAgrangian. 1f for
1. 11",D.i"'· we calcu lata the tot.a.1 energy-moment um tenser /"'" using for-
llIuls (6.17), we get
1- + D_((i'~ +
"'" J • • ?-.,..,-
+2 \f4( V-'.,....- {.,-.,...)[ ~, -} Dl'bo - t D_TJl].
Ws _ !JIs t if Eq. (A2.3) held. tlVe, then
~ _J-+ D~ I'll (ff'+ -;',,· ' - i-r'')I. (A2.5)
In addition to Eqs. (A2.3) and (1\2.4). thfl followiDg mslter equaliou lO urt bo ld
tr....: D. t· · .,. O. Combininl (1\2.5) .ilb (1\2.4). ...... find l.hst
?·D.D_T\· ~ O,
whi ch impli es lh at Lagra np '. mult iplie rs 'I" "In be tske n equII to eerc .

Appendix 3
Let u. eOltsider thll I ravit at ionl l.f1,ld wg ranglsn deMi ty 01 l~me ra l forlll. quad-
n lie in the 6rst-order dari vat ive.s D;g..·.
Relati viat ie invarianee implia lh a' th e lou l Lai ra ngll a deu it y can .be repee-
H1I1td in llle form

(" 3.t)

L,='••D.r" D".· , L%=" .O,;-D,;....,

l ._ i,.,j.;'''O,';'-D'''''', L, - i_. D,?·O';;-·. (1\3.2)
Ll _ i." D~D;;-" ;
L" _ Y~.i.~fI [b,Al~)( -1 + ", AI~-)("') I,
L •• _i.';"~YI·lb.A\~'x"",) + CIA \~" ~"' )1 ,
L .. _ V_.Y.,'i"lbJA\~,x..")+c.A\~'")('") I , (A3.3)
Leo _ Y..;i.;:;' lb,Al~)(" ") + c.A\~"X '.l l .
L u = Y Y".YlP [b~\:tX-1 +"IAI:,-X,.ll.
L.._ b,Y O.?'D.;-+Col... D:I"D:i'-".
H_ Ih' eoef6cienu s " II" a nd CJ are ar bitrary numbefll l od
A~-O) ""' DJ"D';-. (AJ.4)
NOli t" t \h. IIlOlII re ol n l form. quadflltie in lilt deriVlllves D..r-. of the rr lv-
jllllonsl-6eld Lsgn q i. n dlasity ean be_t lip if ..-e tlke eon...olu tions by emplo)'-
ioC IJlpruslOIU of the typl 1.-1""1'0' f_irfllfr., ud the like. Thi&,".
'WO uld not lsad us to I nyth ina lllUU.ll y n• ..-. H.nea. _ resk ;et our diKusaion 10
the Lqrs Biilu (AJ. 2) a nd (A3.3).
Uader I. , . up lnnsfona.lioa (10 .5) .... infinit8lli... 1 ••ria li on in t~ Lqr.tI,i.,.
d enaitia (1\3.2) U!\Imn th e f orm
6.L ,~D~«I}+ a{., Ic4') +lIl.lI +oI..l) l. I _I. 2, .... S. (1.3.5)

otll-'i,..O,.?-fJr+ ;~~:;- + «''''D';• .D.:r

- ~"'fl4D~ (; .,D.;-')- 2.e'" (i .,D";-0';-' + " ·o.i.,p.,i-t)
- b,-i'-i•.o.. o,r.
Q:r l - iiUoO,g",.,,;;-_2a"'i- Op/," -D,i...l+ &';.,D,{i"D..i""') (A3.6)
+2t·;" D,,-,...·D;' ' ' . + t-r "D, (i" D,; )
- e,g",.D, (i"D,;""')- t-,,·o;g.. ·o,i ,
«"11... 8D"'t....?·G~, - 8,'" V,(;" G;'K) - 43"';'·G;'..6'7.,
Sinu "". neve no need lor ~hll n preu iona fOf
here. Also
and Qt" «.) U,ey are 1I0t r ivln

_ lIl .,':.f- D D D ;... 1lI .,~ I l ' _ !II

<Ill - ~- , . .. I '" 1'& • a. - - ...... -T«/I '
c4.fl _ - 4~i...D.DK . c4." _a1". <4.~'- -ta1.Jl -2D.D, D~ . IM. 7)
Of the , . d OllS ~~II an d a~1) ..~ . ilI (i.... on ly tho u p-.ions of t.b0Ml n~ed for
o ur an alysis:
!5i1l "" 2iUo o, (D.:i"D;r..)- "li..o,(C!.i"D.;")

- zi'-ib;••D/ (O;i-ro..:i"l+ 20, (j-ol;.,) D,D..:i"
+2;.,D.r O,,0.. i.,D", 10';-"0. ;"'),
fl\.J\_20. (g..., '") O,O';;-"_.I.D" (i ...t:~ 0,0;;""

+ g""g,,O. (i,.,g••)O,O,r - 4g",.0. (D'?'O ,g~")

+ 2gI P'i",.; . ,0 , (O.g'"" D,?') - 3" ii¥.:i".o, (O;g.."O,i")
-,- - - - -
+ 4g ", ..., ..0 . (D,gPD......·)+ 2g.. . D. (0 ,, " 0 . ("" ). -- (A3.9)
~ l _ -~,,j.;" D, (O';-D.I"'I) + 4D. (;..r'l D,O;;-
- a:»,(0,,"0;-) - 2i""0. (i,.i.:?')0,0,;-
+ 4;":;.~0. (OJ'Orr )+ l .:i,:i" o_(D,ivoi-). (A3. j 0)
fI\.&l _ W. (r.i"") 0 . 0 ;-+ ii••O;;-D,O~
- 2r'i"";,,.D;i'tO,D:i-': (A3 .1l)
,foil _ W;iu..O.:z,..D,;- +20:;-"O; .,O..r
- 2j-li ••O,f,,0,iarOJr! - ii""i.,o,r._O,;roj " , (A3. j 2)
' j<

0\11 _ -4D.i..D,;r.O;i- - ~D.i"D,i..."D;-

+ 2D:;.. D~D;;- +20.I"D1; ... 0;;-
- 4i"iJJ;.,D~;-D;r + .(jqi~D.ibD;;" D,i­
+ 4.~;_ .D;i...DJtrD;;-, (A3. i 3)
,,1 - 4Dj ••D;i" D,i- +8? ;i ..D:i...O;O;;-

- 4.DjtPo,i ..o,i-". (A3.U )

O'll) - 4D.." "'" 0 4.i"'i.~ ,i...D.'(-' 0d". (A3.15J
Similarly, under " , uge tr. nlform. ~ion (10.5) I n inlinil!lllimal var l. lioD of u..1
w iT.niian deuitle. (A3 .3) auumllll lile fotw
e,L,,- D.6tJl+Bt-"I !b,(U1/)+ 11;)+ wliJ) + ~J {xtll + Yj,Jl+ Zl,Jll]. (A3. 16)
} _ I , 2, . . . , 6,

..b.ral.h, u::
a Dd X~ eoolAin t oYar;u l lhird -wd er
,ivan by lh, follotrlna: formulu :
dl!1'jyll.liy~ of;- n d a rt

U1." - 2;...
1" (;- ;.-D..o
pD;;" - 'pI;'"D,D
uj,1l _ 2'" (2iu D.DIID,; - - 'i...V ,OID ;i-),
2;_;-1" (2;•.o,D,I).r - T"O.OJ):i"l ,
,, - --- -- _ ... -
U\ - 2T"(T ' - I••D,D ,Dr"" + 'h . D.. D,Dr - v• .•D. D,D~).
WI. 2;'·, ,.... (2Y•.n.D.O;r- T,.o. D.D~ ,
" II J - ':I
U\ ) -!T'''~ 'D,D~II::;
_ __ _ _ __ 3.17) _ )(.. .
.r. - 1/7l {2'Y ..~D. D.D,""~- 2'1•.rI~,.D. D[D.I~I + 'Y..,("'I••D. D,D.t"' '
xj,ll_ - 4Y'''i"," D. D"D[i'''~,
X1,11 - 2Y,,.g...;,p(ZYhD,DpDr -Y.,D.D,.D,g..,),
X\'l_ - YIP(Zl.... D.D,.D,;- - 2Y",.;-;~.,D,D,D,r +' .. ,i-;. qD. D1 D";" )'
.nIl _ 2, ", v',,;-
(2f...D,.D/D;;-'- Y..,.D. D,D";'04),
X\' )_ t- CZ'..D. D,.D:i"- ' _D.DpD.i" + '~. D",D..i"l .
Sinu we hi ve 110 oiled tor lbe UpressiODI for lb ' 11'\ ~. 11I, ~, end a:-Il'
j - 1, 2, . • _, 6, \b ey &!11 not , iun ben. The olily PlOpn\i of U1_ q uentities
Ihat .i11 be Il8Ild in Ollr dilwlSion is the fac;\ th l \b e fl/ ud Y1.1) c.Il nUl in In
, ac.h term both the fitst- alld aeeood-.order deri ve\ives of i-.
,.hile the wf and
r.» eonUlio only fitst-onl.. . deriva ti vu .
Comblning (All.{l) and (A3. 16) with (AJ. t ) yields

"L. _D. [ 1-1

~ .,w.+ _~I at,]

+ ll·(r){~ "1 1~o +~I)+d.I'l

+ ~1 Ib/(U!./)+ Vl,JI + »11') +&1 (X~)+ r.,J1 +zl/1J}. (A3.18)

We see ~h8~ L . u t isllee the guge. princ iple il and only if

• •
0 +¢..O+ al.''l+ !: 111, (Ul.Jl +01)+ M.') +c,(X1i>+r 11+ Zlf ll
'.~11I.(al. ,...1 _ 0.
S i _ (a) lite CI~O. ViII, lAd x1 JJ
eon"'i" third-onJ er derl " aU"es of (Il) the r,
~~l). ~, .ad Y1,il eon"' in eeeend-eedee der ivatives, IIId, 6oa lly, (e) Ibe o\f1 ,

separate ideo Uties:

, .
IfI1il. and Z;!J eonu la onl y Ii.nt-onl er der ivati ves, eood hion (AJ.19) s pli ts into

:E1lIt'4 )+ ;::,
il4,~~i) +:E
i_ I

~ (b,u1JJ+ cJxY'l _ o,

(b,Vl.Jl+c/l'\') ... o,

(A3. 21)

:E• 1110111+ 1001


~ (bJw1.J1+c /zl.S')_O. (A3.22)

Both tJ1lland xl!> to n"'in th e meteie ttll3Ol: of th e Minkowski lip'c:a-time, but

CI\1l dot!l not., in Yin , of ..tIith (AJ.20) ' p(it.s inw tWll IDdependent iden t iti es:

~11 1~'1 _0, (AU 3)

(II,U'.II +c,X\~ _ O. (A3.24 )

Comb in ing (A3.1) wlth (A3.23) yields

a~" (1I, - 211t+ lI.l+ a~" (o,- To.) +a~""t""' Oo

Sioce tJl,ll, tJl,"'. a nd aj," a re independ&ll t of tach other, we bave

-,-240 +-,-0, (A3 .25)

Eq uaLlollS (A3.11) dlillDIlStrite \hit \.h' (JI~ elld XIJ,) .re iDdependent of eac.h
othtll", ...hereby (A3..24) Im plies
6, _ c} "" 0, i - I, 2, .. 0' 6. (A3.26)
Allowinll' for (A3 .Z$) u d (A3.:26) i n id enti t ios (A3. 21) an d (A3.2.2.), we get

'I , (~' +i-lli"+i ~") +". ({ ll'." + } A\.',+~,) =0, (A3.27)

"1 ( "''' ' ++~'+{-ol..,) +", (Tar'+-i-or'+~J) _ 0. (103.28)

On the bu is of (A3.8HA3. t 4) one e..n n ub lilb (through aoro",'bl t la borious
ma nipula tions) lhlt
r.I." + {-- lII." + t lJ~" "" O. (A3.29)

'""" + T' U'

~ + Till
' '. - 0 . (A:\.3O)

Hence, as (" 3.27) .lId (A3.28) c::1...r l}· MO". th ' e~6ci.n t ". is l>Ot delerm illed
by th e two . Its ~.l uo i. dew rmiJ:led by tb . eOfRlpondellCe prin c::ip le.
If wtI 5Ilbati l ute fA3.30) into (A3.28) , we lilt
... {o'. " - ol.'') _O . (A3.31)
S ince t hl5 diflerel'\C:l! 01" - 0,," is lIot Idl!lIl iUllly te fO (_ (A3. 12) and ("3.15»),
....e GOne l.,de t ha t
a. _ O. (A3.3:2)
The lin.! formula. ror the
<l ' ~z a"
II, (/ _ I . 2•.. " 5) ere

a'-T",. 11. _11, _ 0. (A3.33)

Th us, If th e gl llilo prin ci ple lor mullll ed in Chapter 10 is taken lIS ~lo e aLa l ti ug
poin t 01 our dlsclWioll, ~heD , in vie w 01 (AS.26) and (A3.33), t he general form
A3.1) of the u. IIUnll ia n d e nsi ~y leads unam bigo uolll ly to the 101ll)\l" illll U prfll3ioll
Ior ~ba L' Kru llla n densi ty :
L. _<I,[ ;~ID.;"D..?'" + f il"DI;", . D':;-'· + {- ;~':;.I'i'''DI ?''O"r] . (A3.34 )
If we ..led the value 01 0, aec:or<! illil to th e correspondence princi ple ,
.. , - - •
3%... • (A3.3 S)

. nd ca rry DI' l certai n trans( ormat;oDll in (A3.34), L. ca n be wri tten ;0 th e fOrln

(8 .26).
In ron ehwoll le~ us lind l be upliei t form or 6. ~ • . S obsti ~u linll illto (A3.18)
lb, va lues of ~h . coe.l&eieoLs given by (A3.26), (A3.33), ud (A3 .35). _ obbl ill
6,L s '" D~l/' (zl ,

l/' (z)= - S [«II+t«n+ +«,,].

If we now a llow for th e forlnu las for Q(~ .. QI~tl' "OIl. ~ . (A3.G), we ge~
<r (z ) _ - r.-L.-!1k-[D....I(Z) D;;.... + ~ {z) D. D.r - D, (r.I {~) D':;-")] ,
I ~~~
wi~h L. l iven by (A3.34).
Appe n dh: 4
In ttll. Appendix 'til preJe.t1t th e u leu"Uons om(Ued in e h. plor 18 _M il we pro-
ueded IrOIl1 th e gene ral f orm ula:! (18.63), (18.1S), (18.93). u d (18 . t t t ) to t he res-
pective . pproxhnate lI.lpnr.!lSi ODS .

A4. 1 Df;!I«t1olt of Llpt and Radio Slpab In the

Grnl LaUonill ftdd of ~ Suo
In caepler 18 w, u r;,·td . t the genenl fOf'lQw. (t8 .63) fot 6• . Let ll!I u pand the
r il M -ba nd ,ide of th ts formula for VW > 2GM~ hi powers of 2GMGlYW;
u p to 5KOnd order illdldi ..... If for ~e I 1M of J. In (18. 63) ... take
J _ f W,l ·,.
•- ()fiil; 2GJle:j'I"'
t !>en for f. l.I» i n fron t of F ('"' q) "'"e leL

~ ( VW; - 2CMf! )'''~tj( t - GM.2 + \I (cri r) +O (( CN0) 1) . (M.t)

y w, lI'W:+ 81:a'e v w; T 1 • vi¥.
Siooe for lnj:e n lue" of VW; (_ (18.57) .nd (ts .58})

1I', :l<- VW. _ ZGM~+ O {( ';'w. f'vw;) (AU)

w, ~"'MO+O (( ;i?, )'vw.l. (M.3)
(18 .61) and ( \8.62) yield . respect ive l y.
0_"+' ' Me _ ' ('Mw. )' +0 (('M O) ') (A4.4)
T T Y w. T y • Jlit';

Now lel ld e mploy the "-ell-known ..ries expansion of elli ptie ;n legn u 01 Ih.
fin l kind {Abre nNlwlU end Stegull, 1964, u ,d Erde lyi, 1 9~1 :


" ltere

• "+
' [("')
S•• (v) -Z!i' "
L.i (- I) -('. _'"_ ) -~.~-] . (AU )

Tb is eOlllbl.lI8d with (M A) a nd CM .S) yie lds lbe followiq u panslo n 01 F (v, 'l
ill pours of GM(E'/VW; up to MeO lld order ineJusiy.:

F{v·,) :::.t T" +y

'MW; (1+ T" ) - I'"i ( 'MOJ'
YW; +0 (( 'Me
YiVo I') . (AU )
Appu ,dlz 4
Su bsutuuon of (M .t) and (AIi.B) into (18.63) yields

6lp -71 + ~.~ + 4 (~i$. r (1156" - 1) . ( M .9)

AIi.2 The Mereur y Pe.-ihellon Shih

Let us find tho Mlrie.i'l expansi on of the right-hand side of (18 .15) in powers of GM e
up to second order inclusive. Allowing Icr the fact th at > 2GM0 in the yw±
given prob1Wl, we find that (18.74) yields
W.::::::2GM 0 [ t +2G.M0 (.rtW.
_ + ,}_ }] +O( GMe )Jj,
~ r W_
(M .IO)
nnd for tile express ion st and ing in (18.75) in front 01 F (11/2, q) we obtain
[ 2ii"',yw: _ r~~2[t + 2CMr;. + GM0 + 6(CM pl'
(Y W. - WJ y w. yw_ y' w.w _

+ 6 ( ~l )2 + + ( ~~ n+ O( GM0)~)' (AU t )
If in (18.76) we allow for (A4.tO) , it is easy to esta blish th a t
~ (GMel'

(2GM §'
r w,
"'. + ~
vw.w_ +' (C.1II0) ,
V1',". -
, ( GMG ) ' )
w, + 0{(Gfl.f 0 )3).
(AtI. 12)
Th en, using the well-k nown seri6.'J expansion of complete elli pt ic integral! of the
nt:'lt kind (A bramowi l~ a nd S,wgun, 1964, a nd E rd~ly i , 1955),
F (; , q)=-i-[l +({ )! f + ( ~~~ t q4+ . .. +( 2:::)I1)2rf + ...] ,
(2n n

we obtain
• ) • [ GM0 GM0 I (GMf)l ' 25 ( ~ ) '
F ( 2 ' q :>!T 1+ 2y w_ - ~ tI VW.IY- + Tti v w_
- ~ (~M: y] +0 ((GM0)1). (M. 14)

Subs titu ti ng (A4.ll ) a nd (A4.14) into (18. 75), we lind the Bo ught expausion of
'" (r. ) - cp (r _):
cp (r. ) -Ir> (r_) :>! Jt [1+ 3G~0 (V'w, +~
V'w, )
5?(GM el- (
HI w:+w:-
' ' )
51 ~]
vw.w, + O ((GM0)") ' (M. 1S)

A4.3 Time Delay of Radio Slgn .1s in the Gl'Ilvilationa l Fie ld o f the S un
In ex perl ment s ecunu eted by I. I. Shapiro and hia gronp (Shapiro, 19(14, and She-
piro, 1979) the flrst measurements of the time delay of u dio aigna l, in the grav-
itational field of the Sun were perform ed. 1n t hese experiments th e eeneetoe was
t he surface of Mercury in the superior conjun cti on. Hence. the ex peri mental coo-
diti mu were auch tha t
(A4. t6 )
App.nJiz 4

wheu ro ill a dillt8nce 01 th e order 01 the Sun'lI radiUII , and r. a nd r ~ au disl.anCe!l

from the center of the Sun to t he Eart h and Mucu ry, rellpect ively . Stuee beceuee
of (A....16) we mUllt put
W• • W (r.} > W. , W. ,"" W (r~» WI' (AId7 )
and WI "" W (rol :>GMe' (M.t 8)
in formu lu (18.58HI8 .91) we ca n use ex pans ions in powers of GMQ.
On th e buill of (A4.2) a nd (Ali .3) cernbined wit h (18.92) we can find the following
appr(lximat e u pr&5S ions 10' \" '~ :

v· ... ~
" 3CMQ I vii'; I 6M@ O( (~
T + 2yw; -"2 Yw•.• - "2 Vw.,. +
)' )
(A4 19)
whil e lor qt, which enters into (IB.88)-(18 .91), we alrea dy hav e the a pproximate
express ion (:\ 4. 5). Note tha t the de nominator 01 (18 .58) conta ins the di fference
IV, _ '1JJM0, which vanis hes if for W . "''&am