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Progressive Collapse Simulation of Concrete Frame

Structures with Floors


WANG Tie-cheng LI Zhi-ping
School of Civil Engineering / Key Laboratory of Coast Civil School of Civil Engineering
Structure Safety (Tianjin University) Tianjin University
Tianjin University / Ministry of Education Tianjin, China
Tianjin, China lizhiping_ren@sina.com

Abstract—This paper presents a case study of a 10-story concrete 䖯㸠њᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภⷨお[11]DŽ䆹ⷨお㒧ᵰৃҹ⫼Ѣৠ㉏㒧ᵘ


frame structure designed according to the Chinese Code ᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵ⱘձ᥂DŽ
GB50010-2002. To reduce the potential of progressive collapse
due to single column failure, progressive collapse analysis is
II. 㒧ᵘ䆒䅵
carried out following the DoD2009 guidelines. It is observed that
most of longitudinal beams in superstructure and floors above ᴀ᭛ᓎㄥ⠽῵ൟЎ 10 ሖⱘ䩶ㄟ⏋‫ޱ‬ೳḚᶊ㒧ᵘˈᓎ
the failure column would collapse as the results of removing an ㄥ৘ሖሖ催Ў 3mˈ᷅㔥Ꮧ㕂བ೒ 1 ᠔⼎ˈ᷅៾䴶ሎᇌЎ
exterior column, no beams and floors would collapse when an
interior column at ground floor was removed, and only the 600mmh600mmˈṕ៾䴶ሎᇌЎ 600mmh300mmˈὐᵓ
beams in short span would collapse when an interior column at ८ᑺЎ 150mmDŽṕǃᵓǃ᷅⏋‫ޱ‬ೳᔎᑺㄝ㑻ഛЎ C35ˈ
upper floor was removed. Adequate reinforcements in the beams 㒉৥ফ࡯䩶ㄟ䗝⫼ HRB335ˈㅡㄟ䗝⫼ HPB235DŽᓎㄥഎ
of superstructure and adequate ties among floors, beams and ഄЎ Ι ㉏ˈ䆒䰆⚜ᑺЎ 8 ᑺDŽᓎㄥ乊ሖὐᵓⱘᘦ㥋䕑Ў
columns can be used to avoid the progressive failure of structure,
after failure of particular column. 5kN/m2ˈ⌏㥋䕑Ў 0.5 kN/m2˗佪ሖঞᷛ‫ޚ‬ሖὐᵓⱘᘦ㥋
䕑Ў 3.2kN/m2ˈ⌏㥋䕑Ў 2.0 kN/m2˗ሟ䴶ཇ‫ܓ‬๭㥋䕑Ў
Keywords- progressive collapse ˗ concrete structures; alternative 3 kN/mˈ佪ሖঞᷛ‫ޚ‬ሖ䰸ὐ䘧໪ഛᏗ㕂䱨๭ˈ㥋䕑Ў 6
load path; numerical simulation˗ floors. kN/mDŽ෎ᴀ亢य़Ў Wo=0.45 kN/m2DŽ

I. ᓩ㿔
䖥ᑈᴹˈ⬅Ѣഄ䋼♒ᆇǃᘤᗪ㺁ߏǃ☿♒ǃ➗⇨⟚⚌
ㄝᓩথⱘᓎㄥ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภᏆ㒣ᇍҎӀⱘ⫳ੑǃ䋶ѻᅝܼ䗴៤

6
Ꮌ໻ⱘ࿕㚕DŽ಴ℸˈᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䯂乬ᰃ䖥ᑈᴹ㒧ᵘ乚ඳⱘ
⛁⚍䯂乬DŽ

3
ᓎㄥ㒧ᵘᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภⷨおᐌ⫼ⱘᮍ⊩᭄᳝ؐ῵ᢳ੠䆩
Ꮉ‫ މ‬5 Ꮉ‫ މ‬1
偠ⷨおDŽ␪फ໻ᄺᯧӳᓎㄝᇍ㓽ሎⱘ 4 ሖ䩶ㄟ⏋‫ޱ‬ೳḚᶊ

6
㒧ᵘ䖯㸠њ䖍Ё᷅੠㾦᷅༅ᬜৢⱘ䴭࡯‫צ‬ภ⸈ണᗻ䆩偠੠ Ꮉ‫ މ‬3
⟚⚌ᓩ䍋ⱘ‫צ‬ภ⸈ണ䆩偠[1]ˈ䆹䆩偠ⱘ㒧ᵰৃҹ⫼ᴹ偠䆕
᭄ؐ῵ᢳߚᵤ㒧ᵰⱘৃ䴴ᗻDŽ⬅Ѣ䆩偠ⷨお䌍⫼↨䕗催ˈ 6 6 6 6 6
᮴⊩ᇍϡৠ㒧ᵘ䖯㸠㋏㒳ⱘ䆩偠ˈ᭄ؐ῵ᢳҡᰃ㒧ᵘᡫ䖲
೒ 1 㒧ᵘᑇ䴶
㓁‫צ‬ภⱘ䞡㽕ⷨおᮍ⊩DŽ᭄ؐ῵ᢳৃҹ‫ⱘ⹂ޚ‬῵ᢳ㒧ᵘ‫צ‬
ภ䖛⿟Ёᵘӊⱘ⸈ണ䖛⿟ⱘᑨ࡯੠বᔶˈৃҹᣛᇐ㒧ᵘᡫ ῵ൟࣙ৿њṕǃ᷅ऩ‫ܗ‬ҹঞὐᵓऩ‫݊ˈܗ‬Ёὐᵓऩ‫ܗ‬
䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵ˈᦤ催㒧ᵘⱘᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ㛑࡯DŽ೑‫ݙ‬໪ᇍѢ 䗝ᢽ໇ऩ‫݊ˈܗ‬Ё䜡㕂ϸሖঠ৥ফ࡯ㄟDŽЎњ⒵䎇বᔶण
䩶ㄟ⏋‫ޱ‬ೳ㒧ᵘᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภⱘ᭄ؐ῵ᢳⷨお↨䕗໮[2-10]ˈ 䇗݇㋏ˈὐᵓ਼䖍ϢⳌ䚏ⱘṕ䖲Ўϔԧˈࡴ䕑ᮍᓣЎ೼ὐ
⏙ढ໻ᄺⱘ䰚ᮄᕕㄝ೼䗮⫼䅵ㅫ䕃ӊ MCS.MARC ⱘ෎⸔ ᵓϞ㸼䴶ᮑࡴഛᏗय़࡯DŽ✊ৢᣝ✻៥೑⦄㸠⏋‫ޱ‬ೳ㒧ᵘ䆒
Ϟᓔথњ‫צ‬ภ῵ᢳߚᵤ⿟ᑣ TECSˈDigesh D. Joshi Փ⫼ 䅵㾘㣗 GB50010-2002 ᇍ䆹ᓎㄥ⠽䖯㸠њ䆒䅵[12]DŽ
sap2000 ߚᵤњ໮ሖᓎㄥⱘ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䯂乬ˈԚҹᕔᇍѢ䩶
III. ‫צ‬ภ᭄ؐ῵ᢳ
ㄟ⏋‫ޱ‬ೳ㒧ᵘⱘⷨおᕜ໮䛑াᰃᓎゟṕ੠᷅㒘៤ⱘ㒃Ḛᶊ
ⱘ῵ൟˈὐᵓ㥋䕑ⱘㅔ࣪Ϣᅲ䰙ᚙ‫މ‬᳝ϔᅮⱘᏂᓖˈৠᯊ ᴀ᭛Փ⫼ sap2000 䖯㸠᭄ؐ῵ᢳ[13]DŽ㗗㰥ࠄ䴲㒓ᗻࡼ
≵᳝㗗㰥ࠄὐᵓᇍ㒧ᵘᭈԧ〇ᅮᗻⱘ԰⫼ˈ≵᳝㗗㰥ὐᵓ ࡯ߚᵤ㛑໳↨䕗ⳳᅲⱘড᯴⸈ണᚙ‫ˈމ‬᭛Ё‫צ‬ภߚᵤᎹ‫މ‬
ⱘ⸈ണৃ㛑ᏺ㒭ϟ䚼㒧ᵘ⸈ണⱘᕅડDŽᴀ᭛䞛⫼ࣙ৿ὐᵓ ഛ䗝ᢽ䴲㒓ᗻᯊ⿟ߚᵤˈᣝ✻㒧ᵘ䆒䅵ⱘ㒧ᵰᇍॳ㒧ᵘ䖯
㸠ṕǃ᷅ǃὐᵓ៾䴶䆒䅵ˈᑊ೼ṕ᷅ッ䚼៾䴶䆒㕂њลᗻ
ⱘϝ㓈䩶ㄟ⏋‫ޱ‬ೳḚᶊ㒧ᵘ῵ൟˈᣝ✻㕢೑೑䰆䚼ljᓎㄥ
䫄ˈ䞛⫼ᢚ䰸ᵘӊ⊩ᇍ݊䖯㸠њᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภߚᵤDŽ
ᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵NJׂ䅶⠜ DoD2009 䞛⫼ᢚ䰸ᵘӊ⊩ᇍ݊

978-1-61284-459-6/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE


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A. ᢚ䰸ᵘӊ⊩ 䫄ǃᡁ䕀䫄ㄝˈ⬅ѢṕⱘЏ㽕⸈ണᔶᓣ䖬ᰃᔃ᳆⸈
ᢚ䰸ᵘӊ⊩ᰃᣝ✻ϔᅮ㾘߭ᢚ䰸㒧ᵘЁⱘᶤѯオ৥ᡓ ണˈ᷅ⱘЏ㽕⸈ണᔶᓣЎय़ᔃ⸈ണˈᴀ᭛䅵ㅫ῵ൟЁ
䞡ᵘӊˈ䅵ㅫ࠽ԭ㒧ᵘⱘᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ㛑࡯DŽᡫ‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵㽕 ṕা㗗㰥ᔃ᳆ลᗻ䫄ˈ᷅া㗗㰥य़ᔃลᗻ䫄DŽ⬅Ѣᵘ
ӊッ䚼ᆍᯧ⸈ണˈลᗻ䫄ഛᏗ㕂೼ᵘӊϸッⱘ῾៾䴶
∖ᢚ䰸ᵘӊৢ࠽ԭ㒧ᵘ‫݋‬᳝ϔᅮⱘ䎼䍞㛑࡯ˈᦤկ᳝ᬜⱘ
໘DŽ೒ 3 Ўᔃⶽ-䕀㾦݇㋏᳆㒓[11]ˈ݊Ё θ Ў῾៾䴶ⱘ
໛⫼Ӵ࡯䏃ᕘDŽ'R' 㾘ᅮᢚ䰸佪ሖǃ乊ሖǃЁ䯈ሖঞ
ลᗻ䕀㾦ˈऩԡЎ radˈ M / M y Ў῾៾䴶ᔃⶽϢሜ᳡ᔃ
᷅៾䴶ሎᇌথ⫳ᬍবⱘϞϔሖⱘオ৥ᡓ䞡ᵘӊˈᴀ᭛Ёা
䗝পњ佪ሖ੠Ё䯈ሖ㾦᷅ǃ䖍᷅ǃЁ᷅԰Ўᢚ䰸ᵘӊDŽ ⶽⱘ↨ؐˈ೒ 3 Ё B Ўሜ᳡⚍˗IO 㸼⼎ेᇚথ⫳⢊
佪‫ܜ‬ᣝ✻ 'R' 㾘㣗ᮑࡴ㥋䕑ˈ㥋䕑㒘ড়Ў ᗕˈ䎱 B ⚍∈ᑇ䎱⾏Ў a / 4 ˗LS 㸼⼎⫳ੑᅝܼ⢊ᗕˈ
'///:˄˅ 䎱 B ⚍∈ᑇ䎱⾏Ў a / 2 ˗CP 㸼⼎䰆ℶ‫צ‬ภ⢊ᗕˈ䖒ࠄ
݊Ё '/ Ўᘦ㥋䕑˗// Ў⌏㥋䕑˗: Ў亢㥋䕑DŽ䅵ㅫ 䰆ℶ‫צ‬ภ⢊ᗕҹৢˈᵘӊⱘᔎᑺ੠߮ᑺ䛑Ӯᵕ໻ഄࠞ
ᔅˈ䅸Ўṕ᷅༅ᬜ⸈ണDŽ೼᷅༅ᬜҹৢˈ೼㞾䞡ঞ⌏
ॳ㒧ᵘ೼ᓣ˄1˅㥋䕑԰⫼ϟⱘ㢹ᑆ᷅Ϟッ៾䴶ⱘ‫ˈ࡯ݙ‬
㥋䕑݅ৠ԰⫼ϟⳌ䚏ⱘὐᵓ⬅ফᔃЎЏⱘय़㭘㝰⢊ᗕ
ᑊ⬅ℸ㦋ᕫϡৠᎹ‫މ‬৘Ͼᴚッ᠔䳔ⱘϡᑇ㸵࡯ˈখ㾕㸼
䕀বЎ乊ሖ੠ᑩሖঠ৥䩶ㄟফᢝⱘᢝ㭘㝰⢊ᗕˈЎ㒧
1DŽ݊Ё FxǃFyǃFzǃMxǃMyǃMz ߚ߿Ўএ᷅ৢᴚッ៾䴶
ᵘᦤկ໛⫼㥋䕑Ӵ䗦䏃ᕘ [14] DŽᴀ᭛Ё䗮䖛ὐᵓᑩ䴶੠
ⱘ⊓ xǃyǃz ᮍ৥ⱘ‫࡯ݙ‬੠‫ي࡯ݙ‬DŽ 乊䴶ⱘܼᑨ࡯೒ড᯴ὐᵓⱘ⸈ണᚙ‫މ‬DŽ
㸼 1 এ᷅ৢᴚッϡᑇ㸵࡯˄ऩԡ˖࡯ kN˗࡯‫ ي‬kN·m˅
ᴚӊ Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz
1-F-1
23.3 22.7 2244 -45.8 46.5 0
(Ꮉ‫ މ‬1)
1-F-6
43.7 39.5 1104 -59.5 65.9 0
(Ꮉ‫ މ‬2)
1-C-1
0 36 3375 -73 0 0
(Ꮉ‫ މ‬3)
1-C-6
0 63 1660 -94.5 0 0
(Ꮉ‫ މ‬4)
2-C-1
0 -24 4175 49 0 0
(Ꮉ‫ މ‬5)
2-C-6
0 -32.8 2034 49 0 0
(Ꮉ‫ މ‬6)
೒ 3 ᔃⶽ-䕀㾦݇㋏᳆㒓
ߚ߿Ңॳ㒧ᵘЁ᩸এϞ㸼Ё৘Ͼ᷅ˈৠᯊ೼Ⳍᑨⱘ㡖
⚍໘ᮑࡴⳌᑨⱘϡᑇ㸵࡯ˈՓПϢॳ㒧ᵘㄝᬜDŽ㒧ᵘⱘᘦ IV. 㒧ᵰߚᵤ
㥋䕑ǃ⌏㥋䕑ঞ亢㥋䕑ᣝ✻೒ 2˄a˅ⱘᮍᓣࡴ䕑ˈϡᑇ㸵
ϟ䴶ߚ߿ᇍ৘Ꮉ‫މ‬ϟᓎㄥ⠽ⱘลᗻ䫄ߚᏗᚙ‫މ‬ҹঞὐ
࡯ᣝ✻೒ 2˄b˅ⱘᮍᓣࡴ䕑ˈ‫ܜ‬Ϣ㥋䕑ৠℹ๲ࡴࠄ᳔݊
ᵓᑩ䴶੠乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯ߚᏗᚙ‫މ‬䖯㸠䅼䆎DŽ
໻ؐˈ‫ݡ‬೼ 0.05s-0.08s ‫ݙ‬䗤⏤䞞ᬒϡᑇ㸵࡯ˈ῵ᢳ৘᷅⸈
Ꮉ‫ މ‬1˖ᑩሖ㾦᷅ 1-F-1 ༅ᬜ
ണⱘᚙ‫݊ˈމ‬Ё༅ᬜᯊ䭓প↨䕗ᇣⱘؐDŽ
೼ᑩሖ㾦᷅ 1-F-1 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫⊓ˈݙ‬ᓎㄥ㒉৥ 6-10 ሖ
P P ṕṕッ῾៾䴶ഛߎ⦄ลᗻ䫄ˈ῾৥া᳝ 7 ሖṕṕッߎ⦄њ
ลᗻ䫄(೒ 4)DŽ䇈ᯢ㒧ᵘⱘӴ࡯䏃ᕘথ⫳њᬍবˈ༅ᬜ᷅
ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼ⱘ㥋䕑ҹঞ㞾䞡䛑㽕䗮䖛ṕ੠ὐᵓ䕀႕ࠄⳌ䚏
ⱘ᷅Ϟˈṕ੠ὐᵓ៤ЎЏ㽕ⱘ㥋䕑Ӵ䗦ᵘӊDŽᣝ✻៥೑⦄
᳝㾘㣗䆒䅵ⱘᓎㄥˈᔧߎ⦄ᑩሖ㾦᷅⸈ണᯊˈ݊ϟ䚼ὐሖ
2 3 t˄10-2s˅ 2 3 5 8 t˄10-2s˅ ⱘṕ໻䚼ߚ䛑㛑⒵䎇㥋䕑Ӵ䗦㽕∖ˈ㗠Ϟ䚼ὐሖⱘ㒉৥ṕ
˄a˅ ˄b˅ ッ䚼෎ᴀ䛑ߎ⦄њลᗻ䫄ˈ῾৥ṕ໻䚼ߚ䛑⒵䎇㽕∖DŽ೼
ᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵Ёˈৃҹ๲ᔎ䖭㉏ᓎㄥϞ䚼㒧ᵘṕⱘᡫᔃ
೒ 2 ࡴ䕑ߑ᭄ 㛑࡯ˈ᳝ࡽѢᅲ⦄᳓ҷӴ࡯䏃ᕘˈ䰆㣗䖲㓁‫צ‬ภⱘথ⫳DŽ
⬅೒ 5 Ꮉ‫ މ‬1 ὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯೒ৃⶹᑩሖ㾦᷅
B. ⸈ണ‫߭ޚ‬ 1-F-1 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫ⱘݙ‬৘ሖὐᵓ⸈ണᚙ‫↨މ‬䕗ⳌԐDŽ೼ὐ
㕢೑೑䰆䚼 DoD2009 㾘ᅮϡ‫ܕ‬䆌ӏԩᵘӊথ⫳ᅠ ᵓ੠᷅ⱘ㞾䞡ҹঞϞ䚼㥋䕑ⱘ݅ৠ԰⫼ϟˈὐᵓᑩ䴶Ϟߎ
ܼ ༅ ᬜ ⸈ ണ ˈ 㽕 ∖ ↨ 㕢 ೑ GSA2003 ੠ 㕢 ೑ ೑ 䰆 䚼 ⦄њ䴴䖥ὐᵓЁ༂ⱘফᢝ⸈ണऎඳ˗ὐᵓ乊䴶Ϟ೼ϢϸϾ
DoD2005 ᳈ЎϹḐˈᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵៤ᴀ᳈催DŽ೼䴲 ‫ݙ‬ṕⳌ䖲ⱘ䖍⬠໘ߎ⦄њফᢝ⸈ണDŽЎњ๲ᔎὐᵓ ㋶ᬜ
㒓ᗻߚᵤЁˈṕǃ᷅ⱘ༅ᬜ⸈ണ䗮䖛݊ลᗻ䫄ᅮНDŽ ᑨᇍᭈϾ㒧ᵘᡫ‫צ‬ภ㛑࡯ⱘ䋵⤂ˈৃҹ㗗㰥ᇍᭈϾ㒧ᵘὐ
ᓩ䍋ṕǃ᷅⸈ണⱘॳ಴ᕜ໮ˈ↨བ࠾ߛবᔶǃᔃ᳆ব ᵓ‫ݙ‬䚼੠໪ೈᏗ㕂ᢝ㒧ㄟˈ๲ᔎὐᵓϢṕǃ᷅П䯈ⱘ㘨
ᔶǃᡁ䕀বᔶㄝˈ݊ลᗻ䫄гৃ㛑ᰃ࠾ߛ䫄ǃᔃ᳆ ㋏ˈՓᑩሖ㾦᷅ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫ⱘݙ‬৘ሖὐᵓ᠔ᡓᢙⱘ㥋䕑᳝

3373
ᬜഄߚᬷࠄ݊ᅗ㒧ᵘᵘӊϞˈҢ㗠ᦤ催㒧ᵘⱘᭈԧᡫ‫צ‬ภ
㛑࡯DŽ

˄a˅ᑩ䴶 ˄b˅乊䴶
˄a˅
˄b˅
䖒ࠄሜ᳡⚍˗䖒ࠄ ,2 ⢊ᗕ˗
䖒ࠄ /6 ⢊ᗕ˗䖒ࠄ &3 ⢊ᗕDŽ˄ϟৠ˅ ೒ 7 Ꮉ‫ މ‬2 ὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯˄ऩԡ˖MPa˅
೒ 4 Ꮉ‫ މ‬1 Ё 1 䕈੠ F 䕈ลᗻ䫄ߚᏗ Ꮉ‫ މ‬3˖ᑩሖ䭓䖍䖍᷅ 1-C-1 ༅ᬜ
೼ᑩሖ䭓䖍䖍᷅ 1-C-1 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫⊓ˈݙ‬ᓎㄥ㒉৥
1ǃ3ǃ6-10 ሖṕṕッ῾៾䴶ഛߎ⦄ลᗻ䫄ˈ῾৥ṕ≵᳝ߎ
⦄ลᗻ䫄(೒ 8)ˈลᗻ䫄ⱘ᭄䞣ЎᎹ‫ މ‬1 ⱘϸ‫ס‬໮ˈ᳝ಯ
ḍ㒉৥ṕṕッ៾䴶ลᗻ䫄䖒ࠄेᇚথ⫳⢊ᗕDŽϞ䚼ὐሖṕ
ⱘ⸈ണ⿟ᑺ↨ϟ䚼ὐሖṕ㽕Ϲ䞡ϔѯDŽᡫ‫צ‬ภ䆒䅵Ёᑨ䞡
⚍ࡴᔎϞሖ㒉৥䖍ṕⱘᡫᔃ㛑࡯DŽᑩሖ䭓䖍䖍᷅ 1-C-1 Ϟ
ᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫ⱘݙ‬৘ሖὐᵓ⸈ണᚙ‫↨މ‬䕗ⳌԐˈ⬅Ѣᑩሖ䭓䖍
䖍᷅ 1-C-1 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼Ϟᮍὐᵓⱘ㑺ᴳ↨Ꮉ‫ މ‬1 ὐᵓⱘ㑺
ᴳᔎϔѯˈὐᵓᑩ䴶ⱘ⸈ണ㣗ೈ↨Ꮉ‫ މ‬1 ᇣⱘ໮ˈὐᵓ乊
˄a˅ᑩ䴶 ˄b˅乊䴶 䴶ⱘ⸈ണ㣗ೈЎϢ‫ݙ‬ṕⳌ䖲ⱘ䖍⬠Ϟ(೒ 9)DŽ೒ 10 Ў␪फ
˄a˅ ໻ᄺᯧӳᓎ䴭࡯‫צ‬ภ⸈ണᗻ䆩偠ᕫࠄⱘὐᵓ⸈ണᔶᗕ೒
[5]
˄b˅ ˈ೒Ё೼ὐᵓᑩ䴶Ϟ㺖㓱⬅ᵓЁ༂৥ಯ਼থᬷˈ೼ὐᵓ

೒ 5 Ꮉ‫ މ‬1 ὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯˄ऩԡ˖MPa˅

Ꮉ‫ މ‬2˖6 ሖ㾦᷅ 1-F-6 ༅ᬜ


೼ 6 ሖ㾦᷅ 1-F-6 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫ˈݙ‬ṕⱘ⸈ണԡ㕂ϢᎹ
‫ މ‬1 ໻㟈ⳌৠˈԚᰃ⬅Ѣ䖭ѯṕϢ༅ᬜ᷅ⱘ䎱⾏↨Ꮉ‫ މ‬1
䖥ᕫ໮ˈ݊⸈ണ⿟ᑺ↨Ꮉ‫ މ‬1 Ϲ䞡ϔѯˈ᳝ϸḍ㒉৥ṕṕ
ッ៾䴶䖒ࠄ䰆ℶ‫צ‬ภ⢊ᗕ(೒ 6)ˈⳌᑨⱘ 6-10 ሖⱘὐᵓ⸈
ണᚙ‫މ‬ϢᎹ‫ މ‬1 ㉏Ԑ(೒ 7)ˈ䇈ᯢ᩸এ 6 ሖ㾦᷅↨᩸এⳌ
ᑨⱘᑩሖ㾦᷅᳈ᆍᯧᓩ䍋㒧ᵘⱘ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภDŽ1964 ᑈ㣅೑
Ӻᬺ Ronan point ݀ᆧথ⫳ⱘ⬅Ѣ 18 ሖ✸⇨⟚⚌ᓩথⱘ䖲
೒ 8 Ꮉ‫ މ‬3 Ё 1 䕈੠ F 䕈ลᗻ䫄ߚᏗ
㓁‫צ‬ภⱘḜ՟䖯ϔℹ䆕ᅲњЁሖ㾦᷅⸈ണᇍ㒧ᵘⱘᎼ໻ᕅ
ડDŽ

˄a˅ᑩ䴶 ˄b˅乊䴶
˄a˅
˄b ˅
೒ 6 Ꮉ‫ މ‬2 Ё 1 䕈੠ F 䕈ลᗻ䫄ߚᏗ
೒ 9 Ꮉ‫ މ‬3 ὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯˄ऩԡ˖MPa˅

3374
乊䴶Ϟ㺖㓱⊓ⴔ‫ݙ‬ṕϢᵓ䖲᥹໘থሩˈᇚ᭄ؐ῵ᢳ㒧ᵰϢ
䆩偠㒧ᵰ↨䕗ˈথ⦄ܼᑨ࡯䕗໻ⱘԡ㕂Ϣ䆩偠ᕫࠄⱘ㺖㓱
ԡ㕂Ⳍਏড়ˈ䆕ᯢњ䆹᭄ؐ῵ᢳⱘৃ䴴ᗻDŽ

೒ 13 Ꮉ‫ މ‬5 Ё 2 䕈੠ C 䕈ลᗻ䫄ߚᏗ
೒ 10 ‫צ‬ภ䆩偠Ёὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶㺖㓱ߚᏗ

Ꮉ‫ މ‬4˖ 6 ሖ䭓䖍䖍᷅ 1-C-6 ༅ᬜ


೼ 6 ሖ䭓䖍䖍᷅ 1-C-6 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫ˈݙ‬ṕⱘ⸈ണԡ㕂
ϢᎹ‫ މ‬3 ໻㟈ⳌৠˈԚ⸈ണ⿟ᑺ↨䕗Ϲ䞡ˈ೼ 8-9 ሖ᳝ 4
ḍ㒉৥ṕṕッⱘลᗻ䫄Ꮖ㒣䖒ࠄ䰆ℶ‫צ‬ภ⢊ᗕˈेথ⫳༅
ᬜ⸈ണˈ᳝ 6 ḍ㒉৥ṕṕッลᗻ䫄䖒ࠄेᇚথ⫳⢊ᗕˈ㗠
῾৥ṕṕッ≵᳝ߎ⦄ลᗻ䫄(೒ 11)DŽ6-10 ሖὐᵓᑩ䴶੠乊
䴶ⱘܼᑨ࡯೒ϢᎹ‫ މ‬3 ⳌԐ(೒ 12)ˈ䇈ᯢ䆹㣗ೈ‫ݙ‬থ⫳䖲
㓁‫צ‬ภˈᑨ೼䖍䎼ὐᵓǃṕǃ᷅П䯈Ꮧ㕂ᢝ㒧䩶ㄟˈᦤ催
ὐᵓⱘᡫ‫צ‬ภᗻ㛑DŽ
˄a˅ᑩ䴶 ˄b˅乊䴶
˄a˅
˄b ˅

೒ 14 Ꮉ‫ މ‬5 ὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯˄ऩԡ˖MPa˅

Ꮉ‫ މ‬6˖6 ሖЁ᷅ 2-C-6 ༅ᬜ


೼ 6 ሖЁ᷅ 2-C-6 ϞᮍⳌ䚏䎼‫⊓ˈݙ‬㒉৥ⱘṕッ䚼≵
᳝ߎ⦄ลᗻ䫄ˈ㗠⊓῾৥ⱘЁ䎼ṕṕッ៾䴶໻䚼ߚ䛑ߎ⦄
њลᗻ䫄ˈ㗠Ϩ⸈ണ↨䕗Ϲ䞡ˈ᳝ 1 ḍṕṕッลᗻ䫄䖒ࠄ
೒ 11 Ꮉ‫ މ‬4 Ё 1 䕈੠ C 䕈ⱘลᗻ䫄ߚᏗ 䰆ℶ‫צ‬ภ⢊ᗕˈ᳝ 2 ḍṕṕッลᗻ䫄䖒ࠄेᇚথ⫳⢊ᗕ
(೒ 15)DŽ㗠䆹ऎඳ‫ⱘݙ‬ὐᵓϞ≵᳝ߎ⦄䕗໻ⱘᑨ࡯ˈϡᆍ
ᯧথ⫳⸈ണ(೒ 16)DŽ䇈ᯢᣝ✻៥೑⦄㸠㾘㣗䆒䅵ⱘ䖭㉏ᓎ
ㄥϞ䚼῾৥ⷁ䎼ṕⱘᡫᔃᔎᑺԢѢᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภⱘ㽕∖DŽᑨ
ᔧ๲ᔎ䖭ѯṕⱘᡫ‫צ‬ภ㛑࡯ˈՓ݊㛑໳ᡓᢙ䖭ϔऎඳⱘ㥋
䕑ঞ㞾䞡ˈᑊᇚ݊Ӵ䗦ࠄⳌ䚏ⱘ᷅ϞDŽ

˄a˅ᑩ䴶 ˄b˅乊䴶
˄a˅
˄b˅
೒ 12 Ꮉ‫ މ‬4 ὐᵓᑩ䴶ঞ乊䴶ܼᑨ࡯˄ऩԡ˖MPa˅
Ꮉ‫ މ‬5˖ᑩሖЁ᷅ 2-C-1 ༅ᬜ
೼ᭈϾ㒧ᵘЁ䛑≵᳝ߎ⦄ลᗻ䫄DŽ㗠Ϩὐᵓᑩ䴶੠乊
䴶ⱘᑨ࡯г↨䕗ᇣˈ䇈ᯢ‫ݙ‬᷅༅ᬜᇍ㒧ᵘⱘᕅડ↨䕗ᇣˈ
ϡӮᓩ䍋㒧ᵘⱘ‫צ‬ภ(೒ 13ǃ14)DŽ ೒ 15 Ꮉ‫ މ‬6 Ё 2 䕈੠ C 䕈ลᗻ䫄ߚᏗ

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ὐᵓϢṕǃ᷅П䯈ⱘ㘨㋏ˈᔶ៤ぎ䯈ᢝ㒧㔥㒰ˈ
Ң㗠ᦤ催ᭈϾ㒧ᵘⱘᡫ‫צ‬ภ㛑࡯DŽ

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V. 㒧䆎
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ㄥ⠽䖯㸠њᡫ䖲㓁‫צ‬ภ᭄ؐ῵ᢳˈᕫࠄҹϟ㒧䆎˖
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ᔃ㛑࡯DŽ
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ᵓⱘফᢝ⸈ണˈ㗠৘ሖЁ᷅༅ᬜϡӮᓩ䍋݊Ϟ䚼
৘ሖὐᵓⱘ⸈ണDŽᑨ䗮䖛Ꮧ㕂ᢝ㒧䩶ㄟ๲ࡴ䖍䎼

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