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1) What is reheating? why it is used?

2) What is regeneration? What is advantage and disadvantage?


3) Which has more efficiency brayton and rankine?
4)what is peak load, load factor?
5) Which type of coal is used in India? what is its problem? HHV
Kindly go through some part of compressible like mach number, rayleigh flow, fanno flow.

It will main depend upon your years of experience and in which field are you in now.

For Freshers probable questions are as follows.

1. water cycle (both circulating & cooling)


2. hot air cycle
3. coal flow process
4. Ash flow process
5. About Heat rate
6.Auxillary power consumption. etc

When you're attending a company which is coal based power plant, they will probably ask
you about the following general questions. (for freshers)

Explain the Rankine Cycle?

How can a plant efficiency be increased by maximising heat addition/ by minimising the
heat rejection?

Explain the working of the powerplant & list out its major components involved with its
purpose?

Differentiate economiser from boiler/ reheater/ superheater. (Answer should contain


sensible heat and latent heat)
Why steam drum is not required in an supercritical boiler?

What is cogeneration? (Answer should contain steam obtained used for both process
heating {paper/textile/sugarcane /steel industries} and electrical power generation)

What is the critical point of water (374 deg c & 222 bar) ? What is metallurgically operating
temperature limit of boiler (about 620 deg c)?

Differentiate steam power cycle (Rankine, uses water as working fluid) from Binary vapour
power cycle (uses two different working fluids Mercury-water, Gas-water) ?

What is main steam stop valve?

You can expect the following questions related to power plants during the Interview:

1. All process cycles (Joule, Brayton, Rankine & Carnot). You will have to be very
thorough with these. These cycles look simple but very complicated questions can be
asked.
2. Water dome diagram and the difference between sub-critical and super-critical boilers
according to it.
3. Fluid dynamics: Working of various turbines, difference between various turbines,
graphs (H vs Q) etc.
4. Basic laws of thermodynamics, Heat transfer and various graphs involved in Heat
transfer (counter-flow & parallel flow).
5. Questions can be asked also from other subjects of engg. like automobile engg.,
instruments etc.
Well check out the following
1-All the working cycles of the plant like steam cycle,condensate cycle,flue gas cycle,primary
air,forced draft cycle,ash cycle and coal cycle
2-The types of fans used in a thermal power plant like Forced Draft Fan,Primary Air
Fan,Induced Draft fan,Seal Air Fan and Scanner air fan
3-The types of Pumps used in a thermal power plant like Boiler Feed Pump,Condensate
Extraction pump,Primary water pump,DMCW pumps,and other smaller pumps
4-Plant efficiency factors like Plant load Factor,availability factor,Heat rate
5-Rankine cycle,modified rankine cycle,what happens if you increase one parameter
keeping the other constant.These type of questions
6-There are different areas in a power plant like Boiler,Turbine,Ash handling,Coal handling
etc They may ask you which one is your favorite.So be prepared to say one and also be ready
to defend your choice
7-All the basics of Thermodynamics
8-Types of Boilers,fans,pumps,cooling tower etc
9-All about Auxiliary Power consumption
10-Water and Steam Chemistry

Well, I can't tell the exact questions (it can be a long list of 100s of questions) asked in the
interviews as they can vary but i could tell the topics that can be important.

The questions can be asked from 3 broad areas.

1. Power plant familiarization :- This section contains the basics of thermal power plant.
It includes the basics of all the major equipments and their functions. One should also
have the knowledge of operation and process control wrt the thermal power plant.
Nowadays in power sector super critical units are replacing the sub critical units, the
basic difference between the two should be known, along with the advantages and
disadvantages.
2. Technical :- As the question is regarding Mechanical, question regarding the function
of various equipments (like tri-sector airpreheater, tdbfp, etc) can be asked. One should
also know the formulas for power efficiency vs speed relation, pressure vs speed
relation etc for pump and fans. Questions on thermodynamics and the modified
Rankine cycle can be asked. New areas of interest like FGD, catalytic Nox reduction,
effluent treatment are areas of focus due to stringent environmental norms.
3. Area of expertise :- If you are a candidate with experience in the power sector,
questions regarding your field in the previous job and the post you are applying for will
be of importance.
I hope I have answered your question, though it has been a long time since i had given an
interview in NTPC Ltd. Since that time NTPC has also started a work in renewable energy
(solar and hydro) and has commissioned a number of units.

Edit:-

I have listed areas that are critical in thermal power plant:-

1. Boiler- Mills , Gravimetric feeder, Low Nox burner, NFPA 85


2. Fans - ID, FD,PA fans
3. Steam cycle - Superheater, Reheater (structure and location),Safety valve
(Electrohdraulic system)
4. Turbine - Main Turbine, 500Mw and 200Mw governing system, Electrohydralic
governing, Turbine protection, LP and HP hydraulic system
5. Condensate cycle - Regenerative heating (HP heaters and LP heaters), Vacuum pumps
and ejectors

1. What is primary separator and secondary separator in boiler drum?

2. What is induction motor principle?

3. Simple boiler internal diagram?


4. What is mean by HP and LP dozing?

5. Draw condenser to boiler drum scheme path?

6. Draw switch yard to line single line diagram?

7. What is mean by attemperation location and where are its sources for super heater and re
heater?

8. What is the percentage of nitrogen and oxygen in air?

9. What is mean by LDC and SLDC and what they do?

10.What are the sources for PRDS? (AST header source)

11. What is the AST output?

12.What are the cooling tower types?

13.What is mean by dry ash and wet ash? (dry ash – bottom ash in ESP)

14. Explain the dry ash to silo path?

15. Explain heat triangle?

16. What is the value of drum pH level?

17. What is mean by CBD and EBD?

18. What is salient pole and non-salient pole?

19. Why hydrogen is used in generator instead of air?

20. Explain GT protection

21. LA, WT, CT, CVT, PT – draw symbols?

22. Explain RH protection?

23. What are the protection of boilers?

24. What is mean by proximity analysis and ultimate analysis?

25. Why deareator and what is its function?

26. Condensate extraction pump works at what pressure?


27. why speed is maintained at 3000 RPM?

28. what are the different types of governor?

29. different types of compressors in power plant?

30. different types of Air used in power plant?

31. from mill house fuel is transported to boiler?

32. classification of turbine?

33. different types of soot blowers used in thermal power plant?

34. whether stator conductor is hollow?

35. why CDP drain is open?

36. what is mean by RO? (reverse osmosis)

37. explain mill protection?

38. what are the types of valves?

39. safety valve and EPRV valve?

40. explain air conditioning cycle?

41. draw DM plant scheme?

42. SWS parameters?

43. what is mean by scanner air fan and explain?

44. explain EOP?

45. explain JOP, AOP, Injector?

46. where is MOP located?

47. what is mean by drag link chain conveyor?

48.what is fastener’s types.

49.explain ESP principle?


50.explain ACW uses?

51. what is mean by Drip and Drain - draw the scheme?

52.what is normal drain, emergency drain and alternate drain?

53.seal trough uses?

54.what is the percentage of ash in coal.

55.working principle of chimney?

56.what is mean by acid dew temperature?

57.explain natural draft cooling?

58.explain LP/HP bypass?

59.what is mean by purging/

60.what is the cost of LDO and HFO ?

61. relation of pressure , volume in fluid mechanics?

62.what is the nozzle principle?

63.method of ash disposal in silo.

64.what is the heat remove in the condenser/

65.commissioning of boiler?

66.what is the sequence of oil burner?

67.atomization- why we need to do that?

68.what is on-load tube cleaning?

69.what is the purpose of condenser?

70.what is long retractable soot blower and why it is used?

71. what is mean by hydro test?

72.What is mean by MFT?


73.what are the turbine protections?

74.what are the boiler protections?

75.what is DG? (diesel generator)

76.what is GIS? (Gas insulated substation)

77.What are the types of breaker?

78.what is the principle of ejectors?

79.explain bottom ash handling?

80.how many safety valves are present?

81. what is buccholz relay?

82.what is governing?

83.what are the types of Air used in power plant?

84.what are the types of extinguisher and where it is used?

85.explain ESP principle?

86.what is induction motor principle?

87.what are the various level of voltage in power plant?

88.what is the steam source for GSH.

89.deluge valve in the conveyor

90.method of extinguishing fire inside the mill? (mill inert steam)

91. what is drift in cooling tower?

92.what happens if stator conductors gets punctured?

93.what is mean by GDS? (gas distribution screen)

94.explain centrifugal and centripetal forces?

95.what is scoop in hydro coupling?


96.centrifuge ? how does it work? And where does the water enters inside it?

97.what is ETP.

98.draw PT and CUT symbols.

99.LHS in coal handling system?(hint – conveyor safety)

100.what is corona? And where it is used?

101.ESP collecting and emitting electrodes terminals?

102.types of voltages in power plant?

103.PRDS system?

104.difference between metal detector and magnetic separator difference?

105.how fly ash gets collected in the ESP?

106.explain transformer cooling

107.protection of power plant?( class A, class B)

108.what are the furnace losses?

109.how many relays are there in MFT?

110.when MFT will get activated?

111.explain nozzle principle?

112.what is acid cleaning?

113.what is CEP?

114.what is the purpose of deareator?

115.explain Fahrenheit?

116.what is the purpose of ID fan?

117.what are the DC power voltage level?

118.what are the DC equipments in power plant?


119.what is the purpose of cooling tower?

120.what is steam blow out?

121.what is soot & how it is formed and methods to reduce soot?

122.what is soot blowers. What is the operating conditions of soot blowers?

123.direction of rotation of tri-sector RAPH with respect to flue gas duct?

124.how many boiler safety valves. What are the operating condition of boiler safety valves.

125.what is JOP, MOP?

126.what is LP dozing and HP dozing?

127.where is ammonium dozed in boiler?

128.what is drip and drain?

129.what is static and dynamic excitation?

130.what is CRO?

131.PLCC why it is used?

132.HRH,CRH which tubes are bigger in size?

133.what is seal air fan?

134.Types of fire extinguishers?

135.whare are the solid, liquid and gaseous pollutants.

136.how is bottom ash is disposed?

137.why chimney is at that particular height?

138.different between RO and DM plant?

139.what is EOP?

140.explain hydrogen evacuation? Explain the percentage ratio?

141.what is soot blowing?


142.what is the moisture content in coal?

143.what are the types of mills?

144.what is dew point?

145.how is PF coal is taken to the furnace and at what temperature?

146.protections in generator?

147.when MFT initiates?

148.chemical dozing in boiler drum? Why?

149.what is deluge valve? How it works?

150.how to detect condenser tube leakage?

151.explain modified rankine cycle?

152.explain difference between fly ash and bottom ash?

153.purpose of scanner air fan?

154.usage if FD fan?

155.draw the flue gas path?

156.what are the various voltage levels?

157.what is attemperation.

158.BFP stages?

159.how fly ash is disposed?

160.types of draught?

161.types of fans?

162.drift losses?

163. ID fan usage?

164.generator output voltage level.


165.what is the kg of coal require to generate one unit?

166.calorific valve of coal.

167.difference between wet bulb and dry bulb temperature?

168.explain air ventilation?

169.LPT diaphragm?

170.what is 3T.?

171.what is scaling?

172.what is SAT, UAT, ST?

173.what is the unit of sound?

174.explain cooling tower principle?

175.what lighting arrestor? And where it is used?

176.what is ETP?

177.what is isotopes?

178.what is centrifuge?

179.what is service air?

180.baring gear in LMW?

181.what is the pressure of seal oil?

182.difference between instrument air and service air?

183.how moisture is removed in instrument air?

184.what is centrifuge and why it is called centrifuge?

185.CPU – condensate polishing unit?

186.excitation system?

187.HP/LP bypass – scheme?


188.why deaerator is in high level and why booster pump is used?

189.needle valve, where it is used?

190.difference between globe valve and gate valve?

191.how butterfly valves work?

192.where CBD and EBD valves are located?

193.what is priming in pumps?

194.deaerator pegging steam?

195.why NRV is used after pump, why can’t be used before pump?

196.what is air preheater?

197.how bore well pump sucks water from below 100 feet?

198.whether main ejector is in service with the circuit?

199.AST used in what all places?

200.boiler – purpose, components and combustion

201.soot blower types?

202.excitation static type, dynamic type block diagram

203.what is grid?

204.fuel calorific valve? Ash and moisture content? Indian coal and imported coal?

205.capacity of power in tamil nadu?

206.what is SCR?

207.gland steam condenser – principle of steam collecting

208.transformer rating?

209.what is diaphragm?

210.what is AVR and how it is controlled?


211.SCR thyristor didoe symbol purpose?

212.what is firing angle?

213.what is mill inert steam/

214.PLF and availability factor?

215.DM plant scheme?

216.where conduction, convection and radiation takes place in boiler?

217.boiler safety valve location?

218.sequence of safety valve operation?

219.centrifuge working?

220.cycles of concentration in cooling tower?

221.thermodynamic first law?

222. Rankine cycle and modified rankine cycle difference?

223.Difference between entropy and enthalpy?

224.turbo separator process?

225. GT protection?

226. Location in boiler where flue gas temperature is high?

227.sequence of oil gun operation?

228.what is global warming?

229.what is acid rain?

230.what is green house effect?

231.what are the emergency equipment to be running during black out?

232.bunker to boiler scheme?

233.carbon content and volatile content?


234.what is HGI?

235.atomization in LDO and HFO?

236.bowl bill and beater wheel mill?

237.air compressor?

238.emulsifier?

239.FCNRV?

240.steam cycle and condensate cycle?

241.different types of water in plant?

242.sealing system?

243.red colour is more prevalent than other colours? Why?

244.corona in ESP?

245.what is drip , drain and alternate drain?

246.abrasive, corrosion and erosion?

247.seal oil system vacuum pump location?

248.why recirculation is taken for CEP after GSC.

249.motoring of generator?

250.temperature of primary air?

251.stress relieving?

252.state henry law?

253.chlorination in power plant?

254.coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation?

255.isometric?

256.what is eddy current?


257.lamination in core of transformer?

258.seal labyrinth?

259.what is shrouds?

260.FD fan and ID fan – axial and radial fan?

261.burner tilting?

262. What is PA fan and purpose and what happens if PA fan trips?

263.what is vector group?

264.absolute pressure and gauge pressure?

265.what is CT and PT?

266.what is steam blow out and alkali boil out?

267.material used in SH, RH water wall?

268.what is EDTA?

269.what is passivation?

270.electrical energy calculation?

271.what are the permissive to start a mill?

272.what are the purging permissive?

273.what are the boiler losses?

274.why unburnt carbon deposit in the bottom?

275.what is BMS?

276.scheme condenser to deaerator?

277.what is black out and emergency run?

278.effect of cooling water puncture?

279.methods for ash disposal?


280.explain rankine cycle?

281.what is seal trough?

282.boiler expansion?

283.economizer recirculation

284.CEP will create vacuum or not?

285.what is hydrogen gas cooler?

286.what is CEP drain?

287.why 3 safety valve in HRH & drum?

288.why re heater is necessary?

289.carbon content in different types of coal?

290.boiler efficiency?

291.generator synchronizing parameters to be matched?

292.explain turbine trips?

293.what is heat rate?

294.what are the boiler protection.

295.what is GIS? Its purpose?

296.what is SF6 circuit breaker?

297.scheme of FD fan to chimney?

298.unit of capacitance, inductance and frequency?

299.explain CT, CVT, PT?

300.difference between static and dynamic head?

301.turbo super visionary?

302.what is pumped storage plant?


303.difference between hydro power plant and TPS?

304.hydrogen is stored in or not stored after removing it from generator?

305.losses in TPS?

306.why ID fan capacity is more?

307.flue gas outlet at RAPH , why oxygen is more, what is the reason?

308.cooling of circulating water?

309.have u seen MOCB near cooling tower?

310.why we use SF6 as medium why can’t we use nitrogen?

311.what is the advantage of CFBC.

312.steam blow out disturbance factor?

313.COC ? how much to be maintained?

314.WBT ,DBT difference between those in cooling tower?

315.uses of cooling medium in transformer?

316.how water is used to cool the generator and why water is not getting short circuited
inside generator?

317.why water is not used in transformer for cooling purpose?

318.what happens when scanner fan air trips?

319.what are the primary and secondary fuel in boiler?

320.What is PA and seal air?

321.what is transformer breather?

322.what is wave trap?

323.water critical pressure?

324.why ESP collecting electrode is +ve?

325.what is subzero cooling?


326.mill reject?

327.3 element control?

328.what heat is rejected in the condense? Why sensible heat is not rejected in condenser?