Electromagnetism
Problems and solutions
Electromagnetism
Problems and solutions
Carolina C Ilie
State University of New York at Oswego, USA
Zachariah S Schrecengost
State University of New York at Oswego, USA
Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Copyright ª 2016 Morgan & Claypool Publishers
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ISBN 
9781681744292 (ebook) 
ISBN 
9781681744285 (print) 
ISBN 
9781681744315 (mobi) 
DOI 10.1088/9781681744292
Version: 20161101
IOP Concise Physics ISSN 20532571 (online) ISSN 20547307 (print)
A Morgan & Claypool publication as part of IOP Concise Physics
Published by Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 40 Oak Drive, San Rafael, CA, 94903 USA
IOP Publishing, Temple Circus, Temple Way, Bristol BS1 6HG, UK
To my family, my mentors, and my students — CCI
To my friends, family, and mentors — ZSS
Contents
Preface 
x 

Acknowledgements 
xii 

About the authors 
xiii 

1 
Mathematical techniques 
11 

1.1 Theory 
11 

1.1.1 
Dot and cross product 
11 

1.1.2 
Separation vector 
11 

1.1.3 
Transformation matrix 
12 

1.1.4 
Gradient 
12 

1.1.5 
Divergence 
12 

1.1.6 
Curl 
13 

1.1.7 
Laplacian 
13 

1.1.8 
Line integral 
14 

1.1.9 
Surface integral 
14 

1.1.10 
Volume integral 
14 

1.1.11 
Fundamental theorem for gradients 
14 

1.1.12 
Fundamental theorem for divergences (Gauss’ s theorem, Green ’ s theorem, divergence theorem) 
14 
1.1.13 Fundamental theorem for curls (Stoke’s theorem, curl theorem) 14
1.1.14 
Cylindrical polar coordinates 
14 

1.1.15 
Spherical polar coordinates 
15 

1.1.16 
Onedimensional Dirac delta function 
15 

1.1.17 
Theory of vector fields 
15 

1.2 Problems and solutions 
15 

Bibliography 
134 

2 
Electrostatics 
21 

2.1 
Theory 
21 

2.1.1 
Coulomb’ s law 
21 

2.1.2 
Electric field 
21 

2.1.3 
Gauss’ s law 
22 

⃗ 

2.1.4 
Curl of 
_{E} 
22 

2.1.5 
Energy of a point charge distribution 
22 
vii
Electromagnetism
2.1.6 Energy of a continuous distribution 
22 

2.1.7 Energy per unit volume 
22 

2.2 
Problems and solutions 
23 

Bibliography 
235 

3 
Electric potential 
31 

3.1 Theory 
31 

3.1.1 Laplace’ s equation 
31 

3.1.2 Solving Laplace’ s equation 
31 

3.1.3 General solutions 
34 

3.1.4 Method of images 
35 

3.1.5 Potential due to a dipole 
36 

3.1.6 Multiple expansion 
36 

3.1.7 Monopole moment 
36 

3.2 Problems and solutions 
36 

Bibliography 
329 

4 
Magnetostatics 
41 

4.1 Theory 
41 

4.1.1 Magnetic force 
41 

4.1.2 Force on a current carrying wire 
41 

4.1.3 Volume current density 
41 

4.1.4 Continuity equation 
42 

4.1.5 Biot –Savart law 
42 

⃗ 

4.1.6 Divergence of 
_{B} 
42 

4.1.7 Ampère’s law 
42 

4.1.8 Vector potential 
42 

4.1.9 Magnetic dipole moment 
43 

4.1.10 Magnetic field due to dipole moment 
43 

4.2 Problems and solutions 
43 

Bibliography 
426 

5 
Electric fields in matter 
51 

5.1 
Theory 
51 

5.1.1 Induced dipole moment of an atom in an electric field 
51 

5.1.2 Torque on a dipole due to an electric field 
51 

5.1.3 Force on a dipole 
51 
viii
Electromagnetism
5.1.4 Energy of a dipole in an electric field 
52 

⃗ 

5.1.5 Surface bound charge due to polarization _{P} 
52 

⃗ 

5.1.6 Volume bound charge due to polarization _{P} 
52 

⃗ 

5.1.7 Potential due to polarization 
_{P} 
52 

5.1.8 Electric displacement 
52 

5.1.9 Gauss’ s law for electric displacement 
52 

5.1.10 Linear dielectrics 
52 

5.1.11 Energy in a dielectric system 
53 

5.2 
Problems and solutions 
53 

Bibliography 
526 

6 
Magnetic fields in matter 
61 

6.1 Theory 
61 

6.1.1 Torque on a magnetic dipole moment 
61 

6.1.2 Force on a magnetic dipole 
61 

6.1.3 Hfield 
61 

6.1.4 Linear media 
62 

⃗ 

6.1.5 Surface bound current due to magnetization _{M} 
62 

⃗ 

6.1.6 Volume bound current due to magnetization _{M} 
62 

6.2 Problems and solutions 
62 

Bibliography 
614 
ix
Preface
We wrote this book of problems and solutions having in mind the undergraduate student— sophomore, junior, or senior— who may want to work on more problems and receive immediate feedback while studying. The authors strongly recommend the textbook by David J Grifﬁ ths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, as a ﬁ rst source manual, since it is recognized as one of the best books on electrodynamics at the undergraduate level. We consider this book of problems and solutions a companion volume for the student who would like to work on more electrostatic problems by herself/himself in order to deepen their understanding and problems solving skills. We add brief theoretical notes and formulae; for a complete theoretical approach we suggest Grifﬁ ths’ book. Every chapter is organized as follows: brief theoretical notes followed by the problem text with the solution. Each chapter ends with a brief bibliography. We plan to write a second volume on electrodynamics, which will start with Maxwell ’ s equations and the conservation laws, and then discuss electromagnetic (EM) waves, potentials and ﬁ elds, radiation, and relativistic electrodynamics. We follow here the notation of Grifﬁ ths, and use _{r} ⃗for the vector from a source
point
notation already greatly simpliﬁ es complex equations, but you need to be careful with your notation, in particular if you only use cursive or typed letters. Also, we use the same notation s for the distance to the z axis in cylindrical coordinates as is used in Grifﬁ ths’ book. The chosen units are SI units— the international system. The reader should be aware that other books may employ either the Gaussian system (CGS) or the Heaviside–Lorentz (HL) system. The Coulomb force in each of the systems is as follows,
SI system:
r ⃗ ′
to the ﬁ eld point _{r} _{⃗}_{.} Please note that _{r} ˆ =
⃗
r
r
r ⃗−
r ⃗′
∣
r ⃗−
r ′⃗∣
=
and, as you see, this
CGS:
HL:
⃗ F = 
4 _{1} πε 
0 q q 1 2 r 2 
ˆ r 

⃗ F = ⃗ F = _{1} q q 1 2 r 2 ˆ r q q 1 2 ˆ r 

4 
π 
r 2 
Some of the problems are typical practice problems with the pedagogical role of improving understanding and problem solving skills. Several of the problems presented here appear in a variety of undergraduate textbooks on EM as they are classic examples; however, we felt it would be incomplete to omit these problems as
x
Electromagnetism
they are fundamental to the study of EM. We also present problems that are more general in nature, which may be a bit more challenging. We tried to maintain a balance between the two types of problems, and we hope that the readers will enjoy this variation and have as much thrill and excitement as we had while creating and solving these problems.
xi
Acknowledgements
We want to thank to Dr Ilie ’s students, Nicholas Jira, Vincent DeBiase, Ian Evans, and Andres Inga, who contributed to the editing (typing) of this book. We are particularly grateful to our illustrator, Julia D’ Rozario, for making all of the ﬁgures. We thank Dr Ildar Sabirianov for providing useful suggestions. We thank the administration at SUNY Oswego and the of ﬁ ce of Research and Individualized Student Experiences for overall support. We are grateful to Dr Peter Dowben, from the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, who thought that such a project has a niche. A thought of appreciation to Dr Charles Ebner, from the Ohio State University for his perfect Electrodynamics course. Also many thanks to our editors, Joel Claypool, Publisher at Morgan & Claypool Publishers, Jeanine Burke, Consulting Editor at the IOP Concise Physics ebook program, and Jacky Mucklow, Production Team Manager at the Institute of Physics. Lastly, we thank to our families and friends for their sense of humor, encouragement, and for keeping us sane and happy.
xii
About the authors
Carolina C Ilie
Carolina C Ilie is an Associate Professor with tenure at the State University of New York at Oswego. She taught Electromagnetic Theory for almost ten years and designed various problems for her students ’ exams, group work, and quizzes. Dr Ilie obtained her PhD in Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, an MSc in Physics at Ohio State University and another MSc in Physics at the University of Bucharest, Romania. She received the President ’ s Award for Teaching Excellence in 2016 and the Provost Award for Mentoring in Scholarly and Creative Activity in 2013. She lives in Central New York with her spouse, also a physicist, and their two sons. Photograph courtesy of James Russell/SUNY Oswego Ofﬁ ce of Communications and Marketing.
Zachariah S Schrecengost
Zachariah S Schrecengost is a State University of New York alumnus. He graduated summa cum laude with a BS degree having completed majors in Physics, Software Engineering, and Applied Mathematics. He took the Advanced Electromagnetic Theory course with Dr Ilie and was thrilled to be involved in creating this book. He brings to the project both the fresh perspective of the student taking electrodynamics, as well as the enthusiasm and talent
of an alumnus who is an electrodynamics and upper level mathematics aﬁ cionado. Mr Schrecengost works as a software engineer in Syracuse and is preparing to begin his graduate school studies in physics.
Julia R D ’ Rozario
Julia R D ’ Rozario (illustrator ) graduated from the State University of New York at Oswego in December 2016 where she completed a BS in Physics and a BA in Cinema and Screen Studies, and completed a minor in Astronomy by May 2016. She completed the Advanced Electromagnetic Theory course with Dr Ilie and has much experience of the arts through her career in ﬁ lm. Ms D ’ Rozario contributes her knowledge of electrodynamics and her
talent in drawing using Inkscape software. Her future aim is to attend graduate school and continue to combine her passions for physics and cinema.
xiii
IOP Concise Physics
Electromagnetism
Problems and solutions Carolina C Ilie and Zachariah S Schrecengost
Chapter 1
Mathematical techniques
There are a variety of mathematical techniques required to solve problems in electromagnetism. The aim of this chapter is to provide problems that will build conﬁ dence in these techniques. Concepts from vector calculus and curvilinear coordinate systems are the primary focus.
1.1 Theory
1.1.1 Dot and cross product
Given vectors
⃗
A = Axˆ + Ayˆ + Azˆ
xyz
and ⃗
B = Bxˆ + Byˆ + Bzˆ
xyz
⃗
A
×
⃗
A
⋅
⃗
B =++=A B
xx
A B
yy
A B
zz
⃗ =
B
xyz ˆ ˆ
AAA
_{ˆ}
xyz
BBB
xyz
⃗
with A
×
AB cos θ
⃗
B
= AB sin θ
where
between
A
⃗
= ∣
⃗
_{A} and
A ∣= AAA+
^{2}^{2}^{2} ^{,}
+
xyz
⃗
B .
B
= ∣
⃗
B ∣= BBB+
+
_{x}_{y}_{z}
^{2}^{2}^{2} , and _{θ} is the angle
1.1.2 Separation vector
This notation is outlined by David J Grifﬁ ths in his book Introduction to Electrodynamics (1999, 2013). Given a source point _{r} _{′}_{⃗} and ﬁ eld point _{r} _{⃗}_{,} the separation vector points from _{r} _{′}_{⃗} to _{r} _{⃗}_{a}_{n}_{d} is given by
r ⃗= r _{⃗}_{−} r _{⃗}_{′}_{=} ( x − xx′)(ˆ +
y −′yy)(ˆ +
z − zz′ˆ)
Electromagnetism
and the unit vector pointing from _{r} _{′}_{⃗} to _{r} _{⃗}_{i}_{s}
(
x
−
′
xx
ˆ +
)(
y
−′
yy
ˆ +
)(
z
−
)
′ˆ
zz
As explained by Grif ﬁths, this notation greatly simpliﬁ es later equations.
1.1.3 Transformation matrix
Given vector
coordinate system _{K} _{′} are determined by rotational matrix _{R} given by
⃗
A = Axˆ + Ayˆ + Azˆ
xyz
in coordinate system _{K}_{,} the components of
R =
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
RRR
xx
xy
xz
RRR
yx
yy
yz
RRR
zx
zy
zz
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
with 

⎛ 
A 
′ 

⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 
x 

′ 

A 
y 

⎜ ⎝ 
A 
′ z 

1.1.4 
Gradient 
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟ ⎠
= R
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝ A ⎠
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎞
A
x
A
y
z
.
⃗
_{A} in
Given a scalar function _{T} , the gradients for various coordinate systems are given below.
Cartesian
Cylindrical
Spherical
∇
T
∇
T
=
∇
T
=
∂
T
∂
x
x ˆ + ^{∂}
∂ y ^{y}
T
ˆ + ^{∂}
∂
z
T
z ˆ
∂
T
∂
s
s ˆ +
1 ∂ T
∂
s ϕ
ˆ
ϕ +
∂
T
∂
z
z ˆ
=
∂
T
r ˆ +
1
∂
T
∂
r
r
∂
θ
ˆ 1
θ +
∂ T
r sin θ ϕ
∂
ˆ
ϕ
1.1.5 Divergence
Given vector function _{v} _{⃗}_{,} the divergences for various coordinate systems are given below.
Cartesian
∇ ⋅
v ⃗= ^{∂}
∂
v
x
x
+
12
^{∂}
v
y
∂
y
+
^{∂}
v
z
∂
z
Cylindrical
Spherical
∇ ⋅
v ⃗=
1
r
2
∇ ⋅
v ⃗=
∂
∂
r
()
2
r v
r
Electromagnetism
1
s
+
∂
∂
s
(
sv
s
1
) +
∂
r sin θ θ
∂
1
∂
v
ϕ
^{∂}
v
z
+
s ϕ
∂
∂
z
(
sin θ v
θ
)
+
1
∂
v
ϕ
r sin θ ϕ
∂
1.1.6 Curl
Given vector function _{v} _{⃗}_{,} the curls for various coordinate systems are given below.
Cartesian 

∇ 
× 

Cylindrical 
⎛
∂
v
z
v ⃗= ⎜ ⎝ ∂ y
−
^{∂}
v
y
⎞
⎟ x ˆ + ∂ z ⎠
⎛ ∂ v
⎜
⎝
x
∂ z
−
∂ v ⎞
z
∂ x
⎟
⎠
⎛
∂
v
y
y ˆ + ⎜ ⎝ ∂ x
∇ ×
⎛
v ⃗= ⎜ ⎝ s ϕ
1
∂
v
z
∂
v
ϕ
⎞
∂
∂ z ⎠
−
⎟ s ˆ +
⎛ ∂ v
z
∂ v ⎞
∂ s
⎜
⎝
∂
sz
−
⎟
⎠
ˆ
ϕ +
1
⎡
⎢
∂
ss ⎣ ∂
(
−
sv
ϕ
^{∂}
v
x
⎞
⎟ z ˆ ∂ y ⎠
)
−
⎤
v
s
∂
⎥ z ˆ ∂ ϕ ⎦
Spherical
∇ ×
v ⃗=
1
⎡
⎢
⎣ ∂
∂
r sin θ
θ
(
sin θ v
ϕ
)
+
1 ⎡ ∂
r
⎢ ⎣
∂ r
(
rv
θ
)
−
v r ⎤
⎥ ⎦
^{∂}
∂ θ
−
ˆ
ϕ
^{∂}
v
θ
∂ ϕ
⎤
⎥ r ˆ +
⎦
1
⎡
⎢
⎣ sin
1
∂
v
r
^{∂} (
∂
r
r
θϕ ∂
−
rv
ϕ
⎤
) ⎥ θ
⎦
ˆ
1.1.7 Laplacian
Given a scalar function _{T} , the Laplacians for various coordinate systems are given below.
Cartesian 

Cylindrical 

∇ 
2 

Spherical 
T
∇
2
=
T
1
s
= ^{∂}
2
T
∂
x
2
+ ^{∂}
2
∂
y
2
T
+ ^{∂}
2
∂
z
2
T
∂ ⎛
∂
s
⎜
⎝
s
∂ T ⎞
∂ s
⎟
⎠
+
1
∂
2
T
∂
2
T
+
s
2
∂
ϕ
2
∂
z
2
∇
2
T
=
1
r
2
∂ ⎛
2
∂ T ⎞
∂
r
⎜⎟
⎝
r
∂ r
⎠
+
1
∂
2
r sin θ θ
∂
⎛
⎜
⎝
sin θ
∂ T ⎞
∂ θ
⎟
⎠
+
1
∂
2
T
22
r sin
θϕ ∂
2
13
Electromagnetism
1.1.8 Line integral
Given vector function _{v} _{⃗}_{a}_{n}_{d} path _{P} , a line integral is given by
⃗
∫ b
a P
⃗
v ⃗⋅
⃗
d l ,
where _{a} _{⃗}_{a}_{n}_{d}
along _{P} . In Cartesian coordinates
⃗
_{b} are the end points, and
⃗
d
⃗
l
is the inﬁ nitesimal displacement vector
dd= l xxˆ + d yyˆ + d zzˆ .
1.1.9 Surface integral
Given vector function _{v} _{⃗}_{a}_{n}_{d} surface _{S} , a surface integral is given by
∫
S
v ⃗⋅ d a ⃗,
where _{d} _{a} _{⃗}_{i}_{s} the inﬁ nitesimal area vector that has direction normal to the surface. Note that _{d} _{a} _{⃗}_{a}_{l}_{w}_{a}_{y}_{s} depends on the surface involved.
1.1.10 Volume integral
Given scalar function _{T} and volume _{V} , a volume integral is given by
∫
V
T d τ ,
where _{d} _{τ} is the in ﬁ nitesimal volume element. In Cartesian coordinates d τ = dddxyz .
1.1.11 Fundamental theorem for gradients
⃗
∫ b
a P
⃗
(
∇
T )d
⋅
⃗
l =
(
⃗
Tb
)
−
(
Ta ⃗
)
1.1.12 Fundamental theorem for divergences (Gauss’ s theorem, Green ’ s theorem, divergence theorem)
∫
V
(∇ ⋅ v _{⃗}_{)}_{d} τ =
∮
S
va⃗⋅ d ⃗
1.1.13 Fundamental theorem for curls (Stoke ’ s theorem, curl theorem)
∫
S
(
∇ ×
va) d
⃗
⋅
⃗=
∮
P
v ⃗⋅
⃗
d l
1.1.14 Cylindrical polar coordinates
Here our in ﬁ nitesimal quantities are
⃗ 
ˆ 

d 
l 
= d ss s dd+ zzˆ ˆ + ϕ ϕ 
and
d τ = ssd d ϕ d.z
14
Electromagnetism
1.1.15 Spherical polar coordinates
Here our in ﬁ nitesimal quantities are
and
d
⃗
l
=
d rr
ˆ +
r d
ˆ
θθ
+
r sin d
ˆ
θ ϕϕ
2
d τ = r sin θ d r d θϕd .
1.1.16 Onedimensional Dirac delta function
The onedimensional Dirac delta function is given by
δ
(
x
−
a
)
⎧
= ⎨
⎩
0
∞
x
x
≠
=
a
a
and has the following properties
∞
∫
−∞
∞
_{∫} δ
−∞
( x
fx( ) ( x
δ
−
−
ax)d
a )d x
=
=
1
fa( )
1.1.17 Theory of vector ﬁ elds
If the curl of a vector ﬁ eld
gradient of a scalar potential _{V} :
⃗
⃗
_{F} vanishes everywhere, then _{F} can be written as the
∇
⃗ ⃗
× FF = −∇ V .
↔
If the divergence of a vector vanishes everywhere, then
of a vector potential
⃗
A :
⃗
_{F} can be expressed as the curl
∇ ⋅ FFA0
↔
⃗ =
⃗ =∇×
. ⃗
1.2 Problems and solutions
Problem 1.1. Given vectors
⃗
A = 395xyzˆ +
+
ˆ
_{ˆ} and
⃗
B = xyzˆ − + 4
7
ˆ
_{ˆ} , calculate
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 

A 
⋅ _{B} and A × _{B} using vector components and ﬁ nd the angle between 
_{A} and 
B 
using both products.
15
Solution
⃗
AB
⋅
⃗
= (3
x ˆ +
=
(3)(1)
⃗
⋅
A B
⃗ = − 40
Electromagnetism
9
y ˆ +
5 ˆ⋅ )
z
(
x ˆ −
7
y ˆ +
z
4 ˆ )
+
(9)( −+ 7)
(5)(4)
=− 3
63
+
20
_{ˆ} xyz ˆ ˆ 

⃗ 
× B ⃗ = 

A 
395 

1 
− 
74 

= [(9)(4) 
−− ( 7)(5)] 
xy ˆ + − [(1)(5) (3)(4)] ˆ + 
[(3)( 7) −− 
(1)(9)] 
ˆ z 

ˆ AB × ˆ = 71 ˆ x 
− 
7 y ˆ 
− 30 
ˆ z 
To ﬁ nd the angle _{θ} between
⃗
_{A} and
ˆ
_{B} we must ﬁ rst calculate _{A} and _{B} :
A =
B =
Using the dot product, we have
A ⃗ ⋅
⃗ 
1 

B 
= 
AB cos 
θ 
→= θ 
cos 
− 

θ = 
117.3 ° . 
⎛
⎜
⎝
Using the cross product, we have
⃗ 
⃗ 

A 
× 
B 
= 
AB sin 
θ 
→ 
θ =
62.7 .
°
71
22
( 7)
+−
+−
( 30)
2
=
115 66 sin
θ
⃗ 
⃗ 

Note, however, that we can see that the angle between 
_{A} and 
_{B} is greater than _{9}_{0} _{°}_{.} 
For any argument _{γ} , _{−} _{°}_{⩽}
greater than _{9}_{0} _{°}_{,} we must adjust for this by subtracting our angle from _{1} _{8}_{0}_{°}_{.}
Therefore, θ = 180 °− 62.7 °= 117.3 ° as expected.
90
− 1
sin ( _{γ} )
⃗ 
⃗ 

_{⩽} 
90 
_{°} . Since the angle between 
_{A} and 
_{B} is 
16
Electromagnetism
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 
⃗ 

Problem 1.2. The scalar triple product states 
A 
⋅ ()BC = _{B}_{C}_{A}_{(}_{)} . Prove × ⋅ × 
this by expressing each side in terms of its components.
Solution Starting with the lefthand side, the cross product is
⃗
B
×
⃗
C =
=
xyz ˆ ˆ _{ˆ}
BBB xyz
CCC xyz
()
BC
yz
−
BC x
zy
ˆ +
(
BC
zx
−
)
BC y ˆ +
xz
(
BC
xy
)
−ˆ BC z .
yx
Now, dotting
⃗
A B
⃗
⋅
(
⃗
A
⋅
(
⃗
B
×
×
⃗
_{A} with
⃗
( B
×
⃗
C )
⃗
C
⃗
C
)
)
=
(
A BC
x
yz
BC
)(
−+
zy
A BC
y
zx
BC
)(
−+
xz
A BC
z
xy
=−+−+
xyz
xzy
yzx
yxz
ABC
ABC
ABC
ABC
(
CA
)(
= −+
x
yz
zy
B CA
B CA
y
zx
)
−+ CA
x
z
ABC
zxy
(
B CA
z
xy
−
−
−
BC
yx
)
ABC
zyx
CA
yx
)
=
⃗
B
⋅
⎡
⎣
(
CA
yz
−
CA x
zy
)(
ˆ +
CA
zx
−
CA y
xz
)(
ˆ +
CA
xy
−ˆ CA z .
yx
)
⎤
⎦
⃗ 
⃗ 

Note the term in brackets is precisely 
C 
× _{A} , therefore 
⃗
A
⋅
()()
⃗
⃗
×
BC
=
⃗
B
⋅
⃗
⃗
×
CA
as desired. This procedure can easily be applied again to prove the ﬁ nal part of the triple product,
⃗
A
⋅
()()
⃗
⃗
×
BC
=
⃗
B
⋅
⃗
⃗
×
CA
=
⃗
CAB .
⋅
×
(
⃗
⃗
)
Problem 1.3. Given source vector _{r} _{′}_{⃗} _{=} _{r} _{c}_{o}_{s} _{θ} _{x}_{r}_{ˆ} _{+} ﬁ nd the separation vector _{r} ⃗and the unit vector _{r} ˆ .
Solution We have
_{s}_{i}_{n} _{θ}
_{y}_{ˆ} and ﬁ eld vector _{r} _{⃗}_{=} _{z}_{z}_{ˆ} ,
⃗=
r
r ⃗−
r ⃗′=
⃗= _{−} r
r
cos
θ
zz ˆ−
x ˆ −
r
(
r
sin
cos
θ
θ
y ˆ +
x ˆ +
zz ˆ
r
.
sin
θ ˆ
y
)
To determine the unit vector _{r} ˆ , we must ﬁ rst ﬁ nd the magnitude of _{r} ⃗,
r =
( −
r cos )
θ
2
+−
( r sin )
θ
22
+
z
=
(
22
r cos
θθ+
sin
2
)
+
z
2
17
=
Electromagnetism
So
r ˆ =
^{⃗}
r
r
= ^{−}
r
cos
ˆ −
θ x
r
sin
θ
ˆ +
y
zz
ˆ
.
⃗
Problem 1.4. Given
components in system _{K} _{′}_{.}
_{A} in coordinate system _{K} , ﬁ nd the rotational matrix to give the
Solution From the ﬁ gures, we have
A
′
x
= A ,,AA′ =
y
y
x
A
′ = − A .
z
z
We want to ﬁnd the rotational matrix _{R}
that satis ﬁ es
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
A
A
A
′
x
′
y
′
z
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎝ A ⎠
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎛
A
x
= R A .
y
z
From our equations above
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
A
A
A
′
x
′
y
′
z
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
=
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
01
10
00
0
0
−
1
⎞ ⎛
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎝
⎜
⎜ ⎜
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
A ⎠
A
x
A
y
z
.
18
Therefore,
Electromagnetism
R =
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
01
10
00
0
0
−
1
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
.
Problem 1.5. Find the gradient of the following functions:
423
a) Tx=++y
z
b)
c)
Solutions
T
=
2
x ln yz
3
2
T = xy + z
3
423
a) Tx=++y
z
∇
T
=
b)
c)
T
=
2
x ln yz
3
∇
T
T
= ^{∂}
∂
x
2
T = xy + z
3
x ˆ +
∇
T
=
∂
T
∂
x
x ˆ +
∂ T
ˆ
∂ y ^{y}
+
∂
T
∂
x
x ˆ +
T
∂
ˆ
∂ y ^{y}
+
∂
∂
T
z z
ˆ =
∂
∂
T
ˆ = 2 z z
xz
3
ln
T
∂
ˆ
∂ y ^{y}
+
∂
∂
T
z z
ˆ =
3
4 x x ˆ +
23yy ˆ +
2
z z ˆ
y x ˆ +
2
x z
3
y
y ˆ +
2 xyx ˆ +
2
x y
ˆ +
2
2
3x z ln yz ˆ
2
3 z z ˆ
Problem 1.6. Find the divergence of the following functions:
a) v _{⃗}_{=} xyxˆ − 2y zyˆ
b) v _{⃗}_{=} ( x + yx)(ˆ +
Solutions
a) v _{⃗}_{=} xyxˆ − 2y zyˆ
2
3
+ z zˆ
y + zy) ˆ + _{(} z + xz) ˆ
3
+ z zˆ
2
∇
b) v _{⃗}_{=} ( x + yx)(ˆ +
y
∇
⋅
+
⋅
v ⃗= ^{∂}
∂
zy)(ˆ + z + xz) ˆ
v
x
x
^{∂}
v
y
∂
y
+
v ⃗= ^{∂}
∂
v
x
x
+
^{∂}
v
y
∂
y
+
+
^{∂}
v
z
∂
z
^{∂}
v
z
∂
z
=− y
4 yz
+
3 z
2
1113
=++=
Problem 1.7. Find the curl of the following functions:
a) v _{⃗}_{=} xyxˆ − 2y zyˆ
b) v _{⃗}_{=} ( x + yx)(ˆ +
2
3
+ z zˆ
y
+ zy)(ˆ +
z + xz) ˆ
c) v _{⃗}_{=} sin xxˆ + cos yyˆ
19
Electromagnetism
Solutions
2
a) v _{⃗}_{=} xyxˆ − 2y zyˆ
∇
∇
3
+ z zˆ
×
×
⎛
∂
v
z
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