Sei sulla pagina 1di 22

Industrial building project

Personal data:

L = 15 m;
T = 6 m;
Hc = 5 m;
Location: Deva;
Q = 5000 kg;

Predimension of the elements of the envelope


h1 = f(Q) = 0.72 m;
hgr = 0.6 m;
a = 0.15 m;
hbb = 3 * a = 0.45 m;
hhg = 0.35 m;
f = (0.9….1.2) m = 1.176 m
htc = height of the travelling crane = 140 + 14 + 10 + 40
[mm] = 0.204 m;
Hu = Hc + hgr + htc + h1 + f = 5 + 0.6 + 0.204 + 0.72 +
1.176 = 7.7 m;
H = Hu + 2 * a = 7.7 + 2 * 0.15 = 8 m;

hs = Hu – Hc = 7.7 – 5 = 2.7 m ;

hi = H – hs = 8 – 2.7 = 5.3 m

Hw1 = 3 m;

Hp = Hc – a – Hw1 = 5 – 0.15 – 3 = 1.85 m

Hbca1 = 1.8 m ;

Hw2 = hs – hbca1 = 2.7 – 1.8 = 0.9 m;

Hbca2 = Hattic = 1.2 m;


Checking of the load bearing capacity of the roof elements
Permanent loads:

gEP = 1300 daN = 13 kN

gEPL = 1450 daN = 14.5 kN

gΔM = 52 daN/m2 = 0.52 kN/m2

gth = zone II for Deva = 44 daN/m2 = 0.44 kN/m2

Variable loads:

Snow load: Sk = Sk,0 * μi * ce * ct

Sk,0 = 1.5 kN/m2

Sk = 1.5 * 0.8 * 1 * 1 = 1.2 kN/m2

PEPdesign = 1.35 * gth * dEP/2 + 1.5 * Sk * dEP/2 =

= 1.35 * 0.48 * 1.5 / 2 + 1.5 * 1.2 * 1.5 / 2 = 1.836 kN/m

PEPcap = 4.43 kN/m

PEPdesign ≤ PEPcap  1.836 ≤ 4.43 => Condition is fulfilled.

PEPLdesign = 1.35 * gth * dEPL/2 + 1.35 * gΔM * dΔM/2 + 1.5 * Sk * (dEPL/2 + dΔM/2) =

= 1.35 * 0.48 * 1.5 / 2 + 1.35 * 0.52 * 3 / 2 + 1.5 * 1.2 * (1.5 / 2 + 3 / 2) = 5.589 kN/m

PEPLcap = 6.35 kN/m

PEPLdesign ≤ PEPcap  5.589 ≤ 6.35 => Condition is fulfilled.


Design of the number of strands for the transversal girder
Nm = Sk + EP + EPL + ΔM + TG + th =

= 1.5 / 2 * Sk * (T * L) + 1.35 / 2 * (nEP * gEP + nEPL * gEPL + gΔM * (T * ΔM) + gTG + gth * (T
* L - dΔM * T)) = 1.5 / 2 * 1.2 * ( 15 * 6 ) + 1.35 / 2 * (6 * 13 + 2 * 14.5 + 0.52 * 6 * 3 + 56.9 +
0.48 * (6 * 15 – 3 * 6)) = 221.279 kN => Nm/L = 14.75 kN/m

gTG = 5690 daN = 56.9 kN (from table 3)

Pcap for G15-6T = 1.76 tf/m = 17.6 kN/m

Pcaptg ≥ Pdesigntg  17.6 ≥ 14.75 => Condition is fulfilled, we will use a Transversal Girder with 6
strands.

Design of the cross-sections of columns

Ed ≤ Rd  σ ≤ fcd  ≤ fcd => h ≥ ;


̅ ̅

fcd = = 13.33 N/mm2 = 13.33 * 103 kN/m2

η = 1.2;

̅ = 0.3 for a marginal column;

̅ = 0.2 for a central column;

b = 0.4m;

Nm = 221.279 kN;

γbca = 8 kN/m3;

Qw = 0.52 kN/m2;

gTC = weight of the travelling


crane = 4200 kg = 42 kN;

gar = 150 daN/m = 1.5 kN/m;


Na = ba * ha * T * γbca = 0.2 * 1.2 * 6 * 8 = 11.52 kN;

Nbca = bbca * hbca * T * γbca = 0.2 * 1.8 * 6 * 8 = 17.28 kN;

Nw2 = hw2 * T * Qw = 0.9 * 6 * 0.52 = 2.808 kN;

Nsm = b2 * hs * γc = 0.42 * 2.7 * 25 = 10.8 kN;

NTC = gTC + gar * T = 42 + 1.5 * 6 = 51 kN;

Nim = b2 * hi * γc = 0.42 * 5.2 * 25 = 21.2 kN;

Pmax = 36.3 kN => Vmax = 114.684 kN

Pmin = 11.7 kN => Vmin = 36.97kN

L5 = 2.522 m;

L2 = 2 m, for Q = 5000 kg and L = 13.5m from the technical characteristics table for travelling
crane.

Δ1 = (T – L2) / T = (6 – 2) / 6 = 0.6667 m ;

Δ2 = 1m ;

Δ3 = (T – (L5 - L2)) / T = (6 – (2.522 – 2)) / 6 = 0.913 m ;

Δ4 = (T – (L5 - L2) – L2) / T = (6 – (2.522 – 2) – 2) / 6 = 0.5796 m.


Nsm = Nm + 1.35 * (Na + Nw2 + Nbca + Nsm) =

= 221.279 + 1.35 * (11.52 + 2.808 + 17.28 + 10.8) = 278.53 kN

hsm ≥ => hsm ≥ => hsm ≥ 0.21m =>


̅

hsm = 0.4 m, from geometric conditions.

Nm’ = the loads from the roof excepting the snow load

= EP + EPL + ΔM + TG + th =

= 1.35 / 2 * (nEP * gEP + nEPL * gEPL + gΔM * (T * ΔM) + gTG + gth * (T * L - dΔM * T))

= + 1.35 / 2 * (6 * 13 + 2 * 14.5 + 0.52 * 6 * 3 + 56.9 + 0.48 * (6 * 15 – 3 * 6))

 Nm’ = 140.279 kN

Nim = Nm’ + 1.35 * ( Na + Nw2 + Nbca + Nsm + NTC + Nim) + 1.05/2 * Sk + 1.5 * Vmax =

= 140.279 + 1.35 * ( 11.52 + 2.808 + 17.28 + 10.8 + 51 + 21.2) + 1.05/2 * 1.2 * 15 * 6 + 1.5
* 114.684 = 140.279 + 154.72 + 56.7 + 172.026 = 523.725 kN

him ≥ => him ≥ => him ≥ 0.392 =>


̅

him = 0.4 m.

Nsc = b2 * hc * γc = 0.42 * 2.7 * 25 = 10.8 kN;

Nic = b2 * hi * γc = 0.42 * 5.2 * 25 = 21.2 kN;

Nsc = 2 * Nm + 1.35 * Nsc = 2 * 221.279 + 1.35 * 10.8 = 457.138 kN

hsc ≥ => him ≥ => him ≥ 0.514 m =>


̅

hsc = 0.55 m.

Nic = 2 * Nm’ + 1.35 * (Nsc + Nic + 2 * NTC) + 1.05 * Sk + 1.5 * (Vmax + Vmin) =
= 2 * 140.279 + 1.35 * (10.8 + 21.2 + 2 * 51) + 1.05 * 1.2 * 15 * 6 + 1.5 * (114.684 + 36.97)
= 802.34 kN

hic ≥ => him ≥ => him ≥ 0.902 m =>


̅

hic = 0.95 m.

Design of the travelling crane length


L1 = f(Q,mat) = 0.2m

Bgrs = f (GR 6-60) = 0.055 m

Bgri = f (GR 6-60) = 0.0275 m

Ss = 0.1 m

Hsm = 0.4 m

Hsc = 0.55 m

Am’ = max ( l1 + hsm/2 ; bgrs/2


+ Ss + hsm/2 ; 0.4 m ) = ( 0.4 ; 0.327 ; 0.4 ) [m] =>

 Am’ = 0.4 m

Ac’ = max ( l1 + hsc/2 ; bgrs/2 + Ss + hsc/2 ; 0.4 m ) = ( 0.475 ; 0.4775 ; 0.4 ) [m] =>

 Am’ = 0.475 m

Lp = L – (Am’ + Ac’) = 15 – ( 0.4 + 0.475 ) = 14.125 m

Lptab < Lp

Lptab = 13.5 m

Lptab < Lp => Lp – Lptab = 14.125 – 13.5 = Δ => Δ = 0.625 m


Am = Am’ + = 0.4 + 0.3125 => Am = 0.7125 m

Ac = Ac’ + = 0.475+ 0.3125 => Ac = 0.7875 m

Cm ≥ Am + bgri/2 + Ss – hsm/2  Cm ≥ 0.7125 + 0.0275/2 + 0.1 – 0.4/2 =>

 Cm ≥ 0.62625 => Cm= 0.65 m

Cc ≥ Ac + bgri/2 + Ss – hsc/2  Cc ≥ 0.7125 + 0.0275/2 + 0.1 – 0.55/2 =>

 Cc ≥ 0.551255 => Cc= 0.6 m

fsh,d = 0.1 * fc,d = 1.33 * 103

Ash = b * hc

hc ≥

V = 1.35 * NTC + 1.5 * Vmax = 1.35 * 51 + 1.5 * 114.984 => V = 241.326 kN

hc ≥ => hc ≥ 0.453 m => hc ≥ , from geometric conditions

hcv = => hcv = 0.25 m

hcv = => hci = 0.45 m

Design of the upper corbel


δ= = 0.1 m

Lr = supporting length = 25 cm for a 15m tranversal girder.

δ < Lr  0.1 < 0.3 => we need to design a corbel

From geometric conditions:


Lc = 0.2 m
Lr = Lc + δ = 0.1 + 0.2 = 0.3 m

hc = 2.5 * Lc = 0.5 m

hcs = 1/3 * hc = 0.16 m => hcs = 0.15 m

hcs = 2/3 * hc = 0.34 m => hcs = 0.35 m

Evaluation of the eccentricities

e1 = = 0.1 + = 0.25 m;

e2 = = = 0.4 m;

e3 = Am – e2 = 0.7125 – 0.4 = 0.3125 m;

e4 = = = 0.315 m

e5 = = = 0.315 m
Horizontal load evaluation

1. Action of the travelling crane

Tf,max = ∑Δi*Ht,3
HT,3 = max ( Qc/no. of wheels ; 0.1 * (Q + Qc)/ no. of wheels )
No. of wheels = 4
Qc – the weight of the crab = 435 kg = 4.35 kN
HT,3 = max ( 4.35/4 ; 0.1 * (50+4.35)/4) = 1.359 kN

Δ1 = (T – L2) / T = (6 – 2.522) / 6 = 0.6667 m ;

Δ2 = 1m ;

Δ3 = (T – (L5 - L2)) / T = (6 – (2.522 – 2)) / 6 = 0.913 m ;

Δ4 = (T – (L5 - L2) – L2) / T = (6 – (2.522 – 2) – 2) / 6 = 0.58 m.

Tf,max = ∑Δi*Ht,3 = 4.3 kN


2. Horizontal loads from wind actions

w = gIW * cpe * ce(z) * qb,

GIW – importance-exposure factor for wind load =1;

Cpe – aerodynamic coefficient of pressure / suction for external


surfaces.

In order to compute the Cpe we must determine the area on which


the wind acts.

b = 2 (dbca + 0.15 + bsm / 2) + 7 * T + lnz + 8 * T, lnz – the seismic joint = 0.1 m

= 2 * ( 0.2 + 0.15 + 0.4 / 2) + 7 * 6 + 0.2 + 8 * 6 = 91.2 m

d = 2 (dbca + 0.15 + hsm / 2) + 2 * L = 2 * ( 0.2 + 0.15 + 0.4 / 2) + 2 * 15 = 31.1 m

We must determine the wind loads in two


situations:

a) Wind action

For wind action we will take in consideration hD,


including the height of the parapets.

HD = 8.05 m ;

 Cpe = cpe,10 – for areas bigger than 10 m2, flat roof, roof with parapets.
 Hp/h = 1.2 / 8.9 = 0.135 => cpe=
Ce(z) – exposure factor for the height z above the ground

Height of the structure = 8.9 m, and II terrain category => ce(z) = 2.1

qb – dynamic wind pressure at height z above the ground;

qb= 0.4 kN/m2 for Deva;

Finally:

WD’ = 1 * 0.8 * 2.1 * 0.4 = 0.672 kN/m2

Because we must compute the wind load which acts on the area supported by a marginal
column we must multiply WD’ with the bay.

WD = WD’ * T = 0.672 * 6 = 4.032 kN/m.

b) Wind suction

For wind suction we will take in consideration


hE, without the height of the parapets.

HE = 7.7 m ;

 Cpe = cpe,10 – for areas bigger than 10


m2, flat roof, roof with sharp eaves.
 => cpe=

Ce(z) – exposure factor for the height z above the ground

Height of the structure = 7.7 m, and II terrain category => ce(z) = 1.8

qb – dynamic wind pressure at height z above the ground;

qb= 0.4 kN/m2 for Cluj Napoca;

Finally:

WE’ = 1 * 1.2 * 1.8 * 0.4 = 0.864 kN/m2


Because we must compute the wind load which acts on the area supported by a marginal
column we must multiply WD’ with the bay.

WE = WE’ * T = 0.864* 6 = 5.184 kN/m.

Loads from temperature variations

ΔT+n = T+n – T0- ;

ΔT-n = T-n – T0+ ;

T+n, T-n – the outside nominal temperatures (they are coincident with the uniformly distributed
temperatures developed in the construction elements); for the concrete structures:

T+n = 30°C and T-n = -20°C;

T0+, T0- - the initial temperatures corresponding to the time of the construction. For the industrial
halls constructed from the precast concrete elements: T0- = T0+ = 5°C – which is the minimum
temperature needed for concreting.

ΔT+n = 30 – 5 = 25°C ;

ΔT-n = -20 – 5 = -25°C ;

The framing system made of reinforced concrete does not behave perfeclty elastic and, therefore,
the temperatures differences ΔT are corrected using the coefficient nt = 0.5. This correction
influences the design internal force members.

Δtf∓ * (∓ ) ∓ °C

Where:

Δtf – is the design temperature difference that takes into account the imperfect elastic
behavior

Δ α * L * Δt,

L = 7.7 – the height of the structure without the parapets.


α mm/m°C, is the thermal expansios coefficient,

Δ * * 15 = 1.386 mm = 0.001386 m

Δ ∫ >F Δ*( )-1 = 0.8289 kN.

EI1 = the stiffness of the column in the superior part = 63000 kNm2

EI2 = the stiffness of the column in the inferior part = 87000 kNm2

Seismic action (according to P100-2006)


The horizontal seismic action is given by:

Fb = γI * Sd(T) * m * λ,

Where:

- γI – the importance factor


- Sd(T) – ordinate of the design spectrum for the reference return period
- m – total mass of the transverse frame = G/g
- λ - correction factor = 1.

( )
Sd(T) = ag *

ag – design groung acceleration for the


reference return period;

q – behavior factor = 3.5 * 1.15 = 4.025

TC = 0.7 for Deva; =>

TB = 0.07 and TD = 3

( )
β(T) = 1 + if 0 ≤ T ≤
TB;

β(T) = β0 if TB ≤ T ≤ TC;

β(T) = β0 if TC ≤ T ≤ TD;

β(T) = β0 if T > TD;

T = 0.085 * H3/4 = 0.085 * 7.73/4 = 0.392 => TB ≤ T ≤ TC => β(T) = β0;

β0 = 2.5

ag = 0.08 * 9.81 = 0.7848

( )
Sd(T) = ag * = 0.7848 * 2.5 / 4.025 = 0.4875

G – all gravity loads which result from following combination of actions:

G = ∑Gkj + ∑ΨEiQki,

Gkj – the characteristic value of permanent action j (self weight of roof members, self weight of
skkylight, thermal and hydro insulation weight, transverse girder, columns, bearing walls,
runway girders)

Qki – characteristic value of variable action i (snow loads and crane loads)

ΨEi – combination coefficient for variable action i

G = ∑ Gkj + 0.4 * ∑Nz + 0.4 * ∑2(Rmax + Rmin)

Computation of the weight Gi:

1.1. At the roof level:


2 * (gTG + nEP * gEP + nEPL * gEPL + gΔM * (T * ΔM) + gth * (L - dΔM) * T) = 363.64 kN

gΔM d ΔM Roof
L [m] T [m] gTG[kN] nEP [no] gEP[kN] nEPL [no] gEPL[kN] [kN/m2] ΔM [m] gth[kN/m ]2
[m] level[kN]
15 6 56.9 6 13 2 14.5 0.52 3 0.48 3 363.64
1.2. At facades level:
2 * (ha * dbca * T * γbca + hw2 * T * qw + hbca * dbca * T * γbca) = 63.216 kN

L [m] T [m] ha [m] dbca [m] γbca [kN/m3] hw2 [m] Qw [kN/m2] hbca [m] Facades[kN]
15 6 1.2 0.2 8 0.9 0.52 1.8 63.216

1.3. Interior
2 * hsm * b * hs * γc + hsc * b * hs * γc + him * 2 * hi/2 * γc + hic * b * hi/2 * γc + 4 * 2 * ½ *
gTG + 4 * (T/2 + T/2) * qar = 318.625 kN

hsm [m] hsc [m] him [m] hic [m] b [m] hs [m] hi [m] γc [kN/m3] Qar [kN/m] gTC[kN] Interior[kN]
0.4 0.55 0.4 0.95 0.4 2.7 5.3 25 1.5 42 318.625

Computation of live loads Qi

2.1. Snow load


2 * L * (T/2 + T/2) * Sk = 216 kN

L [m] T [m] Sk [kN/m2] Snow [kN]


15 6 1.2 216

2.2.Vmax; Vmin

2 * (Vmax + Vmin) = 303.308 kN

Vmax [kN] Vmin [kN] Vmax,min[kN]


114.684 36.97 303.308

G = 1 * Gi + 0.4 * Qi = 953.2042 kN = 953204 N


 m = G/g = 97166.59 kg
 Fb = γI * Sd(T) * m * λ, = 1 * 0.4875 * 97166.59 * 1 = 473687.7 N = 47.369 kN
Load cases :

1. Dead loads
1.1. At roof level;

1.2. Facades;

1.3. Interior loads;


2. Live loads
2.1. Gravitational loads
2.1.1. Snow loads;

2.1.2. Vmax, Vmin;


2.2. Horizontal loads
2.2.1. Thermal loads;

2.2.2. Wind loads;

2.2.3. Tf max (load given by the travelling crane) ;


3. Exceptional loads
3.1.Seism action Fb;

The cross-sections of the elements:


Gi Qi
Type of Cross Internal Fundamental
2.1. 2.2. Ei SG
column section Efforts 1.1 1.2. 1.3. Group
2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3.
Nx -82.49 -11.52 0 -52.56 0 0 0 0 0 190.2015 103.514
1-1 . Vz 2.64 4.122 0.679 1.682 0 0.011 -8.235 2.514 5.916 23.694 16.0218
My -16.499 3.63 0 -10.512 0 0 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 42.9453 24.336
Nx -82.49 -14.328 -10.595 -52.56 0 0 0 0 0 204.5048 114.109
2-2. Vz 2.64 4.122 0.679 1.682 0 0.011 2.645 -1.786 5.916 14.5446 13.4946
My -23.625 -6.617 -1.834 -15.053 0 -0.03 7.548 -4.208 -15.972 69.82665 52.5386
Marginal
Nx -82.49 -31.604 -61.595 -52.56 - 0 0 0 0 421.7288 210.9826
3-3. Vz 2.64 4.122 0.679 1.682 0 0.011 2.645 -1.786 5.916 14.5446 13.4946
114.684
My 13.495 13.05 2.933 8.599 0 -0.03 7.547 -4.208 -15.973 54.2964 45.6256
Nx -82.49 -31.608 -86.61 -52.56 - 0 0 0 0 455.499 235.9976
4-4. Vz 2.64 4.122 0.679 1.682 0 0.011 23.198 -1.786 5.916 45.3741 21.7158
114.684
My 0.033 -7.973 -0.531 0.021 0 -0.087 -58.353 4.902 -46.143 99.16605 76.2112
Nx -164.98 0 0 -105.12 0 0 0 0 0 380.403 207.028
1-1 . Vz 0 0 -0.584 0 0 0.06 19.747 0 35.608 30.4719 44.1148
My 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nx -164.98 0 -14.568 -105.12 0 0 0 0 0 400.0698 221.596
2-2. Vz 0 0 -0.584 0 0 0.06 19.747 0 35.608 30.4719 44.1148
My 0 0 1.576 0 0 -0.162 -53.317 0 -96.14 82.2732 119.1076
Central
Nx -164.98 0 -116.568 -105.12 -73.94 0 0 0 0 615.4068 353.172
3-3. Vz 0 0 -0.584 0 0 0.06 19.747 0 35.608 30.4719 44.1148
My 0 0 1.576 0 0 -0.162 -53.317 0 -96.14 82.2732 119.1076
Nx -164.98 0 -164.097 -105.12 -73.94 0 0 0 0 679.571 400.701
4-4. Vz 0 0 -0.584 0 0 0.06 19.747 0 35.608 30.4719 44.1148
My 0 0 4.552 0 0 -0.469 -154.026 0 - 237.6767 344.088
Table including all the internal efforts in 4 cross sections of marginal and central column and a Fundamental Grouping.
277.738

Fundamental Group = 1.35 * ∑Gi + 1.5 * max Qi + 1.05 * ∑Qi;

SG = 1 * ∑Gi + 0.4 * ∑Qi + 1 * Ei;


The cross sections of marginal and central column, respectively.