Sei sulla pagina 1di 147

P a g e

|

1

P a g e | 1 www.IASbaba.com
P a g e | 1 www.IASbaba.com
P a g e | 1 www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 2

PREFACE

With the present shift in examination pattern of UPSC Civil Services Examination, ‘General Studies – II and General Studies III’ can safely be replaced with ‘Current Affairs’. Moreover, following the recent trend of UPSC, almost all the questions are issue-based rather than news-based. Therefore, the right approach to preparation is to prepare issues, rather than just reading news.

Taking this into account, our website www.iasbaba.com will cover current affairs focusing more on ‘issues’
Taking this into account, our website www.iasbaba.com will cover current affairs focusing
more on ‘issues’ on a daily basis. This will help you pick up relevant news items of the day
from various national dailies such as The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, LiveMint,
Business Line and other important Online sources. Over time, some of these news items will
become important issues.
UPSC has the knack of picking such issues and asking general opinion based questions.
Answering such questions will require general awareness and an overall understanding of
the issue. Therefore, we intend to create the right understanding among aspirants – ‘How to
cover these issues?
This is the 18th edition of IASbaba’s Monthly Magazine. This edition covers all important
issues that were in news in the month of November 2016.
Value add’s from IASbaba- Must Read and Connecting the dots.
‘Must Read’ section, will give you important links to be read from exam perspective. This
will make sure that, you don’t miss out on any important news/editorials from various
newspapers on daily basis.
Under each news article, ‘Connecting the dots’ facilitates your thinking to connect and
ponder over various aspects of an issue. Basically, it helps you in understanding an issue
from multi-dimensional view-point. You will understand its importance while giving Mains
or Interview.

Must Read Articles: We have not included them in the magazine. Those following DNA on daily basis may follow it- http://iasbaba.com/babas-daily-news-analysis/

The country doesn’t deserve anything less than success from us. Let us aim for success.” — Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

All the Best

less than success from us. Let us aim for success . ” — Dr. A.P.J. Abdul
less than success from us. Let us aim for success . ” — Dr. A.P.J. Abdul

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 3

NATIONAL

INDEX

(Pages 5-61)

India’s competitiveness and challenges ahead

Miseries of a contract labour

Agricultural reforms- Now is the time

 Creation of All India Judicial Services- a road towards judicial transformation  Banning the
Creation of All India Judicial Services- a road towards judicial transformation
Banning the media: Where should the lines be drawn?
Linking food and nutrition security
Appraisal of Autonomous Bodies – Rationale and Methodology
Satluj Yamuna Link Canal- Water sharing disputes continue in India
Collegium System – Past and Present
Crimes against women- Trends and Analysis
Promoting medical education as public good
Electoral financial reforms need to follow demonetisation
National Litigation Policy
Towards a cashless society- the demonetisation effect
Fighting the corruption on six fronts
Indore- Patna Express derailment- Learning from disasters
Refugees in India –Challenges and Strategy
Police Reforms in India
Towards a behavioural change- Demonetisation effect
Gender Equality in India: Long road ahead
INTERNATIONAL
(Pages 62-82)
 RCEP – An Agreement marred by disagreements and divergence
 BRICS – Need to show the real potential
 India-UK Relations – Visit by the British Prime Minister
 India Japan – Civil Nuclear Deal
 India-China and the Changing World Order
 India Nepal Relationship
 Emergence of the Asian Century

ECONOMY

(Pages 83-108)

Turning India’s power surplus into a boon

Demonetisation- Reasons and effects

Improving economic prosperity through nation branding

Signs of revival of economy- Encouraging the growth momentum

Fiscal Policy Management

branding  Signs of revival of economy- Encouraging the growth momentum  Fiscal Policy Management www.IASbaba.com
branding  Signs of revival of economy- Encouraging the growth momentum  Fiscal Policy Management www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 4

What has happened to ‘Green GDP’?

Private Investment in India

Improving India’s job creation ranking

Payment Banks and Financial Inclusion

ENVIRONMENT

A domestic climate change strategy

(Pages 109-123)

 Air Pollution Control – Challenges and Measures  Delhi pollution linked to crop burning-
 Air Pollution Control – Challenges and Measures
 Delhi pollution linked to crop burning- Truth and way forward
 Marrakech Climate Change Conference – COP 22
 Climate change- Raising resources using bonds
ETHICS
(Pages 124-127)
Corporate Governance: TATA SONS Issue
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
(Pages 128-131)
What is Urbanisation?
SECURITY
(Pages 132-137)
 Naxalism – Evolution, Spread and Challenges
 India’s nuclear policy- Should there be a change?
HEALTH
(Pages 138-146)
 National e-Health Authority (NeHA)
 Improving the Indian healthcare system- Lessons from Thailand
 Amendment to HIV Bill, 2014 - It doesn’t address the concerns
system- Lessons from Thailand  Amendment to HIV Bill, 2014 - It doesn’t address the concerns
system- Lessons from Thailand  Amendment to HIV Bill, 2014 - It doesn’t address the concerns

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 5

NATIONAL

TOPIC:

General Studies 2

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. General Studies 3

 Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
 Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.
 Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects
on industrial growth.
India’s competitiveness and challenges ahead
 The 2016-17 Global Competitiveness Report ranks India 39th among 138 nations
 This is a 16-place jump from year-ago levels. Thus, India’s progress on global
competitiveness is impressive.
 The report assesses the competitiveness of a nation based on its macroeconomic
environment, strategies employed to promote growth such as institutions and policies,
and the ability of enterprises to create and sustain value.
 The nature of the economy and growth measures influence enterprise competency to
compete and, in turn, enhance national productivity and prosperity.
 The economic development initiatives launched by NDA government seem to be paying
off slowly.
 However, India remains a factor-driven economy characterised by an unskilled
workforce, and heavy reliance on agriculture and extractive industries.
 Lack of complexity and technological sophistication in its economy limits its ability to
offer high-value goods to global markets.
 In 2015, India exported $262 billion — compare with China’s $2.3 trillion — of which,
over one half was commodities and low tech goods (mineral fuel, clothing) while just
15% was engineered goods (autos, appliances).
 Notably, India’s share in global merchandise trade has remained stagnant at 2% over the
last five years compared to China’s, which has grown from 10 to 14%.

Manufacturing sector

The new economic development initiatives hope to rectify the less contribution of merchandised trade through targeted programmes that would equip India for a stronger performance in global trade and competition.

targeted programmes that would equip India for a stronger performance in global trade and competition. www.IASbaba.com
targeted programmes that would equip India for a stronger performance in global trade and competition. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 6

Among them is ‘Make in India’, a large-scale campaign to attract foreign direct investments to the manufacturing sector. These investments are designed to create jobs in massive numbers to absorb the country’s burgeoning workforce.

More importantly, they are expected to move India up on the development ladder to the ‘efficiency-driven’ stage demonstrated by high-volume diversified manufacturing and the ability to globally market a wide range of value-added consumer and industrial goods.

 In 2015, India emerged as the top destination for FDIs and there are indications
 In 2015, India emerged as the top destination for FDIs and there are indications that it
will continue.
 However, only the manufacturing assets will not propel India to the forefront of global
merchandise trade and competition. It will need a workforce that has complementary
industrial skills.
 India’s workforce of 500 million is mostly unskilled —80% of the workforce has no
marketable skills (government estimates).
 It was also revealed that less than 10 million are vocationally trained as against 150
million needed by 2022 to transition India as a leading manufacturer.
 Thus, undoubtedly, it is an uphill task for which India has formed a Skill Development
Agency to spearhead implementation, jointly with the private sector.
Challenges and way ahead
Though there is progress towards the goal, but there is lukewarm enrolment in short-
term vocational training and apprenticeship despite the existence of an incentive
regime.
The reason is that India has never been a blue-collar economy. Thus, the educational
aspirations of Indians have historically been centred on academics and university
education, driven by ambitions in the administrative and management cadres.
And hence, by contrast, industrial training has generally been perceived as unglamorous,
even undignified.
Thus, the clear solution to this problem lies in educating India through information
distribution and publicity that describes entry jobs in industry and pathways to
functional and general management.
The manufacturing assets and workforce skills will give India the foundation to compete
globally on a wide range of products.
However, to be distinguished as a leader, India must transform from low-skilled
commoditised production to designing and marketing sophisticated, proprietary
technologies. Thus, it has to emerge as an innovation-driven economy.

For this, India would need highly talented science and engineering graduates and substantial investment in R&D.

What is contrasting that India is self sufficient in the desired graduates but lacks in the required investments in R&D projects.

is self sufficient in the desired graduates but lacks in the required investments in R&D projects.
is self sufficient in the desired graduates but lacks in the required investments in R&D projects.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 7

To put into perspective, India’s R&D spending of $66 billion in 2015 (0.9% of GDP) is almost nothing in comparison to China’s $410 billion or 2.1% of GDP). And more troubling fact is that three-fourths of it comes from the public sector.

The low private sector participation could be because of the relatively small size of most Indian firms and consequent lack of scale economies. This problem is self-solving as the private sector investments in R&D will rise when manufacturing investments will rise.

Hence, India’s economy as globally competitive is still work in progress.

Connecting the dots:  Manufacturing sector is not growing at an expected rate despite the
Connecting the dots:
 Manufacturing sector is not growing at an expected rate despite the initiatives and
reforms by government. What can be the reasons and how to rectify them? Explain.
 Increase in manufacturing is considered important for India to establish itself as globally
competitive. However, the working population sees industrial employment as
undignified and low-paid. How do you think can this situation be handled? Discuss.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies
constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
 Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to
Human Resources
Miseries of a contract labour
What is Contract Labour?
Contract labour generally refers to workers employed by or through an intermediary or a
third party. Such labour can be distinguished from the permanent workers in following
aspects
 Absence of employee-employer relationship
 Method of wage payment
 No direct relationship with the principal employer
 Absence of names on the muster roll of principal employer/ establishment

According to Section 2(b) of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 (‘Contract Labour Act’), a workman shall be deemed to be employed as "contract labour" in or in connection with the work of an establishment when he is hired in or in connection with such work by or through a contractor, with or without the knowledge of the principal employer.

with such work by or through a contractor, with or without the knowledge of the principal
with such work by or through a contractor, with or without the knowledge of the principal

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 8

Supreme Court Judgement

In a significant judgment, the Supreme Court has ruled that contract workers should get the same pay as permanent workers because denial of the principle of equal pays for equal work:

Led to exploitative enslavement,

Is a violation of human dignity, and

 Is against the provision of Article 39(d) of the Indian Constitution. Contract workers suffer
Is against the provision of Article 39(d) of the Indian Constitution.
Contract workers suffer because:
 They lack job security and social security
 They are given inadequate remuneration for the work performed.
 Lack bargaining power
Trade Union
Trade unionism is a result of Industrial Revolution. Trade unions are an association of wage
earners to ensure safeguarding the interests of workers and improving the working
conditions.
Various benefits that accrued due to the trade unions are as follows:
 Worker Empowerment
 Socialism and worker welfare
 Proper regulation of personnel matters
 Dispute settlement and grievance redressal
 Participative decision making and enhanced bargaining power
However, the trade union movement in India suffers from a major problem. Contractual
labour is neither given membership nor voting rights to which members of trade unions are
eligible. This happens due to the following reasons:
Greater Management Hostility: Workers believe that forming a union which includes
contract workers is bound to provoke the management into greater hostility towards
them.
Management Attitude: Managements have usually been totally against discussing any
issues concerning contract workers.

Vulnerability of Contract Labour: Contractual workers are highly insecure and vulnerable compared to regular workers. The chances of their dismissal from the company for indulging in union activities are very high.

workers. The chances of their dismissal from the company for indulging in union activities are very
workers. The chances of their dismissal from the company for indulging in union activities are very

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 9

Attitude of Permanent Workers: Permanent workers themselves don’t want to extend union membership to contract workers because at a workplace with high number of contract workers, permanent workers could get highly marginalised.

Contract Labour in India Provisions and Challenges

India’s contract workers, with the exception of some PSUs in select sectors such as steel and coal, remain both heavily exploited and largely un-unionised. Even though various legislations and provisions exist with respect to contractual labour, there is a need to ensure their effective enforcement along with additional labour reforms to ensure their welfare.

Picture Credit: http://img.etimg.com/photo/53257736/1.jpg Trade Union Act, 1926 Under Trade Unions Act, 1926 (‘Trade
Picture Credit: http://img.etimg.com/photo/53257736/1.jpg
Trade Union Act, 1926
Under Trade Unions Act, 1926 (‘Trade Union Act’), Section 2 (g) defines workmen as any
person employed in trade or industry whether or not in the employment of the employer
with whom the trade dispute arises and any workman who works in a factory can join a
union of that factory. But trade unions typically have only permanent workers as members.
The reason cited for this is the absence of direct relationship with the principle employer.
Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970

Contract Labour Act was enacted to abolish contract labour. This Act on the other hand cemented their exploitation by offering a legal operating framework to labour contractors. Prior to this legislation, temporary and permanent workers could make claims on their employer and negotiate as members of the same union. But the Contract Labour Act, by introducing a distinction between an ‘employer’ and a ‘principal employer’, increased the scope of hiring contract labour. Hence, there is a proposal to drop the word ‘abolition’ from the name of the Act.

con tract labour. Hence, there is a proposal to drop the word ‘abolition’ from the name
con tract labour. Hence, there is a proposal to drop the word ‘abolition’ from the name

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 10

When the Contract Labour Act was enacted it expressly prohibited the employment of contract labour for core production work. As a result, workers are shown to have been hired for non-core jobs such as cleaning or gardening. But once the worker is employed, he is engaged in production work and there is no documentation to show that a contract worker is actually in production.

Conclusion There is an urgent imperative to stop this growing exploitation of contractual labour. The
Conclusion
There is an urgent imperative to stop this growing exploitation of contractual labour. The
sooner companies realise the larger implications of their short-sighted approach, the better,
not only for their own sake, but also for society at large. Further, labour reforms to address
the above concerns are also important for the success of Make in India and for India to
climb up the rankings on World Bank’s Doing Business Report.
Connecting the dots
 Discuss various provisions and reforms undertaken in India in recent for improvement in
conditions and safeguarding the interest of industrial labour.
 India Inc. Is exhibiting short sightedness in dealing with contract labour. Highlight he
problems faced by contractual labour. Also discuss, how the existing scenario can be
improved for the betterment of both the contractual labour as well as the companies
utilising their services.
TOPIC:
General Studies 2
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
General Studies 3
 Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
 Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies
Agricultural reforms- Now is the time

It’s been over a year since reports of NITI Ayog’s upcoming wide-ranging reform package for India’s farm sector have been making rounds.

Intermittently, there are news hinting at the Centre’s plans of liberalising rules governing tenancy, contract farming, agri-marketing or even forestry.

However, it is difficult to ascertain from previous experience that any big bang reforms in agriculture should not be expected.

to ascertain from previous experience that any big bang reforms in agriculture should not be expected.
to ascertain from previous experience that any big bang reforms in agriculture should not be expected.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 11

This brings to the notice that the present government shall be completing half tenure of their incumbency in November 2016 and yet no significant initiation of agricultural reforms may not be helpful for them in next general election if no meaningful announcement is done in next 3-4 months.

Not learning from mistakes

From what is known from those with some knowledge of the developments and thinking taking place at the top, the current agricultural reform moves seem to be making the same mistakes that marred similar earlier well-meaning attempts.

 These are  Delhi-centric nature of ongoing consultations/discussions  One-size-fits-all approach 
 These are
 Delhi-centric nature of ongoing consultations/discussions
 One-size-fits-all approach
 Preaching to states what they need to do
Centralised approach
 Agriculture is a ‘State’ subject, and yet it is astonishing how conveniently states continue
to be ignored when it comes to involvement in the process of agricultural policymaking
or reforms.
 Every major step taken by the Centre — land reform agenda of 1950s, adoption of green
revolution technologies in the following two decades, farm loan waivers, curbs on
agricultural exports or to push to delist fruits & vegetables from the Agricultural Produce
Market Committee (APMC) regulations — has been decided in a unilateral manner in
New Delhi.
 The states have to accept the decisions without being a party in the policy making
process of a ‘subject; that is implemented by them and which also affects them the
most.
 As the states have no choice other than to accept the centre’s order, they proceed to
deal with (or not) in accordance with the political economy peculiar to their regions.
 Hence, this clearly shows that lack of ownership by states is a primary reason for the
failure of agricultural reforms. Yet, no one is learning from past mistakes.
The misplaced ‘one size fits all’ approach
 This approach is an affliction originating from the partial success experienced by policy
makers and scientists in implementing the Green Revolution package.

The success was visible in well-endowed regions of north-western and east-coast southern India where the resource intensive package use of high-yielding dwarf wheat and paddy varieties, large doses of fertilisers and pesticides and multiple irrigation methods was utilised

This was however not replaced in the rainfed parts of central and western India.

— was utilised  This was however not replaced in the rainfed parts of central and
— was utilised  This was however not replaced in the rainfed parts of central and

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 12

The eastern region also lacked strong institutions like village cooperatives to disburse credit and inputs, extension systems and state agencies to procure the surplus grains from farmers.

Hence, this did not allow them to fully exploit the Green Revolution technologies, despite a much more favourable natural resource base, especially with regard to water.

This shows that the Green Revolution approach was clearly unsuited to the Northeastern and hill states, but they were still offered the same schemes for agricultural development as in the rest of India.

 However, it took decades for the policy makers to shed their Green Revolution obsession
 However, it took decades for the policy makers to shed their Green Revolution
obsession and identify horticulture as the core competent field where these states have
a natural growing advantage.
Not involving the states
 The centre continues to make its own list of agricultural reforms which the states are
expected to implement without protest.
 Centre’s unrequited passion for reform without consulting the concerned parties usually
leads to collapse of well-identified intentions.
Centre’s role
 It’s not as if the Centre cannot initiate reforms in agriculture.
 In fact, in at least three major areas, the onus for leadership and action lies with the
Centre.
Capital and credit
 Provisioning of credit and capital. The centre and RBI can largely influence these with
their policies
 Situational Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households conducted in 2013 revealed
that hardly 60% of India’s farmers received institutional credit for cropping operations.
 Small and marginal farmers who make up 86% of all agricultural households, the
penetration of formal credit was an abysmal 15%.
 Thus, this is one area which requires central intervention and has the potential to
change the fortunes of households at the bottom of the agri pyramid.
Increased infrastructure investment

Though there has been pressure on states to loosen the stranglehold of APMCs, no incentives have really been offered to them.

Cities like Delhi and Mumbai have achieved delisting of fresh produce from compulsory APMC mandi trading. On the similar lines, the Centre can at least put up state-of-the-art, modern trading infrastructure.

On the similar lines, the Centre can at least put up state-of-the-art, modern trading infrastructure. www.IASbaba.com
On the similar lines, the Centre can at least put up state-of-the-art, modern trading infrastructure. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 13

This kind of public investment and incentives for creation of new mandis, including in the private sector, could help showcase a model which states may be attracted to emulate.

Direct cash transfer

Giving the boost to cash transfers at least to the weakest and most vulnerable farmers in rainfed areas and the northeastern/hill states before the onset of next kharif season.

 This is possible only by centre as it has accepted the concept in principle.
 This is possible only by centre as it has accepted the concept in principle.
 Such result oriented actions will give the centre a significant leverage to take up the
larger reform agenda with the states in the remaining part of this government’s tenure.
Conclusion
 The above three reforms have the potential to trigger a virtuous cycle of reforms.
 These can be followed by creation of a Council on Agriculture hosted by the Centre
which can be on lines of GST Council where all states are represented and thus serve as
a platform for developing locally relevant reform agendas.
 Patient deliberation and long-term engagement can bring centre and states on one table
to discuss and decide on significant agricultural reforms which is extremely essential
now.
Connecting the dots:
 Agricultural reforms need to see the light of the day. Discuss.
 Cooperative federalism should be one of the basic principle while addressing agricultural
issues. Comment.
Related articles:
Farmers can lean on LIN- A solution for doubling farm income
http://iasbaba.com/2016/09/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-8th-september-2016/
Partnership approach to double the farm income
http://iasbaba.com/2016/10/iasbabas-daily-current-affairs-7th-october-2016/
TOPIC: General Studies 2

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure

Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Creation of All India Judicial Services- a road towards judicial transformation

design and implementation. Creation of All India Judicial Services- a road towards judicial transformation www.IASbaba.com
design and implementation. Creation of All India Judicial Services- a road towards judicial transformation www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 14

In news: Recently, Prime Minister pitched for an All India Judicial Service, linking it with the inclusion of Dalits and disadvantaged sections “in this system”. This once again revisits the possibility of recruiting judges through an All India Judicial Service (AIJS).

For decades, the judiciary has been asked to do something about judicial recruitments, but it always stops short of taking an initiative in the formation of an AIJS. The Prime Minister and the Chief Justice of India have raised red flags about the problems that plague the courts. Hence, there is no time better than now to start doing something about these problems.

The AIJS is an attempt to ensure that younger judges are promoted to the SC
The AIJS is an attempt to ensure that younger judges are promoted to the SC and HCs. In the
existing system, recruits join as magistrates in the subordinate judiciary and take at least 10
years to become district judges. The committee of secretaries had earlier recommended
enhancing the quota for recruitment to the higher judiciary through the proposed AIJS to
50%.
Knowing the problems
 It has been often observed that public debate focuses more on number of judges but it
rarely considers the quality of judges themselves.
 Thus, the real question that arises is that if the judiciary is in a position to recruit the
best talent required for fulfilling the role that is demanded of a judge.
 The judiciary has been facing constant problem of vacancy for many years now. There
are always 20% vacancies in the courts as vacancies are never filled in time.
 The reason is that the judiciary is not able to attract the talent. In addition to it, the
subordinate judiciary depends entirely on state recruitment. But the brighter law
students do not join the state judicial services because they are not attractive.
 The state judicial recruitment provides for post of additional district judge but as it is not
so career progressive and one has to deal with hassles of transfers and postings, the
quality of the subordinate judiciary is by and large average, although there are some
bright exceptions.
 By extension, at least one-third of high court judges elevated from the subordinate
judiciary are also mostly average. As a result, the litigants are left to suffer.
Attracting the talent and improving the judiciary

In the French model, students pick the judiciary as a stream early in their legal studies itself. Thus, just as dentistry is a specialisation in medicine, judging is a specialisation in law.

On similar lines, Delhi High Court planned to introduce one-year diploma on “judging” in law schools, with the eventual idea to have a full-fledged course for judges. However, it did not take off.

schools, with the eventual idea to have a full-fledged course for judges. However, it did not
schools, with the eventual idea to have a full-fledged course for judges. However, it did not

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 15

Hence, now is the need to answer judicial problems in India via an All India Judicial Service (AIJS) which had been on reform agenda for long.

Debates on formation of AJIS Constitutional debate

When the constitution was drafted, AJIS got sidelined. In the end, under Art 235, the entire judicial machinery at the subordinate level was given under the control of the high courts.

 The Constitution drafting committees also discussed Article 312, conferring power on the Parliament to
 The Constitution drafting committees also discussed Article 312, conferring power on
the Parliament to create All India Services. But it was doubtful at that time if the judicial
services could be organised on a national scale under Article 312.
 However, after the Swaran Singh Committee’s recommendations in 1976, Article 312
was modified to include the judicial services, but it excluded anyone below the rank of
district judge. Thus, the trial courts were completely eliminated.
Law Commission report
 Meanwhile, the First Law Commission of India (LCI) came out with its comprehensive
14 th Report on Reforms on the Judicial Administration, which recommended an AIJS in
the interests of efficiency of the judiciary.
 However, once again the report was rejected by declaring it impractical. In reality, the
opposition came out of inertia, not from an assessment of whether it was feasible or
not; and it came mainly from the judiciary.
 In its 77th Report, dealing with “Delay and arrears in trial courts”, the LCI once again said
the AIJS needed serious consideration.
States’ concerns
 In Chief Ministers’ conference held in 1982, the idea of AIJS was approved whereby most
states were in agreement.
 But there were few points which were constantly raised in opposition
 Lack of knowledge of regional languages would affect judicial efficiency
 Avenues for promotion would be curtailed for those who had already entered
through the state services
 This would lead to an erosion of the control of the high courts over the
subordinate judiciary, which would, in turn, affect the judiciary’s independence.

Solution?

Each of these grounds was dealt by the LCI’s 116th Report on the “Formation of an All India Judicial Service”. If 116 th report was implemented:

Direct recruitment of judges from the entry level onwards would be handled by an independent and impartial agency.

of judges from the entry level onwards would be handled by an independent and impartial agency.
of judges from the entry level onwards would be handled by an independent and impartial agency.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 16

The process of recruitment would be through open competition designed with the right incentives of pay, promotion and career progression and thereby potentially become an attractive employment avenue for bright and capable young law graduates.

The AIJS idea is not solely promoted by Law Commission. The Supreme Court has itself said that an AIJS should be set up, and has directed the Union of India to take appropriate steps in this regard.

 The judicial side of the court machinery is entirely in favour of an AIJS
 The judicial side of the court machinery is entirely in favour of an AIJS but the
administrative side that has been opposing this idea. Hence it is disappointing that the
opposition is coming from within the judiciary itself, with certain high courts opposing
the idea without understanding the issues properly.
Conclusion
In long term, uniformity in selection processes and standards which is expected to be
offered by AIJS has many advantages.
 It will improve the quality of judicial officers in high courts
 One-third of the judges would enter the high courts through the route of promotion
from subordinate courts. By extension, judges of the Supreme Court are drawn from the
high courts.
 In this process, the persons eventually selected into the judiciary would be of proven
competence.
 The quality of adjudication and the dispensation of justice would undergo
transformative changes across the judicial system.
 A staunch career in judicial service will make the judiciary more accountable, more
professional and also more equitable.
 This is expected to have far reaching impact on the quality of justice, and on people’s
access to justice as well.
Connecting the dots:
 Will All India Judicial Service solve the judicial problems? Critically evaluate.
 An important judiciary reform decision should not be aimed at playing vote-bank
politics. In light of the above statement, discuss how reservation in judiciary can affect
the independence and reliability of judiciary.

TOPIC:

General Studies 2

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. General Studies 3

Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges

General Studies 3  Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges www.IASbaba.com
General Studies 3  Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 17

Banning the media: Where should the lines be drawn?

In news: The Information and Broadcasting Ministry has put a 24-hour ban on the television channel NDTV India over its Pathankot coverage by invoking the Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Rules, 2015, on the ground that the channel broadcast ‘crucial information’ which compromised national security.

A case of government overreach  In 2015, a clause was added to Cable Television
A case of government overreach
 In 2015, a clause was added to Cable Television Networks Rules which prohibited live
coverage of any anti-terrorist operation by security forces and restricted media coverage
to periodic briefing by a designated officer ‘till such operation concludes’.
 However, it is silent on whether it is mandatory for the government to designate an
official spokesperson to give out information.
 Any violation of the code allows the government to order a channel to go off air for a
period of time. The action against NDTV India marks the first time the new clause has
been used to punish a TV network.
 This step by government has brought forward the extensive powers the government is
holding where ideally, such powers should be in the hands of a quasi-judicial body
independent of the government.
 If NDTV decides to challenge the government action in court, there could be expected
set of guidelines that narrow the interpretative powers of the government. However, if
the government is allowed to go unchallenged, it may create a dangerous precedent for
overuse and misuse of such provisions in the future.
Caution against the coverage
 The coverage of military operations has always been a tricky terrain. But the beginning
of the hyper-information age in combination with unbalanced warfare’s growing
footprint has added immensely to the challenges.
 As seen in 26/11, the terrorists in Mumbai were being regularly briefed by their handlers
in Pakistan about the operational deployments of the Indian security forces by gathering
the source from the live coverage of several TV networks.
 Today, global media houses like CNN, BBC and Al Jazeera and also Indian TV networks
have learnt the lesson of remaining at a respectful distance from the theatre of
operation.

In the Pathankot case, according to the inter-ministerial committee that inquired into the charge, the disclosure of details relating to the location of the ammunitions depot, the range of weapons and military assets available there and the presence of civilian residences in the vicinity could have been used by terrorists to their advantage.

NDTV’s defence was that nothing was disclosed that was not published or aired by other media outlets, that its reportage was largely based on official briefings and that it was done in a responsible manner.

that its reportage was largely based on official briefings and that it was done in a
that its reportage was largely based on official briefings and that it was done in a

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 18

Constitutional support

The right of the media to report news as it happens is constitutionally guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a). This extends to viewers and readers who have a right to know.

No doubt, there are ‘reasonable restrictions’ on the information provided. In this case, the Cable Television Network Rules are replica of reasonable restrictions to free speech under Article 19(2) of the Constitution.

 In it, the central government is empowered to ‘regulate or prohibit the transmission or
 In it, the central government is empowered to ‘regulate or prohibit the transmission or
re-transmission of any channel or programme’ if it is necessary or expedient to do so ‘in
the interest of the sovereignty, integrity or security of India, friendly relations with any
foreign State or public order, decency or morality.’
 And thus, here, it has to be known if the impugned content fell within the constitutional
test of ‘clear and present danger’.
 In Shreya Singhal v. Union of India, the Supreme Court cautioned the authorities against
any ‘insidious form of censorship which impairs a core value contained in Article
19(1)(a)’ and has a ‘chilling effect on the freedom of speech and expression.’
What should have been done?
The covert use of state power to keep the press, particularly television media, aligned
with the government’s purposes, has produced something far more insidious than
censorship.
The Ministry could have either approached the authority, which is headed by a former
Supreme Court judge or formed an independent panel to adjudicate the question
Instead of imposing a blanket ban on all live coverage of any anti-terrorist operation
until it ends.
The ministry has cited statutory provisions that empower the government to regulate or
prohibit the transmission of TV programmes. There is no mention of any provision for
appeal. None can reasonably argue that irresponsible live coverage of an ongoing
operation should attract no penalty.
A problem arises when the penalty is decided by a government panel. Taking a channel
off air for however brief a period is a serious decision that could be read as a signal to
other newsrooms to self-censor.
A committee of officials is not the ideal body to make an independent assessment of
what constitutes information that poses an imminent danger to military personnel or
civilians. That is the job of an independent forum.

Conclusion

The media has to be allowed to remain a watchdog and leave the interpretation of ‘national interest’ to courts.

Indian media should also strive to improve the quality of its self-regulatory institutions and frame better guidelines to deal with conflict coverage.

quality of its self-regulatory institutions and frame better guidelines to deal with conflict coverage. www.IASbaba.com
quality of its self-regulatory institutions and frame better guidelines to deal with conflict coverage. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 19

Connecting the dots:

The decision to ban the media for alleged ‘breach of national security’ threatens the fundamental rights of freedom to express. Do you agree? Examine.

The phrase ‘in national interest’ has attracted lot of censorship to freedom of speech and expression. Critically analyse the impact of actions taken in protecting the ‘national interest.’

TOPIC: General Studies 2  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and
TOPIC:
General Studies 2
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
 Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to
Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.
General Studies 3
 Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of
buffer stocks and food security.
Linking food and nutrition security
National Food Security Act, 2013
It aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of India's 1.2 billion
people.
It includes the Midday Meal Scheme, Integrated Child Development Services scheme
and the Public Distribution System. It also recognises maternity entitlements.
Under the provision of the bill, beneficiaries of the Public Distribution System (or, PDS)
are entitled to 5 kilograms (11 lb) per person per month of cereals at the following
prices:
 Rice at Rs. 3 per kg
 Wheat at Rs. 2 per kg
 Coarse grains (millet) at Rs. 1per kg.

Intent of NFSA- Food security means availability of sufficient foodgrains to meet the domestic demand as well as access, at the individual level, to adequate quantities of food at affordable prices.

Current position

The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013 is now seen as losing euphoria. The Act was to be fully implemented across India by July 2016.

But as of now, only five States have fully executed it as per the provisions of the Central Act (Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan).

it as per the provisions of the Central Act (Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan). www.IASbaba.com
it as per the provisions of the Central Act (Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan). www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 20

The progress in other States has been tardy. There is partial implementation in Bihar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka.

The preliminary surveys undertaken in some of these States have revealed positive outcomes in terms of

Administrative reforms

Significant increase in the number of households having ration cards

Improvement in the distribution

 Improvement in consumption of food through fair price shops  However, if the act
Improvement in consumption of food through fair price shops
 However, if the act is fully implemented, it is likely to benefit 720 million people through
availability of 5 kg per capita per month of subsidised foodgrains (rice, wheat and coarse
cereals) at a much lower rate than that in the open market.
 Thus there is an assurance of food security and enhanced nutritional status.
Food and nutrition security
 The two concepts are interlinked but nutrition security has a much wider connotation
than food security.
 It encompasses a biological approach. It means adequate and safe intake of protein,
energy, vitamin and minerals along with proper health and social environment.
 The nutritional aspect of the quantity of grain to be distributed to each person under the
Public Distribution System (PDS) is somewhat less researched, though the Act has aimed
at attaining this goal.
 Poor quality of food lacking essential micronutrients and no diet diversity, and
unhygienic conditions of storage can be a deterrence.
 Other promising features of the Act like free daily meals for children and maternity
benefits, including cash for pregnant women, which can combat rampant undernutrition
(calorie deficiency) and malnutrition (protein deficiency) across the country have been
included.
The Odisha Study
A primary survey of 385 households was carried out during 2014-15 in three extremely
poor districts viz. Koraput, Bolangir (KBK- most backward region) and Nayagarh (non-KBK
region) as they had high prevelance of undernutrition and malnutrition.
While KBK districts follow a universal PDS, non-KBK districts have a targeted one.
Rice is the key staple food in the surveyed areas and acts as a major source of energy
intake. The monthly per capita consumption of rice is estimated to be 11.6 kg, of which
33.7 % is sourced from the PDS by all beneficiaries.

Since AAY households have higher quota and accessibility under the PDS, the contribution is much more at 73.9 %.

Better accessibility to food and hence energy intake of poor people, especially those under AAY, has been made possible due to concerted efforts initiated by the government. Major reforms include

AAY, has been made possible due to concerted efforts initiated by the government. Major reforms include
AAY, has been made possible due to concerted efforts initiated by the government. Major reforms include

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 21

Abolition of private procurement and storage system

Greater role for public agencies in controlling diversion of foodgrain from the godown to the millers

Proper recording of procurement, storage and distribution of grains across the departments

Distribution of food through self-help groups and gram panchayats and its regular monitoring at the block and ward levels.

 These efforts of Odisha state government in ensuring food security should be replicated in
 These efforts of Odisha state government in ensuring food security should be replicated
in States that are yet to fully implement the Act and reform their respective distribution
systems.
 An important step of emphasis on dietary diversification to ensure appropriate
nutritional intake for large segments of the poor population can be an important step
taken up in States where a revamped PDS is making ground, such as in Tamil Nadu,
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Bihar.
Conclusion
NFSA provides for one additional coarse cereal viz. millet along with wheat and rice,
which can further enhance the nutritional security of the poor households.
However, though wheat and rice contribute significantly to energy intake, the time has
come to increase the focus on coarse cereals and pulses to improvise adequate intake of
protein. Hence, serious discussions are required to make this possible through the PDS,
which is going to cater to a sizeable population in the near future.
As seen above, the AAY households have a greater access to PDS but the problem of
undernourishment is more serious among them.
Hastening of NFSA across the country is imperative to ensure food and nutritional
security and for this, the States should now act in a mission mode as availability of
foodgrains may not be a problem this year.
The Ministry of Agriculture has projected a record production of 270 million tonnes
owing to good monsoon and an increase in acreage of foodgrains from 101 million
hectares to 105 million hectares.
Thus, the states must now begin to work on adequate logistics for digitisation of ration
cards, computerisation of offtake and delivery of foodgrains and effective monitoring of
fair price shops.
This is expected to bring in greater transparency in the system and would go a long way
towards raising the nutritional status of Indians.

Connecting the dots:

Food security and nutritional security go hand in hand to ensure basic health standards of the population. Analyse.

and nutritional security go hand in hand to ensure basic health standards of the population. Analyse.
and nutritional security go hand in hand to ensure basic health standards of the population. Analyse.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 22

Nutritional availability is as important as food security for healthy sustenance of the growing population. What are the challenges faced by government to meet this objective and suggest possible way forward.

TOPIC: General Studies 2

Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

 Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes,
 Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance-
applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters,
transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
Appraisal of Autonomous Bodies – Rationale and Methodology
The News
The government has decided has decided to ask Niti Aayog to review the performance of
autonomous bodies that have mushroomed over the years with little oversight. These
include more than 500 autonomous bodies such as University Grants Commission (UGC),
Jawahar Lal Nehru University (JNU), Delhi Development Authority (DDA), Prasar Bharati and
many more.
Expenditure Management Commission (EMC)
Expenditure Management Commission (EMC) headed by former Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
governor Bimal Jalan had observed that these agencies were incurring expenditure to the
tone of over Rs 60,000 Crores annually. The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) has set up a high-
powered committee headed by Niti Aayog vice-chairman Arvind Panagariya to look into the
EMC's recommendations. A few recommendations made by the EMC were:
 Streamlining of expenditure,
 Review of grants made to autonomous bodies, and
 Linking a part of the grants to the performance of the bodies.
Precedents
The United Kingdom (UK) had undertaken review of its 900 odd autonomous bodies. On the
basis of the review, the number was pruned by 285 institutions, resulting in annual savings
of around $2 billion.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee government had also set up Expenditure Reforms Commission for similar reforms. However, the bureaucracy has in most instances come up with arguments justifying continuation of the system.

the bureaucracy has in most instances come up with arguments justifying continuation of the system. www.IASbaba.com
the bureaucracy has in most instances come up with arguments justifying continuation of the system. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 23

Rationale

This

interference in the matter of autonomous public institutions. However, this could be an important and constructive initiative due to the following reasons:

Lack of oversight over the years

also be seen as an opening for unwarranted, unwelcome, targeted

move

can

Increasing number of such autonomous bodies which has risen from a mere 35 in 1955 to 691 in 2016

 Increasing and wasteful expenditure incurred by these bodies  Growing irrelevance in the current
 Increasing and wasteful expenditure incurred by these bodies
 Growing irrelevance in the current socio-economic set up
 Owing to the specific significance of these autonomous bodies:
 These are critical interface between the state and the market or the state and
the public.
 They include some of the key channels for publicly funded scientific and
industrial research and innovation, teaching and training institutions.
 Responsible for sectoral initiatives to develop and deepen market infrastructure
in areas that will be important for creating more geographically dispersed
employment.
Dos and Don’ts - What not to do
 Avoid misuse of power:
It has to be ensured that the reviews are carried out in a manner convenient to the
agencies. Review of finances and information requests should not provide the reviewer
with powers to harass and annoy.
 Rigidity in approach:
The span of such institutions is very widespread and hence the range of institutions and
their mandates will require discretion to be used in reviews. Further, there cannot be a
universally applicable approach to review all the bodies or all sectors.
 Benchmarking/ Criterion:
The criterion to select and review the agencies cannot be fixed. Much of the review for
potential savings will have to be done on a case-by-case basis, both in terms of choices
of entities to focus on and criteria for separating waste from performance in the ones
that are chosen.
Dos and Don’ts - What to do

Clarity of terms of review:

Stating the terms of the review up front and sticking to them. It will add clarity and avoid a feeling of harassment and animosity.

Clarity of principles:

Clarifying the principles used as basis to identify institutions for closer scrutiny, the definition of poor performance and performance criteria that will be used.

Sharing of Workload:

the definition of poor performance and performance criteria that will be used.  Sharing of Workload:
the definition of poor performance and performance criteria that will be used.  Sharing of Workload:

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 24

Sharing the workload and the power to identify poor performance with Union ministries that autonomous bodies are attached to, with peer institutions to identify potential savings, and with the institutions themselves will improve the outcomes. This will also reduce the workload of Niti Aayog and ensure the completion of the task in a timely and effective manner.

Voluntary change of status:

Allow institutions to opt out from being an autonomous body to operate at a more fiscal and administrative arms-length distance from the state. This could help in narrowing down the review exercise and also increase the public sector savings.

Conclusion The review of these bodies is essential not only from the viewpoint of saving
Conclusion
The review of these bodies is essential not only from the viewpoint of saving a lot of money
but rather more crucial due to their role and how to leverage their hybrid structure. In the
past little has been done to implement such recommendations. At times the bureaucracy
has been a hurdle in this exercise. Hence, it is the need of the hour to go ahead with this
review and ensure constructive rationalization of the autonomous agencies
Connecting the dots
 Critically analyse the role of various autonomous bodies working in India. Support your
analysis with a case study.
 Recently, the government has decided to review the performance autonomous bodies
that have mushroomed over the years. Analyse the need for such a step and suggest a
strategy to ensure an effective review.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Separation of powers between various organs , dispute redressal mechanisms and
institution
 Structure, organization and functioning of Executive and Judiciary.
Satluj Yamuna Link Canal- Water sharing disputes continue in India

In news: Supreme Court verdict on SYL canal was passed which said that it was unconstitutional for the Punjab state government to terminate a water sharing agreement with other states.

Background:

At an inter-state meeting convened by the central government in 1955, the total water of the Ravi and Beas 15.85 million acre feet (MAF) had been divided among Rajasthan (8 MAF), undivided Punjab (7.20 MAF) and Jammu and Kashmir (0.65 MAF).

had been divided among Rajasthan (8 MAF), undivided Punjab (7.20 MAF) and Jammu and Kashmir (0.65
had been divided among Rajasthan (8 MAF), undivided Punjab (7.20 MAF) and Jammu and Kashmir (0.65

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 25

The creation of Haryana from the undivided Punjab in 1966 began the problem of giving Haryana its share of river waters.

Punjab opposed to sharing waters of the Ravi and Beas with Haryana, citing riparian principles.

In March 1976, a decade after the Punjab Reorganisation Act was implemented, the Centre issued a notification allocating to Haryana 3.5 MAF out of undivided Punjab’s 7.2 MAF.

The Satluj Yamuna Link Canal Picure Credit: http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2116/images/20040813004202502.jpg 
The Satluj Yamuna Link Canal
Picure Credit: http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2116/images/20040813004202502.jpg
 To enable Haryana to use its share of the waters of the Sutlej and its tributary Beas, a
canal linking the Sutlej with the Yamuna, cutting across the state, was planned.

In 1981, there was a tripartite agreement between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan which was negotiated by PM Indira Gandhi.

In 1982, the construction of the 214-km Sutlej-Yamuna Link (or SYL) canal began in which 122 km was in Punjab and 92 km in Haryana.

The available waters of Ravi and Beas were recalculated to be 17.17 MAF and the states were given revised water Punjab (4.22 MAF), Haryana (3.5 MAF) and Rajasthan (8.6 MAF).

the states were given revised water — Punjab (4.22 MAF), Haryana (3.5 MAF) and Rajasthan (8.6
the states were given revised water — Punjab (4.22 MAF), Haryana (3.5 MAF) and Rajasthan (8.6

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 26

However, a political party- Akali Dal- opposed this agreement and started with Kapoori morcha to oppose the construction of the SYL canal.

In 1985, Punjab Accord was signed between PM Rajiv Gandhi and Akali Dal leader. In this, it was agreed that a tribunal would verify the claims of both Punjab and Haryana on river waters.

In 1987, the Eradi Tribunal headed by SC judge Eradi recommended an increase in the shares of Punjab (5 MAF) and Haryana (3.83 MAF), while taking into account utilisable supplies of surplus water at base stations.

Key developments since the tribunal recommendation  The tribunal’s decision was not notified.  Meanwhile,
Key developments since the tribunal recommendation
 The tribunal’s decision was not notified.
 Meanwhile, Punjab experienced militancy in that period and continued reigning terror
in process of canal construction by attacking senior canal staffers.
 In 1990, Haryana requested central government to take up the issue with a central
agency but it made no progress.
 Finally, Supreme Court was approached in 1996 where it directed Punjab to complete
the canal work. In 2002, SC ordered Punjab to complete the canal in a year.
 In 2004, the Punjab Assembly passed The Punjab Termination of Agreements Act,
2004, terminating its 1981 water-sharing agreement, and thus jeopardising the
construction of SYL in Punjab, just after SC directed it to form ‘central agency’ to
complete canal work.
 Apprehending trouble, then President A.P.J Kalam sought the Supreme Court's opinion
on the 2004 Act under Article 143 (1) of the Constitution.
 Art 143 confers in the President of India the power to consult Supreme Court at any time
it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise,
which is of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the
opinion of the Supreme Court upon it.
 It is discretionary for the Supreme Court to answer or not to answer the questions put to
it under Art 143 (1) but it is bound to give advice if it comes under Art 143 (2).
Similar disputes
Internationally, India has been embroiled in water disputes with three of its neighbours:
Pakistan (Indus river), China (Brahmaputra river) and Bangladesh (Teesta river).

Internally, the recent Cauvery river water dispute saw similar action of passing legislative assembly resolution by the state government to not share Cauvery water with Tamil Nadu. This was also violation of Supreme Court Order to release certain cusecs of water for a certain time period.

Other disputes intermittently cropping up and yet not solved are Mullaperiyar dispute between Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Mhadeyi dispute between Karnataka and Goa and the never ending Krishna and Godavari river water dispute.

Mhadeyi dispute between Karnataka and Goa and the never ending Krishna and Godavari river water dispute.
Mhadeyi dispute between Karnataka and Goa and the never ending Krishna and Godavari river water dispute.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 27

This shows that there is a need of permanent and regular independent body which looks after inter-state water disputes in India under Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 which is enacted under Art 262 of Indian constitution which provides a role for the Central government in adjudicating conflicts surrounding inter-state rivers that arise among the state/regional governments.

Punjab’s legislative adventurism and impact

 There was no doubt that Punjab Termination of Agreements Act, 2004 would not have
 There was no doubt that Punjab Termination of Agreements Act, 2004 would not have
survived judicial scrutiny as it defaulted the 1981 agreement.
 The SC has given reasons from previous verdicts relating to the Cauvery and
Mullaperiyar disputes by reiterating the principle ‘a State cannot, through legislation,
do an act in conflict with the judgment of the highest court which has attained
finality’.
 The verdict re-imposes the fact that it would be destructive of the rule of law and
federalism if a State were to be allowed to overpower judicial powers by nullifying a
verdict that is based both on fact and law.
 Such disputes on water issues creates a competition among major political parties on
who among them is the best protector of the State’s interests.
 This attitude leads to creation of a disturbing tendency among States to be judges in
their own cause, especially in water issues.
 It has recently been regularly observed that political parties have resorted to
legislations or assembly resolutions rather than negotiations. Even the opposition
parties collaborate in such issues with equal zest so that they are also visible in support
of the cause.
 Hence, now is the need to take up the path of negotiation and conciliation and not take
actions unilaterally where more than one state is involved.
85% of the canal work is already completed in the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal. Just as Haryana
can get access to waters of Satluj river, even Punjab can get access to Yamuna waters. The
states have to talk, negotiate and decide mutually and not abrogate agreements. It is a fact
that India's experiments with water imports through canals have not always been
successful. But in the era of climate change, when India faces drought and flood challenges
in same year, it requires the solution to long pending demand of connecting rivers.

Connecting the dots:

It is being increasingly witnessed that states are defying court orders in disputes. What is the fallout of such acts by states and what are the possible actions that can be taken by courts so that their relevance is never compromised?

What is the meaning of ‘judge in their own cause’? What should the states do to solve their inter-state disputes?

meaning of ‘judge in their own cause’? What should the states do to solve their inter-state
meaning of ‘judge in their own cause’? What should the states do to solve their inter-state

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 28

TOPIC: General Studies 2

Separation of powers between various organs, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government.

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Collegium System – Past and Present What is Collegium System?  A system of appointment
Collegium System – Past and Present
What is Collegium System?
 A system of appointment and transfer of judges which is a result of a series of judgments
called “Judges Cases”.
 Collegium is a body of senior apex court judges responsible for appointment and
transfer of judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.
 The collegium was a product of the interpretations of constitutional provisions by the
Supreme Court in the three ‘Judges Cases’.
 It is not a result of an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
 Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the
government’s say comes in once the names have been decided by the collegium.
 The government can object to the candidature of any of the names recommended and
seek clarifications concerning the same. However, if the collegium decides on the same
again the government is bound to appoint them as judges.
Members of the Collegium
Supreme Court Collegium
 The Supreme Court collegium is headed by the CJI.
 Comprises four more senior most judges of the Supreme Court.
High Court collegium
 The High Court collegium is led by its Chief Justice of the respective High Court
 Comprises four more senior most judges of that High Court.
Names
recommended
for
appointment
by
a
High
Court
collegium
reaches
the
government only after approval by the CJI and the Supreme Court collegium.

Constitutional Provisions

Article 124(2) and Article 217 of the Constitution of India provide for appointment of Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.

Article 124(2): Appointment of Judges of Supreme Court

Appointment by the President

High Courts.  Article 124(2): Appointment of Judges of Supreme Court  Appointment by the President
High Courts.  Article 124(2): Appointment of Judges of Supreme Court  Appointment by the President

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 29

In consultation with judges of Supreme Court and High Court in the States as he deems fit

Eligible to hold office up to the age of 65 years

Chief Justice of India (CJI) shall be consulted in case of appointment of judges other than the CJI

Article 217: Appointment of Judges of High Court

Appointed by the President

 In consultation with the CJI, Governor of the State,  CJI of the high
 In consultation with the CJI, Governor of the State,
 CJI of the high court shall be consulted in case of appointment of judges other
than the CJI
Judicial Provisions – Judges Case
First Judges Case: S P Gupta Vs Union of India
 The primacy of the CJI in matters of appointment and transfers was questioned.
 The term “consultation” used in Articles 124 and 217 did not mean concurrence.
 This implied that although the President will consult the concerned persons as
mentioned in the Constitution but he was not bound by their advice / recommendation
 The judgment made the Executive more powerful in the process of appointment of
judges of High Courts.
Second Judges Case: The Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association Vs Union of
India
 Overruled the decision in First Judges Case.
 Devised the ‘Collegium System’
 Gave primacy to the CJI in matters of appointment and transfers and highlighted that
the term consultation would not diminish the primary role of the CJI.
 The CJI should make recommendations in consultation with his two senior most
colleagues.
Third Judges Case: Presidential Reference by President K R Narayanan
The purpose was to give meaning of the term “consultation” under Article 143.
Supreme Court came out with the present form of Collegium System.

The recommendation should be made by the CJI and his four senior most colleagues, instead of two.

Criticism of the Collegium System

It is non-transparent system without any official mechanism or secretariat lawfully enacted by the Parliament.

There is no provision regarding the collegium system or such a body in the Constitution.

Parliament.  There is no provision regarding the collegium system or such a body in the
Parliament.  There is no provision regarding the collegium system or such a body in the

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 30

It lays down no prescribed norms regarding eligibility criteria or even the selection procedure.

No information regarding its meetings, procedures and methods is there in the public domain.

Lawyers also suffer from lack of knowledge whether their names have been considered for elevation as a judge.

It is a system where the members of the judiciary are serving their own ends.

 Judicial primacy in making appointments is not a part of the basic structure. 
 Judicial primacy in making appointments is not a part of the basic structure.
 This method gives excess powers to the judiciary and does not give genuine broad
minded lay persons to be a part of the process of selection.
National Judicial Appointments Commission
 Justice M N Venkatachaliah Commission in 2033 recommended the formation of
National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) to replace the collegium system.
 The present government tried to give shape to the NJAC by way of the 99 th
Constitutional Amendment.
 Supreme Court, through a five judge constitutional bench, declared the NJAC as
unconstitutional.
 The bench claimed that NJAC would have taken away the primacy of the judiciary in the
process of appointments and transfers.
 NJAC would have comprised of the CJI, his two senior-most colleagues, the Law Minister,
and two eminent persons, who would be jointly appointed by the Prime Minister, the
Leader of the Opposition and the CJI.
Alternative – Memorandum of Procedure
 The judiciary and the government have decided to draft a new Memorandum of
Procedure (MoP) to guide future appointments.
 This will address the concerns regarding lack of eligibility criteria and transparency,
establishment of a Secretariat and a complaints mechanism.
 The MoP is still not finalised due to lack of consensus on various matters between the
government and the judiciary.

Analysis In absence of agreement the appointments are still being made by the collegium system. However, this has led to an impasse between the government and the judiciary. This has an impact on the deliverance of justice since it is leading to delay in filling vacancies in the judiciary. The judiciary-government face-off cannot go on indefinitely and they should finalise the MoP at the earliest possible. Both judiciary and government need to interact in a direct manner to come to a resolution. This will ease the increasing pressure on the judiciary with respect to the number of pending litigations.

This will ease the increasing pressure on the judiciary with respect to the number of pending
This will ease the increasing pressure on the judiciary with respect to the number of pending

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 31

Connecting the dots

Critically analyse the collegium system of appointment of judges.

Discuss an alternative strategy to resolve the judiciary government conflict regarding judicial appointments and transfers. Use examples of existing systems of judicial appointments adopted in other countries around the world in support of your answer.

TOPIC: General Studies 1  Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues,
TOPIC: General Studies 1
 Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues, poverty
and developmental issues
 Social empowerment
Crimes against women- Trends and Analysis
Findings of National Crime Records Bureau
 As per findings by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) serious crimes against women
have risen from 237 per day in 2001 to 313 per day in 2015.
 In addition to this, there have been huge inter-state variations in the their occurrence.
 Delhi, Haryana and Assam were the 3 worst states in terms of crimes against women in
2001 and 2015.
 Crimes range from rape, kidnapping and abduction, dowry deaths and cruelty by family
members and out of all these crimes, rapes constitute almost one-third of the crimes.
 All sections of the females such as minor girls, adolescent and old women have
frequently been victims of brutal rapes and murders.
 Higher incidence of crimes during 2001-2015 coupled with low conviction rate suggests
that women are more vulnerable to serious crimes.
Factors influencing women crimes
 An increase in State GDP (per capita) leads to a reduction in the incidence of serious
crimes against women.
 Greater affluence and an increasing sex ratio both help in reducing the occurrence of
such crimes. However, a skewed sex ratio undermines the impact of affluence. Example:
Delhi and Haryana continue to be the worst States despite being affluent because of the
very low sex ratio.

Reduction of alcoholism and substance abuse among men or better treatment of these addictions especially in more affluent states reduces the probability of sexual or physical assaults on women.

Two other major factors include female literacy and labour force participation because both these factors help in increasing the female bargaining power.

and labour force participation because both these factors help in increasing the female bargaining power. www.IASbaba.com
and labour force participation because both these factors help in increasing the female bargaining power. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 32

In such case women also face a backlash from male spouses especially those who are unemployed. Such partners try to assert their superiority by retaliatory physical and sexual violence.

A joint effect of female literacy and labour force participation is favourable, though less than the positive individual effects of female literacy and labour force participation. Exit options for literate and employed women, facing brutality and harassment in marriage, are more viable. Hence, this can help in reducing domestic violence.

 The higher the rural/urban population, the higher the incidence of serious crimes against women.
 The higher the rural/urban population, the higher the incidence of serious crimes
against women.
 Religion is a very key factor. This can be understood from the finding that there is higher
frequency of domestic violence and dowry-related violence among Hindus than in
Muslims.
 Exposure to media through various languages has dual effect one of better reporting of
crimes and a deterrence effect. A combined positive effect of both leads to reduction in
serious crimes. Example: The Delhi Nirbhaya rape case wherein media activism led to
quick arrest of accused.
The rate of crimes on women between Census 2001 and Census 2011 is as below:

Picture

Credit:

Role of Governance

Credit: Role of Governance http://s3.firstpost.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/01_crimes-against- www.IASbaba.com
Credit: Role of Governance http://s3.firstpost.in/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/01_crimes-against- www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 33

Amartya Sen as a part of studies on gender equality has popularised the concept of “missing women” and also emphasised that rape and other serious crimes against women are related to inefficient policing and judicial systems.

The quality of governance in States is the key to understanding the huge variation in incidence of serious crimes against women.

Using the measures of governance as per a recent study, it is seen that the incidence of serious crimes against women declines with better governance.

 Poor rate of women participation in voting during elections and poor electoral participation leads
 Poor rate of women participation in voting during elections and poor electoral
participation leads to policy implementation which lacks support of representatives for
women oriented policies. Due to this adequate focus on women preferences is not laid.
Analysis
 On the basis of the above findings, we need to observe that if the crimes against women
are still rising despite greater affluence and increase in the sex ratio during 2001-15, the
answer must lie in effective governance and improvement of the sex ratios in certain
states such as Bihar, Delhi and Maharashtra.
 This is one of the biggest problems faced by the developing world in modern times.
Therefore, along with governance, the role of democracy needs to be explored in solving
the missing women’s problem.
 The patriarchal mindset of the society needs to be changed. This leads to lack of
inheritance rights, denial of participation in decision making, poor workforce
participation, lack of empowerment and continued financial dependency on male
members of the family.
 The worsening sex ratio has to be addressed at the earliest to avoid gross neglect of
women. Preference for a male child is a major cause for mistreatment of young girls,
thus leading to crimes against them.
Connecting the dots
 Reducing the occurrence of crimes against women is one of the most important agenda
for the developing countries of the world. Analyse how measures other than legislations
and judicial interventions can help India achieve this target.
TOPIC: General Studies 2

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Promoting medical education as public good

and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Promoting medical education as public good www.IASbaba.com
and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Promoting medical education as public good www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 34

In news: Recently, the National Medical Commission draft bill and NITI Ayog report on medical education seems to further accelerate privatisation and commercialisation of medical education in the country rather than keeping it in check. It has also raised concern about lack of priority to protection of patients and need for strong clampdown on widespread unethical practices.

Salient features of National Medical Commission Bill, 2016

 The NITI Aayog committee has proposed to replace the Medical Council of India (MCI)
 The NITI Aayog committee has proposed to replace the Medical Council of India (MCI)
with a National Medical Commission.
 The current electoral process of appointing regulators for medical education should be
replaced by a broad-based search-cum-selection committee.
 The for-profit organizations be permitted to establish medical colleges as against the
present norm where only not-for-profit organizations are permitted to do so.
 Suggestion to create Medical Advisory Council by the central government, with one
nominated member from every state government and two members to represent Union
territories, to be nominated by the home ministry.
 NMC should not engage in fee regulation of private colleges because micro-
management can encourage rent-seeking behaviour in the NMC.
Medical education status in India
 The doctor- population ratio is 1:1,500 in India, which cries for dire need of doctors.
 The new bill which proposes commercialisation of medical education justifies its
relevance as it will incentivise investors to set up medical colleges, increase the supply of
doctors, induce competition and reduce the cost of tuition fees and services.
 However, currently, USA is facing the downside of such a policy
The US crisis
The logic of ‘market knows best’ brought banks, hedge funds, private equity and venture
capital for establishing colleges in USA.
The loan markets thrived by making student incomes as the one that “produces a fat and
stable return in the form of tuition fees”.
Post 2002, student debt has climbed to $1.2 trillion. Here, 44% of loan defaults were
among the working-class students who either couldn’t afford to graduate or, if once
they did, they found their degrees largely useless in the marketplace and thus unable to
return loan.

In this, the quality of education became the casualty.

A 2009 review showed that in 30 leading for-profit universities, 17% of their budget was spent on instruction and 42% on marketing and paying out existing investors.

The free markets also widened inequality. The for-profit institutions are behind students who fully pay their fees so as to get 30% profit margin. On the other hand, the not-for

behind students who fully pay their fees so as to get 30% profit margin. On the
behind students who fully pay their fees so as to get 30% profit margin. On the

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 35

profit institutions also feel compelled to increase fees when public funding is reduced or withdrawn.

When these situation arise, the families, particularly with stagnant incomes and reduced capacity to repay loans, have problems in having access to good institutions.

Hence, these factors are reportedly compelling USA to revert to the pre-neo-liberal era of the 1960s of making higher education a public good.

What is public good?  Public good is a good which if one individual consumes,
What is public good?
 Public good is a good which if one individual consumes, it does not reduce its availability
for another individual. In larger sense, it is something which is used by society.
 Economists refer to public goods as "nonrivalrous" and "nonexcludable." Few examples
are National defense, sewer systems, public parks etc.
India not learning from the experiences
 According to NITI Ayog, its recommendations are expected to trigger healthy
competition, reduce prices and assure quality.
 Allowing private investors to establish medical colleges untrammelled by
regulations.
 Freedom to levy fees for 60% of the students to recoup their money.
 Making the exit examination the marker for quality and for crowding out
substandard institutions.
 However, NITI Ayog recommendations for reforming medical education need to be
viewed in USA’s backdrop.
Trained faculty not guaranteed
 India has 422 medical colleges with 58,000 annual admissions. But establishment of new
colleges will not alone solve the issue of lack of doctors.
 India is short by 30 lakh doctors. The rate at which India is producing doctors, it will take
50 years to clear the backlog — a terrible, unacceptable sacrifice of two generations.
 But the major concern is non-availability of teachers which has constrained further
expansion and thus over half of the colleges give poor quality doctors.
 Skilled teachers form the basis of quality medical education, hence there is a need of a
comprehensive policy framework consisting of innovative approaches such as use of
technology, faculty training in pedagogical skills, permitting foreign faculty to teach etc.

Inequities in availability

The health sector crisis in India is not only about insufficient availability of doctors but also their geographical spread and quality.

Privatising education or opening foreign universities will not address these issues. It is important to ask questions like- if any investor will be willing to set up colleges in

these issues. It is important to ask questions like- if any investor will be willing to
these issues. It is important to ask questions like- if any investor will be willing to

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 36

Bundelkhand or Raipur? Or why surplus doctors from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka do no go to Odisha or Chhattisgarh where there is desperate need for them?

The reason is that language, culture, payment systems, social conditions act as barriers to free movement of doctors.

In areas that have few doctors, there are three-quarters of the maternal, infant mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases.

Multiple fee structure  Tamil Nadu private colleges enhanced their fees in response to imposing
Multiple fee structure
 Tamil Nadu private colleges enhanced their fees in response to imposing restrictions on
admission policies.
 Also, due to the lack of transparency in fee fixations, there are multiple fee structures
for students taking admission in government quota, full paying domestic students and
NRI students. In such complications, the government ends up paying more than
required.
 Besides, high fees do not guarantee quality. For example, in undivided Andhra Pradesh,
the government had spent around Rs. 6,000 crore per annum towards fee
reimbursements to private engineering colleges and out of them, the industry found less
than a fifth of the graduates employable.
Less doctors in primary care and low remuneration
 It has been observed that now over half to three-quarters of the students want to
pursue specialisation, go abroad, work in tertiary hospitals or city hospitals, or set up
private practice.
 Hardly 15000 doctors are available to work in rural areas, in the public sector or in public
health and primary care as family physicians.
 To reverse this trend, drastic change will be required in curriculum.
 For this, the government will have to make interventions in public heath and primary
care which are financially remunerative.
 Thus, the demand-supply equations in imperfect markets like health do not get
smoothened by open door policies.
Quality concern
 A one day examination to judge the quality of a skill-based profession like medical care is
not apt.

Quality is also about attitudes towards patient care, knowledge, values and competencies that are imparted by good teachers in classrooms and by bedside training.

If the profits become focus in this sector, investments in such quality care will be secondary.

IASbaba’s views

profits become focus in this sector, investments in such quality care will be secondary. IASbaba’s views
profits become focus in this sector, investments in such quality care will be secondary. IASbaba’s views

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 37

Today, public health and primary care require critical attention as there has been growing evidences of rise in infectious disease like dengue, chikungunya and drug-resistant HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. To contain the spread of these diseases, high quality primary care will be required. For this, substantial investment is needed to create well trained and aptly skilled doctors to reduce country’s disease burden. US example of such market led health care education needs to be studied and reflected in India’s context. As a critic has put it, “Quality education and higher earnings are two masters. You can’t serve both.” Hence, India has to look after its national interest in a pragmatic way to determine a progressive public policy on medical education.

Connecting the dots:  What is MCI and why is it being replaced? Critically examine
Connecting the dots:
 What is MCI and why is it being replaced? Critically examine the status of medical
education in India.
 India has a dismal doctor-population ratio, yet government is not taking concrete steps
to make this field more attractive as health of people determine health of nation.
According to you, what steps should government take to organise health sector in India,
especially critically starved primary sector?
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
 Salient features of the Representation of People's Act.
Electoral financial reforms need to follow demonetisation
 The Centre for Media Studies in 2014 estimated that aggregate cost of the central and
state elections was just under $5 billion. This would have been the second most
expensive election season ever after the 2012 US presidential campaign.
 However, the vast majority of the funds was off the books and above legal spending
caps.
 Election finance — the “money power” euphemism has restrained the Indian political
system for decades. But with the recent currency swap can have an impact on the
upcoming state elections and disrupt the functioning of ‘money power’, especially in the
crucial Uttar Pradesh Poll.

But there are two limitations in this 1. The extent of disruption is debatable. As per a former CEC, there are many innovative ways in which political parties funnel undocumented cash into elections (bundles of saris and dhotis and hundreds of gas stoves). Hence it would be naïve to imagine that they will be entirely unable to adapt to the current situation.

Hence it would be naïve to imagine that they will be entirely unable to adapt to
Hence it would be naïve to imagine that they will be entirely unable to adapt to

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 38

2. Election finance is entwined in India’s parallel economy which interlocks with various industries and sectors such as real estate. It might bring about temporarily purge in some industries but it cannot permanently alter the dynamics of the shadow economy.

Addressing the electoral problems

The purity of the electoral process requires a multi-pronged approach, which includes removing the influence of money and criminal elements in politics, expediting the disposal of election petitions, introducing internal democracy and financial transparency in the functioning of the political parties, strengthening ECI and regulating opinion polls and paid news.

 Many previous attempts have been made to address the election finance problem- Goswami Committee
 Many previous attempts have been made to address the election finance problem-
Goswami Committee on Electoral Reforms (1990), Election Commission of India’s (ECI)
2004 report Proposed Electoral Reforms and 2 nd ARC’s report in 2008.
 However, as expected, none of their recommendations have resulted in legislative
action.
 There is lack of political incentive and will as well as a dubious premise of limiting
expenditure of the candidate. Today, the per-candidate spending caps is Rs. 54-70 lakh
for Parliamentary constituencies and Rs. 20-28 lakh for assembly constituencies!
 The size and diversity of Indian electorate also makes substantial cash expenditures an
inevitability.
Why the need of electoral reforms?
 Money influence- financial superiority translates into electoral advantage, and so richer
candidates and parties have a greater chance of winning elections.
 Expenditure limits- There is need for equality and equal footing between richer and
poorer candidates. Hence, there should be expenditure limits so that no individual or
political party should be able to secure an advantage over others by reason of its
superior financial strength.
 Black money presence- there is wide prevalence of black money and corruption which
helps candidates fund their campaigns. It has been observed by SC that The sources of
some of the election funds are believed to be unaccounted criminal money in return for
protection, unaccounted funds from business groups who expect a high return on this
investment, kickbacks or commissions on contracts etc.

Too much lobbying- the current system tolerates, or at least does not prevent, lobbying and capture between big donors and political parties/candidates.

Institutional corruption- it is a more philosophical argument that large campaign donations, even when legal, amount to ‘institutional corruption’ which compromise the political morality norms of a republican democracy. Here, instead of direct exchange of money or favours, candidates alter their views and convictions in a way that attracts the

exchange of money or favours, candidates alter their views and convictions in a way that attracts
exchange of money or favours, candidates alter their views and convictions in a way that attracts

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 39

most funding. This change of perception leads to an erosion of public trust, which in turn affects the quality of democratic engagement

Proposed electoral reforms

Electoral reforms often contain proposals for reforming election funding, and candidate and party expenditure. It includes limits on political contributions and party and candidate expenditure, disclosure norms and requirements and State funding of elections.

 As per 255 th Law Commission report, the legislative limits on expenditure will not
 As per 255 th Law Commission report, the legislative limits on expenditure will not solve
the problem, especially without an alternative such as complete state funding, which is
impossible given the economic conditions and developmental problems of the country.
 Any reform in state funding should be preceded by reforms such as the decriminalisation
of politics, the introduction of inner party democracy, electoral finance reform,
transparency and audit mechanisms, and stricter implementation of anti-corruption laws
so as to reduce the incentive to raise money and abuse power.
 Hence, until the issue of these spending caps is revisited or totally abolished, it will be
difficult to manage election finance with sincerity and sanity. This reform will have
greater transparency on the part of political parties.
 The Representation of the People Act mandating that only contributions above Rs.
20,000 need to be disclosed to the ECI had a loophole. Thus, a political party can declare
that it hasn’t received any donations above Rs. 20,000.
 The Association of Democratic Reforms has found that only 9% of parties’ funding comes
from donations over Rs. 20,000.
 To close this loophole, the law commission has suggested that such funding should be
accompanied by broadening and enforcing disclosure norms.
 However, ECI’s disclosure guidelines have no statutory authority; nor are there legal
consequences for non-compliance. And thus, when parties and candidates do file
returns with the ECI, they are not posted online for public access.
 The individual candidates should now maintain an account of the contributions received
by them from their political party (not in cash) or any other permissible donor. Similarly,
each recognised political party shall maintain accounts clearly and fully disclosing all the
amounts received by it and clearly and fully disclosing the expenditure incurred by it.
 However, the political parties are yet not willing to disclose their funding sources which
is represented from the chart below:
parties are yet not willing to disclose their funding sources which is represented from the chart
parties are yet not willing to disclose their funding sources which is represented from the chart

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 40

Picture Credit: http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/Report255.pdf Conclusion Now, there is a need for
Picture Credit: http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/Report255.pdf
Conclusion
Now, there is a need for wide-ranging electoral reforms that should be introduced along
with will in the political parties that they shall police themselves. Unless this is done, the
shake-up caused by the currency swap will have not much impact in regulating the electoral
finance in upcoming elections.
Connecting the dots:
 Why are electoral financial reforms needed? Critically analyse its implementation
prospects.
 Demonetisation followed by electoral finance reform will lead to beginning of end of
parallel economy. Do you agree? Examine.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
National Litigation Policy

Current Problems faced by the Judiciary

The judiciary in India is currently facing a lot of problems which can be enlisted as below:

Pendency of cases,

Lack of nationwide digital connectivity across courts,

be enlisted as below:  Pendency of cases,  Lack of nationwide digital connectivity across courts,
be enlisted as below:  Pendency of cases,  Lack of nationwide digital connectivity across courts,

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 41

Constant conflict between the executive and the judiciary,

Pendency of vacancies of judges in various High Courts and the Supreme Court,

Increasing number of under trials due to pendency of cases,

Inefficient working of the alternative dispute redressal mechanisms, and

Excessive litigation by the government

The problem of excess litigation by the government has led to excess burden of pendency on the judiciary. This can be understood by the fact that half of all litigations in the Indian judiciary today are government litigations. This issue has been raised by the Law Commission of India in its 126 th Report in 1988, the Supreme Court of India and now recently by the Prime Minister of India. Efforts have been made to tackle this problem with the help of the National Litigation Policy launched in 2010. Such a policy is also being followed in Australia where the Australian Taxation Office conducts its litigation in accordance guidelines of PS LA 2009/9 Conduct of Tax Office Litigation.

Benefits of National Litigation Policy (NLP)  Reduces the burden on the public exchequer arising
Benefits of National Litigation Policy (NLP)
 Reduces the burden on the public exchequer arising due to these cases.
 Will assist in reducing the burden of pending cases on the judiciary.
 In 2010, the NLP was launched to make the government an efficient and responsible
litigant.
 It will keep a check on the government so that it does not enter into petty litigations on
minor issues
Shortcomings in the NLP
NLP has been a failure due to ambiguity.
It is said to be filled with rhetoric and policies which cannot be easily implemented
It contains a lot of examples describing the problem but lacks an in depth analysis
addressing the reasons behind the excess government litigation
For the purpose of performance appraisal and determining responsibility and efficiency,
the policy lacks specific measurable benchmarks.
Though NLP 2010 provides for accountability but it lacks definition of ‘suitable action’
that would be taken against those officials who violate the policy.
NLP provides for setting up Empowered Committees for proper implementation.
However, there is a lack of clarity with respect to the role to be played by these
committees. This increases chances of confusion and loss of transparency.

Absence of adequate data which can be used as a monitoring tool for the success and effectiveness of the policy.

Way Forward / Reforms in the NLP

as a monitoring tool for the success and effectiveness of the policy. Way Forward / Reforms
as a monitoring tool for the success and effectiveness of the policy. Way Forward / Reforms

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 42

With the growing share of troubles of the judiciary, this problem needs to be dealt in a much more dynamic and resourceful manner. The bureaucracy needs to be motivated sufficiently to tackle this problem. Necessary changes and reforms can be undertaken in the NLP which can offer a long term solution to the rising government litigations. Such changes are as follows:

Clarity on the objectives of the NLP so that effective monitoring can be carried out.

Role of different functionaries involved such as the Empowered Committees has to be stated very clearly.

 The policy for must set minimum standards to be followed by the government for
 The policy for must set minimum standards to be followed by the government for taking
forward litigations.
 There is a need to ensure adequate accountability mechanisms.
 Consequences of violation of the terms of the policy have to be mentioned.
 Regular review and assessment of the policy is essential.
The government has to ensure that, for the smooth functioning of the judiciary and to
provide timely justice to the citizens; NLP should be implemented at the earliest. The
government should make efforts to ensure that a dispute between two departments or
public sector undertakings should not go to the court. It should be settled at the ministerial
level. Court opinion can be taken in case of further problem.
Connecting the dots
 Critically analyse the National Litigation Policy 2010. Discuss how this policy can be
helpful in reducing the burden on the judiciary.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
 Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability
Towards a cashless society- the demonetisation effect
Demonetisation has definitely turned people’s lives upside down as 86% of cash with the
public became illegal.

The move has been largely hailed but the cash management crisis has now captured the positive move in cage of lack of proper planning.

This has led to many politicians, economists and opinion leaders condemning the move and immediate hardships caused to common man.

Though government had to have more planned measures before announcing such drastic step, it is understood that its concern over the secrecy of such a move was more important.

such drastic step, it is understood that its concern over the secrecy of such a move
such drastic step, it is understood that its concern over the secrecy of such a move

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 43

Identifying the need of the hour

It is incumbent upon the government to take adequate and quick steps to alleviate sufferings of the common man which was done by announcing various steps and measures in upcoming days.

Right now, there is need of indulging more in taking actions to help people in difficulties rather than concerning too much over merits or demerits of the policy.

The foremost action is to restore calm and reduce anxiety levels across the board by providing correct information. When SC expresses concern over ‘creation of riot-like situation’, the government is bound to dole out slew of measures to ease hardships for common man.

 The government is incurring about Rs. 10 crores in awareness campaigns to promote its
 The government is incurring about Rs. 10 crores in awareness campaigns to promote its
demonetisation drive. It should stress and constantly repeat that adequate time is
available for depositing the old currency in the accounts.
 Government can inform people that ATM/Debit/Credit card should be used for their
transactions wherever possible. This will create lesser queues in front of ATM and banks.
 Volunteers can assist in filling up forms or vouchers of the illiterate and ignorant persons
and also simultaneously educating them on availability of alternate means to avoid risks
of carrying cash and running from place to place.
 The major criticism of the ban is that 70-80% of people have no bank accounts and
hence are in distress. But the facts represent different picture. According to official
figures, more than 25 crore Jan-Dhan accounts have been opened and nearly 20 crore
‘Rupay’ debit cards have also been issued.
 Hence, if an average family is considered to be of three persons, then the accounts
should cover up to 75 crore of population. So, these accounts can be activated for
depositing the old notes and withdrawal of cash.
Using the established networks
Another criticism is that of lack of banking facilities for the poor and those living in
isolated villages, particularly in north east, hilly and tribal areas.
Under the RBI policy of financial inclusion, it has been made mandatory for the banks to
open branches in every village with 2,000 or more population. And a large number of
such branches in fact have been opened.
In addition, a vast network of more than 1,50,000 post offices are spread across the
length and breadth of the country. Most of these post offices have at least one
computer terminal installed.

Thus, these outlets have helped India Post in making transfer of money from one corner of the globe to the other easier, faster and safer.

Also, many urban and semi-urban post offices have been fully computerised and are inter-connected through a core banking solution. Additionally, India Post Payments bank will be launched shortly. Hence, people have options to carry out their financial transactions instead of suffering stress for exchanging money.

have options to carry out their financial transactions instead of suffering stress for exchanging money. www.IASbaba.com
have options to carry out their financial transactions instead of suffering stress for exchanging money. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 44

It is true that farmers and small traders don’t have big transactional value and so, in order to strengthen this institutional network, a large number of banking correspondents are also functioning.

The number of point of sale (PoS) terminals has substantially gone up in the recent past as several street corner stores and other retail establishments have PoS swiping machines.

But they are not used optimally. Hence, the traders must be persuaded to use the machines in these difficult times to help their business as well as customers.

 It has been come to notice that vegetable vendors and street food carts are
 It has been come to notice that vegetable vendors and street food carts are offering to
accept cards with small PoS machines. Here, the banks could aggressively market
themselves through awareness campaigns about the availability of machines for free,
including their maintenance and the ease of using them.
 Earlier, the traders gave the tax waiver bait to customers and dealt in cash. Now if the
customer asks for bill and show their preference for card payments, the futility of cash
transactions and utility of non-cash transactions will be encouraged.
 Another important tool available for avoiding the need for cash even for the poorer but
literate sections is the mobile payments system. Slowly, mass awareness is being
generated amongst people to use mobile payment system so as to avoid cash mobility
and induce time saving. Mobile wallets are also being introduced and garnering
popularity.
 Of course, there are apprehensions about reliability and safety of their usage but over a
period, as case of cards and net banking, this mode of transactions too will find better
acceptance.
 Nothing should be expected overnight, but the initiation has to be done with
determination and sustained efforts by all concerned which will guide in moving towards
less dependence on cash.

IASbaba’s views The current challenges experienced is for a long term gain. Currently, there is a risk of increased uncertainty in spending behaviour of consumer and business, temporary strains upon already weak balance sheets and growth is expected to fall for next two quarters due to fall in working capital and trade payments that are cash based. But, as the dust will settle, there will higher levels of recorded transactions, wider tax base, better tax compliance, reduced transaction costs and enhanced efficiencies in various supply-chains. The macroeconomic indicators will also improve with slowing down of inflation, improvement in fiscal balance and softening of interest rates. Hence, the implementation of demonetisation policy, with awareness, attitude and administrative efficiency, will be a true game changer.

Connecting the dots:

How will demonetisation help India move towards cashless economy? Explain.

Connecting the dots:  How will demonetisation help India move towards cashless economy? Explain. www.IASbaba.com
Connecting the dots:  How will demonetisation help India move towards cashless economy? Explain. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 45

In a bid to become cashless society, the demonetisation policy has disrupted the routine of citizens. Critically analyse the effect of demonetisation on lives of people and business.

TOPIC:

General Studies 2

 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
Fighting the corruption on six fronts
 The demonetisation move has affected all the people who have cash which is
unaccounted for. However, this money will not be destroyed. Instead, it will be sold at a
discount, and laundered in various ways.
 The person who has unaccounted cash will have to bear a substantial loss of 25-50%.
Due to such consequences, the people who have resented corruption and criminality in
high places are celebrating the move.
 On a flip side, the Indian’s money supply is largely based on cash and it is a critical
medium of transactions. Thus, the demonetisation move has been a large contractionary
monetary shock, which has had adverse implications for the business cycle.
The Black economy
There are three components of black economy
1. Underlying source of corruption- for example, high stamp duties on real estate
transactions that lead to payments in cash.
2. Methods adopted for storing unaccounted wealth- for example- holding liquid assets in
gold.
3. Method through which transactions are affected- this involves the cash transactions

The people who resorted to black money have been penalised by 25-50% due to demonetisation. But, they will soon find ways to use the new currency illegally. Hence, now is the need for policy which sets higher vision to disrupt the black economy totally. For this, the focus needs to be on the core of the corrupt activity. We shall look into details of six such areas which needs to be targeted.

Gold

Before liberalisation, there was a booming industry of smuggling gold in India.

In 1991, this was put to an end by eliminating restrictions against gold imports.

gold in India.  In 1991, this was put to an end by eliminating restrictions against
gold in India.  In 1991, this was put to an end by eliminating restrictions against

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 46

For this, a great deal of work went into the establishment of a white-money gold and jewellery business. But this developmental work received a major setback in 2013, when the customs duty on gold was reintroduced.

As a result, the buyer started making cash payment in order to have discount. Hence, this was a blow to the world of gold and jewellery that was being conducted through white money.

So now, instead of targeting jewellers and their customers, the better idea would be to eliminate the customs duty.

Hawala  The Hawala is an alternative remittance channel that exists outside of traditional banking
Hawala
 The Hawala is an alternative remittance channel that exists outside of traditional
banking systems whereby the money is transferred without any actual movement of
money.
 For example: Person A (Dubai) wants to send 1 lakh riyal to person B (India). Person A
will contact Hawala agent X and tell him to transfer the money to person B. Agent X will
contact Hawala agent Y in India and ask him to give Indian rupee equivalent to 1 lakh
riyal. Person B will contact Agent Y and take money. Agent X and Agent Y will settle their
accounts later and once done, they will destroy all evidence of transaction.
 The hawala business came up in the 1960s and 1970s due to capital controls that were a
part of Indian socialism. Hawala transactions avoid tax, has low commission rates than
banks and is fast and convenient to send illegal money.
 Capital control= residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or
outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital
markets into and out of the country's capital account.
 Indian businessmen and citizens have a robust history of business activities in East
Africa, West Asia and South-East Asia. But the cross-border activities are mired in
complicated regulations. Recent spat between Tata and Docomo is an example of
problems created due to India’s capital control.
 Thus, instead of policing against people involved in hawala transaction, India should look
forward to become a ‘most open economy in world’ as envisaged by PM and also
improve its ranking in Chinn-Ito index (measures capital-account restrictions) where it is
currently placed at the bottom of the table.
Real estate

Real estate sector is widely mired in black money transaction where the secondary market generally involves a cash component.

Cash payment is favoured so as to avoid stamp duty. Just like custom duty, stamp duty also attracts tax evasion and thus, more generation of black money. Instead real estate can have GST.

At present, buying land and settling disputes often involves criminality, as there are title disputes.

At present, buying land and settling disputes often involves criminality, as there are title disputes. www.IASbaba.com
At present, buying land and settling disputes often involves criminality, as there are title disputes. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 47

Hence, Building sound land-title systems will enable law-abiding citizens to buy and sell land without a brush with cash or criminality through equity market which has shown how to build infrastructure for tracking property rights and achieving frictionless transactions.

Taxation

The tax administration in India has limited capabilities and hence, tax policy must put a low “load” upon the tax administration by favouring simplicity and low rates.

 Under, the present levels of state capacity, the high interest rates and complex code
 Under, the present levels of state capacity, the high interest rates and complex code has
led to corruption in economy.
 A GST has a single rate will eliminate classifying a given product at a high rate or a low
rate. And the low rates will push both the tax administrator and the citizen in favour of
compliance.
 For this, a new tax administration act is required which sets up the Central board of
direct taxes and Central board of excise and customs with sound processes for their
legislative, executive and quasi-judicial functions.
Administration
 Arbitrary power is the root cause of corruption. The government has the discretion to
change a rule, give a licence, conduct an investigation etc. and such actions should be
covered by procedural law, which enshrines good governance.
 When a coal mine has to be allocated, there has to be a structured process for it, before
any punishment is pronounced, the accused must be given a statement of the
accusation and the evidence in writing. These are basic rules to be followed, yet it is
presently lacking in many parts of the Indian state.
 The regulators need to be established with proper statutes as they have legislative
power (the power to write law, i.e. regulations), executive power (the power to give
licences, the power to conduct investigation) and quasi-judicial power (the power to
award punishment).
 Thus, such an administrative environment should be balanced in order to prevent
hegemony of few.
Politics and elections
 Running a political party and fighting elections requires large-scale resourcing.

The complex procedures force the political parties to engage in these activities using black money. During elections, the arbitral and unpractical spending and donation limits encourage political parties to find alternate ways of funding.

Thus, there is a need for fundamental reforms are required so that funding in white money is made possible.

This will also allow the Indian political system to go beyond family-dominated political parties.

 This will also allow the Indian political system to go beyond family-dominated political parties. www.IASbaba.com
 This will also allow the Indian political system to go beyond family-dominated political parties. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 48

Thus, to truly disrupt the shadow economy, fundamental reforms targeting these areas is a must.

Connecting the dots:

Knowing and targeting the source of black money is important than making efforts to clean it up from top. Identify the possible sources and state ways to clean up the core.

TOPIC: General Studies 3  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.  Disaster and
TOPIC:
General Studies 3
 Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
 Disaster and disaster management.
Indore- Patna Express derailment- Learning from disasters
In news: the derailment of Indore-Patna Express causing death of more than 140 people is a
sad reality of strained infrastructure of Indian Railways which is crying for reforms.
 India’s railway network caters to about seven billion passenger trips a year. Such
humongous infrastructure maintenance possesses extraordinary management
challenges.
 The foremost challenge of the Indian Railways is that it should be able to ensure that all
its journeys end safely.
 Death due to human errors despite knowledge of technical glitches in journey of Indian
railways can never compensate the loss suffered by the families just by announcements
of ex-gratia compensation by the Railway Ministry, the Prime Minister’s Office and State
governments.
What is ailing Indian Railways?
 It is carrying 15 times more people than its capacity, and overloading is damaging old
tracks. This infrastructure is not getting new adequate investments
 Trains do not have adequate and proper safety and fire equipment.
 Human errors are the maximum cause of accidents. Yet, proper training is not given.

There are still many unmanned railway crossings which need to be eliminated.

The Indian Railways- How to be more safe

According to National Crime Records Bureau, there have been about 30,000 railway accidents a year in recent times and over 25,000 lives have been lost in such accidents.

30,000 railway accidents a year in recent times and over 25,000 lives have been lost in
30,000 railway accidents a year in recent times and over 25,000 lives have been lost in

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 49

Indian Railways has recorded an average of 50 derailments a year over the past four years and a peak of 63. Indore Patna Express accident was a big accident that occured after 6 years.

This reinforces the duty of Ministry of Railways to engage in a sustained effort to win back public confidence. More attention needs to be paid to upgrading infrastructure such as tracks and signalling and inducting technologies that help prevent accidents.

The elements of safety integrity of the tracks, signalling, engines and coaches need rigorous auditing. Rail fractures are ‘micro cracks’ on rails that develop into ‘major cracks’ following the passage of a train with heavy load. Such accidents can only happen when Ultra Sonic Fault Detection (USFD) checks of tracks are not routinely done.

 Internal investigations by the Commissioners of Railway Safety have found human error to be
 Internal investigations by the Commissioners of Railway Safety have found human error
to be responsible for 70% of serious rail accidents. This shows how much importance has
to be accorded to training and adherence to strict operational discipline.
 The current train disaster takes into blame- the flaws in the track, the speed at which
the late-running train was being driven, and the role played by coach design in leading to
high fatalities. These are the few of the core areas which entail modernisation as well as
maintenance.
 It is not that VIP trains like Rajdhani and Shatabdi are not prone to accidents as they
have similar tracks and signalling system. What is different is the quality of rolling stock,
namely locomotives, LHB coaches and better monitoring of tracks before such trains
pass on them. Hence, railways should be equally vigilant for the non-VIP trains too as it
equally carries precious human lives.
The Indian Railways- Way forward
13 million passengers travel in the 7000 passenger trains that are run every day by
Indian Railways. These passengers need assurance from Railways that it is learning from
its mistakes.
It needs to be overlooked that the high level committee recommendations (Anil
Kakodkar on safety and Bibek Debroy on restructuring) are being implemented.
Major reforms like creation of a statutory safety authority, speedy replacement of
ageing coaches with modern LHB design and revamped management that keeps its
focus on core train operations should be fast tracked.
In Budget 2016-17, the Minister of Railways also announced that all zonal railways
would have ultrasound flaw detection machines by March 2017 to test track quality. It
should be verified if such a test was done on the Indore-Kanpur-Patna route.

Equally important is the availability of quality medical facilities on the site of accident which improve the chances of survival. Many terrible mishaps occur in rural areas that have no hospital facilities worth the name, no trauma specialists or intensive care. Hence, upgrading district hospitals should be a priority.

Instead of Railway Ministers succumbing to populism and giving priority to announcing new projects and new trains, more focus should be on necessary operational reforms.

priority to announcing new projects and new trains, more focus should be on necessary operational reforms.
priority to announcing new projects and new trains, more focus should be on necessary operational reforms.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 50

Railways is in the process of setting up a non-lapsable fund named Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh with a corpus of ₹1,19,183 crore for safety improvement. A bulk of that money is proposed to be invested in track renewals and safety works at level crossings.

Also, there is a need to find ideal solution for safety challenges. Various safety aids for preventing collision as well as train protection and warning systems continue to be pilot projects.

Currently, extensive field trials of the anti-collision device (ACD), are going on and once deployed across the zonal railways, this innovative technology will help reduce accidents.

Conclusion It is true that Indian Railways has monopoly in rail transportation, but it does
Conclusion
It is true that Indian Railways has monopoly in rail transportation, but it does not mean that
it can take passengers for granted. The initial days after accidents will witness public support
and anger against railways, but it will be soon lost in committee inquiries and finally
forgotten.
This trend has to stop and railways have to be made more accountable. Along with rising
fares, the Railways need to provide superior service — better chairs and berths, on-board
services and punctuality and safe and secure passage for passengers.
Similarly, safe and secure transportation of goods also needs to be assured for the Railways
to attract freight traffic. Mass’s safety and convenience should be priority.
Connecting the dots:
 What are the issues plaguing Indian Railways and how to address them?
 Indian Railways are on path reformation and transformation. How can Indian Railways
achieve ‘no accident’ year in future? Discuss.
TOPIC:
General Studies 2
 Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies
constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
General Studies 4

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions

Ethical issues in international relations and funding n laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance.

Refugees in India Challenges and Strategy

Who is a Refugee?

as sources of ethical guidance. Refugees in India – Challenges and Strategy Who is a Refugee?
as sources of ethical guidance. Refugees in India – Challenges and Strategy Who is a Refugee?

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 51

A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of

persecution, war, or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons

of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group.

Refugees in India History and Trends

India hosts refugees who have been victims of civil strife and war in nations such
India hosts refugees who have been victims of civil strife and war in nations such as Tibet,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Myanmar.
 In 1962, approximately 40,000 Chakma tribal people who had lost their homes and
farmland due to flooding as a result of building of Kaptai dam by Pakistan came to
India as refugees.
 The Rohingyas are an ethnic group from the Rakhine state in Myanmar. Over 13,000
Rohingya refugees are registered with the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR) in India.
 Tibetan refugees arrived in India between 1959 and 1962 and were given adequate
refuge in over 38 settlements and essential privileges available to an Indian citizen.
 The Afghan refugees fled the civil war in the 1980s and now inhabit parts of Delhi.
 In 1990s, Bhutan expelled lakhs of Nepali-speaking population present in their
country and a large percentage of these stayed in India as refugees while on their
way to Nepal.
Rising Refugees as per World Bank – Trends
As per World Bank data there has been a significant rise in the number of refugees in India
in the past decade. The graphic representation of the data has been shown below.
of refugees in India in the past decade. The graphic representation of the data has been
of refugees in India in the past decade. The graphic representation of the data has been

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 52

Problems faced by Refugees in India India remains the only significant democracy without adequate legislation
Problems faced by Refugees in India
India remains the only significant democracy without adequate legislation specifically for
refugees. As a result, they face a lot of problems such as:
They live in poor quality accommodation made of plastic tarps and straw roofs.
They have no or inadequate access to safe water or sanitation.
Waste management is very poor in areas of refuges habitation and open defecation
is rife as sanitation is also inadequate.
The children of refugee families miss out on quality education due to lack of
requisite documentation.
Most men serve as daily wage labourers.
They usually do not have any legal status or formal documents which rob them of
opportunity to work or establish businesses in India.
Ethnic clashes between refugees and the local population are a common occurrence
due to issues over land distribution and assistance provided to refugees.
State governments have not provided supportive environment to refugees and they
face forcible eviction, economic blockading and violence.

Where is India Lacking?

India remains a non-signatory to 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol, which help define the legal obligation of states to protect refugees.

Convention and the 1967 Protocol, which help define the legal obligation of states to protect refugees.
Convention and the 1967 Protocol, which help define the legal obligation of states to protect refugees.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 53

From a policy perspective also we are lacking because we do not have a national asylum policy.

Existing policy instruments have become obsolete.

India is the only significant democracy without a specific legislation for refugees.

The Foreigners Act (1946) and the Registration of Foreigners Act (1939) currently govern the entry and exit of all refugees. Both these legislations treat refugees as foreigners without due consideration of their special circumstances.

 Lack of proper database which leads to misrepresentation of numbers and faulty reporting by
 Lack of proper database which leads to misrepresentation of numbers and faulty
reporting by media.
Way Forward for India
Policy and Legislations:
 A refugee to whom asylum has been granted should be given a formal recognition of
his/her asylum status along with an identity document and a travel document.
 Policies should be framed in a manner which allows them to apply for residence
permits and choose their place of residence across India.
 Their documents must also enable them to seek employment in the private sector.
 In terms of social indicators, they should be offered primary education free of cost in
government schools and primary healthcare services should be provided at par with
the Indian citizens.
 A well-defined asylum law should be made which will help in establishing a formal
refuge granting process.
 Measures should be taken under the government welfare programmes and
biometric initiatives like Aadhaar to ensure preparation of adequate database.
Social Sensitisation and Attitude Change:
 Social sensitisation is highly important. Institutions should be encouraged to
recognise UNHCR-issued refugee cards, foreign degrees or diplomas.
 Local municipal corporations should be asked to sensitise neighbourhood
associations and Resident Welfare Associations (RWA) to accept refugees who can
pay rents and necessary charges.

Integration workshops for youth and women empowerment initiatives should be encouraged.

Conclusion

For a country that gained independence with a mass exchange of populations due to the partition, it needs to work more on its policies and laws to integrate refugee welfare in

due to the partition, it needs to work more on its policies and laws to integrate
due to the partition, it needs to work more on its policies and laws to integrate

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 54

them. While the security interests of India must remain paramount, taking care of refugees in India is a moral duty for the state.

The duty of a democratic nation is not to announce policies only. India fails on various issues associated with resettlement and rehabilitation, with many refugees remaining unregistered. India needs a system that enables the management of refugees with greater transparency and accountability. There has to be a shift from an arbitrary decision-making approach to safeguard interests of this vulnerable, victimised section of the population.

Connecting the dots  Highlight the flaws in India’s approach in dealing with refugees. Suggest
Connecting the dots
 Highlight the flaws in India’s approach in dealing with refugees. Suggest necessary
changes to be made in this concern.
 Owing to the refugee crisis around the world, there has been a lot of debate on the
approach of various nations towards refugees. In light of this matter give your
opinion on which human value, empathy or sympathy, is of greater importance in
dealing with the refugees.
TOPIC:
General Studies 2
 Issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure.
 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues
arising out of their design and implementation.
 Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability and institutional
and other measures.
General Studies 3
 Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate
Police Reforms in India
Introduction

Despite a continual debate over the wisdom and ethics of such an arrangement, political control over the police has come to be accepted as an inevitable reality in modern democracy. It seems as if the police will eternally be mired in arbitrariness and corruption if this kind of system continues. Hence, there is a need to introduce police reforms in our country. Various steps have been carried out in the past to try and introduce reforms in the police. The Supreme Court guidelines in 2006 followed by the Justice Thomas Committee set up to monitor the implementation of these reforms, enacting of the Model Police Act drafted by a

set up to monitor the implementation of these reforms, enacting of the Model Police Act drafted
set up to monitor the implementation of these reforms, enacting of the Model Police Act drafted

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 55

committee headed by Soli Sorabjee and recommendations by the Second Administrative Reforms Commission are a few to be named. Whatever reforms have been introduced till date or efforts have been made in our country have hardly altered the core of police image, which remains one of an organisation that is nothing but an appendage of the executive, without any operational autonomy.

Challenges for the Police Forces

There are a lot of the challenges that the police forces have to face and
There are a lot of the challenges that the police forces have to face and because of these
challenges various reforms are needed. Such challenges include:
 Terrorist threats to the security of the state.
 Cyber-crimes will pose a serious threat.
 Maoist insurgency, militancy in the Northeast and separatist elements in J&K are bound
to make the overall internal security scenario very grim.
Contemporary Situation
 A sense of disappointment over the lack of progress on reforms suggested by the
present Prime Minister in 2014 with respect to the concept of SMART Police.
 The decline is essentially because of the excessive political interference.
 Supreme Court’s (SC) landmark directions issued in 2006 on police reforms have not
been complied with by any state.
 States have enacted laws to circumvent the implementation of the Court’s directions
and some states have passed executive orders which dilute or amend the SC’s
directions.
 The Central government also failed to enact the Model Police Act as a result of the 2006
SC guidelines. The Centre should have taken exemplary steps so that the states would
have followed its footsteps. This could have been done through Article 252 of the
Constitution of India which gives the Parliament power to legislate for two or more
states by consent. Such an Act could apply to the consenting states and to any other
states by which it is adopted through a resolution passed by the legislatures of those
states.

Supreme Court Guidelines

The directives issued by the Supreme Court can be broadly divided into two categories:

Those seeking to achieve functional responsibility for the police, and

Those seeking to enhance police accountability. The SC directions include:

for the police, and  Those seeking to enhance police accountability. The SC directions include: www.IASbaba.com
for the police, and  Those seeking to enhance police accountability. The SC directions include: www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 56

Constitution of a State Security Commission (SSC) to check the political interference and review the performance of the police.

Transparency in the process of appointment of the DGP.

Separation of the law and order and investigative functions

Establishment of a complaints authority are the more important among them.

Ensure that police officers are provided with a minimum tenure security.

Set up a Police Establishment Board (PEB) to decide transfers, postings, promotions and other service related matters of police officers.

Suggested Reforms  The government should bring police/public order in the Concurrent List of the
Suggested Reforms
 The government should bring police/public order in the Concurrent List of the
Constitution.
 Based on the recommendations of the Second ARC, the government should at least
declare certain crimes as federal and entrust their investigation to a Central agency.
 Manpower deficiencies should be taken care of and the shortfall of almost half a million
policemen nationwide should be bridged.
 Police transport and the facilities in police stations need to be of top quality. There are
police stations in the country which don’t even have a telephone or wireless facility.
 Forensic facilities are inadequate in all the states. The states should follow the Gujarat
model in forensics which has State, regional, district and mobile laboratories.
 Housing facilities for the police personnel should be taken care of since these have a
direct impact on the welfare and morale of the policemen. Policemen are seen to be
living in sub-human conditions.
 Regulation of working hours of policemen is very essential. This will increase efficiency
and reduce any kind of resultant stress and multiple complications including rude
behaviour with the public and domestic unhappiness.
 Separation of investigation from law and order also needs to be done and this was also
one of the direction of the SC in its guidelines in 2006.
Conclusion

Since police and law and order are subjects under the Constitution’s State List, the responsibility devolves upon the States. The security architecture of the country requires a lot more reinforcement and strengthening. Good internal security is essential to sustain the momentum of economic progress and provides the foundation for success and prestige in external relations as well.

Connecting the dots

and provides the foundation for success and prestige in external relations as well. Connecting the dots
and provides the foundation for success and prestige in external relations as well. Connecting the dots

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 57

Discuss the need for police reforms in our country and suggest reforms that are required to ensure efficient functioning of the police in India

TOPIC:

General Studies 2

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and
 Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
and the performance of these schemes
General Studies 4
 Attitude: its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political
attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
Towards a behavioural change- Demonetisation effect
 Change is the most consistent of all the time. And as ordinary it sounds, the
extraordinary results it produces.
 Together with it joins Modernity which is about breaking stereotypes that govern
individual and institutional habits.
 Today, technology has come to be the main driving force of change. From the steam
engine to the electric bulb and internet, technology has defined the evolution of the
human mind and civilisation.
 Hence, it is imperative for India to keep up with change in order to garner benefits of
new technological inventions and utilisations.
Demonetisation- Transformative change is in making
Recently, the demonetisation of high value currency notes have created ripples in entire
economy as well as lives of citizens.
Demonetisation will cut off money channels to terrorists and extremist elements, weed
out counterfeit currency and drive out black money in its short term objectives.
But the long term changes and gains demand bringing in behavioural change at all levels
of society.

The demonetisation act can be called as a part of ‘cultural revolution’ wherein the people will be coming across various platforms of transactions which will push cash-less economy.

Other such examples of cultural and behavioural changes that has been encouraged in public life is ranging from attending office on time, keeping working and living environments clean, accountability, transparency, technology adoption, innovation, etc.

Though economists are busy estimating the extent to which economic growth will be hit because of the ongoing drive to replace high-value banknotes, there has been a lot of

growth will be hit because of the ongoing drive to replace high-value banknotes, there has been
growth will be hit because of the ongoing drive to replace high-value banknotes, there has been

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 58

discussion on whether the government can use the current situation to push India towards a cashless future.

Hence, instead of debating constantly on currency to GDP vis-à-vis other economies, there should be emergence of awareness amongst people how to use technology at their benefit.

Unsettling the established institutional culture

 The demonetisation drive has highlighted one thing clearly that the citizens should be prepared
 The demonetisation drive has highlighted one thing clearly that the citizens should be
prepared for an economy which has least cash transactions. This of course requires
major attitudinal and behavioural change.
 Since independence, not many major restructural reforms have taken place which
impact all the citizens together.
 No doubt, India has come a long way since independence in terms of growth and
development but the period has equally been marred with serious incidences of
corruption, opportunism, nepotism etc.
 The newly elected majority government seems in a mode to ‘unsettle the settled’ and
create a base for a behavioural change.
 Also, it can be termed as a multi-pronged and comprehensive strategy to cleanse the
system of all ills that have worked against the interests of the poor, the common man
and the middle class.
 The new initiatives will be a messenger of a modern India on the lines of advanced
countries, where financial payments and transactions will not require currency but
technology will become a tool in the hands of common people.
 Additionally, targeted behavioural modification will eventually result in the elimination
of black money leading to increased revenues to Central and state governments that
ultimately benefits the common man.
The beneficiaries and behavioural change
The citizens are being made conversant with respect to the digital medium for
transacting through the use of digital wallets, payment banking and plastic money.
E-wallets like PayTM and Freecharge are reporting a huge spurt in digital payments with
increased views, transactions and their profits.
Also, banks are reporting a jump in demand from small merchants for point-of-sale
terminals and card swipe machines. This shows that small trader is adapting itself to
modern payment options.

For example, as per a newspaper report, an HDFC bank official says that demand for card swipe machines has risen to 5,000 daily from 5000 a month. This is a 30 fold increase. The same report states that such demand is from smaller players like kirana stores, vegetable vendors and stationery marts.

The real estate has seen a dip in prices as expected and here, cash transactions will be now a thing of past!

real estate has seen a dip in prices as expected and here, cash transactions will be
real estate has seen a dip in prices as expected and here, cash transactions will be

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 59

In addition, the infrastructure companies are going to benefit from decreasing interest rates and thereby increasing their potential to invest. NHAI (highways), IRFC (railways) and NTPC (power), who are authorised to raise money through tax-free bonds, are expecting to raise money much more cheaply as bond yields have crashed post- demonetisation. Hence, the right kind of investment is being mobilised.

The Hawala transactions have also taken a hit as hawala rates (which generate dollars for rupee payments in India) have soared, making underinvoicing of imports to evade duties near impossible.

 Lastly, the common people are adapting themselves to these radical change more faster than
 Lastly, the common people are adapting themselves to these radical change more faster
than expected. People are using plastic money, internet banking and e-wallets and
spending less cash in their transactions.
IASbaba’s views
No doubt, the economy is going to suffer in short term due to cash crunch as Indian
economy was dependent on cash. But, the long term gains are perceived to be immense
which are beneficial to citizens and country in future.
Behavioural change is the hardest to acquire but it is not impossible. The citizens have
welcomed the move as they know that black money, corruption, financing terrorist activities
etc. are harming them in the end. And hence they have supported their elected government
in this move.
India can hope for a better tomorrow by adjusting to some friction in present.
Connecting the dots:
 Demonetisation will spur a long term behavioural change amongst its citizens but they
will have to pay a short term price for it too. Do you agree? Substantiate
TOPIC: General Studies 1
 Social empowerment
 Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues,
poverty and developmental issues.
Gender Equality in India: Long road ahead

Gender budgeting- an instrument to increase gender equality

In India, gender budgeting was formally adopted in 2005. Gender Budgeting is a powerful tool for achieving gender mainstreaming so as to ensure that benefits of development reach women as much as men.

It entails dissection of the Government budgets to establish its gender differential impacts and to ensure that gender commitments are translated in to budgetary commitments.

differential impacts and to ensure that gender commitments are translated in to budgetary commitments. www.IASbaba.com
differential impacts and to ensure that gender commitments are translated in to budgetary commitments. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 60

The rationale behind such budgeting is that national budgets impact men and women differently through the pattern of resource allocation.

Women, constitute 48% of India’s population, but they lag behind men on many social indicators like health, education, economic opportunities, etc. Hence, they warrant special attention due to their vulnerability and lack of access to resources.

That is why the way government allocates budgetary resources, it has the potential to transform the existing gender inequalities.

 In 2005, the finance minister included a separate statement on spending programmes that benefit
 In 2005, the finance minister included a separate statement on spending programmes
that benefit women in particular in budget document.
 Since 2005, every budget has a statement that lists out schemes meant specifically for
women. There are two types of schemes
 100% provision for women
 At least 30% provision for women
 Along with central government, sixteen state governments have also implemented
gender budgeting over past decade.
Is gender budgeting successful
 Recently, economists from IMF did an empirical check on states’ data to see if a focus on
gender budgeting has made a difference in those states that have adopted it. Specific
programmes targeting women have made a difference.
 The results were positive as it was revealed that the states that had adopted gender
budgeting had moved towards greater gender equality that was measured by female to
male enrolment ratios at different levels of schooling, especially, primary level has more
intensity than secondary schooling.
 Giving free bicycles to girls has been a fruitful decision by some governments as it
empowered the girls to visit the schools on their own, have reduction in travel time as
well as be on time, whether school or home, with the cycle.
 Similarly, separate toilets play an important role in girls going to schools. Lack of safe
and separate toilets was one of the foremost reason of higher drop out amongst girl
students.
 This is also impacted by the nature of existing political power. As per an economist’s
research, the village panchayats that are controlled by women tend to spend more on
public goods such as drinking water which are closer to the concerns of women rather
than men. (Women have to travel miles to collect drinking water).

Such interventions are welcome but gender budgeting is unlikely to solve all the problems of gender inequality which not only prevents women’s growth but also hurts economic productivity.

India has the lowest level of female participation in the labour force when compared to most other regional economies.

lowest level of female participation in the labour force when compared to most other regional economies.
lowest level of female participation in the labour force when compared to most other regional economies.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 61

Indian women enter labour market only when there is economic distress and retreat back when the situation improves. This is a rare case of employment going down when economy improves!

Two more issues need public policy attention- economic freedom and public goods.

There is a link between economic freedom of individual countries with the level of economic freedom its women enjoy.

An index has been developed to measure the legal barriers women face when it comes to exercising the same economic freedom available to men in their countries. This index has five components- freedom of movement, property rights, financial rights, freedom to work and legal status.

 In India, the legal rights are protected by constitution but social norms prevent women
 In India, the legal rights are protected by constitution but social norms prevent women
from exercising these freedoms.
 Another issue is the public good- it is accessible to all citizens because their consumption
is neither exclusive nor rival. Yet, the lack of certain core public goods such as safe
streets or lack of clean drinking water are more likely to hurt the economic prospects of
women more than men.
How can gender inequality be improved?
 The Gender Inequality Index measures gender inequalities in three important aspects of
human development
 Reproductive health- measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth
rates
 Empowerment- measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by
females and proportion of adult females and males aged 25 years and older with
at least some secondary education
 Economic status- expressed as labour market participation and measured by
labour force participation rate of female and male populations aged 15 years and
older
 India’s Gender Inequality Index value of 0.56 and rank of 130 out of 155 countries is
indicator of a greater disparity between men and women.
 No doubt India has shown progress with its gender budgeting initiative, especially the
state of Kerala which has designed many innovative ‘gender in infrastructure’ projects
that have demystified the notion that public expenditure related to infrastructure
investment is gender neutral.

Adding to it, there are small steps that can be taken to increase gender equality

Involving women and girls in decision making process in programmes at grassroots level such as designing ways to implement MDGs, forming SHGs, talking about sex education etc.

A simple gesture of girls using mobile phones increases their confidence.

Stopping child marriages and strict action against sexual harassment cases and sexual offenders will make them empowered.

marriages and strict action against sexual harassment cases and sexual offenders will make them empowered. www.IASbaba.com
marriages and strict action against sexual harassment cases and sexual offenders will make them empowered. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 62

Education should be incentivised for girls so that they are encouraged. On the other hand, educating and empowering mothers too in making choices about their children reduces gender gap.

Political empowerment through village panchayats and other level of politics.

Supporting women in non-traditional jobs like mechanics, driving, hospitality, mobile-phone fixing etc. will not only making long-lasting change in their lives but also help break social taboos.

 Men and women should be encouraged to work together. Women entrepreneurs should be provided
 Men and women should be encouraged to work together. Women entrepreneurs
should be provided incentives for their decision making power, risk taking
abilities and generating employment opportunities.
Conclusion
Gender Inequality has to be targeted from various dimensions to bring in gender equality.
According to IMF, India’s gender budgeting efforts stand out globally because they have not
only influenced expenditure but also revenue policies, and have extended to national and
state government levels.
Together with it, the classroom has the power to induct long lasting changes. Hence, girls’
education is the single best investment a country can make. One extra year of primary
school boosts a woman’s earning potential by 10 to 20%. One extra year of secondary
school boosts her earning potential by 25%. Hence, education is called for to be the first
step in narrowing down the gender gap. Rest will follow.
Connecting the dots:
 What do you understand by gender inequality? How can it be reduced? Substantiate.
 Gender budgeting is said to be foremost instrument in bringing about gender equality.
Do you agree? Critically examine the need for gender budgeting and its impact.
about gender equality. Do you agree? Critically examine the need for gender budgeting and its impact.
about gender equality. Do you agree? Critically examine the need for gender budgeting and its impact.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 63

INTERNATIONAL

TOPIC: General Studies 2

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian Diaspora

RCEP – An Agreement marred by disagreements and divergence What is RCEP? Regional Comprehensive Economic
RCEP – An Agreement marred by disagreements and divergence
What is RCEP?
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a mega-regional trade deal that
covers half of the world’s population, 38% of the world economy and nearly 30% of the
world’s trade volume. The 16-nation RCEP negotiations formally began in 2013 comprised of
the 10 ASEAN Member states at its core along with 6 of its major trading partners (China,
Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and India).
Picture credit: http://www.thegeotradeblog.com/2012/11/a-new-regional-comprehensive- economic.html www.IASbaba.com
Picture credit: http://www.thegeotradeblog.com/2012/11/a-new-regional-comprehensive- economic.html www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 64

Trade ministers of the above mentioned countries were scheduled to meet on November 3- 4 at Cebu, Philippines to take forward the negotiations. Initially, 2016 was the target year for conclusion of negotiations to finalise the terms of RCEP. However, RCEP negotiations are unlikely to be concluded by this year-end due to the existing challenges / hurdles.

Impact of RCEP

Cover a market of over three billion people in the member countries accounting for a
Cover a market of over three billion people in the member countries accounting for a total
GDP share of more than $17 trillion and 40 per cent of world trade
Objectives of RCEP
 Open up trade in goods and services.
 Liberalise and encourage cross border investment.
 Integrate markets and provide improved access to markets.
 Promote regional economic and technical cooperation.
 Global economic growth and development.
 Counter to the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP).
Challenges
 Lack of reciprocity from China: All nations are concerned about agreeing to give greater
market access to Chinese goods without gaining similarly in return.
 Complete tariff elimination: Elimination of tariffs altogether will majorly help China.
 Dumping by China: Fears of China dumping its excess capacity in items such as steel and
other highly subsidised items. This move could also harm the local industry in the
importing countries and lead to trade distortion.
 Goods and service imbalance: The progress in talks to liberalise services trade is much
slower than talks on liberalising goods trade.
 India’s interest in service sector: Greater market access in services is of interest to India
as it is a leading services supplier. ASEAN countries led by Singapore have opposed
India’s push for greater thrust on services whether relating to cross border trade,
consumption abroad, commercial presence of a service supplier and temporary
movement of skilled workers overseas for work.

Automatic investment approval: Negotiating members have expressed concerns over New Zealand’s refusal to provide automatic approval in the future for investments up to NZD 100 million, which is the current ceiling there for clearance without government approval.

Overcoming Obstacles

which is the current ceiling there for clearance without government approval. Overcoming Obstacles www.IASbaba.com
which is the current ceiling there for clearance without government approval. Overcoming Obstacles www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 65

India’s two tier system for China’s goods: India could propose a two-tier system on goods specifically for China. This proposal on China will include:

a. A larger negative list (goods that will be protected from tariff cuts), and

b. A longer time-frame for reducing / eliminating tariffs on the remaining goods.

Single undertaking: According to this principle, each aspect of the negotiation, whether goods, services and investment, will be treated as one indivisible package and cannot be agreed upon separately. There is likelihood that an agreement explicitly incorporating the principle of ‘Single Undertaking’ could be included in the final ministerial declaration. This principle is important for India due to apprehensions regarding the slow pace of negotiation on opening up services.

 Separate bilateral negotiations: Owing to various disputes such as that on services, countries such
 Separate bilateral negotiations: Owing to various disputes such as that on services,
countries such as India and Singapore will hold separate bilateral talks to iron out
differences.
 Investor-State Dispute Settlement clauses: All members are in agreement over avoiding
Investor-State Dispute Settlement clauses. This is to avoid private investors to easily
drag governments to international arbitration tribunals and claim huge amounts as
compensation for any losses they suffer including due to policy changes.
Conclusion
With the finalisation of RCEP agreement still hanging in mid air and the future uncertain, it is
difficult to evaluate the benefits it is likely to bring. Given the sheer size of the trade flows
between its members even rudimentary tariff elimination would increase efficiency
considerably. However, it is upon member nations to cooperate and converge to ensure
that RCEP does not merely remain a tool to exhibit opposition to the TPP without any
significant material gains.
Connecting the dots
 RCEP is ending up as a symbol of chaos among nations rather than cooperation and
convergence. Critically analyse
TOPIC: General Studies 2

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests, Indian Diaspora

BRICS Need to show the real potential

What is BRICS?

on India's interests, Indian Diaspora BRICS – Need to show the real potential What is BRICS?
on India's interests, Indian Diaspora BRICS – Need to show the real potential What is BRICS?

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 66

An acronym for an association of five major emerging global economies namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

All members are emerging economies and a part of the G-20.

Originally invented as a four member country grouping by Jim O’Neill, from the research department of Goldman Sachs in 2001 comprising of Brazil, Russia, India and China.

First formal summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia in the post global recession era in the year 2009.

 Changed from BRIC to BRICS after the inclusion of South Africa in 2011. 
 Changed from BRIC to BRICS after the inclusion of South Africa in 2011.
 In October 2016, India hosted the eighth annual summit at Goa.
Origin and Progress
BRICS was originally set up with an objective of achieving economic pre-eminence for the
group over a period of 50 years. However, only 15 years down the line, the vision looks
quite askew. The grouping does not seem very close to its initial objective. The reasons for
this lie on the individual constraints as well as the challenges attached to make a grouping
like this function effectively.
The challenges which these nations face are:
 Currency depreciation with respect to the US Dollars
 Slowing down of Chinese economic growth rate
 Ripple effect of Chinese slowdown on Brazil and Russia which are exporter of resources
to China.
 Slowdown in global demand
slowdown on Brazil and Russia which are exporter of resources to China.  Slowdown in global
slowdown on Brazil and Russia which are exporter of resources to China.  Slowdown in global

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 67

Picture Credit: http://www.forbesindia.com/media/images/2012/May/img_65328_bric_one.jpg Major Challenges BRICS
Picture Credit:
http://www.forbesindia.com/media/images/2012/May/img_65328_bric_one.jpg
Major Challenges
BRICS recognises the importance of wider global partnerships and it indicated intent to
develop other avenues of mutual economic assistance. However, it has faced the following
challenges:
a. Individual Aspirations
 Russia:

Politically dominant member which has robustly survived its transformation from a socialist to a market-based economic system

No interest in group identity to define its global presence

Its focus is on restoring it’s geostrategic might

More interested in bilateral deals with individual BRICS members especially defence equipment deals.

China

Economically dominant member

individual BRICS members especially defence equipment deals.  China  Economically dominant member www.IASbaba.com
individual BRICS members especially defence equipment deals.  China  Economically dominant member www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 68

High investment in physical and human capital

A very strong asset base in physical infrastructure, energy, health and education

Founded Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) with roughly the same size of authorized capital as New Development Bank (NDB) but a much wider country membership extending beyond Asia.

Targeting the world economy with it One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative in search of raw materials and is not restricting itself to any group identity.

b. Funding and economic co-operation The BRICS initiatives will bear fruits and show impact if
b. Funding and economic co-operation
The BRICS initiatives will bear fruits and show impact if they get an impetus from the
combined economic capacity and evidence of economic cooperation of BRICS. The results
from the latest summit declaration against terror will remain uncertain given the funding
patterns for terror.
c. Governance Support
Various Indian initiatives could have been effectively implemented and would have been
progressive if a more important role regarding BRICS was separately handed over to a group
including the NITI Aayog, the Department of Economic Affairs of the Ministry of Finance
instead of just the Ministry of External Affairs.
d. BRICS and Doing Business Report
The 2017 edition of the World Bank Doing Business Report shows very little change from
2016 in the relative standing of BRICS countries. Though the index of doing business has a
limitation of confinement of data collection to the largest city in each country, still there has
not been much improvement.
Action Steps
 Each country fares well in a distinct filed in the rankings of the Doing Business Report.
Hence, this provides a reasons and areas for mutual consultation and learning.
 Need to set up working groups and committees which would meet sequentially in
different countries to redress matters of concern for each country within particular
sectors.
 Ensure meetings to be content heavy and fruitful rather than a mere formality.

Initiatives Taken

New Development Bank (NDB): It was set up for infrastructure lending and focuses on renewable energy. It has made an initial set of project loans in all five member countries, and has successfully concluded a bond flotation in the Chinese market.

loans in all five member countries, and has successfully concluded a bond flotation in the Chinese
loans in all five member countries, and has successfully concluded a bond flotation in the Chinese

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 69

BRICS Currency Reserve Arrangement (CRA): Amounting to $100 billion, it operationalized in July 2015. Access for members to short-term liquidity to tide over external crises.

BRICS Credit Rating Agency: Aims to encourage competition in the sovereign rating space.

National Export-Import Banks Cooperation: To occur between the five countries and the NDB. It will augment infrastructure loans with trade finance for construction exports.

Conclusion There is lot of potential which can be tapped if only policy makers can
Conclusion
There is lot of potential which can be tapped if only policy makers can get past the wilful
blindness. The members of BRICS need to display the statesmanship required to rise above
political differences and see the advantages of mutual cooperation.
Connecting the dots
BRICS nations are capable of defining a new world order. Discuss how these nations can
achieve this successfully and the challenges they face in their journey.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's
interests, Indian Diaspora
 Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India's interests
India-UK Relations – Visit by the British Prime Minister
Background
India and the United Kingdom share close and friendly ties. It is a relationship between the
largest and the oldest democracy in the world. Highlights of this relationship have been the
following:
The bilateral relationship between the two nations was upgraded to a strategic
partnership in 2004 and further in 2010 the foundation for Enhanced Partnership for the
Future was laid.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to UK in November 2015 took the relationship to
new heights.

The two Prime Ministers endorsed a Vision Statement.

Both Prime Ministers resolved to hold biennial PM-level Summits to advance the partnership.

They agreed on a new Defence and International Security Partnership aimed to intensify cooperation on defence and security, including cyber security, counter-terrorism and maritime security.

cooperation on defence and security, including cyber security, counter-terrorism and maritime security. www.IASbaba.com
cooperation on defence and security, including cyber security, counter-terrorism and maritime security. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 70

They also endorsed a Joint Statement on Energy and Climate Change.

They issued a Statement of Intent to scale up bilateral cooperation to a global partnership for development cooperation in third countries.

India is the 3 rd largest source of investment in India

UK is the largest source of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India

India and UK have already signed the civil nuclear agreement

UK is participating in India’s Smart City Mission

 Indian Inc. forms one of the most important and influential segment in UK with
 Indian Inc. forms one of the most important and influential segment in UK with names
such as Jaguar of Tata Motors.
 UK is home to almost 90,000 Indian students.
News: Prime Minister Theresa May has visited India on her first bilateral trip outside Europe
since Britain voted to quit the European Union. The potential of this partnership has been
described as limitless.
Why India
 Search of new markets post the EU exit.
 Trade opportunities with India which is one of the world’s fastest growing economies.
Areas of Cooperation
Visa Regime
 Indian business men have been offered access to UK’s registered traveller scheme.
 Indian government will be the first in the world to nominate top business executives for
the specialised fast-track visa and immigration service launched in 2013.
 Preferential visas however are not being offered to the students and IT professionals.
 India’s concern is the segment of population who would be asked to return to India.
 UK concern should be to address the skill gap by allowing flexible visa policies for this
category.
 India will have one of the best UK visa services of any country in the world.
 They will have access to more application points and will be the only place where one
can get a same day visa.
Terrorism
Condemned the Uri attack and emphasised on cross border terrorism.
Issued a joint statement to purposefully work together to combat radicalism, terrorism.

Support for strong action by international community in a joint manner.

Ensure sharing of best practices to tackle the use of internet for spreading radical propaganda and online recruitment.

Strong measures against those who finance, support and encourage terrorism and provide a breeding ground to terrorism.

against those who finance, support and encourage terrorism and provide a breeding ground to terrorism. www.IASbaba.com
against those who finance, support and encourage terrorism and provide a breeding ground to terrorism. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 71

Defence

The Defence Consultative Group (DCG) has been tasked to advance the bilateral defence cooperation agenda.

Build upon UK’s proposals for partnerships, through activities including military to military cooperation, training, and exchange of subject matter experts, research and technology linkages as well as defence manufacturing.

British companies should look at multiple opportunities in the Indian defence sector.

 Other than trade in defence equipment India UK should build partnerships with Indian companies
 Other than trade in defence equipment India UK should build partnerships with Indian
companies to focus on manufacturing, technology transfer and co-development.
Legal Cooperation
 Both the nations have shown strong commitment to enhance cooperation under the
Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty and agreed that fugitives and criminals should not be
allowed to escape the law.
 India and UK have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to establish bilateral
cooperation activities in the field of Intellectual Property to promote innovation,
creativity and economic growth in both countries.
 The MoU helps in establishing a broad and flexible framework for:
 Exchange of best practices,
 cooperation on training programs,
 technical exchanges to raise awareness on intellectual property rights (IPR), and
 better protection of IPR
Science and Technology
 'Make in India' will be a key aspect in the cooperation in science and technology.
 Science, technology and innovation have a significant role especially to boost
entrepreneurship.
 India-UK clean energy Research and Development centre has been announced and it
would be set up with a 10 million pound investment corpus.
 UK will invest Indian start-ups and also contribute for a Start-Up India Venture Capital
Fund.
Analysis

The British Prime Minister, due to domestic politics, has assumed office on an anti- immigration and anti-free trade mandate and hence she could not adopt a tough stance on visas.

By allowing preferential visas to High Net-worth Individuals (HNI) only, UK has missed an opportunity to bridge its own skill gap.

The immigration issues should not be allowed to hamper relations in other areas since UK needs to realise the potential of India as a partner in post EU exit era.

in other areas since UK needs to realise the potential of India as a partner in
in other areas since UK needs to realise the potential of India as a partner in

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 72

India UK goods trade is not of high volumes as the services and investment. Hence, India would like to enhance merchandise trade since it does not have to go through the EU bureaucracy now.

Britain needs to be clear and show willingness to explore the possibility of a preferential or a free trade agreement.

Connecting the dots

 Critically analyse the India UK relationship in the recent past giving due attention to
Critically analyse the India UK relationship in the recent past giving due attention to the
hurdles in the path of a fruitful partnership. Also highlight India’s importance for UK in
the post EU exit scenario.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India's interests
 Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's
interests, Indian diaspora.
India Japan – Civil Nuclear Deal
Historic Step
India has signed a historic civil nuclear deal with Japan during the annual bilateral
summit held in Tokyo.
The negotiations have been underway for six years but were strengthened during the
2015
visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to India when the principles of the agreement
were decided upon.
Earlier, the negotiations were stuck because of political resistance in Japan after the
2011
disaster at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.
India is the first non-member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to have signed such a
deal with Japan.
Japan has earlier had issues regarding liability of Japanese companies for nuclear
accidents, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and future testing of nuclear weapons by
India
India has declared a moratorium on nuclear testing since 1998. However, due to
concerns about other emerging and neighbouring nations being equipped with nuclear
arms, it has not signed the NPT, contending that it is discriminatory.

India’s Nuclear Deals The list of countries with which India has already signed a bilateral civil nuclear deal are Canada, USA, Argentina, United Kingdom, France, Namibia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, South Korea and Australia.

USA, Argentina, United Kingdom, France, Namibia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, South Korea and Australia. www.IASbaba.com
USA, Argentina, United Kingdom, France, Namibia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, South Korea and Australia. www.IASbaba.com

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 73

Importance for India

The deal will allow Japan to supply nuclear reactors, fuel and technology to India which was earlier prohibited.

It is important for India’s renewable energy plans especially considering the target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of energy generation by 2022 and the target of nuclear capacity of 63GW by 2032.

 Since this is the first time that Japan has signed a nuclear deal with
 Since this is the first time that Japan has signed a nuclear deal with a non-member of
NPT, it adds credibility to the India’s prudent behaviour with respect to use of nuclear
technology.
 It is indeed a much-needed moral boost for India’s aspirations of getting membership in
the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).
 The signing of the deal will boost the low volume and dipping bilateral trade.
 It will also give an impetus to the strategic military and defence relationship.
 The deal can be instrumental in countering China's growing regional influence and in
dealing with the uncertainty of US foreign policy after the US election outcome.
 From a Japanese point of view, negotiations with US-based Westinghouse Electric are in
advanced stages and they have agreed to build six nuclear reactors in India. Japanese
companies, such as Toshiba, have significant holdings in Westinghouse and other U.S.
and French partners negotiating for nuclear reactors now. Signing of this deal makes it
easier for such deals to materialise.
Key Points of the Deal
reactors now. Signing of this deal makes it easier for such deals to materialise. Key Points
reactors now. Signing of this deal makes it easier for such deals to materialise. Key Points

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 74

Picture Credit: http://im.rediff.com/news/2016/nov/11deal.jpg Criticism There are still certain hurdles which have to be
Picture Credit: http://im.rediff.com/news/2016/nov/11deal.jpg
Criticism
There are still certain hurdles which have to be overcome to ensure that both nations can
bear maximum fruits from this deal.
 The nuclear deal has to be approved by Japan’s Parliament. The parliament will have its
own concerns in the light of India’s reference to re-thinking of the no-first-use policy.
 Critics in Japan may feel that enough assurances have not been obtained from India on a
nuclear test ban.
 India may be criticised for giving in too much because as per the agreement it allows
Japan a chance suspend the deal in case India tests a nuclear weapon. Also, Japan has
the option to notify India of the termination of the pact with one year’s notice.

There is also ambiguity with respect to the ‘nullification clause’ according to which if India conducts a nuclear test, Japan shall stop its cooperation and cancel the agreement. There is ambiguity whether the clause is legally binding or not. India claims it to be not legally binding whereas Japan considers it otherwise.

Analysis

binding or not. India claims it to be not legally binding whereas Japan considers it otherwise.
binding or not. India claims it to be not legally binding whereas Japan considers it otherwise.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 75

It is important that the agreement goes forward in a smooth manner. With the changing geopolitics around the world this emerging partnership holds a lot of importance. This deal opens the door for collaboration between the industries of two countries and would bolster bilateral ties. This will also be help in building a clean energy partnership between the two nations. This partnership will also come handy in tackling the China factor. India and Japan need to be very cautious of the impact on China due to this agreement. China has been preparing to tackle the influence of growing Japan-India ties in Asia by building upon a relationship with Russia and Pakistan. This deal brings a lot of positives for India which can be used to its advantage in campaigning for the NSG membership. However, the only major question that prevails is how India plans to go ahead with its nuclear testing.

Connecting the dots  Critically analyse India’s civil nuclear deal with Japan and discuss the
Connecting the dots
 Critically analyse India’s civil nuclear deal with Japan and discuss the benefits that India
can obtain in contemporary geopolitics as a result of this deal.
TOPIC: General Studies 2
 Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India's interests
 Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's
interests, Indian diaspora.
India-China and the Changing World Order
Evolution of the world order
 The control of nations on the global geopolitics has shifted hands from Asian powers till
the late 18 th Century to the Western nations such as United Kingdom and United States
of America.
 The late 19 th century and the 20 th century have witnessed the Western powers using
imperialism and colonialism to dictate trade and even production and consumption.
 The contemporary events now hint at history repeating itself and the power returning in
the hands of the Asian powers once again.

Changes that have occurred

The relative decline of the U.S. that has occurred both economically and strategically. However, focus is also needed on Asia’s re-emergence.

Declining supremacy and might of the global institutions such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organisation (WTO) and emergence of institutions such as BRICS Bank and Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank.

Increase in the limits to trade liberalisation in the West also.

Infrastructure and Investment Bank.  Increase in the limits to trade liberalisation in the West also.
Infrastructure and Investment Bank.  Increase in the limits to trade liberalisation in the West also.

www.IASbaba.com

P a g e

| 76

Containment, as adopted during the Cold War, is not effective in Asia since China is emerging as the largest global economy and has no close competition.

Alliances, as formed during the World War, are also losing significance in Asia as economic influence is attaining greater importance than military influence.

Emergence of the New U.S. President Elect, Donald Trump who intends to focus on “America First” approach with focus on resetting ties with Russia and build a very strong relationship with China based with focus on trade.

 Emergence of Right wing leaders across various nations.  Exit of the UK from
 Emergence of Right wing leaders across various nations.
 Exit of the UK from European Union.
 Annexation of Crimea by Russia and its impact on the power equation between USA and
Russia.
Emergence of Asia
 Asia will be restored as the economic centre of global politics
 Asia will also be the main centre of commercial transactions and trade rules will be
limited to standardisation and dispute settlement only unlike the prevailing trade regime
under the WTO framework.
India and China – Common Values
China and India have had much in common in terms of physiography and strategic ideology.
 Both countries have major snow fed rivers as boundaries.
 Strategically, both the nations have not been believers of conquering nations outside
their territories of influence.
 Contrary to western belief, both these nations focus on building partnerships based on
common values.
 In terms of political ideology as well, both China and India give due importance to
secularism, human rights and welfare of all.
 They have had a common agenda at the United Nations (UN) as well. Both the nations
have not been favouring the international relations based on the global strategy of
shared natural resources, technology and prosperity.
 The great positive of the India-China relationship in the recent years has been the
increased business-to-business and people-to-people contacts between citizens of the
two countries.

Scope of Cooperation

Chin