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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Medicinal plants are sources of important therapeutic aid for alleviating

human ailments. Approximately 80% of the people in the developing countries all

over the world depend on traditional medicine for their primary health care.

Interestingly, approximately 85% of traditional medicine involves the use of plant

extracts. With increasing awareness of health hazards and toxicities associated

with unsystematic use of synthetic drugs and antibiotics, interest in the use of

plants and plant-based drugs has revived throughout the world. One of the plants

that have gained a medicinal plant status is Muntingia calabura (Aratiles).

The emergences of various types of diseases, infectious or non-infectious,

nowadays have become a major global burden. Various pharmaceutical drugs

have been developed and prescribed to patients to help cure those diseases.

Unfortunately, conventional drugs have also been known to cause phenomenon

such as tolerance and dependence while the appearance of antibiotic-resistance

bacteria. Due to these problems, patients have been looking for other alternative

to treat or prevent their diseases.

Fortunately, as technology advances, food processing has made it

possible to store products which will usually rot. This opened a lot of possibilities

for importation of products across wide distances. While primitive methods of

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food processing is still being used like drying, methods prove to be more

effective, as it changes the form of the raw product into something more creative,

like candies, which do not only appeal our taste buds but also offers a healthier

ingredient like the fruit Aratiles which brings lots of benefits on human health.

Aratiles fruits are abundant in the Philippines, usually in round shape;

approximately 1-1.25 cm wide, with red or yellow, thin, smooth, tender skin and

light brown, soft, juicy pulp, with very sweet, musky, cherry like flavor and filled

with exceedingly tiny, yellowish seeds. Its fruit can easily be made into sauce of

jam.

Aratiles fruits are picked, washed and blended. The prepared fruit is then

cooked for quite a long time, molded, and cooled.With this in mind, processing

this fruit into candies can help introduce brand new local delicacy

In line with the University’s “Boost our Fruits: Establishment of Fruit

Processing enterprises in Batangas”, which aims to give value to our local fruits

like indian mango, tamarind and aratiles, the researcher decides to design and

develop an aratiles candy making machine to provide more efficiency and

consistency to the production of candies as well as to promote an organic

lifestyle by patronizing locally available medicinal fruits. Mechanizing the manual

process will improve the quality and production rate of these products and

shorten the production time, which usually takes 1.5-2 hours.

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Background of the Study

Aratiles is a fast-growing tree, 7.5 to 12 meters high, with spreading

branches. Leaves are hairy, sticky, alternate, distichous, oblong-ovate to broadly

oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 13 centimeters long, with toothed margins, pointed apex

and inequilaterally base, one side rounded and the other acute. Flowers are

about 2 centimeters in diameter, white, extra-axillary, solitary or in pairs. Sepals

are 5, green, reflexed, lanceolate, about 1 centimeter long. Petals are white,

obovate, 1 centimeter long, deciduous and spreading. Fruit is a berry, rounded,

about 1.5 centimeter in diameter, red on ripening, smooth, fleshy, sweet and

many seeded.

Objectives of Study

The general focus of the study is developing a food processing equipment.

The study focuses mainly on the design and development of an aratiles candy

making machine. Specifically, it aims to:

1. Design an Aratiles candy making machine.

2. Fabricate an Aratiles candy making machine considering the following:

2.1 System components

2.2 Material Specifications

3. Conduct preliminary testing to establish the following specification

3.1 Operating Time

3.2 Operating Temperature

3.3 Mixing Speed

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4. Conduct performance testing to verify the following parameters

4.1 Percent Yield

4.2 Production Rate

4.3 Quality of Product

4.3.1 Color

4.3.2 Mixture Consistency

4.3.3 Taste (pH)

4.3.4 Texture

5. Evaluate the following parameters to ensure food safety through

laboratory tests.

5.1 E-coli

5.2 Metal Content

5.3 Salmonella

6. Conduct cost-benefit analysis to ensure a profitable business model

7. Develop an operation manual for the fabricated Aratiles candy making

machine.

Significance of study

This study focused on the design and development of an aratiles mixing

ang cooking machine for candy production.

The local and national government can benefit from the development of

machinery because of the potential increase in income from our local fruits,

contributing to the economy of Batangas, as well as the Philippines.

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The medical value of aratiles candy will be known and its benefits on

human health preventing different forms of diseases and illnesses.

To the entire Mechanical Engineering Department, this provided the

faculty an idea of passing on parallel research to their students for further

application of principles of machine fundamentals and machine design as well.

To the researcher, the study provided significant knowledge through

exposure and experiences that applies the theories and principles in their field of

expertise.

Lastly, to the students and other future researchers that will conduct the

same studies, this may serve useful reference and basis of their own study.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The study was primarily concerned with the design and development of an

aratiles candy making machine for aratiles candy production. The study

encompassed fabrication of the machine considering the system components

and material specification. The study will comprise the design parameters such

as the dimension and operation of the prototype. The study also will also include

the laboratory testing of the aratiles candy mixture to ensure food safety.

The ingredients proportioned include 6kg blended aratiles and 400 grams

organic honey to retain its health benefits. The process comprised mixing,

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cooking, molding and cooling of aratiles candies. This study does not include the

blending of aratilis and packaging of molded candies.

Conceptual Framework

The study covers the design and development of an aratiles candy making

machine. The study includes discussion about aratiles itself, the process of

aratiles candy production, past studies, medicinal value, health benefits and

existing machines for this purpose. This study shall be knowledgeable about the

machine shop principles and theories. For the design of the machine Solid Works

was used. System components, dimension, material requirement and

specifications were the parameters to be considered in the design of this

machine. Preliminary testing is a must to test the operating time, operating

temperature, and mixing speed. Performance testing should follow to test the

production rate, quality of product and food safety of the machine. Lastly, the

study intends to prepare an operation manual for the fabricated machine.

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Definition of Terms

The following terms are used in the study and defines for further

understanding of the study:

 Aratiles - It is the raw ingredient to be used in the study

 Aratiles candy mixture – It is a mixture of 6kg aratiles and 400g organic

honey

 Operating Time – It is the time from the aratiles candy mixture to be fed

into the machine up to the moment the mixture is fully cooked, molded and

cooled. It is expressed in minutes.

 Operating Temperature – It is the best temperature for the cooking of

aratiles candy mixture.

 Percent Yield – It is the ratio of the cooked mixture over the feed

 Production Rate – It is the ratio of the output of the machine to the

operating time measured in kilograms per minute.

 Mixing speed – The speed at which the screw type mixer rotates to mix

the aratiles candy mixture

 Quality of Product – It refers to the physical characteristics of the aratiles

candy. In this study, only color, mixture consistency, texture and taste

were evaluated.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter presents the conceptual literature, research literature

that is considered to be vital in the pursuance of the research study.

Conceptual Literature

I. Aratiles

A. Description

Muntingia calabura is known throughout the world as ‘Jamaican Cherry’

and in Malaysia, particularly among the Malay, it is known as ‘kerukup siam’.

Being the sole species within the genus Muntingia. It is native to southern

Mexico, tropical South America, Central America, The Great Antilles, Trinidad,

and St. Vincent. It is also widely cultivated in warm areas in India and Southeast

Asia such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In our country, M.

calabura are commonly cultivated as roadside trees.

Figure 2. Aratiles Fruit


Source: www.tastylandscape.com

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The fruit is very rich in Vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus and iron.

Moreover, according to a report, the nutritive value and medicine properties of

aratiles fruit per very 100g of the aratiles was reported that contain

approximately:

Figure 3. Nutritive Value and Medicine Properties of Aratiles Fruit


Source: http://itfnet.org

An earlier study reported that the methanol extract of the fruit possessed

potent anti-inflammatory activity. Another study reported that the ethanolic extract

of the fruit exhibited an LC50 value of 1.63 µg mL−1 against first instar

P.xylostella larvae, while the hexane extract gave an LC50value of 5.5 µg mL−1.

Furthermore, the acetone, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruit

were found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Steam distillation-

extraction of the fruit, followed by GC/MS analyses resulted in the identification of

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56 compounds composed of esters (31.4%), alcohols (15.9%), phenolic

compounds (11.3%), sesquiterpenoids (10.6%) and furan derivatives (8.3%).

The dichloromethane extract of the freeze-dried fruit of M. calabura

yielded squalene (1), triglycerides (2), fatty acids (3), and a mixture of β-sitosterol

(4a) and stigmasterol (4b).

Figure 4. Chemical structures of squalene (1), triglyceride (2), linoleic acid (3a), α-
linolenic acid (3c), β-sitosterol (4a) and stigmasterol (4b) from the fruits of M. calabura

Source: www.researchgate.net

Squalene was reported to significantly suppress colonic ACF formation

and crypt multiplicity which strengthened the hypothesis that it possesses

chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis. It showed

cardioprotective effect which is related to inhibition of lipid accumulation by its

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hypolipidemic properties and/or its antioxidant properties. A recent study reported

that tocotrienols, carotenoids, squalene and coenzyme Q10 have

anti-proliferative effects on breast cancer cells. The preventive and therapeutic

potential of squalene containing compounds on tumor promotion and regression

have been reported.

Triacylglycerols exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, P.

aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans, and T. mentagrophyte. Another study

reported that triglycerides showed a direct relationship between toxicity and

increasing unsaturation, which in turn correlated with increasing susceptibility to

oxidation.

Linoleic acid belongs to the omega-6 fatty acids. It was reported to be a

strong anticarcinogen in a number of animal models. It reduces risk of colon and

breast cancer and lowers cardiovascular disease risk and inflammations. Palmitic

acid, a saturated fatty acid which was reported as a major constituent of C.

ovatum oil showed selective cytotoxicity to human leukemic cells, induced

apoptosis in the human leukemic cell line MOLT-4 and exhibited in vivo antitumor

activity in mice.

β-Sitosterol was reported to exhibit growth inhibitory effects on human

breast MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma cell. It was shown to be

effective for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It attenuated β-catenin

and PCNA expression, as well as quenched radical in-vitro, making it a potential

anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. It was reported to induce apoptosis

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mediated by the activation of ERK and the downregulation of Akt in MCA-102

murine fibrosarcoma cells. It can inhibit the expression of NPC1L1 in the

enterocytes to reduce intestinal cholesterol uptake.

Stigmasterol shows therapeutic efficacy against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

bearing mice while conferring protection against cancer induced altered

physiological conditions. It lowers plasma cholesterol levels, inhibits intestinal

cholesterol and plant sterol absorption, and suppresses hepatic cholesterol and

classic bile acid synthesis in Winstar as well as WKY rats. Other studies reported

that stigmasterol showed cytostatic activity against Hep-2and McCoy cells,

markedly inhibited tumour promotion in two stage carcinogenesis experiments,

exhibited antimutagenic, topical anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoarthritic and

antioxidant activities.

B. Benefits from the Fruit Itself

1. It has antibacterial properties.

One of the big concerns of medicine today is that bacteria of all types are

becoming resistant to the antibiotics that medical science produces. We have

overused antibiotics to the point that bacteria have mutated, growing stronger

and more resistant strains. Kerson Fruit is a natural antibioticthat will fight

Staph infections,S. Epidermis,P.Vulgaris, K. Rhizophil, intestinal bacteria,

sepsis, diphtheria and other bacteria. Further testing may prove its value in

fighting other forms of invaders as well. This is important when we have so many

antibiotic resistant bacteria.

2. It is a huge source of Vitamin C.


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One hundered grams of the berries is equal to 150 mgs of Vitamin C. We

already know that this vitamin helps to prevent flu and colds, has strong

antioxidants, and even works to improve some types of cardiovascular disease.

3. It provides gout relief.

Over the centuries many countries used Kerson Fruit to stop the pain

associated with gout. Gout is a painful form of arthritis caused by a buildup of uric

acid in your system, usually from consuming too much of certain types of food

and too little water. While Kerson Fruit cannot cure gout (it goes away on its

own), the berries, eaten 3 times a day in groups of 9-12, will relieve the pain —

the worst part of gout.

4. It is great for headache relief.

People who suffer severe headaches do so because of blood vessel

constriction. Kerson berries relax blood vessels, so that blood can flow normally

again. Eating the fruit and drinking tea made of the leaves works great for getting

rid of headaches.

5. It is helpful for those with diabetes.

Diabetics fight their disease their entire lives. They have to constantly

monitor their blood sugar levels and take medication or injections. Kerson Fruit

helps to lower blood sugar, and regular consumption can mean less medicine

or lower injection doses. As a preventative against diabetes, Kerson Fruit is used

regularly in those countries in which it is prevalent.

6. It has strong antioxidant properties.

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Oxidation is a chemical process in your body that releases free radicals.

These damaging free radicals form chains and are considered to be culprits in

cancer and other diseases. Antioxidants kill free radicals, and Kerson Fruit

and leaves is full of them — 24 different flavonoids and phenolic compounds to

be exact like that found in green tea… plus saponin compounds. Don’t worry too

much about exactly what flavonoids and phenolic compounds are — you just

need to know that they are the “good guys.”

7. It contains important nutrients.

The fruit itself includes fiber, carbs, protein for strong muscles, calcium

and phosphorous for strong bones, iron for anemia, and B-vitamins for vitality

and good enhancers. With this type of excellent nutritional benefit, it is no wonder

that Kerson Fruit is such a staple in other parts of the world. People eat the fruit

raw, make jams and jellies, and use it for baking. Finding Kerson Fruit in the US

is a bit challenging. You can, however, buy it online in liquid form or in form of

one or a group of supplements, and according to nutritionists, this is just as

beneficial as the fruit itself.

C. Honey

Honey has been used by countless cultures all around the world over the past

2,500 years. While the numerous health benefits of honey have made it an

important element of traditional medicines such as Ayurvedic treatments,

scientists are also researching the benefits in relation to modern medicine,

particularly in the healing of wounds.

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Figure 3. Health Benefits of Honey
Source: www.organicfacts.net

II. Methods of Cooking

There are many ways to learn. Like in cooking, one of the first ways is to

know the right methods of cooking.

A. Process of Candy Mixture

In cooking, the process starts with picking and choosing the best fruit. A

good fruit has a bright red color, and does not have too many brown spots. The

amount of fruit to be used is 6 kilograms. There is no need to remove the whole

covering of the fruit since it is also edible. The only parts to be removed are those

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that are damaged and those that have a rotten-like color, then grinding the 6

kilograms Aratiles using a blender. When the finely crushed texture is met, it is

ready for cooking putting it in the casserole with 400grams organic honey then

mixing it without the presence of heat until it resembles an appearance of a red

smoothie. After mixing, it will be put under a high flame for at least 30 minutes.

Once the mixture boils the flame should be lowered for the candy mixture to

reach the desired consistency. The mixture is constantly mixed throughout the

cooking process. After the mixture has cooled down enough, it is molded using

an ice tray coated with vegetable oil.

B. Other Methods of Cooking

1. Dry-Heat Cooking Method

Dry heat cooking is a method that utilizes air or fat. It includes broiling,

roasting, grilling, baking, sautéing, pan-frying, and deep-fat frying. Foods cooked

using this method had a rich flavor due to caramelizing and browning of foods. It

involves high temperature of approximately 300°F or hotter.

2. Combination Cooking

Combination cooking involves both dry and moist heat cooking. Braising,

stewing and pot-roasting are all combination cooking methods which are

excellent for cooking tougher (but often tastier) cuts of meats. These types of

cooking methods require long, gentle cooking to turn tougher cuts of meat into

those fork-tender dishes that we often refer to as “comfort foods”.

3. Moist-heat Cooking

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Moist heat cooking refers to various methods for cooking food with, or in,

any type of liquid—whether it’s steam, water, stock, wine or something else. It is

relative to dry-heat cooking methods, moist heat cooking uses temperatures,

anywhere from 140°F on the low end to a maximum of 212°F—which is as hot as

water can get.

III. Mixer

A mixer is an appliance for mixing, folding, beating and whipping food

ingredients. They are mainly used to mixed different materials using different

types of blades to make a good quality homogeneous mixture. Included are

bleeding devices, paste mixing designs for high viscosity products and high

shear models for emulsification, particle size reduction and homogenization.

Mixers are some of the most machines used in food services. Mixers are

used extensively in bakeshops and the cooking and preparation sections. Mixers

are used to stir, beat, knead, whip and emulsify. Attachments can be used to

operate the mixer motor for chopping, grinding, shredding, dicing and slicing. The

mixer is versatile piece of equipment that has a mixing bowl with a motor

mounted on the bottom. It is often used just to prepare lettuce for salads, but can

be used for variety of purposes.

Mixers have clamp-down lids and are either made of transparent material

or metal with a slide-back viewing window. Some models are hand operated and

others are operated by motor (ranging from 1 to 25hp). A rotating lever on the top

can be used to scrape the sides of the bowl to move the food toward the blades.

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IV. Methods of Mixing

Mixing is when two or more ingredients are evenly dispersed in one

another until they become one product. Each mixing method gives a different

texture and character to the baked good. The implements used, such as blades,

whisks, spoons, etc., themselves make a difference.

A. Mixing Manually

The operation is basically done through the use of whisk and a bowl. But

sometimes, it was done by using hands especially when it was hard to handle.

On the other hand, the residents were using a blender as their mixer to mix the

ingredients thoroughly.

B. Mixing Mechanically

1. Disperser-type Mixers

Disperser-type mixers generally fall into two categories rotor stator and

open-style dispersers. Both rely on high rotational speeds, or more specifically,

on high peripheral speeds, with impellers that create high velocity gradients in

the liquids and low liquid flow rate.

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Figure 3. Disperser-type Mixers
Source: www.storagetankindia.com

2. Static Mixer

A static mixer has vanes or obstruction called elements, which are

designed to re-direct and divide the flow in a way that crates mixing.

Figure 4. Static Mixer

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Source. www.westernengineering.co.nz

3. Low Intensity Mixer

The purpose is to gently move the material so as to have a homogenous

mix. The speed mixing toll will be between 1 to 3 rpm. It is needed in many food

and pharmaceutical grade applications to distribute ingredients thoroughly.

Figure 5. Low Intensity Mixer


Source. www. rotoworldmag.com

V. Methods of Molding

A. Hand Molding

Hand molding is a process where bare hands are used to mold the

material. This method has an advantage since it requires no cost for purchasing

and sustaining a machine but it has more disadvantages. This method fails on

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the cleanliness of the molded product, inconsistency on the shape and size of the

product, and low production rate.

Figure 6. Hand Molding


Source. www.depositphotos.com

B. Compression Molding

Compression molding is a method in which the molding material is first

placed in an open molding. Pressure is applied to force the material in contact

with all the areas. Pressure is maintained until the molding material is sure to

hold. Compression molding is a high pressure, high volume method suitable for

molding difficult, high strength reinforcement. Also, it is one of the low cost

molding methods.

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Figure 7. Compression Molding
Source. www. albrightsilicone.com

VI. Methods of Cooling

When you cook food that will not be served immediately – for example,

when food handlers partially prep dishes early to save time when they’re ordered

it’s important to get the food out of the temperature danger zone quickly.

The temperature danger zone is the range between 41˚F and 135˚F (5˚C and

57˚C). Harmful bacteria grow well in that zone. And within that zone, bacteria

grow even faster between 125˚F and 70˚F (52˚C and 21˚C). Food must pass

through this temperature range quickly to reduce this growth.

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VII. Existing Candy Maker Machine

CANDY MAKING MACHINE by R. J. SAVAGE & C. E. SCHULTZ.

APPLICATIOI FILED AUG. 24, 1914.

Figure 8. Candy Making Machine


Source: www.google.com/patents

The primary objectives of this invention are to provide means where by the

candy which is being cooked can be quickly lifted away from the fire or flame and

moved to a point where the contents will no longer cook, in a very short space of

time; and, also, to provide means whereby the kettle and the stirrer-head may be

moved simultaneously toward or away from the fire, both the kettle and the stirrer

unison and actuated from a single source of power.

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Research Literature

Becker, et. al (2010) conducted a study regarding “Candy Making

Machine”. This machine relates to candy making machines and has particular

reference to a machine for molding or making small pieces of candy generally

known as lollipops. The general objective of the invention is to provide a machine

of this type which may be readily assembled and taken apart so that it may be

used during the different seasons of the year for the formation of various other

pieces of candy generally made in the candy factory. The components of the

machine include hopper, plunger, body frame, motor, molding cylinder and belt

conveyor. They found out that to prevent the finished piece from sticking in the

upper roll after it has been molded as it sometimes occurs, a pair of spring forks

is provided. These forks are secured at their upper ends to the rear side of the

hopper and have their lower ends projected into a pair of circular grooves formed

in the periphery of the upper roll.

Allegretti, et. al (2013) patented a study entitled “Candy Making Machine”.

The invention relates to candy-making machines and has one of its objectives

including the provision of simplicity and efficiency in which the candy making

materials may be mixed, cooked, cooled and worked without removal therefrom.

The components of the machine include body frame, vessel, fluid heating pipe,

stirring blade and shallow pan. They found out that the high efficiency of the

machine is largely due to the particular shape of the stirring blade. The stirring

blade is adapted to rest on the bottom and side walls of the vessel with a portion

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extending upwardly above the side walls sufficiently far to prevent the candy

materials from rolling up over the blade. By providing the side walls substantially

as indicated in be attained by having vertical side walls for the reason that when

the blade wore in use, it would wear away from the vertical side walls.

In a study conducted by Brown, et. al (2011) is a candy making machine

comprising a housing, a brushless electric motor having a metallic shaft adapted

to rotate during motor energization, means for supporting said motor so that said

shaft is vertical with a free top portion extending above and beyond the motor,

said motor support means including an insulating motor mounting plate adjacent

the top end of the motor and having an upwardly extending sleeve spaced from

but surrounding a substantial portion of the free top portion of the motor shaft,

means cooperating with the bottom of said shaft for conducting electric current

from a stationary wire to said shaft, an insulating plate secured to rotate with said

shaft, said insulating plate having a first downwardly extending flange around a

portion of said shaft, a washer of graphite impregnated bronze for said insulating

plate disposed around said first flange and having a free face looking toward the

motor, said insulating plate having an outer flange extending downwardly

therefrom with the washer being between the two flanges, a stationary metallic

helical spring concentric with but spacer from the free portion of said shaft, said

spring lying within the motor mounting plate sleeve, said spring being supported

on the motor mounting plate concentric with but spaced from the shaft, the top

end of said spring bearing against the free face of said washer, the bottom of

said spring providing a terminal for conducting electric current to the rotating

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washer, said insulating plate having a bowl-shaped construction for holding a

quantity of cane sugar, said bowl-shaped construction including an outwardly

curved annular support structure having passages therethrough and of material

having an electrically insulating heat resistant outer surface so that cane sugar in

said whirling construction can work its way outwardly through the passages, an

electric heating element disposed at the inside curved portion of said support

structure for heating said sugar as it passes therethrough, means for electrically

connecting the ends of said heating element to said shaft and to said washer

respectively, and means supported by said housing for collecting sugar passing

through the rotating construction.

Synthesis

This study aims to design and develop an aratiles candy making machine.

The gathered information and ideas from the conceptual and review literature

aids the researchers in the acquisition of pertinent knowledge and data to design

themachine. Significant facts presented include the properties and nutritive

values of aratiles fruits. Ripe aratiles should undergoes several processes before

it is converted into candy. The presented research literatures had a similar

purpose which is to design a machine for an easy production and utilization of an

aratiles fruit. This study unlike the existing studies is to focus only on processes

such as mixing, cooking, molding, cutting and cooling. In comparison to those

previous studies presented the main difference of our study is that it incorporates

heat in the mixing process.

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In the study of Celestial, et al., tannin extract was to be added in the

ready-made phenol-formaldehyde resin to produce a tannin-formaldehyde

adhesive. In this study, lignin is to be incorporated in the formulation of phenol

formaldehyde resin to produce a lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin.

Furthermore, unlike the studies stated above, this study pursued to

produce particle board from black liquor. Also, this study determined whether

lignin extracted from black liquor which was then hydroxymethylated was able to

provide a better set of properties for phenolic resin compared to past studies.

Variations of the percentage substitutions was incorporated in order to determine

whether which of the percentage substitutions would give the accepted

properties

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE

This research section presents the summary of the design process,

specifically the methods and procedures that was done for the construction of the

machine. This includes the research design, development stages and methods of

testing.

Research Design

The study employed engineering design, planning and analysis of

information and data gathering for the design of an aratiles candy making

machine. The study underwent four development stages in order to attain the

objectives of the study including the design stage, fabrication stage, preliminary

testing and the final testing stage.

1. Design Stage

This stage considered the development of the machine with the

parameters set in the study including the selection materials that was used. It

involved the essential methods that enable further development of the project.

Material selection was taken into considerations in terms of availability and cost.

2. Fabrication Stage

The fabrication and assembly of the machine was done by a machine

shop. It was done based on the design requirements and material specifications.

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3. Preliminary Testing

After the fabrication of the machine, series of tests were held. The testing

included the production time, operating temperature, and operating pressure of

the machine. The results of preliminary testing were an essential fragment to

determine the efficiency of the machine. When problems were encountered

during the test run, necessary adjustments and modification addressing the

problems would be done immediately to come up with a better output.

4. Final Performance Testing

After the parameters have been set in preliminary testing, final testing of

the fabricated aratiles candy making machine was conducted. This included

determining the percent yield and production rate.

Preparation of Raw Material

First, ripe aratiles fruit was chosen making sure the fruits selected do not

have any defects and in good condition of approximately 6 kilograms. It should

have a bright red color. It was washed thoroughly in running water to remove dirt.

The fruit was blended, which then produced a red liquid that resembled a

smoothie in consistency. Next, 400 grams of organic honey is added to the

mixture before being fed into the cooking pot. It was set to high flame of about

232°C for 30 minutes, then reduced to low flame of about 150°C for the

remaining time.

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Methods of Testing

A. Preliminary Testing Parameters

The preliminary testing was done after the fabrication of the machine. This

was done to establish the operating time, operating temperature and mixing

speed of the machine.

1. Determining the Operating Time

The machine’s operating time was determined by measuring the time from

the aratiles candy mixture was fed into the machine until the product was

produced. There was supervision from the cooperative in cooking to prevent from

producing bad quality product.

2. Determining the Operating Temperature

The operating temperature was based on the results of having several

trails of operation. The use of a band heater was incorporated in this testing to be

able to measure a specific temperature of the mixture. The consistent mixing and

appropriate size of the cooking pot ensured equal distribution of heat throughout

the cooking process.

3. Determination of Mixing Speed

The mixing speed was based on the results of having several traits of

operation. The mixing speed was chosen based on the amount of burned product

of the tested mixing speed. The mixing speed that yielded the least amount of

burned product was selected.

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B. Performance Testing Parameters

1. Percent Yield

Percent yield is defined as the ratio of the cooked mixture over the raw

materials. It was computed using the formulas:

Percent Yield = (mass of product/ mass of feed) x 100

2. Production rate

The production rate was defined as the ratio of machine’s output to the

operating time of the machine. The production rate was determined using the

formula:

Production Rate = (mass of product/operating time)

3. Quality of Product

The mixture underwent sensory evaluation to determine whether these

parameters are met.

 Color

The mixture should exhibit a bright red color. The mixture can burn easily,

resulting to a dark brown color, which the researcher tried to avoid. A

comparative test can be established between the original product and the

researchers’ product to guarantee proper color.

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 Mixture Consistency

The mixture should be easy to mold while still hot, but should not be too

hard once it cools. A good indication is when the mixture is molded in the molder

when it is still hot, it should be sticky enough to hold its shape as soon as it cools

down. Another method is using a spoon to scoop some of the mixture to test if it

still drips. The mixture is near completion when it does not drip from the spoon.

 Taste

The candy resembles the taste of cherry. It should have a sweet taste but

not too sweet which indicates too much honey.

 Texture

A good indicator of good texture is that once molded, the aratiles candy

should be smooth. If it is deformed in shape with regards to the fineness of the

candy, it has not complied with the desired texture.

 Food Safety

The product underwent laboratory examinations to determine the bacterial

content of the product in an analytical laboratory.

E. coli and Salmonella

E. coli and salmonella are the most common bacteria to exist at

contaminated food, and are thus the one tested for. Laboratory tests were used

to measure its levels. E. coli content must not exceed 100 CFU/g so that it would

be safe for consumption of adults.

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