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Analysis via State Space

● We were introduced to the concepts of state-space

analysis and system modelling before. Where we showed
that the state-space mothods, like transform methods, are
simply tools for analysing feedback control systems.
● However, the state-space techniques can be applied to a
wider class of systems. Such as nonlinear systems,
multiple input and multiple output systems.
● In this lecture we aill concetrate on developing control
solutions with state-space approaches in time domain (for
linear systems only)
A little reminder

A typical DE is in the form

This type of system (linear, causal time invariant) can also

be represented in the form


where y(t) denotes the system output, u(t) is the system input
x(t) is the state vector (used to account for the „derivatives“) in the system
An Example

Rewrite the following differential equation in space-space

form :

Notice that the transfer function of the system described by

the given differential equation is

Using a similar representation as we have done before

We can then define and write the eqaution in
matrix form as

Note that depending on the definition of the states there

are infinite number of state space forms for a given
differential equation
Reachable Canonical Form

● While there are infinite number of state space forms for a

given differential equation, the Reachable Cannonical
Form (RCF) also called the Phase Variable Form is one of
the easiest to setup
● Each subsequent state variable is defined to be the
derivative of the previous state variable.
● Finally it is assembled in a matrix form.
Another Example

Put into state space form

which can be written as

} Output side of DE
} Input side of DE

The corresponding matrix

entries can be obtained as :
??? How
It can be done following these steps

Step 1 : Insert zeros to all of the matrices except
– Super diagonal and last row of A
– Last entry of B
– The entire C matrix

Step 2: Put 1 to the super diagonal of A and the last entry of B

Step 3: Take the last n coefficients of the output equation and put
the negative values of them in the last row of A in reverse order
● Step 4 : Take the coefficients of the input side of the equation and
put them in C in reverse order

● Find the state-space representation of the circuit below

● Start with the transfer function approach
Example cont.

● Calculate Z(s)

● Then the transfer function

● Plug in for the values of capasitor inductor and resistors

Example cont.

● Then
Solution of Linear State Space equations

● The solution to the state equation


And the output y(t)

Note that is a matrix!!!

For details look at the slides from week 2
State Transition Matrix

By definition

There are also some other ways for calculating the state
transition matrix but we will stick with the above one
Lets try to calculate the state transition matrix for

So we need to calculate
In steps

Taking inverse Laplace transsform leads


Find the output when the input is a unit step for


Solution : From the solution of the output we found before

that is
From our previous calculations we know that

which yields

Time Domain Solution

} State-space Eq

} State solution

} Output solution

} State Transition Matrix


Frequency Domain Solution

} State-space Eq

State solution

Output solution

Open loop transfer Function


Open loop transfer function in pole-zero form

Poles of the open loop system

Zeros of the open loop system

More Definitions

● A state variable realization (A, B, C) can be obtained from

the transfer function representation or directly from the
differential equations representing the system
● The transfer function representation satisfies
– has real coefficients
– is Rational in s
– Strictly proper
● A realization is minimal if it has the smallest possible
number of states
● A realization is minimal if has no pole-zero

● If the modes or the poles of the system can be arbitrary

changed then it is controllable
● A realization is controllable if the n x n matrix

has full rank

● If the modes or the poles of the system can be observed at
the output then the system is observable
● A realization is observable if the nxn matrix

has full rank

● If a realization is both controllable and observable, then it
is minimal
● If a realization is minimal it is both controllable and
Back to our example

● The system

Full rank : controllable

Full rank : observable

● The system is minimal (also from )

no pole-zero cancellation

● Note that if we have the transfer function the minimality test

cab be used to determine controllability and observability
as opposed to the matrix checks given in the previous slide