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Nebraska Cooperative Extension EC 95-273-C

ESS 38


Nebraska and South Dakota

Cooperative Extension Service / South Dakota State University and University of Nebraska / U.S. Department of Agriculture
Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
Nutrient Sources .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Energy .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Protein and amino acids ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
Minerals ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Vitamins ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Bioavailability............................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Nutrient Interactions ................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Ingredient Quality ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Feed Additives ............................................................................................................................................................................. 14
Feed Processing ............................................................................................................................................................................ 18
Water .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Feed Intake.................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Health ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
Nutrient Recommendations ....................................................................................................................................................... 22
Practical Applications and Outcomes ....................................................................................................................................... 27
Breeding Herd Management............................................................................................................................................... 28
Growing Pig Management .................................................................................................................................................. 31
Example Diets ....................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Tools for Quantifying Performance ........................................................................................................................................... 34
Methods of Supplying Nutrients ............................................................................................................................................... 37
Conversion Factors, Abbreviations and Symbols ................................................................................................................... 40
Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 41
Additional Information Sources ................................................................................................................................................ 42
Issued July 2000
5,000 copies

Duane E. Reese, Extension Swine Specialist, University of Nebraska

Robert C. Thaler, Extension Swine Specialist, South Dakota State University
Michael C. Brumm, Extension Swine Specialist, University of Nebraska
Austin J. Lewis, Professor, Swine Nutrition, University of Nebraska
Phillip S. Miller, Associate Professor, Swine Nutrition, University of Nebraska
George W. Libal, Professor Emeritus, Swine Nutrition, South Dakota State University
We appreciate the contributions of the following people for their assistance in preparing this publication.

Industry Advisors
Donnie R. Campbell, Roche Vitamins Inc.
Richard P. Chapple, Purina Mills, Inc.
W. F. Nickelson, Livestock Nutrition & Management Services
Wayne L. Stockland, Consolidated Nutrition, L. C.
Bob Woerman, Land O’Lakes/Harvest States Feed

Additional Reviewer
C. Ross Hamilton, Darling International

The University of Nebraska and South Dakota State University are solely responsible for the content of this publication.
No endorsement of these firms is intended, nor a discredit to any one omitted from the list.

This publication is available at: <>.

Industry advisors representing
Introduction various facets of the pork industry
were recruited to review and chal-
Nutrient Sources
lenge the concepts incorporated in
This publication is a revision of An essential part of a sound
this publication. Also, in situations
the previous swine nutrition publi- feeding strategy is to make good
where “gray areas” existed, these
cation prepared by the University decisions on which ingredients to
industry representatives made
of Nebraska and South Dakota use in the diet. Ingredients provide
specific proposals or recommenda-
State University. The focus of the nutrients that pigs require for nor-
tions. Therefore, our ultimate goal
publication continues to be on mal performance. Pigs do not
was to use the knowledge of
nutrient recommendations for require specific ingredients in their
respected swine nutritionists who
swine. Specific factors (nutritional, diet, but instead require energy and
represent a cross section of the feed
environmental and managerial) nutrients such as amino acids,
industry to improve the application
that affect nutrient recommenda- minerals and vitamins. There are
of this publication. In preparing
tions (Figure 1) have been consid- numerous ingredients available to
this publication, a priority has been
ered and discussed. We believe that use in pig feed. Information in this
to discuss some of the controversial
the identification and description section is intended to help people
and experimental swine nutrition
of the factors in Figure 1 provide make good decisions on sources of
issues currently being explored.
the framework for the nutrient nutrients.
The discussion of these issues has
recommendations presented in been focused to emphasize results
Tables 11 to 16. presented in the scientific litera- Energy
Pigs need energy for mainte-
nance, growth, reproduction and

Feed & Manure Safety
Economics Health
Additives Productivity Management Margin

Feed Goverment
Ingredient Regulations

Intake Alternative Nutrient Nutrient Water Feed
Feedstuffs Bioavailability Interactions Processing

Figure 1. Factors that were considered when developing nutrient recommendations.

lactation. The bulk of the pig’s tracting energy lost in the feces, How does one know whether
energy requirement is met by urine and gasses from the gross another energy source is more
carbohydrates and fats. Fats and energy in the feedstuff. economical?
oils are dense sources of energy, Although many cereal grains can Focus on the relative feeding
containing about 2.25 times more provide economical sources of energy value of energy sources shown in
calories than carbohydrates. The for pigs in the Midwest, corn is used Table 1 rather than on achieving a
energy content of feedstuffs and extensively in Nebraska and South certain feed efficiency or growth
energy requirements of pigs are Dakota. However, economic condi- rate when evaluating alternative en-
commonly expressed as metaboliz- tions can change, making other ergy sources. Substituting milo for
able energy (ME). The ME content energy sources attractive for inclusion corn, for example, likely will reduce
of a feedstuff is determined by sub- in pig diets. feed efficiency, but may reduce the

Table 1. Relative feeding values and maximum usage rates of energy sources. A * denotes no nutritional limitations in a balanced dieta

Maximum recommended percent of complete dietsb

Ingredient (as-fed) Feeding value relative to corn, %c Starter Grow-finish Gestation Lactation

Alfalfa meal, dehy 70 to 80 0 10 25 0

Alfalfa hay, early bloom 65 to 75 0 10 60 0
Bakery waste, dehy 110 to 120 * * * *
Barley (48 lb/bu) 90 to 100 25 * * *e
Beet pulp 80 to 90 0 10 50 10

Corn distillers grains w/solubles, dehy 110 to 120 5 15 40 10

Corn gluten feed 95 to 105 5 10 * 10
Corn, high lysine 100 to 110 * * * *

Corn, high oil 100 to 110 * * * *

Corn, hominy feed 95 to 105 0 60 60 60

Corn, yellow (> 40 lb/bu) 100 * * * *

Fats/oils (stabilized) 190 to 200 5 5 5 5
Millet, proso 85 to 95 40 * * 40

Milo, grain sorghum (> 48 lb/bu) 95 to 97 * * * 40

Molasses (77% DM) 55 to 65 5 5 5 5

Oats (38 lb/bu) 85 to 95 15 30 * 10

Oats, high lysine 85 to 95 30 60 * 10
Oat groats 110 to 120 * * * *
Rye 85 to 95 0 25 20 10
Triticalef,g 95 to 105 20 40 40 40

Wheat bran 80 to 90 0 10 30 10
Wheat, hard (> 55 lb/bu)h 100 to 110 30 * * 40
Wheat middlings 110 to 120 5 25 * 10

aAssumes diets are balanced for essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins.
b Higher levels may be fed although performance may decrease. Economic considerations should influence actual inclusion rates.
cCorn = 100%. Values apply when ingredients are fed at no more than the maximum recommended % of complete diet. A range is presented to

compensate for quality variation.

dFor maximum performance, limit barley to 2/3 of the grain for 45 to 130 lb pigs. No limitation for pigs > 130 lb.
eIncreased fiber in barley will reduce the ME/lb of feed. Thus, less should be used when feed intake is low.
fErgot free.
gLow trypsin inhibitor varieties. Feed value tends to be highly variable.
hCoarsely ground. See the Feed Processing section for details.

cost of gain also. The feeding values included in the diet of finishing Animal fat and soybean oil are
were calculated using the ME, di- pigs. There has been no evidence the most common fat sources used
gestible lysine and available phos- that this has contributed to “soft in swine diets. Animal fats in the
phorus content of feedstuffs. Corn, pork” or a loss of carcass value. Midwest generally include tallow,
soybean meal (44% CP) and However, feeding more than 10% choice white grease and yellow
dicalcium phosphate were used as whole sunflower seeds to finishing grease. These are solid at room
reference feedstuffs. Corn is as- pigs will result in “soft pork.” temperature and must be heated to
sumed to have a feeding value of Adjustments for possible changes about 140 to 150oF before they can
100%. Grain sorghum (milo), for ex- in carcass merit have not been be blended into the diet. In con-
ample, has a feeding value about made in the feeding values shown trast, vegetable oils are liquid at
95% that of corn. Thus, milo can re- in Table 1. room temperature and can be
place corn in the diet when the added to the diet without heating.
price of milo is less than 95% of the How should alternate energy Also, in general, oils are preferred
price of the same weight of corn. sources be included in the diet? over animal fat in diets for pigs
For example, if corn costs $.04/lb, Two methods are acceptable. weighing less than 15 lb.
milo would become more economi- Check Table 1 to see if there is a Fats are available in a variety of
cal to feed when it is less than suggested limitation on the quan- forms including fats contained in
$.038/lb ($.04/lb x .95 = $.038/lb). tity of the ingredient to include in complete diets, commercial supple-
The feeding value of milo is slightly the diet. The first method is to ments, dried fat products, whole soy-
less than that of corn because it has reformulate the diet on a total or beans and high-oil corn, in addition
less ME and digestible lysine. digestible lysine basis. Formulating to fats obtained directly from refin-
The relative feeding values on a digestible lysine basis is more ers and renderers. Probably the easi-
apply when ingredients are in- precise. The advantage of formulat- est method of incorporating fat in
cluded in diets in quantities no ing on a lysine basis is that the diets made on the farm is to use full-
greater than those shown in Table additional lysine in wheat and bar- fat soybeans or high-oil corn. Diets
1. When ingredients are included in ley, for example, can be taken that contain full-fat soybeans as the
diets at lower levels than indicated advantage of. This means less sole supplemental protein source pro-
in Table 1, the feeding value may supplemental protein is needed in vide 3 to 4% extra fat. High-oil corn-
increase slightly. Average daily gain the diet. Check the tryptophan, soybean meal diets also contain 3 to
and reproductive performance will threonine and methionine levels of 4% additional fat. Fat that is added
not normally be reduced by replac- the diet during formulation to to a swine diet should be stabilized
ing corn with any of the energy ensure they are adequate. The sec- with an antioxidant or preservative
sources at the levels shown in Table ond method is to substitute the (e.g. BHT, BHA, or ethoxyquin) to
1. A range in feeding value is pre- alternate energy source for corn on avoid rancidity.
sented to account for variation in a pound-for-pound basis in the
ingredient quality and individual diet. This procedure is acceptable Are some energy sources better
producer goals. Also, be sure to for all energy sources in Table 1, suited for pigs in the summer
consider factors such as storage except fat and molasses. These than winter?
costs and ingredient quality and energy sources contribute no pro- Yes. Fat will improve pig per-
availability. tein or amino acids to the diet, so formance more when provided in
the diet must be reformulated. Do the summer than in the winter. Less
Is carcass backfat affected by not formulate diets on a protein heat is produced by pigs when they
using alternate energy sources? basis because the diet may be defi- digest fat compared with starch or
Backfat thickness may decrease cient in lysine, resulting in reduced fiber. This allows pigs fed diets
by up to .1 inches when oats, bar- pig performance. with added fat to continue to con-
ley, or other lower energy ingredi- sume large amounts of energy dur-
ents replace all the corn in the diet What sources of fat are ing hot weather when feed intake is
if fat is not added to make the diets available? normally reduced. Thus, fat is gen-
isocaloric. Details on how added Common sources of animal erally more cost effective when fed
fat affects backfat are presented in and vegetable fat and their ME in the summer than in the winter.
the Practical Applications and Out- values are listed in Table 29. Also In contrast, when low-energy, high-
comes section of this publication. available are blended combinations fiber feedstuffs such as alfalfa, bar-
The fatty acid profile of backfat is of animal fat, vegetable oil and ley and oats are digested by pigs,
made slightly more unsaturated refined or rerendered restaurant heat production is increased. This
when high-oil corn, full-fat soy- grease. extra heat can be used to help main-
beans and vegetable oils are tain body temperature during the

winter. Energy sources with a high methionine, phenylalanine, threo- to account for variation in ingredi-
fiber content are therefore more cost nine, tryptophan and valine. The ent quality and individual producer
effective for pigs fed during winter proteins of corn and other cereal goals. Most amino acid sources are
than summer. grains are deficient in certain essen- byproducts and subject to some
tial amino acids. Protein supple- variation in quality, because of the
Does low protein corn have a ments are used to correct the amino processing methods used. Also, be
lower feeding value than normal acid deficiencies in grains. For sure to consider factors such as stor-
corn? example, the correct combination age costs, handling characteristics
Not likely. Results from several of grain and soybean meal provides and availability.
studies indicate that the relation- a good balance of amino acids.
ship between the crude protein Soybean meal is often the most Are there differences in
content and lysine content of corn economical source of amino acids uniformity of product among
is poor. Thus, corn containing 7 to for pigs in Nebraska and South protein sources?
7.5% CP may have the same Dakota. However, economic condi- Animal protein products vary
amount of lysine as 8.5% CP corn. tions can change, making alterna- in composition and quality more
The lack of a good correlation be- tive amino acid sources attractive than plant protein sources. Meat
tween corn crude protein and for use in pig feed. and bone meal and meat meal are
lysine content indicates that one byproducts of the meat packing in-
should not automatically increase How does one determine dustry, and their composition de-
the amount of protein supplement whether another source of amino pends on the animals slaughtered.
or crystalline lysine in the diet acids is more economical? Methods of processing also influ-
when using low protein corn. Use the relative feeding value ence the quality of animal proteins.
Moreover, in a 1994 study of corn of amino acid sources shown in The rendering process (270 to
produced in the Midwest, 77% of Table 2 when considering alterna- 280oF) is sufficient to kill salmonella
the samples contained between .23 tive amino acid sources. These and other bacteria present in the
and .28% lysine. If the lysine con- feeding values were calculated raw material, but through im-
tent of corn in a finisher diet for- using the ME, digestible lysine and proper handling, the rendered
mulated to contain .65% lysine available phosphorus content of product can be recontaminanted.
ranges from .23 to .28%, the lysine feedstuffs. Corn, soybean meal (44% Buying animal proteins from a reli-
concentration in the complete diet CP) and dicalcium phosphate were able supplier will reduce the impact
ranges from only .63 to .67%. used as reference feedstuffs. Soy- of this quality variation on pig per-
bean meal (44% CP) is assumed to formance.
Protein and Amino have a feeding value of 100%. Good Many plant proteins are more
quality meat and bone meal, for ex- uniform because they are made
Acids ample, has a feeding value of 110% from a single source. Also, methods
of that of soybean meal. Thus, meat of processing plant proteins have
Pigs of all ages and stages of and bone meal can replace soybean become standardized, and the
the life cycle require amino acids to meal in the diet when the price of same kind of product can be pro-
enable them to grow and repro- meat and bone meal is less than duced year round. However, im-
duce. Amino acids are the struc- about 110% of the price of the same proper processing can occur in the
tural units of protein. During weight of soybean meal. For ex- production of soybean meal and
digestion, proteins are broken ample, if the meat and bone meal other plant proteins. Also, calcium
down into amino acids and pep- price is less than about $220/ton, it carbonate (limestone) can be added
tides. The amino acids and pep- is a better buy than 44% CP soy- to plant protein products (up to
tides are absorbed into the body bean meal that costs $200/ton .5%) to prevent them from becom-
and are used to build new proteins, ($200/ton x 1.10 = $220/ton). ing lumpy and to maintain good
such as muscle. Thus, pigs require The relative feeding values ap- flow characteristics. The additional
amino acids, not protein. Diets that ply when ingredients are included calcium is no problem as long as
are “balanced” with respect to in diets in quantities no greater one knows how much is in the pro-
amino acids contain a desirable than those shown in Table 2. Aver- tein source.
level and ratio of the 10 essential age daily gain and reproductive Salmonella contamination tradi-
amino acids required by pigs for performance will not normally be tionally has been associated with ani-
maintenance, growth, reproduction reduced by replacing soybean meal mal protein products. However,
and lactation. Those 10 essential with any of the amino acid sources recent evidence indicates that grains
amino acids for swine are arginine, at the levels shown in Table 2. A and plant protein products can also
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, range in feeding value is presented be contaminated with salmonella.

Table 2. Relative feeding values and maximum usage rates of protein and amino acid sources. A * denotes no nutritional limitation in a
balanced dieta

Feeding value relative Maximum recommended percent of complete dietsb

to 44% CP
Ingredient (as-fed) soybean meal, %c Starter Grow-finish Gestation Lactation Comments

Blood meal, spray-dried 220 to 230 3 6 5 5 low in isoleucine

Canola meal 70 to 80 0 15 15 15 antinutritional factors
Corn distillers grains w/solubles, dehy 45 to 55 5 15 40 10 poor amino acid balance
Corn gluten feed 40 to 50 5 10 90 10 high in fiber
Fish meal, menhaden 160 to 170 20 6 6 6 “fishy” taste in pork
Meat and bone meal 105 to 115 * * * * high mineral;
low tryptophan content
Meat meal 130 to 140 * * * * high mineral content
Plasma proteins, spray-dried 205 to 215 * * * *
Skim milk, dried 105 to 115 * * * * low fat soluble
vitamin content
Soy protein concentrate 135 to 145 * * * *
Soybean meal, 46.5% CP, dehulled 105 to 110 * * * *
Soybean meal, 44% CP 100 * * * *
Soybeans, full-fat, cooked 85 to 95 * * * *
Sunflower meal, 36% CPd 55 to 65 0 * * * low in lysine
Whey, dried 55 to 65 30 15 5 5 high in lactose

aAssumes diets are balanced for essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins.
b Higher levels may be fed although performance may decrease. Economic considerations should influence actual inclusion rates.
c44% CP soybean meal = 100%. Values apply when ingredients are fed at no more than maximum recommended % of complete diet. A range is

presented to compensate for quality variation.

dLower protein sunflower meal sources are available. Due to variability in nutrient content, these are not recommended for use in swine diets.

What is meant by digestible feed, it is best to formulate the diet acid), excesses of many other amino
amino acids? on a digestible amino acid basis. acids exist. Two practical methods
Only a certain proportion of Otherwise, pigs may not perform can provide a more ideal balance of
each of the amino acids in a as expected. Digestible lysine rec- amino acids in pig feed: Use a com-
feedstuff is digested and absorbed ommendations are given in Tables bination of supplemental protein
by pigs. Digestibility values for ma- 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. sources or formulate the diet with
jor amino acids in many feedstuffs crystalline amino acids.
are shown in Table 3. To calculate What is meant by ideal protein Questions often are asked
the digestible amino acid content of or amino acid balance? about whether the excess amino
a feedstuff, multiply the total quan- The concept of an ideal protein acids hurt pig performance and
tity of the amino acid in the or ideal amino acid balance is to whether reduction or elimination of
feedstuff by its digestibility value provide a perfect pattern of essen- the excesses would improve pig
in Table 3. For example, the digest- tial and nonessential amino acids in performance. There is little evi-
ible lysine content of 44% CP soy- the diet without any excesses or dence to indicate that the perfor-
bean meal containing 2.83% lysine deficiencies. This pattern is sup- mance of pigs fed diets containing a
is 2.41% (2.83 x .85). Differences in posed to reflect the exact amino more ideal balance of amino acids is
digestibility can be ignored when acid requirements of the pig for better or worse than that of pigs fed
formulating diets that consist maintenance and growth. There- practical corn-or milo-soybean
primarily of corn or milo and soy- fore, an ideal protein provides meal-based diets. However, if
bean meal (with no byproduct exactly 100% of the recommended excess amino acids are reduced,
ingredients). Thus, these diets can level of each amino acid. Although nitrogen excreted through the urine
be formulated on a total amino acid standard diets are usually formu- and feces will be reduced, meaning
basis. When nontraditional or lated to meet the pig’s requirement that less nitrogen is in the manure.
byproduct ingredients are used in for lysine (the most limiting amino This will reduce the amount of land

Table 3. Apparent digestibility (%) of amino acidsa at the terminal ileumb, c It depends on the price of the
crystalline amino acids and the
Ingredient Lys Trp Thr Met Cys prices of grain and supplemen-
tal protein sources. The use of
L-lysine•HCl as a source of crystal-
Barley 68 70 66 80 76
line lysine is often economically
Corn 66 64 69 86 78 sound. Crystalline methionine is
Milo 62 75 68 81 79 commercially available and inex-
Oat groats 79 80 76 85 80 pensive. Crystalline tryptophan
Oats 70 72 59 79 69 and threonine can be purchased in
Rye 64 67 59 76 74 feed-grade forms, but currently
they are rather expensive. Crystal-
Triticale 76 74 69 85 83
line lysine and tryptophan together
Wheat 73 81 72 85 84
in the same source is now commer-
Wheat bran 69 65 60 76 70 cially available. Other sources com-
Wheat middlings 75 77 69 82 82 bining these crystalline amino acids
as well as others may be developed
Protein Sources
in the future.
Alfalfa meal, 17% CP 50 39 51 64 20
Three pounds of L-lysine•HCl
Blood meal, spray-dried 91 88 86 85 81 (containing 78% pure lysine) plus
Canola meal 74 73 69 82 79 97 lb of corn contribute the same
Corn gluten feed, 23% CP 51 47 57 79 53 amount of digestible lysine as 100
Dried distillers grains with solubles 47 50 55 72 57 lb of 44% CP soybean meal. If
Dried skim milk 91 90 85 92 81 L-lysine•HCl is used, one must
Dried whey 82 78 79 84 86
monitor dietary tryptophan, threo-
nine and methionine levels and
Feather meal 54 63 74 65 71
maintain sufficient intact protein
Fish meal, Menhaden 89 79 85 88 73
(e.g., soybean meal) in the diet to
Meat and bone meal 74 60 70 79 55 meet the requirements for these
Meat meal 83 73 79 85 55 amino acids. Greater reductions of
Plasma proteins, spray-dried 87 92 82 64 — intact protein may be possible
Soybean meal, 48.5% CP 85 81 78 86 79 when using products containing
Soybean meal, 44.0% CP 85 80 78 86 77 both crystalline lysine and
tryptophan. As when adding
Soybeans, extruded 81 75 77 78 76
L-lysine•HCl, monitor dietary
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 74 76 71 87 74
threonine and methionine levels
aAmino acid abbreviations: Lys = lysine, Trp = tryptophan, Thr = threonine, Met = methion- when using these products. The
ine, and Cys = cystine. level of crystalline amino acids
b Most common ingredients are in bold-italic.
cFrom NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Edn. National Academy Press,
supplemented will depend on the
Washington, DC.
feeds used in the formulation and
is usually dependent on the second
limiting amino acid. That amino
required to properly manage the on a total or digestible lysine basis acid changes depending on the
nitrogen in the manure. Unless and check that the tryptophan, ingredients used. In most swine
there is a strong incentive to reduce threonine and methionine levels are diets lysine is first limiting and
nitrogen in the manure, choose adequate. Formulating on a digest- either tryptophan or threonine is
sources of amino acids that will pro- ible lysine basis is the most precise. second limiting. However, starting
duce the lowest cost gain. Do not formulate diets on a protein pig diets containing large amounts
basis because the diet could be of plasma proteins and blood meal
How should alternate amino deficient in lysine and (or) other need to be supplemented with
acid sources be included in the amino acids, resulting in reduced crystalline methionine.
diet? pig performance. Use caution when considering
Check Table 2 to see if there is a crystalline amino acids as substi-
suggested limitation on the quan- When is it economical to use tutes for intact protein in gestation
tity of the ingredient to include in crystalline amino acids in swine or lactation diets. Gestating sows
the diet. Then reformulate the diet diets and how can they be used? are usually fed once per day, and re-

search in limit-fed pigs indicates would be a less expensive source of When diets contain primarily corn
that crystalline amino acids are amino acids. or milo and soybean meal it is ap-
used less efficiently than they are propriate to formulate them on a
when pigs consume feed several Minerals total phosphorus basis. However,
times per day. There is evidence when nontraditional or byproduct
that in some circumstances lacta- Minerals serve many important ingredients are used in pig feed,
tion diets can be co-limiting in functions in pig nutrition. These formulate the diets on an available
lysine and another amino acid(s). range from structural functions in phosphorus basis. See Tables 11, 12,
In these circumstances, replace- bone to a wide variety of chemical 13, 14 and 15 for available and total
ment of intact protein with lysine reactions essential for maintenance, phosphorus recommendations for
alone could lead to a deficiency of growth, reproduction and lactation. complete feeds. Table 29 contains
other amino acids. An amino acid Pigs require at least 13 minerals. Of the available phosphorus content of
deficiency causes reduced litter these calcium, chloride, copper, several ingredients.
weight gain and sow lactation feed iodine, iron, manganese, phospho- Supplementing swine diets
intake. rus, selenium, sodium and zinc with phytase has been effective in
A factor not traditionally con- should routinely be added to the improving the availability of phos-
sidered when evaluating the use of diet. Practical corn-or milo-soybean phorus in corn and soybean meal.
crystalline amino acids in swine meal based diets contain sufficient This means less inorganic phos-
diets is nitrogen content of the levels of magnesium, potassium phorus (e.g., from dicalcium
manure. As stated previously, and sulfur. phosphate) is needed in the diet,
reducing excess amino acids will resulting in less phosphorus in the
result in a decrease in the nitrogen What are the major sources of manure. While most manure man-
content of the manure. When incor- minerals for swine? agement plans are based on nitro-
porated properly, the use of crystal- Major sources of the minerals gen, there is increasing interest in
line amino acids will accomplish commonly added to swine diets are basing them on phosphorus. This is
that without affecting growth per- listed in Table 4. In addition, the in an effort to decrease phosphorus
formance. This means the producer relative bioavailability of minerals buildup in the soil, and to reduce
needs fewer acres to spread the from several sources are listed in the potential for phosphorus run-
manure on and potentially less the table to ensure precise diet for- off into lakes and rivers. However,
odor. mulation. Base decisions on which land requirements for a phospho-
To ensure proper distribution in source of trace mineral to use pri- rus-based swine manure manage-
the complete feed, amino acids marily on price per unit of available ment plan are at least twice that
must be combined with a carrier to element. The use of selenium in ani- required for a nitrogen-based plan.
achieve a minimum volume before mal feeds is regulated by the FDA. Therefore, depending on the cost of
they are added to the mixer (see manure application and whether
Feed Processing section). What is meant by available the manure management plan is
phosphorus? based on nitrogen or phosphorus,
Can soybean meal serve as the Like amino acids, a certain pro- the use of phytase in swine diets
sole source of supplemental portion of the phosphorus in a may be economical.
protein in the diet? feedstuff cannot be used by pigs. The development of low phy-
Yes, but only for pigs heavier Most of the phosphorus in corn tate phosphorus varieties of corn is
than about 25 lb. Younger, lighter and other feed grains, soybean another method producers can use
pigs have a reduced ability to use meal, oilseed meals and other to reduce phosphorus excretion
the complex proteins found in soy- byproducts of seed origin occurs as and use of inorganic phosphorus.
bean meal. In addition, starting the organic complex phytate. Phos- Preliminary data indicate that the
pigs may develop an allergic reac- phorus in this form is poorly avail- use of these varieties can reduce
tion to certain proteins in soybean able to pigs because they lack the phosphorus excretion and the use
meal, causing difficulty in digesting enzyme phytase, which releases the of inorganic phosphorus and may
and utilizing feed. It is desirable to phosphorus. Research indicates improve the digestibility of other
include less allergenic, highly there are large differences in phos- nutrients. However, factors such as
digestible amino acid sources in phorus availability among feed- yield drag, cost of raising the crop,
diets for starting pigs; for example, stuffs. In the most precise type of etc, must be considered when
spray-dried plasma proteins and diet formulation, adjustments are deciding whether to use low
blood meal, menhaden fish meal, made for these differences. That is, phytate phosphorus corn.
dried whey, and(or) soy protein diets are formulated on an available
concentrate, although soybean meal rather than total phosphorus basis. What are chelated or
Table 4. Mineral sources and bioavailabilitiesa,b

Content of
Mineral element,
element Source Formula % RB, %b Comments

Calcium Calcium carbonate CaCO3 38.5 90 to 100 Limestone

Oyster shell
Curacao phosphate 35.1 Unkd
Defluorinated rock phosphate 32 90 to 100 < 1 part F to 100 parts P
Dicalcium phosphate CaHPO4•2H2O and
CaHPO4 20 to 24 90 to 100 Grey granules
Monocalcium phosphate CaH4(PO 4)2•H2O 17 90 to 100
Soft rock phosphate 16 70 Colloidal phosphate
Steamed bone meal 29.8 Unk
Copper Cupric acetate Cu(C2H 3O2)2 100
Cupric carbonate CuCO3•Cu(OH)2 50 to 55 60 to 100 Dark-green crystals
Cupric chloride, tribasic Cu2(OH)3Cl 58 100 Green crystals
Cupric oxide CuO 75 0 to 10 Black powder or granules;
not recommended as a
copper supplement
Cupric sulfate CuSO4•5H 2O 25.2 100 Blue or ultramarine crystals

Iodine Ethylenediamine
dihydroiodiode (EDDI) NH2CH2CH2NH2•2HI 79.5 100 White
Calcium iodate Ca(IO3)2 64.0 100 Stable source
Potassium iodide KI 68.8 100 Used in iodized salt (.01%)

Iron Ferric chloride FeCl3•6H2O 20.7 40 to 100

Ferric oxide Fe2O3 69.9 0 Red - used as a coloring
pigment; not recommended
as an iron supplement
Ferrous carbonate FeCO3 38 15 to 80 Beige
Ferrous fumarate FeC4H2O4 32.5 95 Reddish-brown
Ferrous oxide FeO 77.8 Unk Black powder
Ferrous sulfate (1 H2O) FeSO4•H 2O 30 100 Green to brown crystals
Ferrous sulfate (7 H2O) FeSO4•7H2O 20 100 Greenish crystals

Manganese Manganous dioxide MnO2 63.1 35 to 95 Black powder

Manganous carbonate MnCO3 46.4 30 to 100 Rose-colored crystals
Manganous chloride MnCl2•4H2O 27.5 100 Rose-colored crystals
Manganous oxide MnO 60 70 Green to brown powder
Manganous sulfate MnSO4•H2O 29.5 100 White to cream powder

Phosphorus Curacao phosphate 14.2 40 to 60

Defluorinated rock phosphate 18 85 to 95 < 1 part F to 100 parts P
Dicalcium phosphate CaHPO4•2H2O
and CaHPO4 18.5 95 to 100 Grey granules
Monocalcium phosphate CaH4(PO 4)2•H2O 21.1 100
Monosodium phosphate NaH2PO 4•H2O 24.9 100 Large white crystals
Soft rock phosphate 9.1 30 to 50
Steamed bone meal 12.5 80 to 90

Selenium Sodium selenate Na2SeO4•10H2O 21.4 100 White crystals

Sodium selenite Na2SeO3 45 100 White to light pink crystals

Zinc Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 56 100 White crystals

Zinc oxide ZnO 72 50 to 80 Grayish powder
Zinc sulfate (1 H2O) ZnSO4•H2O 35.5 100 White crystals
Zinc sulfate (7 H2O) ZnSO4•7H2O 22.3 100

aMost common sources are in bold-italic.

b From NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
cRB = relative bioavailability. Values are expressed relative to the bioavailability in the most common source.
dUnk = unknown.

proteinated trace minerals? microorganisms in the digestive during storage and/or in mixed
Trace minerals generally are tract, or grain-soybean meal diets feed. The natural form of vitamin E
added to swine diets as inorganic contain sufficient amounts to meet (d-α-tocopherol) sometimes is
salts, such as copper sulfate, iron the pig’s requirement. Vitamins are used. It is less stable and exhibits a
sulfate, zinc oxide, etc. Chelated classified as either fat soluble (vita- decline in activity over time. How-
forms of some trace minerals have mins A, D, E and K) or water ever, it has a higher relative biologi-
become available. Trace minerals soluble. The water soluble vitamins cal activity than dl-α-tocopheryl
are bound to a compound such as a routinely added to all swine diets acetate (Table 5). In one study, start-
protein or individual amino acid to include niacin, pantothenic acid, ing pigs performed the same
form a chelate (e.g. zinc-methionine riboflavin and vitamin B12. In addi- whether dl-α-tocopheryl acetate or
and iron-lysine). The chelate is tion, biotin, choline and folic acid d-α-tocopherol in an encapsulated
designed to enhance the absorption routinely are added to diets for matrix was included in the feed.
of the trace mineral from the small breeding swine. However, d-α-tocopherol was more
intestine. Research in pigs, how- Vitamin potency in feed and effectively absorbed than dl-α-
ever, has demonstrated that the manufactured products will tocopheryl acetate. Make decisions
bioavailability of the minerals in decrease with exposure to light, on which source of vitamin E to use
chelated forms is not always high humidity, heat, rancid fat and primarily on price per unit of avail-
greater and is sometimes lower oxygen. Vitamins can be destroyed able vitamin and on how long the
than the bioavailability of elements when in contact with minerals over vitamin supplement or feed will be
in inorganic salts. Usually the a prolonged period of time. For stored.
inorganic forms of trace minerals best results, store basemixes and
are most economical. trace mineral-vitamin premixes in a

How important are dietary

cool, dry, dark place and use them
within 30 days of purchase.
electrolytes? Premixes containing only vitamins
Electrolytes (minerals) are essen- can be stored longer. Nutrients present in feedstuffs
tial to maintaining water balance in are not fully available to pigs. Gen-
pigs. Electrolyte balance is particu- What are the major sources of erally, only a portion of each nutri-
larly important for starting pigs, vitamins for pigs? ent can be used. This is because
because they are more susceptible to Major sources of supplemental feedstuffs are not completely
diarrhea, which can cause severe vitamins for pigs are listed in Table digested and because nutrients
dehydration. The major elements 5. Although vitamins are present in occasionally occur in forms that
involved in electrolyte balance are grains and protein supplements, it pigs are not able to use. The portion
sodium, chloride, potassium, magne- is usually better to rely on vitamins that is absorbed in a form suitable
sium and calcium, but sodium, chlo- supplied by sources in Table 5. The for use is said to be bioavailable.
ride and potassium predominate. We reason is that vitamins in grains The amount that is bioavailable
do not recommend including electro- and protein sources may be lost depends primarily on the feed
lytes in swine diets at levels exceed- during storage, drying and pro- ingredient itself. For example, the
ing those shown in Tables 11, 12, 13, cessing or may be unavailable to iron in ferrous sulfate is much more
14, 15 and 16 even in times of stress, the pig. An exception is made for bioavailable than the iron in ferric
such as those associated with wean- choline, folic acid and biotin. We oxide. However, there are other
ing and feeder pig sales and trans- believe that the amounts of these factors that also can influence bio-
fers. vitamins that are present in grains availability. These include the
and protein sources are sufficient physiological and nutritional status
Vitamins for normal growth, but they should of the animal (e.g., if an animal is
be supplemented in diets for breed- deficient in a nutrient, bioavail-
ing swine. All the vitamin recom- ability is often increased) and inter-
Vitamins are organic com-
mendations in this publication are actions among nutrients (e.g., high
pounds that are required in very
added levels. calcium levels reduce zinc
small amounts for maintenance,
growth, reproduction and lactation.
Is there a difference between Precise diet formulation recog-
Some vitamins (thiamin, vitamin
synthetic and natural forms of nizes differences in nutrient bio-
B6, and vitamin C) probably do not
vitamin E? availability among feedstuffs and is,
need to be included in the diet
Yes. The most common form of therefore, based on the bioavailable
because they are synthesized from
synthetic vitamin E used is dl-α- content rather than the total content
other compounds in the body or by
tocopheryl acetate. It is very stable of nutrients. Of course, nutrient

Table 5. Vitamin sources and bioavailabilitiesa
Vitamin 1 IU equals Sources RB, %b Comments
Vitamin A .3 mg retinol or .344 µg vitamin A Vitamin A acetate Unkc use coated form or
acetate or 1 USP unit (all-trans retinyl acetate) cross-linked stabilized
beadlet form
.55 µg vitamin A palmitate Vitamin A palmitate Unk used primarily in food
.36 µg vitamin A propionate Vitamin A propionate Unk used primarily in

Vitamin D .025 µg cholecalciferol or 1 USP Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) Unk coated form more
unit or 1 ICU stable

Vitamin E 1 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (all rac) 100

.735 mg d-α-tocopheryl acetate d-α-tocopheryl acetate (RRR) 136
.909 mg dl-α-tocopherol dl-α-tocopherol (all rac) 110 very unstable
.671 mg d-α-tocopherol d-α-tocopherol (RRR) 149 very unstable

Vitamin K 1 Ansbacher unit = 20 Dam units Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) 100 coated form more
= .0008 mg menadione stable
Menadione sodium bisulfite complex (MSBC) 100 legal for poultry only
Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol
bisulfite (MPB) 100

Riboflavin No IU-use µg or mg Crystalline riboflavin 100 spray-dried

Niacin No IU-use µg or mg Niacinamide 100 fine crystalline powder

Nicotinic acid 100 fine crystalline powder

Pantothenic acid No IU-use µg or mg d-calcium pantothenate 100 spray-dried

dl-calcium pantothenate 50
dl-calcium pantothenate - calcium
chloride complex 50

Vitamin B12 1 µg cyanocobalamin or 1 USP unit Cyanocobalamin Unk crystalline powder

or 11,000 LLD (L. lactis Dorner) units dilution

Choline No IU-use µg or mg Choline chloride Unk hygroscopic

Biotin No IU-use µg or mg d-biotin Unk spray-dried

Folic acid No IU-use µg or mg Folic acid Unk spray-dried

aMost common sources are in bold-italic.

b RB=relative
bioavailability. Values are expressed relative to the bioavailability in the most common source.
cUnk = unknown.

recommendations should also be are based on apparent digestibilities a value of 100%). The bioavailable
stated in terms of bioavailable at the terminal ileum of growing phosphorus content of feedstuffs is
requirements, but for many nutri- pigs. Although apparent contained in Table 29.
ents there is an inadequate amount digestibilities can differ somewhat
of data about requirements in from true bioavailabilities for some
bioavailable terms to permit this. In feedstuffs, these digestibilities are Nutrient
practice, nutrients that have the widely accepted as similar to bio-
largest effect on diet cost (e.g., availabilities for most common
amino acids and phosphorus) usu- feedstuffs used in the USA.
ally are formulated on a bioavail- Crystalline amino acids (i.e., The absolute requirement for
able basis. L-lysine•HCl, L-tryptophan, one nutrient can be influenced by
To enable readers to formulate L-threonine, and DL-methionine) the amounts of other nutrients in
diets on a bioavailable basis and to are assumed to be 100% bioavail- the diet. There will always be an
evaluate more critically ingredients able. Most of the values for miner- excess concentration of some nutri-
for possible inclusion in swine diets, als and vitamins are based on ents when using common ingredi-
tables of amino acid, mineral and growth assays using slope-ratio ents. In some cases, excesses of one
vitamin bioavailabilities are pro- procedures and are relative bio- nutrient may cause an undesirable
vided (Tables 3, 4, and 5). The val- availabilities (i.e., they are relative interaction with another nutrient.
ues for amino acid bioavailability to a standard source that is assigned Interactions can include mineral

with mineral, mineral with vitamin, Calcium and Zinc ponent of glutathione peroxidase,
vitamin with amino acid, and an enzyme involved in the destruc-
amino acid with amino acid. The absorption of zinc is tion of peroxides. Although vita-
Although there are many nutrient affected by the level of calcium in min E and selenium may not be
interactions, only a few are of prac- the diet. High levels of calcium substituted for one another, the
tical importance when formulating included in diets with high levels interaction between the two nutri-
swine diets with common ingredi- of phytate cause zinc to be bound ents results from the sparing effect
ents. However, others may be im- in a complex that renders both zinc of one on the need for the other. In
portant when using nontraditional and phosphorus unavailable to the addition, vitamin E plays an anti-
ingredients. Some of the more fre- pig. When formulation of diets oxidant role in feed. Trace minerals,
quent nutrient interactions that can results in high levels of calcium, such as copper, zinc, and iron
cause problems are discussed in this zinc must be increased. The levels increase oxidation and thus
section. of zinc suggested in this publica- increase the destruction of vitamin
tion assume reasonable levels of E in stored feed. Other natural
Calcium and Phosphorus calcium. antioxidants, such as vitamin A,
are also attacked and can spare
Calcium is the most deficient Copper, Iron and Zinc vitamin E in this role. Factors that
mineral in diets formulated with affect the amount of vitamin E and
cereal grains and oilseed meals. These three minerals are selenium to supplement are the
Phosphorus is also deficient in involved in interactions; however, level and type of dietary fat,
plant materials. Furthermore, much the effects of increasing levels of presence of antioxidants in the feed,
of the phosphorus in plants occurs one or more of these minerals in the level of trace mineral inclusion and
as the organic complex phytate diet are not consistent. length and conditions of feed
which renders it mostly unavail- Excess iron and zinc reduce storage.
able to the pig. Thus, it is necessary copper availability. Extremely high
to supplement diets with both cal- levels of zinc can lead to a copper Amino Acids
cium and phosphorus for satisfac- deficiency, which is characterized
tory performance. Although the by anemia. Because of metabolic Absolute requirements for
level of each nutrient is important, interactions, zinc sources with individual amino acids can be
the ratio of calcium to phosphorus relatively low bioavailability (e.g., determined assuming that all
may be more important in certain zinc oxide) might be superior to amino acids are provided in suffi-
situations. The calcium:phosphorus sources with high availability (e.g., cient quantities without excesses
ratio in grain and oilseed meal- zinc sulfate) when including zinc at (i.e., ideal protein ratios). However,
based diets should normally be high levels for nonnutritional when least-cost or best-cost diets
between 1:1 to 1.5:1, although purposes. are formulated, excesses of some
wider ratios may be acceptable High levels of copper (e.g., 250 amino acids are inevitable. The first
under certain circumstances. How- ppm) are used as a growth pro- limiting amino acid in these formu-
ever, caution is necessary because motant, and these levels are not lations (the amino acid for which
high levels of calcium interfere toxic unless diets are deficient in the target level is last to be met as
with phosphorus absorption. At iron and zinc (and high in calcium). the amino acid source is increased
marginal levels of phosphorus, the When 500 ppm of copper has been in the diet) is usually lysine, but
ratio must be close to 1:1. As long fed there has been mixed success in can be tryptophan, methionine,
as both calcium and phosphorus lowering stored levels of copper by threonine, isoleucine or valine at
levels meet or exceed recom- increasing zinc levels in the diet. certain growth phases and with
mended levels, a ratio less than 1:1 certain combinations of ingredi-
is not detrimental, but usually Vitamin E and Selenium ents. The requirements for the
results in more costly diets. At essential amino acids methionine
excess levels of phosphorus (imply- The interaction between vita- and phenylalanine depend on the
ing considerable inorganic phos- min E and selenium is related to level of the nonessential amino
phorus is included) the calcium to the protection of tissues against the acids, cystine and tyrosine, respec-
phosphorus ratio may exceed 1.5:1. detrimental effects of peroxides. tively. Methionine can be converted
The total calcium to available phos- Vitamin E helps protect against to cystine, and up to 50% of the
phorus ratio in the diet needs to be peroxide damage by scavenging requirement for total sulfur amino
close to 2:1. free radicals before they can attack acids (methionine + cystine) can be
cellular membranes and cause oxi- provided by cystine. The same situ-
dative damage. Selenium is a com- ation exists for phenylalanine and

tyrosine (up to 50% of the require- transport sites in the small intestine, The negative effect on feed effi-
ment for total aromatic amino acids high levels of one amino acid may ciency can range from 0 to 15%,
[phenylalanine and tyrosine] can be create a metabolic deficiency of the depending on how much the test
provided by tyrosine). However, other amino acid, even when that weight is lowered and which grain
neither cystine nor tyrosine can be second amino acid is supplied at is fed. Fat can be added to diets
converted to the essential amino the required level in the diet. Lysine containing low test weight grains to
acids methionine and phenylala- and arginine and leucine and iso- offset a possible reduction in pig
nine. leucine are examples of structurally performance.
similar amino acids that compete In general, it is best to use low
• Amino Acid Imbalance for absorption sites. An antagonism test weight grains in finishing and
This occurs when an essential results in lower feed intake, lower gestation diets (if they are free of
amino acid other than the one that pig gains and poorer feed efficiency. mycotoxins) because older pigs use
is first limiting is supplied in Antagonisms rarely are a problem lower energy feedstuffs better than
excess. It may occur as a result of in pigs fed grain and oilseed meal younger pigs. The feeding level
adding a crystalline amino acid or diets. during gestation may have to be
a protein source high in that amino increased to compensate for the
acid. The result is that the first lower energy value of the light test
limiting amino acid, which is Ingredient weight grain. Also, include low test
supplied at a level that should be weight grains in the diet by weight,
sufficient, now becomes deficient. Quality not volume. Therefore, scales on
Feed intake is reduced, and, as a mixing equipment are necessary to
result, there is a proportional Quality of the ingredients used make diets properly.
reduction in pig gain. To correct the in swine diets can have a large
situation, the level of the excessive effect on performance. Test weight • Low Test Weight Corn
amino acid must be decreased or of grains, nutrient variability of Corn weighing between 40 to
the level of the first-limiting amino byproducts and presence of 56 lb/bushel has the same feeding
acid must be increased. mycotoxins all affect the feeding value for growing-finishing swine
value of ingredients. However, when compared on an equal mois-
• Amino Acid Toxicity when properly formulated, diets ture basis. When test weight drops
This condition resembles an containing byproducts and below about 40 lb/bushel, growth
amino acid imbalance in that an weather-stressed grains can pro- rate and feed efficiency may
amino acid other than the first vide an economic alternative for decrease by 5 to 10%.
limiting amino acid is supplied in swine producers.
excess quantity. However, an amino • Low Test Weight Milo
acid toxicity can not be corrected by What is the relationship Late planting, a cool growing
adding higher levels of the first lim- between the test weight of grain season, or an early frost can lead to
iting amino acid. Toxicities and feeding value? low test weight milo. It should be
invariably are caused by excess Most previous research indi- used only in growing, finishing and
additions of crystalline amino acids cates low test weight grains contain gestation diets. According to a
and are corrected by reducing or more protein and fiber and less recent study, there was no differ-
eliminating the amino acid addi- starch and ME than normal grains, ence in gain or feed efficiency for
tions. While methionine and tryp- implying that low test weight growing-finishing pigs fed either 45
tophan are two amino acids that grains have a lower feeding value
can cause toxicities, lysine and than normal grains (Table 6). How- Table 6. Normal test or bushel weight
threonine rarely cause toxicity ever, more recent research on corn of grains
problems. Lower feed intake and suggests there is a poor relation-
pig gains can be expected as a Grain lb/bushel
ship between test weight and nutri-
result of amino acid toxicities. tional value. There is general Barley 48
agreement that pig growth rate sel- Corn 56
• Amino Acid Antagonism dom is affected by grain test weight Milo 56
This condition results from the as long as the test weight is not Oats 38b
excess of one amino acid that has a reduced by more than about 25%. Wheat 60
negative effect on a structurally However, if low test weight grain a1bushel (U.S.) = 32 quarts.
similar amino acid. Because struc- has less ME, pigs will compensate b Although 32 lb test weight is the stan-
turally similar amino acids com- by increasing feed consumption, dard, oat producers are paid on a 38 lb/
pete for the same absorption and resulting in a poorer feed efficiency. bushel basis.

or 55 lb/bushel milo. However, achieved with “normal” corn. Also, ated with DON will result in a
feeding 35 lb/bushel milo resulted it must be kept in mind that ensiled decrease in daily gain. Fumonisins
in 13% and 6% poorer feed efficien- or organic acid-treated corn can not can cause respiratory problems in
cies in the growing and finishing be sold at the elevator. It can only pigs. Ergot occurs mainly in rye,
phases, respectively. For milo be used for livestock feed, so only wheat, barley, and triticale, and
weighing less than 45lb/bushel, use make what can be fed in a year. results in lactation failure and poor
local prices to determine what price Extruded green soybeans have growth. Recommendations are to
the milo has to be to offset the ex- the same feeding value as extruded keep all mycotoxin-contaminated
pected poorer feed efficiency. mature soybeans. Because of anti- grains out of breeding herd and
growth factors (e.g., trypsin inhibi- starting diets, and not to exceed the
• Low Test Weight Wheat tors), mature and immature raw following rates in other diets:
Research indicates finishing soybeans must be heat-treated to
pigs fed 45 to 51 lb/bushel wheat inactivate these compounds before Aflatoxin 200 ppb in grow-
were 7.3% less efficient than those feeding them to swine. The only ing-finishing diets
fed 59 lb bushel wheat. When exception is gestating sows, which Zearalenone 1 ppm in growing
determining the economics of feed- can use raw soybeans as the sole diets and 3 ppm in
ing low test weight wheat, assume source of supplemental protein. finishing diets
it to have a feeding value of about Factors to consider in determining Vomitoxin 1 ppm in growing-
90% of normal wheat. whether to feed or sell your soy- (DON) finishing diets
beans (mature or immature) and Fumonisins 5 ppm
• Low Test Weight Barley buy soybean meal are extrusion Ergot 10% contaminated
In growing-finishing pigs, costs, shrink (8 to 10%), lower pro- grain in growing-
expect about a 5% increase in the tein content of extruded soybeans, finishing diets
amount of feed required per pound an improvement in feed efficiency
of gain for every 2.5 lb reduction in due to fat addition, and trucking There are products available
barley test weight from 49 to 44 and storage costs. that will lessen the impact of afla-
lb/bushel, with an additional 7% toxin (pellet binders, clays, etc.),
poorer feed efficiency for 39 Can I market my moldy grain but there are no products that can
lb/bushel barley. If the barley is through hogs? be added to swine diets to reduce
scab-infested, it should be fed only Under certain adverse condi- the detrimental effects of
to growing-finishing pigs and tions, grains may become moldy. It zearalenone, DON, fumonisins and
limited to 10% or less of the diet. is not the molds themselves, but ergot. Drying the grain and adding
rather the mycotoxins the molds mold inhibitors will decrease any
• Low Test Weight Oats produce that cause the negative further mold growth, but they have
Research indicates that low test effects. The main mycotoxins asso- no effect on the mycotoxins already
weight oats can be fed effectively to ciated with grains are aflatoxin, present.
finishing swine. Pigs fed diets con- zearalenone, vomitoxin (DON),
taining 33% oats (32 lb/bushel oats) fumonisins and ergot. Aflatoxins Should I analyze the feedstuffs
gained the same as pigs fed corn di- are found primarily in warmer cli- I am using?
ets but required 5.1% more feed. mates, whereas zearalenone and Byproducts from the food
Therefore, depending on economics, DON occur in cool, wet conditions. industry such as soybean meal, sun-
light test weight oats can be used in Aflatoxins suppress the immune flower meal, dried bakery products,
finishing diets. system, cause a reduction in perfor- etc. can be excellent feedstuffs for
mance, and at high concentrations swine. However, since they are
Can I use high-moisture corn (1,000 ppb) death. Zearalenone will byproducts, they are more variable
and frost-damaged soybeans in cause reproductive problems, infer- in nutrient content than grains. To
swine diets? tility, high preweaning death loss ensure proper diet formulation, a
High-moisture corn (>18% and possibly abortions. Though nutrient analysis should be con-
moisture) will have the same feed- zearalenone’s effects on growing ducted on all byproducts used in
ing value as dry corn (12% mois- and finishing pigs are minimal, it swine diets. Depending on the qual-
ture) on a dry-matter basis. Since will cause prepubertal gilts to ity of soybeans used and the
high-moisture corn contains a exhibit red, swollen vulvas and amount of hulls added back, the
higher percentage of moisture, a could affect future breeding. protein content of 44% CP soybean
larger percentage of high-moisture Vomitoxin causes feed refusal with meal can range from 37 to 45%.
corn must be added to a ton of feed little effect on the reproductive Therefore, it is essential to know
to achieve the same nutrient levels herd. However, feed refusal associ- what kind of product you are

working with before using in the addition, certain nutrients, such as Category II
diet. Submit a representative copper and zinc, have been added Drugs that require withdrawal
sample to an accredited laboratory at pharmacological concentrations at the lowest continuous use level
and have it analyzed for the main (i.e., at high levels the nutrient acts for at least one species for which it
nutrient(s) being provided by the as a drug-see section on is approved or is regulated on a “no
byproduct. Consider a mycotoxin nutraceuticals). residue” or “zero tolerance” basis
screen on grain when drought or because of carcinogenic concerns.
wet growing conditions persist, How are feed additives
storage problems are suspected, or regulated? There are three types of medicated
certain abnormalities are observed The distribution of all animal feeds that can incorporate drugs
in animals. feeds entering interstate commerce from categories I or II:
is regulated by the FDA (Food and Type A Medicated Article
What are proper sampling Drug Administration). In addition, This product is classified as a
techniques? the FDA monitors the amounts of drug by the FDA and must be clas-
When sampling either indi- drugs or feed additives used in the sified as a “Medicated Type A Arti-
vidual feedstuffs or processed com- manufacturing of medicated feeds. cle” on the label. The manufacturer
plete feeds for laboratory analysis, Specific state laws and regulations of a Type A article must hold an
it is essential to get a representative may also exist regarding the distri- effective new animal drug applica-
sample. If using a grain trier/probe bution of feeds and the production tion (FD-356) and comply with the
to obtain samples from a mixer or of medicated feeds. Besides consult- current medicated premix and good
bagged feed, take at least ten 1/2 ing state and federal regulations, manufacturing practice regulations.
pound samples/ton of feed from there are two publications that may
different locations and combine be helpful: Type B Product
them into one composite sample for This product is classified as a
analysis. If sampling from an un- The Feed Additive Compendium, medicated feed. The manufacturer
loading auger, take at least ten 1/2 updated monthly of a Type B product from a Type A
pound samples/ton during the en- The Miller Publishing Company article containing a Category II
tire unloading process, except for 12400 Whitewater Drive, Suite 160 drug requires a medicated feed
the initial and final outputs. Mix the Minnetonka, MN 55343 application (FDA - 1900).
samples, split them in half and send http:/ Type C Product
half of the composite sample in for Type C products are intended to
analysis. Store the properly dated Official Publication of the Association be used as a complete feed. The
and labeled remainder in a freezer of American Feed Control Officials manufacture of a Type C product
for reference. Use the same tech- (AAFCO) containing a Category II drug
niques when taking a grain sample Sharon Senesac, AAFCO Assistant manufactured from a Type A article
to test for mycotoxins except make Treasurer requires a medicated feed applica-
sure the sample is sent to the lab in P.O. Box 478 tion (FDA - 1900).
a either a paper or cloth sack. Using Oxford, IN 47971
plastic bags or metal cans may http:/ What is a nutraceutical?
cause mold growth to occur in tran- Unfortunately, no legal defini-
sit. For details on interpretation of How does the FDA describe tion for “nutraceutical” exists. It is
laboratory results, see the Univer- drug categories used in medicated generally assumed that a nutra-
sity of Nebraska NebGuide G88-892 feeds? ceutical is compound between a
(Mixing Quality Pig Feed). The program that describes the nutrient and pharmaceutical.
classification of drugs used in medi- Although these compounds/
cated animal feeds is commonly ingredients have a defined nutri-
known as “Second Generation.”
Feed Additives This regulatory scheme divides
tional role, pharmacological doses
(many fold greater than concentra-
drugs into two major categories: tions needed to elicit a nutritional
Feed additives are compounds response) elicit separate effects on
Category I
that may elicit a response indepen- pig health or growth. Examples of
Drugs that require no with-
dent of contributions to the pig’s ingredients considered as nutra-
drawal at the lowest approved con-
energy, amino acid, mineral, and(or) ceuticals are: zinc oxide, copper sul-
tinuous use level for all species.
vitamin requirements. Typically, fate, carnitine, organic chromium,
these feed additives are added to and conjugated linoleic acid.
pig diets in small amounts. In

Because nutraceuticals are labeled were good to excellent). In a “dirty” be fed in combination. If it is not
as dietary supplements, they are environment, the response to antibi- legal to feed certain antibiotics
regulated under the Federal Food, otics may be greater than shown in together, consider feeding them in
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). Table 7. Antibiotics do not substi- rotation. Moreover, rotating anti-
Compounds not receiving tute for good management, espe- biotics may be useful if there is evi-
GRAS (Generally Recognized as cially a thorough cleaning of dence that the effectiveness of the
Safe) status, (i.e., ingredients that do facilities. It may be more economi- current antibiotic is decreasing. The
not have a previous history of use cal to correct the underlying prob- rotation may be annual or when
in animal feeds) are of concern. lem affecting pig performance than pigs are switched to different diets.
Specifically, ingredients that make to use antibiotics in the feed.
claims regarding the treatment, pre- Some compounds are included What are the withdrawal
vention, cure, or mitigation of a dis- in swine diets to avoid feed spoil- periods for feed additives?
ease; or affect the structure/ age and promote feed intake (Table Certain feed additives must be
function of the body not related to 8). Although improvements in per- withdrawn from the feed before
its nutritional role are considered a formance are not cited for the feed slaughter to ensure residue-free car-
drug under FFDCA regulations. additives listed in Table 8, circum- casses. Consult the feed label for
Although the FDA has placed lower stances exist where their inclusion withdrawal time for the specific
significance on regulating nutra- in swine diets may increase feed feed additive that is being fed.
ceutical ingredients without drug intake and hence gain.
claims, the FDA’s condonation of Should antibiotics be fed to the
these ingredients is not indicated. How do I choose a feed breeding herd?
additive? Herds that have experienced
How do feed additives affect The information in Tables 7 and problems with conception rates and
pig performance? 8 is presented to allow one to esti- numbers of pigs born and weaned
There are many feed additives mate the economic benefit of using have often been helped by the addi-
that have been documented to affect some feed additives. When an tion of therapeutic levels of antibi-
pig performance. Unfortunately, improvement in feed efficiency is otics to sow diets. Antibiotics are
there is not enough space available shown, use that to estimate the eco- effective if fed for two weeks before
in this section to cover all these feed nomic benefit of using the additive. and after breeding and(or) from one
additives in detail. The recom- For example, assume feed/gain is week before farrowing to weaning.
mended levels for several feed improved by an average of 2% Results from a regional research
additives are not provided because of when an antibiotic is added to fin- study (850 litters) showed an
either variable usage in the industry isher feed. If feed without an antibi- improvement in litter size (.5 pigs/
or pending status with the FDA. In otic costs $100/ton, you can afford litter) and a slight reduction (nega-
all cases, if feed additives are to be to pay about $102/ton (100 × 1.02) tive response) in feed intake during
used, manufacturer and federal for the medicated feed assuming no lactation with the addition of chlo-
guidelines should be followed. benefit from improved daily gain. If rtetracycline (200 g/ton) from one
Presented in Table 7 is a brief a faster growth rate is considered week before to 15 days after breed-
description of the performance cri- important, factor that in also. When ing. In the same study, chlortetracy-
teria, percent improvement, and use considering a feed additive, give cline addition from day 110 of
levels for several feed additives. For high priority to feed additives that gestation to weaning improved the
most of these feed additives, show consistent results from overall conception rate nearly 6%.
responses have been identified research trials. Also, consult the In instances where reproductive
within a range to indicate the vari- feed label to learn what the additive problems prevail in a herd, a spe-
ability reported in the literature. is approved for and withdrawal cific diagnosis should be made in
The response to antibiotics var- time. Feed additives increase the consultation with a veterinarian or
ies considerably due to age of the cost of the diet, thus it is important swine specialist prior to routine
pig, disease level, type and level of to reevaluate their use periodically. inclusion of antibiotics in breeding
antibiotic, season of year, and other herd diets. Check the withdrawal
environmental factors. Younger pigs How much antibiotic can be time to avoid carcass residues in
show a greater response than older added to feed and can antibiotics cull sows.
pigs to antibiotics in the feed (Table be mixed together?
7). In most cases, these responses Consult the feed label or the How do probiotics and
were recorded in “clean” environ- Feed Additive Compendium for details antibiotics differ?
ments (i.e., the overall health status on the approved level(s) in com- Probiotics play a different role
of the pigs and housing conditions plete feed and which antibiotics can than antibiotics in the digestive

Table 7. Performance criteria, percent improvement, and use levels of some common feed additives
Performance Growth Improvement, %
Compound criterion stage (average response) Use level
Antibiotics Daily gain Starting 4.2 to 136 (15) Variablea
(for growth Growing-finishing 0 to 8.9 (3.6)
promotion) Feed/gain Starting 1.7 to 42.7 (6.5)
Growing-finishing -1.8 to 3.8 (2.4)

Probiotics Daily gain Starting -9 to 11 Variablea

Growing-finishing -9 to 5
Feed/gain Starting -2 to 21
Growing-finish -4 to 5

Copper sulfate Daily gain Starting (24) 125 to 250 ppm

Feed/gain (9.7)

Zinc oxide Daily gain Starting 0 to 25 2,500 to 3,000 ppmc

Feed/gain 0 to 8

Yucca plant extract Daily gain Growing-finishing -1 to 8 57 g/ton

Feed/gain 0 to 5

Mycotoxin binders

HSCAd Daily gain Growing-finishing 63 to 87 e .5%

Clays Daily gain 71 to 89 e .5%

Acidifiersf Daily gain Starting 0 to 13 3%

Feed/gain 0 to 14

Phytase Daily gain Growing-finishing 0 to 17g 136 to 225 units/lb of

compete feed
Feed/gain 0 to 7g (300 to 500 units/kg of
complete feed)

Carnitine Fat accretion Starting and 0 to - 40%


Daily gain Starting and 0 to 17% Variable

Feed intake growing-finishing 0 to 17%
Feed/gain 0 to 17%

Litter size Gestation 0 to 12% 50 ppm

Birth weight 0 to 12%

Chromiumh Lean gain Growing-finishing 0 to 6% Variable

Litter size Gestation 0 to 10% 200 ppb

Conjugated linoleic acid Lean gain Growing-finishing 0 to 5% .3% i

Feed/gain 0 to 30%
Belly firmness 16 to 50%

Ractopamine hydrochloride Daily gain Finishing 7 to 10% 4.5 to 18 g/ton

Feed/gain 8 to 13%
Carcass lean % 2 to 6%
aUse level will depend on the specific antibiotic.
b Use level will depend on the specific probiotic.
cToxicity problems may develop if these levels are provided past about 28 days postweaning.
dHydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.
eRecovery of lost growth rate when feed is contaminated with aflatoxin.
fFumaric acid.
gResponse will vary depending on the total level of available phosphorus in the diet.
hOrganic chromium.
iEstimated from the contribution of conjugated linoleic acid from natural ingredients. Not supplied as purified conjugated linoleic acid.

tract. It has been theorized that There have been interesting been observed with the addition of
probiotics increase the population findings from experiments examin- organic Cr to sow gestation and lac-
of desirable microorganisms instead ing the role of carnitine in gestation tation diets. Supplementation of 200
of killing or inhibiting undesirable diets. Studies indicate that inclusion ppb of Cr from Cr-tripicolinate
organisms. The most common of 50 ppm carnitine in gestation improved sow fertility, number of
microorganisms included in pro- diets can improve litter size and(or) pigs born and weaned, and reduced
biotic products are Lactobacillus pig birth weight. It appears that the sow death loss. Females need to be
species, which are normal inhabit- improvements in litter size and fed the Cr for about six months
ants of the digestive tract of healthy birth weight may be related to the before an improvement in repro-
animals. These bacteria may help duration of carnitine supplementa- ductive performance can be
remove waste products and inhibit tion. Nonetheless, the response of expected.
the growth of certain undesirable both litter size and birth weight
bacteria. The response to probiotics have ranged from 0 to 12%. What is conjugated linoleic acid
in pig feed appears to be greater for and its effect as a feed additive?
starting compared to growing- What effect does chromium Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
finishing pigs (Table 7). When posi- have as a feed additive? is a mixture of polyunsaturated
tive responses have been observed Chromium (Cr), specifically fatty acids. CLA is found primarily
with probiotics it has usually been organic Cr (Cr 3+) has been identi- in products derived from rumi-
at weaning. fied as having a role in swine feed- nants. It is produced by the mico-
ing programs. It should be kept in flora in the rumen and can be
What is carnitine and its effect mind that although pigs do have a purchased commercially. The most
as a feed additive? Cr requirement and Cr is found in consistent and dramatic effect of
Carnitine is a naturally occur- pig tissues, forms of elemental Cr, including CLA in the diet of
ring nutrient and until now was e.g., Cr 6+ can be toxic. Thus, the role growing-finishing pigs has been on
widely thought to be synthesized in that organic Cr fulfills may be in belly firmness, and to a lesser
sufficient quantities by the pig to addition to its classical nutrient role degree on feed efficiency and car-
meet its requirement. It is involved - see previous section on nutraceuticals. cass lean percentage (see Table 7).
in the transport of fatty acids into Organic Cr (namely, Cr-
certain parts of the cell so they can tripicolinate) has been shown to What is ractopamine hydro-
be used to produce energy. Car- improve growing-finishing growth chloride and its effect as a feed
nitine has received limited attention performance, and carcass leanness. additive?
in the growing-finishing phase of The results have been variable and Ractopamine hydrochloride is a
production. Although improve- some researchers have failed to synthetic beta-adrenergic agonist.
ments in feed efficiency and lean- detect improvements in carcass Ractopamine has a chemical struc-
ness have been observed, recent characteristics or growth perfor- ture similar to dopamine, norepi-
reports have only documented the mance criteria. nephrine, and epinephrine, which
response in early-weaned pigs Recently, favorable responses in are naturally occurring substances
(until 35 days postweaning). sow reproductive performance have in animals. These substances,
including ractopamine, affect body
metabolism via adrenergic recep-
Table 8. Function of several feed additives included in swine diets to maintain palatabil-
ity and(or) feed quality
tors on specific tissues. Ractopa-
mine is approved for increased rate
Compound Function of weight gain, improved feed effi-
ciency, and increased carcass lean-
Antioxidantsa Prohibit fatty acid oxidation and formation of peroxide free
radicals. Protect feed sources against the destruction of some
ness in finishing swine fed a
vitamins (vitamin A and E). Routine use is recommended. complete ration containing at least
16% crude protein from 150 to 240
Mold inhibitorsb Increase number of days to mold growth in feed by 5 to 10 lb. A feed mill or veterinary feed
days. The greatest benefits are observed where grains being fed
are higher than normal in moisture (> 13% moisture).
directive are not required for use of
ractopamine. Because ractopamine
Flavors May improve palatability of feed, especially when byproduct lowers feed intake 2 to 4% and
ingredients are used. Routine use of flavors is not increases carcass muscle deposition,
logic dictates that the dietary amino
ae.g., ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxy tolulene (BHT) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA). acid requirement on a percentage
b e.g., propionic acid and sorbic acid.
basis and possibly on an absolute
(total) basis is increased.

process different grains and can should be turned or replaced when
Feed Processing more easily be adjusted or repaired. it becomes dull or develops large
However, hammermills require holes.
more energy and produce more Both types of mills can achieve
Processing feed is an important “fines,” and consequentially more the desired particle size. Producers
step between the nutritionist and dust, than roller mills. need to evaluate such factors as
the pig. No matter how precisely Roller mills use 25 to 30% less number and types of grain used,
diets are formulated, pig perfor- energy than hammermills to pro- time availability, management
mance will suffer if the diets are duce a 700-micron particle, but capabilities, initial investment, and
not processed and mixed properly. require more management. Also, operating costs when determining
Critical components of feed prepa- because the rolls must be read- the best system for their individual
ration include particle size reduc- justed to accommodate different operations.
tion and mixing efficiency. feedstuffs, roller mills are difficult
to use when processing several dif- What are the key factors
What average particle size do ferent grains. There are three essen-
you recommend for swine diets? involved in making high quality
tial criteria for producing a 700 to feed?
We recommend an average par- 800-micron particle with a roller
ticle size of 650 to 750 microns for Once the grain has been pro-
mill: (1) a differential drive with cessed to the correct particle size, it
all grains except wheat. Finely one roll moving 50 to 75% faster
ground wheat creates palatability must be properly mixed with the
than the other roll to produce a other ingredients to achieve the de-
problems, thus the optimum par- shearing action instead of a crush-
ticle size for wheat is 850 to 1250 sired diet. Key points in obtaining a
ing action, (2) the correct number good mix are:
microns for pigs < 130 lb and 1400 of corrugations/inch to slice the
to 1800 microns for sows and pigs grain and (3) a spiral of 1 to 2" per
> 130 lb. Avoid feeding whole • Weighing the ingredients
every 12" of roll length to increase Without weigh scales, the
kernels of wheat. Process feed so shearing action and decrease fines.
the standard deviation (a measure chances of getting the correct num-
Recommendations for corruga- ber of pounds of each ingredient in
of particle size variation) is 2 to 2.5. tions/inch for roller mills and
Reducing ingredient particle the mixer is reduced. Adding too
screen sizes for hammermills are little or too much grain will sub-
size has several advantages. First, it shown in Table 9.
creates more surface area available stantially concentrate or dilute the
To ensure a consistent particle amounts of other ingredients in the
for digestion resulting in improved size, both hammermills and roller
feed efficiency. Second, it improves diet. Volumetric systems can be
mills need periodic maintenance. satisfactory but they must be recali-
mixing and handling characteris- Magnets should be placed in
tics. The more uniform the feed- brated frequently. However,
appropriate locations to prevent because of differences in bulk
stuffs are in terms of particle size, metal objects from reaching the rolls
the easier they are mixed. A small density of different grains and
or screen. Hammers need to be batches of soybean meal, basemixes
particle size reduces the amount of turned or replaced when worn, and
segregation of feedstuffs that may and premixes, weigh scales are
rolls need to be regrooved when essential in ensuring proper diet
occur in bulk bins, augers, and worn or damaged. Because the
feeders. However, there are several preparation.
screen also helps “cut” the grain, it
costs associated with smaller par-
ticle size. The smaller the particle
size the greater the energy and time Table 9. Hammermill and roller mill recommendations to achieve a 700-micron average
particle size
requirements of processing. Also,
there may be increases in dustiness, Hammermill Roller mill
feed bridging and gastric ulcers.
Grain Screen size, inches Corrugations/inch
How do hammermills and Barley 1/8 10 to 12
roller mills compare? Corn 3/16 8 to 10
Particle size usually is reduced
Oats 1/8 10 to 12
by grinding or rolling the grain.
Milo 1/8 12 to 14
Grinding with a hammermill is the
Wheat a 10 to 12
most common method. Hammer-
mills have a greater capacity/unit aToavoid palatability problems, wheat should be coarsely ground or rolled to achieve the
of horsepower, can more easily proper particle size. See text for details.

• Mixing times diets improves feed efficiency by 7 to Table 10. Water consumption by pigs
Run vertical screw mixers at 10% and daily gain by 3 to 6%. The Water
the proper speed for at least 15 improvement in feed efficiency is due consumption,
minutes after the last ingredient is to a decrease in feed wastage and Class gallon/pig/day
added. Horizontal and drum mix- improved nutrient use. However, the Gestating sow 2 to 3
ers should run for 5 to 10 minutes decision to pellet diets other than in Lactating sow 4 to 5
after the addition of the last ingre- the starting phase should to be based Starting pig (13 to 45 lb) .5 to 1
dient. Older, worn mixers need to on economics. In general, the more
Growing pig (45 to 130 lb) 1
be run longer. expensive the diet the more economi-
Finishing pig (130 to 250 lb) 1.5 to 2
cal it is to offer as a pellet.
• Sequencing and premixing When determining the economic
Add at least half of the grain or benefit of any form of processing, the warm or hot environmental condi-
all of the supplemental protein be- following formula can be used: tions. Diets high in salt or protein
fore adding any other ingredients. or other ingredients whose
Also, if an ingredient is added at New diet cost - old diet cost x 100 byproducts of digestion and
less than 2% of the total batch (< 40 Old diet cost metabolism are excreted via the
lb in a ton batch) in a vertical screw kidney also increase water needs.
mixer or less than 1% in a horizon- < or = % improvement in feed Lactating sows must have
tal mixer, it needs to be premixed to efficiency needed to offset unlimited access to water if they
a larger volume to ensure proper added diet cost are to produce milk adequately.
mixing. Suckling pigs older than 10 to 14
For example, assume pelleting will days of age need water in addition
What about other methods of increase the diet cost from $110/ton to that in milk for optimum perfor-
processing? to $125/ton. Therefore, a 13.6% mance.
Alternate methods of process- improvement in feed efficiency is With typical nipple drinking
ing feedstuffs and feed include needed to cover the pelleting cost. devices, the rate of delivery (cups/
extrusion, roasting, pelleting, steam Any improvement in feed effi- minute) has little effect on per-
flaking, expanding and microniz- ciency above that will be profit. formance as long as a minimal
ing. Extrusion and roasting are delivery rate is achieved with the
most commonly used in the heat $125 - $110 x 100 = 13.6% device. Pigs generally make up for
treatment of soybeans to inactivate $110 improvement reduced delivery rates by spending
antinutritional factors found in raw in feed more time at the drinking device.
soybeans. Extrusion involves the efficiency Suggested minimum delivery rates
use of heat, pressure, and possibly for nipple drinking devices are:
steam on ingredients or feeds.
Roasting is a simpler process, but
there is a greater potential for over-
Water starting pigs — 1 to 1.5 cups/
and under-heating. Expanding is growing-finishing pigs — 2 to
similar to extrusion, and the results Water is one of the most impor- 3 cups/minute
have been mixed at best with swine tant components of a feeding pro- sows and boars — 3 to 4
diets, especially when economics gram for swine. Vital to all body cups/minute
are considered. Steam flaking and functions, water accounts for as
micronizing are processing meth- much as 80% of body weight in For all classes of swine that are
ods that usually do not increase pigs at birth and declines to about housed in pens, we recommend
performance enough to justify the 50% in market swine. that at least one nipple drinker
cost of processing. device be provided for every 15
Pelleting swine diets is becoming How much water does a pig pigs in the social group, with a
more popular. This is especially true consume? minimum of 2 devices per group.
in starter pig diets because pelleting Refer to Table 10 for estimated We recommend one nipple drinker
prevents bridging in feeders when water needs of various classes of device for every 10 pigs in the
using diets high in milk products. swine. In general, a pig will con- nursery.
Pelleting corn or milo-based diets for sume 1/4 to 1/3 gallon of water for Recent research suggests that if
growing and finishing pigs results in every pound of dry feed. The water water waste is a concern, the use of
a 5 to 8% improvement in feed effi- requirements are variable, with the wet/dry feeders or bowl drinkers
ciency and increases daily gain by 3 need for water increasing when a may result in which the nipple
to 6%. Pelleting barley or oat-based pig has diarrhea or experiences drinker is incorporated in the feed

research results suggest that water daily supply of nutrients. Nutrient
bowl of the feeder as the sole source containing up to 450 ppm NO3-N or intake can be standardized by ad-
of water may result in up to a 40% 1,980 ppm NO3 will not cause ad- justing nutrient levels in a diet in-
reduction in slurry volume. Newer verse reactions in growing-finishing versely with changes in feed intake.
designs of drinking devices may pigs. However, altering nutrient density
also reduce water wastage when Water normally contains miner- is not advisable when energy is the
compared to traditional nipple als that are added to swine diets limiting factor.
drinking devices. Consideration of (e.g. calcium or sodium). However,
the need for wasted water for minerals from a water source What factors affect feed
proper functioning of manure trans- should not substitute for quantities intake?
fer and storage devices is a consid- recommended in the feed. Pigs consume feed in meals. As
eration in drinker device selection. pigs advance from weaning to
Do you recommend using water slaughter weight, meal frequency
What about water quality? sweeteners or water acidifiers? decreases from about 12 to five
Water that meets standards for No. Water sweeteners and meals per day. Factors that alter
human consumption is ideal. Most acidifiers have been ineffective in daily feed consumption do so by
problems with water quality are routinely enhancing water intake either reducing or prolonging the
related to bacterial contamination, and improving the performance of duration of individual meals as
either in the well or water delivery starting pigs. opposed to affecting meal fre-
system. A laboratory result equal to quency.
or less than 1 coliform per 100 mL is
considered acceptable for all classes • Energy density
of swine. Levels higher than 5 bac- Feed Intake The amount of energy con-
teria forming colonies per 100 mL sumed depends on the amount of
are cause for immediate concern feed eaten and the amount of
and remedial action. Feed intake is used synony- energy per pound of feed. Pigs
Water containing elevated mously with feed disappearance typically eat until their energy
levels of sulfates (so called stinky from feeders or storage bins. Feed requirements are satisfied. Adding
water) will cause a slight to moder- disappearance includes feed that is fat to a diet reduces feed intake
ate diarrhea with a characteristic eaten and feed that is wasted or because energy density increases.
black color in the feces. Water con- spilled and probably overestimates Fibrous feeds (e.g., barley, alfalfa
taining up to 3,000 ppm sulfate or actual feed consumed. Certain pro- and oats) dilute energy density and
5,000 ppm total dissolved solids cessing methods (e.g., pelleting), increase bulk when added to a diet.
(TDS) can be consumed safely by feeder design and management As dietary fiber increases, feed
swine after a period of adaptation. practices reduce feed disappear- intake increases until gastrointesti-
Many laboratories report elec- ance because feed wastage is re- nal capacity is reached, causing
trical conductivity as an estimator duced, but they may have little intake to reach a plateau. This
of TDS. Although the constant in effect on feed intake. Other prac- plateau may occur before energy
the formula varies somewhat tices, such as liquid or paste feed- needs are satisfied. Energy dilution
depending on the sulfate content of ing, may produce a real increase in is of particular concern for pigs
the water in question, a general feed consumption. weighing less than 80 lb and for
estimate of TDS is: most lactating sows. This is
Why is feed intake important? because energy intake tends to be
TDS = K/.75 Growing pigs and lactating limiting for maximum performance
sows generally are given free or ad in these classes of swine, even
where: TDS = Total Dissolved libitum access to feed, whereas when they are fed low-fiber diets.
Solids in ppm boars and non-lactating gilts or
K = electrical sows are limit-fed. It is assumed • Temperature
conductivity in that when swine are not limit-fed, Consistent exposure to envi-
microomhmos they will consume feed in quanti- ronmental temperatures above or
.75 = constant ties sufficient for maximum pro- below the pig’s thermoneutral zone
duction. A number of factors may affects feed consumption. As envi-
Water containing up to 100 ppm alter feed consumption, resulting in ronmental temperature increases
NO3-N (nitrate-nitrogen) or 440 greater or lesser amounts of feed from comfortable to moderately
ppm NO3 (nitrate) is considered consumed than expected. As feed stressful, feed consumption
safe for all classes of swine. Recent consumption varies, so does the declines proportionally. However,

extreme heat stress drastically amounts when given free access to excess energy consumed during
reduces feed consumption. Suscep- feed. However, it is not possible to gestation is stored as fat and used
tibility to heat stress increases as make general statements about dif- during lactation, resulting in
body weight increases. Conversely, ferences in feed intake among greater lactation weight loss. Sows
feed consumption increases as genetic lines. For example, some fed our recommended amounts
environmental temperature is high lean gain genotypes were during gestation (adjusted for envi-
reduced within a moderate range. thought to have reduced feed ronment as necessary) gain less
Finishing pigs in a cold environ- intake. This might seem logical weight during gestation and lose
ment eat more because their main- because carcass leanness is less weight during lactation. They
tenance energy requirement is increased by restricting feed intake. obtain the additional energy
increased to maintain body tem- However, there is evidence that needed during lactation by eating
perature. Growth rate may not be pigs with high lean growth poten- more feed. The total amount of
affected, but poorer feed efficiency tial and those with medium or low feed eaten for the combined gesta-
results. However, severely cold- lean growth eat similar amounts of tion and lactation periods may be
stressed pigs may not grow feed. Therefore, feed intake pat- similar whether sows are overfed
because they can not consume suf- terns of genetic lines should be or fed correctly during gestation.
ficient amounts of energy above determined from previous records However, sows that are too fat at
their maintenance requirement. The and daily consumption should not farrowing may cause management
effects of cold weather are less det- be used to classify pigs according difficulties and are more likely to
rimental as body weight increases. to lean growth type. crush their pigs.
Limit-fed swine are an exception
because they can not voluntarily • Weaning • Feed acceptability
adjust energy intake. The manager Severely restricted consumption Pigs may reduce consumption
must make these adjustments and at weaning is a common occurrence or refuse to eat when the diet con-
increase feeding level according to and the principal cause of tains unpalatable or objectionable
severity of the cold stress. postweaning lag. This problem has ingredients. This may be noticed
been addressed in our nutrient rec- first among limit-fed swine,
• Gender ommendations (Table 11), and fur- because they eat well defined
A summary of eight studies ther adjustments in nutrient density meals. The effects on pigs given
below shows that feed consumption are not needed. The starter 1 (or free access to feed are less obvious
is affected by gender. Although dif- transition) diet should contain and may not be noticed until per-
ferences in feed intake between bar- highly palatable and digestible formance losses occur. Certain
rows and gilts may occur at lighter ingredients (see example diets in odors, textures, flavors and tastes
weights, they probably are not of Table 19) to encourage pigs to begin (especially bitter) may contribute to
practical importance until pigs eating as quickly as possible. reduced feed intake. Some ingredi-
weigh about 80 lb or more. After 80 ents may reduce palatability when
lb, barrows will consume more feed • Amino acids large quantities are used in the diet.
than gilts. It appears boars consume Pigs fed diets that are not cor- Small quantities of mold and(or)
less feed than gilts during the rectly balanced for amino acids mycotoxin contaminated feeds may
grower phase, but they have similar may exhibit reduced feed intake. dramatically reduce feed intake. To
feed intakes in the finisher phase. The severity varies depending on avoid these problems, do not use
the levels and characteristics of the poor quality ingredients in swine
Relative effect of sex on feed intake (boar = 100)
amino acids involved. Formulation diets.
Phase Boar Barrow Gilt errors that allow some alternative Stale feed may be considered
Grower (45 to 130 lb) 100 108 105 feed ingredients or crystalline unacceptable to swine that are hesi-
Finisher (130 to 250 lb) 100 114 101 amino acids to be used incorrectly tant to eat because of stress. Lactat-
cause these problems. Such errors ing sows, newly weaned pigs and
• Genetics can be avoided by using our lysine, pigs recovering from disease can be
Genetics play an important role tryptophan, threonine and me- encouraged to eat by providing
in determining feed intake levels in thionine recommendations when fresh feed several times per day.
swine. Genetic lines selected prima- formulating diets. Spilled or wasted feed left on the
rily for improved feed efficiency or ground or floor of a pig pen for
for leanness may also be indirectly • Gestation feeding more than 30 minutes probably will
selected for low feed consumption. Sows that are overfed during not be eaten.
Thus, pigs from different genetic gestation exhibit reduced feed con-
lines may consume different sumption during lactation. The

• Other factors greater nutrient demand should be the lysine level of the diet. For
Crowding, limited feeder space met by a higher feed consumption. example, a corn or milo soybean
and disease often reduce feed con- The lean gain classifications for meal-based diet containing .95%
sumption. These problems should growing-finishing pigs in this pub- lysine will contain about 18% pro-
be identified and treated by making lication are a function of both the tein. A diet with .80% lysine will
the appropriate changes in manage- pig’s genetics and the environment. contain about 16% protein and a
ment or facilities, rather than by Health status is one of the environ- diet with .65% lysine has about 14%
making diet changes. Further, alter- mental constraints on lean gain. protein.
ing nutrient density will not over- Therefore, based on the available The recommendations for tryp-
come performance reductions evidence, we believe categorizing tophan, threonine, methionine and
resulting from crowding. Feeder growing-finishing pigs as high, methionine+cystine were derived
design and management affect feed medium or low lean gain and feed- from an optimum pattern or ratio
consumption somewhat, but play a ing them as described in this publi- among amino acids that we estab-
greater role in managing feed wast- cation accounts for the impact of lished (Table 17). We assumed that
age. Assuming adequate feed health status on amino acid the pattern of amino acids required
access is provided, feeder design requirements. changes throughout the growth
usually is of less importance than stages, except for tryptophan and
adjustments to reduce or minimize methionine. Lysine is needed in a
feed wastage. One exception may Nutrient much larger proportion for the syn-
be sows during lactation, if the thesis of new tissue than for main-
feeder design limits a sow’s access Recommendations tenance. Thus, for example, the
to feed. recommended amount of threonine
in the diet as a percent of lysine
We believe the nutrient recom- increases from 64% in the starting
mendations in Tables 11, 12, 13, 14,
Health 15 and 16 will result in a “best-
phase to 68% in the finishing phase.
The ranges presented for trace
cost” feeding strategy for most pro- mineral and vitamin additions offer
ducers the majority of the time. feed manufacturers greater flexibil-
When pigs are exposed to anti-
However, certain conditions (i.e., ity, which often results in cost sav-
gens (substances foreign to the body),
specific genetic populations, eco- ings in preparing custom products
there may be fewer nutrients avail-
nomic, nutrient availability, nutri- from our nutrient recommenda-
able for normal growth. Management
ent profile and nutrient tions. The minimum values gen-
procedures such as segregated early
interactions) may require signifi- erally represent the quantity
weaning (SEW) or medicated early
cant deviations from the recom- recommended by the National
weaning (MEW) are being employed
mendations presented. Also, the Research Council (1998). The upper
to reduce or eliminate the pig’s expo-
current debate surrounding the values do not represent the maxi-
sure to antigens. Presumably because
environmental consequences of mum safe or tolerance levels, but
of an improved health status, SEW or
nitrogen and phosphorus excretion instead a reference point above
MEW pigs consume more feed, grow
was considered in the development which further additions will not
faster and require less feed per unit
of amino acid and phosphorus likely improve performance. We do
of gain from weaning to slaughter
recommendations. not necessarily recommend supply-
weight than do pigs weaned after
Although crude protein values ing minimum or maximum levels
about 21 days of age and kept in the
still appear on feed labels and in on a routine basis. An example of
vicinity of older pigs.
some feeding recommendations, appropriate trace mineral and vita-
Information on the relationship
we did not list dietary protein min additions to pig feed is shown
between pig health and nutrient
recommendations because pigs do in Table 16.
requirements is being generated.
not require protein in their diet. The recommendations reflect
Preliminary research indicates that
Instead they require amino acids, differences in nutrient require-
amino acid requirements
which are found in protein. The ments for pigs according to their
(expressed as amount/day) are
recommended levels for the most stage of production, sex, lean
increased in high-health pigs,
critical amino acids are given in growth rate and milk production.
because of their greater capacity for
Tables 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Lysine is We assumed the same feed intake
lean growth. Starting pigs derived
the first limiting amino acid in for pigs with different lean growth
from SEW or MEW programs
grain-soybean meal-based diets. In rates, an assumption that is not al-
should not require diets containing
these diets, there is a strong rela- ways true. We also assumed pigs
higher concentrations of nutrients
tionship between the protein and are housed under thermoneutral
than those listed in Table 11. Their

Table 11. Nutrient recommendations for growing swine (as-fed basis)a, b

Type of diet Starter 1 Starter 2 Starter 3 Grower 1 Grower 2 Finisher 1 Finisher 2

Body wt, lb 8 to 13 13 to 25 25 to 45 45 to 80 80 to 130 130 to 190 190 to 250
Expected feed intake, lb/dayd .55 1.2 2.0 3.3 4.6 5.8 6.9

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -% of Diet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lysine, total 1.55 1.35 1.20 1.00 .85 .70 .55

Lysine, digestible 1.29 1.12 .99 .82 .68 .55 .41
Tryptophan .28 .24 .22 .18 .15 .13 .10
Threonine .99 .86 .77 .66 .56 .48 .37
Methionine .40 .35 .31 .26 .22 .18 .14
Methionine+cystine .88 .77 .68 .57 .49 .41 .32
Calcium .90 .85 .75 .70 .60 .55 .50
Phosphorus, total .77 .67 .62 .58 .51 .47 .43
Phosphorus, available .56 .44 .34 .29 .22 .19 .16

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Calculated Daily Intake, g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lysine, total 3.9 7.4 10.9 15.0 17.8 18.4 17.2

Lysine, digestible 3.2 6.1 9.0 12.2 14.2 14.5 13.0
Tryptophan .7 1.3 2.0 2.7 3.2 3.3 3.1
Threonine 2.5 4.7 7.0 9.9 11.7 12.5 11.7
Methionine 1.0 1.9 2.8 3.9 4.6 4.8 4.5
Methionine+cystine 2.2 4.2 6.2 8.6 10.1 10.7 10.0
Calcium 2.3 4.6 6.8 10.5 12.5 14.5 15.7
Phosphorus, total 1.9 3.7 5.6 8.7 10.7 12.4 13.5
Phosphorus, available 1.4 2.4 3.1 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.0

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Additions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Salt, %e 0 to .4 0 to .4 .25 to .4 .25 to .4 .25 to .4 .25 to .4 .25 to .4

Copper, ppm 6 to 15 6 to 15 5 to 15 4 to 15 4 to 15 3 to 15 3 to 15
Iodine, ppm .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5
Iron, ppm 100 to 150 90 to 150 80 to 150 70 to 150 60 to 150 50 to 150 40 to 150
Manganese, ppm 4 to 30 3 to 30 3 to 30 3 to 30 2 to 30 2 to 30 2 to 30
Selenium, ppmf .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3
Zinc, ppm 100 to 150 90 to 150 80 to 150 70 to 150 60 to 150 50 to 150 50 to 150


Vitamin A, IU/lb 1000 to 4000 900 to 4000 800 to 4000 700 to 4000 650 to 4000 600 to 4000 600 to 4000
Vitamin D3, IU/lb 100 to 400 90 to 400 80 to 400 70 to 400 70 to 400 70 to 400 70 to 400
Vitamin E, IU/lb 7.5 to 30 6 to 30 5 to 30 5 to 20 5 to 20 5 to 20 5 to 20
Vitamin K, mg/lbg 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3
Riboflavin, mg/lb 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10 1 to 10
Niacin, mg/lb 10 to 50 7 to 50 6 to 50 5 to 50 4 to 50 4 to 50 3 to 50
Pantothenic acid, mg/lb 6 to 25 5 to 25 4 to 25 4 to 25 4 to 25 4 to 25 3 to 25
Choline, mg/lbh 0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 100 0 to 100
Biotin, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamin B12, mg/lb .01 to .02 .01 to .02 .01 to .02 .005 to .02 .003 to .02 .003 to .02 .002 to .02
Folic acid, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

aAssumes a mixture of medium lean gain barrows and gilts (.55 to .70 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb). All diets are full-fed under
thermoneutral conditions.
b Digestible and available nutrient levels are calculations based on a corn-soybean meal diet.
cProvide a total of 4 lb/pig (at least 3 lb after weaning) to pigs > 13 lb at weaning, but < 28 days of age.
dAverage dietary ME density is 1.5 Mcal/lb.
eAdjust salt additions according to quantity of dried whey and plasma proteins included in the diet. Dietary sodium levels > 3000 ppm are not

likely to improve performance.

fMaximum legal addition is .3 ppm.
gMenadione activity.
hSoybean meal is an excellent source of choline. Starting diets containing less than 100 lb soybean meal/ton should contain about 50 mg/lb of

added choline.

Table 12. Recommended dietary levels (%) of amino acids for HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW lean gain swine (as-fed basis)a, b, c
Type of diet Grower 1 Grower 2 Finisher 1 Finisher 2
Body wt, lb 45 to 80 80 to 130 130 to 190 190 to 250
Sexd B G B G B G B G
Expected feed intake, lb/daye 3.3 3.3 4.7 4.5 6.2 5.5 7.2 6.6
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - High Lean Gainf - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lysine, total 1.10 1.10 .97 1.01 .77 .87 .62 .68
Lysine, digestible .90 .90 .78 .82 .61 .70 .49 .54
Tryptophan .20 .20 .17 .18 .14 .16 .11 .12
Threonine .73 .73 .64 .67 .52 .59 .42 .46
Methionine .29 .29 .25 .26 .20 .23 .16 .18
Methionine+cystine .63 .63 .55 .58 .45 .50 .36 .39
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Medium Lean Gaing- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lysine, total 1.00 1.00 .83 .87 .65 .74 .53 .57
Lysine, digestible .82 .82 .67 .70 .52 .59 .41 .44
Tryptophan .18 .18 .15 .16 .12 .13 .09 .10
Threonine .66 .66 .55 .58 .44 .50 .36 .39
Methionine .26 .26 .22 .23 .17 .19 .14 .15
Methionine+cystine .57 .57 .48 .50 .38 .43 .31 .33

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Lean Gainh - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lysine, total .80 .80 .69 .72 .55 .62 .45 .49
Lysine, digestible .64 .64 .54 .57 .42 .48 .33 .37
Tryptophan .14 .14 .12 .13 .10 .11 .08 .09
Threonine .53 .53 .45 .47 .37 .42 .31 .34
Methionine .21 .21 .18 .19 .14 .16 .12 .13
Methionine+cystine .46 .46 .39 .41 .32 .36 .26 .29

aAll diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions.

b Digestible nutrient levels are calculations based on a corn-soybean meal diet.
cSufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those in Table 11 for animals of these

dB=barrows and G=gilts.
eAverage dietary ME density is 1.5 Mcal/lb.
f> .70 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb.
g.55 to .70 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb.
h< .55 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb.

conditions, which is also not always for a specific intake of nutrients. weaned pigs (< 28 days of age) do
true. The relationship between lean not respond to changes in energy
gain and energy intake is linear for density of the diet. Nutrient levels
When is it appropriate to alter pigs within this weight range. should not be adjusted in these
dietary nutrient density according Changes in energy intake directly diets until pigs have been weaned
to feed intake? affect lean gain, which may alter for about two weeks.
amino acid requirements. If energy Higher than expected con-
• Starting and growing pigs is limiting because feed consump- sumption during the starting and
The daily amino acid and min- tion is lower than expected, lean growing phases is not a problem
eral recommendations for starting gain also will be lower. In this case, and our recommended percentages
and growing pigs (8 to 130 lb) were providing more amino acids by of amino acids and minerals should
designed for pigs consuming the increasing the percentages in the be maintained. This will result in
quantities of feed indicated at the diet probably will not improve pig daily nutrient intakes that exceed
top of Tables 11, 12, 13, and 15. performance. An exception might our calculated levels. Energy intake
When these pigs consume less feed be when fat is added to the diet will also be greater than expected,
than indicated, we do not recom- and feed intake is reduced because so the additional amino acids and
mend increasing amino acid and less feed is required to meet the minerals will be needed to support
mineral concentrations in an pig’s energy requirement. There- increased lean gain.
attempt to maintain our calculated fore, increasing the percentages of
daily nutrient intakes. In other amino acids and minerals to main- • Finishing pigs
words, do not attempt to formulate tain a constant nutrient:calorie ratio At times, it may be advisable to
diets for starting and growing pigs is recommended. However, newly increase the percentages of amino

Table 13. Calculated daily intake (g) of amino acids for HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW lean gain swine (as-fed basis)a, b, c
Type of diet Grower 1 Grower 2 Finisher 1 Finisher 2
Body wt, lb 45 to 80 80 to 130 130 to 190 190 to 250
Sexd B G B G B G B G
Expected feed intake, lb/daye 3.3 3.3 4.7 4.5 6.2 5.5 7.2 6.6
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - High Lean Gainf - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lysine, total 16.5 16.5 20.8 20.7 21.7 21.7 20.4 20.4
Lysine, digestible 13.5 13.5 16.7 16.7 17.2 17.2 15.9 15.9
Tryptophan 3.0 3.0 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7
Threonine 10.9 10.9 13.7 13.7 14.8 14.8 13.9 13.9
Methionine 4.3 4.3 5.4 5.4 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.3
Methionine+cystine 9.4 9.4 11.8 11.8 12.6 12.6 11.8 11.8
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Medium Lean Gaing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lysine, total 15.0 15.0 17.8 17.8 18.4 18.4 17.2 17.2
Lysine, digestible 12.2 12.2 14.2 14.2 14.5 14.5 13.0 13.0
Tryptophan 2.7 2.7 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.1
Threonine 9.9 9.9 11.7 11.7 12.5 12.5 11.7 11.7
Methionine 3.9 3.9 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.8 4.5 4.5
Methionine+cystine 8.6 8.6 10.1 10.1 10.7 10.7 10.0 10.0
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Lean Gainh - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lysine, total 12.0 12.0 14.7 14.7 15.5 15.5 14.8 14.8
Lysine, digestible 9.6 9.6 11.5 11.5 11.8 11.8 10.9 10.9
Tryptophan 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7
Threonine 7.9 7.9 9.7 9.7 10.5 10.5 10.1 10.1
Methionine 3.1 3.1 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8
Methionine+cystine 6.8 6.8 8.4 8.4 9.0 9.0 8.6 8.6

aAll diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions.

b Digestible nutrient levels are calculations based on a corn-soybean meal diet.
cSufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those in Table 11 for animals of these weights.
dB=barrows and G=gilts.
eAverage dietary ME density is 1.5 Mcal/lb.
f> .70 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb.
g.55 to .70 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb.
h< .55 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 250 lb.

acids and minerals in the diet of fin- lysine intake was 16.0 g/day (2905 minerals in the diet should not be
ishing pigs (> 130 lb) consuming less x .055) which is below that recom- adjusted when severe reductions in
feed than indicated in Tables 11, 12, mended in Table 11. The pigs’ feed consumption (> 10%) occur.
13 and 15. In other words, it may be lysine intake was reduced because Examples of when not to increase
appropriate to formulate finishing they were consuming about 7% less nutrient density include (1) heat
diets to a specific intake of nutrients. feed than expected (Table 11). stress resulting from continued
Compared with younger pigs, energy Because the reduction in feed intake exposure to temperatures in excess
intake and lean gain are not as closely is within 10% of the expected of 90oF and (2) crowding.
related during this stage. Moderate amount shown in Table 11, the diet During the finishing stages,
reductions in energy intake are less can be reformulated so the pigs con- increases in feed intake may occur
likely to affect lean growth rate. sume the recommended amount of during periods when additional
Therefore, if actual feed intake is lysine (17.2g/day). energy is needed for maintenance
within 90% of listed levels, our cal- (such as during cold weather).
17.2 g lysine/day = .0059
culated daily amino acid and mineral Additional amino acids and miner-
recommendations should be main- 2905 g feed/day als are not needed. Thus, we rec-
tained by increasing the density of ommend that producers reduce the
.0059 x100 = .59% lysine
these nutrients in the diet. percentages of amino acids and
For example, assume 190 to 250 Similarly, nutrient density minerals in the diet to maintain our
lb finishing pigs were fed a diet should be increased to maintain a calculated daily intakes of these
containing .55% lysine and their constant nutrient:calorie ratio when nutrients. This recommendation
feed intake was 6.4 lb or 2905 g/ fat is added to the diet. However, only applies when temperatures
day. Therefore, the pigs’ daily the percentages of amino acids and remain cold for a prolonged

Table 14. Nutrient recommendations for adult breeding swine (as-fed basis)a, b

Type of diet Developing gilt Gestation Lactation Breeding Boar

Body wt, lb 230 lb to flushing
21-day litter weight < 120 lb > 120 lb

Expected feed intake, lb/dayc 6.0d 4.0d 10.5 12.0 12.0 14.0 5.5d

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - % of Diet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lysine, total .70 .55 .90 .85 1.05 1.00 .70

Lysine, digestible .54 .42 .73 .69 .87 .82 .54
Tryptophan .13 .10 .16 .15 .19 .18 .13
Threonine .48 .45 .58 .55 .67 .64 .57
Methionine .18 .14 .23 .21 .26 .25 .18
Methionine+cystine .41 .37 .43 .41 .51 .48 .47
Calcium .75 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 .75
Phosphorus. total .65 .75 .75 .75 .75 .75 .65
Phosphorus, available .40 .49 .49 .49 .49 .49 .40

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Calculated Daily Intake, g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lysine, total 19.1 10.0 43.0 46.5 57.4 63.5 17.5

Lysine, digestible 14.7 7.7 34.8 37.6 47.1 52.1 13.4
Tryptophan 3.4 1.9 7.7 8.4 10.3 11.4 3.3
Threonine 13.0 8.1 27.5 29.8 36.7 40.6 14.2
Methionine 5.0 2.6 10.8 11.6 14.4 15.9 4.6
Methionine+cystine 11.1 6.7 20.6 22.3 27.6 30.5 11.7
Calcium 20.4 16.3 42.9 49.0 49.0 57.2 18.7
Phosphorus, total 17.7 13.5 35.6 41.0 41.0 47.5 16.2
Phosphorus, available 11.0 8.9 23.5 26.5 26.5 31.0 10.0

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Additions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


Salt, % .4 to .6 .4 to .6 .4 to .6 .4 to .6 .4 to .6 .4 to .6 .4 to .6
Copper, ppm 5 to 15 5 to 15 5 to 15 5 to 15 5 to 15 5 to 15 5 to 15
Iodine, ppm .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5 .15 to .5
Iron, ppm 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150
Manganese, ppm 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40
Selenium, ppme .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3
Zinc, ppm 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150 80 to 150


Vitamin A, IU/lb 2000 to 5000 2000 to 5000 2000 to 5000 2000 to 5000 2000 to 5000 2000 to 5000 2000 to 5000
Vitamin D 3, IU/lb 90 to 500 90 to 500 90 to 500 90 to 500 90 to 500 90 to 500 90 to 500
Vitamin E, IU/lb 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40 20 to 40
Vitamin K, mg/lb f 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3
Riboflavin, mg/lb 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10 2 to 10
Niacin, mg/lb 5 to 50 5 to 50 5 to 50 5 to 50 5 to 50 5 to 50 5 to 50
Pantothenic acid, mg/lb 6 to 25 6 to 25 6 to 25 6 to 25 6 to 25 6 to 25 6 to 25
Choline, mg/lb 250 to 500 250 to 500 250 to 500 250 to 500 250 to 500 250 to 500 0 to 500
Biotin, mg/lb 0 to .2 0 to .2 0 to .2 0 to .2 0 to .2 0 to .2 0 to .2
Vitamin B 12, mg/lb .007 to .02 .007 to .02 .007 to .02 .007 to .02 .007 to .02 .007 to .02 .007 to .02
Folic acid, mg/lb .6 to 1.8 .6 to 1.8 .6 to 1.8 .6 to 1.8 .6 to 1.8 .6 to 1.8 .6 to 1.8

aAlldiets are full fed (except developing gilt, gestation and breeding boar diets) under thermoneutral conditions.
b Dietaryand available nutrient levels are calculations based on a corn-soybean meal diet.
cAverage dietary ME density is 1.5 Mcal/lb.
dAdjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain.
eMaximum legal addition is .3 ppm.
fMenadione activity.

period. Temperatures should be ent from those recommended in the percentages of amino acids and
monitored where the pig is (same Table 14 should receive our calcu- minerals.
height and location). Remember lated daily nutrient intakes. Thus,
that air movement, bedding,
humidity and group size affect how
the percentages of amino acids and
minerals should be increased for
pigs perceive temperature. lower feeding levels and decreased Applications and
Including fibrous ingredients for higher feeding levels. This is
in the diet will increase feed particularly important for boars Outcomes
consumption. Nutrient density can because inadequate amino acid
be reduced in these diets to main- intake can depress libido. If diets The recommendations and con-
tain a constant nutrient:calorie ratio. designed for higher feeding levels cepts presented in this publication
As temperatures fall below the are formulated on a total phospho- are intended to help pork producers
lower critical temperature, con- rus basis, check to see if the daily apply appropriate nutrition-based
sumption of fibrous diets may not available phosphorus recommen- technologies. These technologies are
increase to the same extent as for dation in Table 14 is met. It is pos- designed so that nutrition does not
low-fiber diets. This is because (1) sible to meet our total phosphorus limit production potential and prof-
feed intake has already increased in recommendation but not the avail- itability in most situations. How-
response to the reduced energy den- able phosphorus recommendation ever, pigs must be capable of
sity and (2) consumption of bulky with diets containing large responding to improved nutrition.
diets is limited by gastrointestinal amounts of corn or milo. Lactation Weaknesses in the operation such as
capacity. Therefore, reductions in diets should not be adjusted when crowding, poor sanitation, inad-
nutrient density other than for ener- sows consume more feed than equate ventilation, chronic disease,
gy density are not recommended. listed in Table 14. Adding fat to lac- and lack of proper temperature
tation diets will reduce feed intake control will limit the response to
• Adult breeding swine slightly. The nutrient:calorie ratio nutrition. Optimum nutrition can
Breeding boars or gestating should be held constant in lactation not substitute for good manage-
sows and gilts fed amounts differ- diets containing fat by increasing ment practices but must be used to
complement good management.

Table 15. Nutrient recommendations for developing breeding swine (as-fed basis)a, b, c
Type of diet Terminal-line developing boar Maternal-line developing gilt
Body wt, lb 45 to 80 80 to 130 130 to 190 190 to 230 45 to 80 80 to 130 130 to 190 190 to 230
Expected feed intake, lb/dayd 3.1 4.3 5.5 6.5 3.3 4.5 5.5 6.5
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - % of Diet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Lysine, total 1.25 1.10 .90 .70 1.10 .95 .80 .65
Lysine, digestible 1.03 .90 .72 .56 .91 .77 .64 .51
Tryptophan .23 .20 .16 .13 .20 .17 .14 .12
Threonine .83 .72 .61 .48 .73 .63 .54 .44
Methionine .33 .29 .23 .18 .29 .25 .21 .17
Methionine+cystine .71 .62 .52 .41 .63 .54 .46 .38
Calcium .90 .85 .80 .75 .85 .80 .75 .70
Phosphorus, total .80 .75 .70 .65 .75 .70 .65 .60
Phosphorus, available .51 .47 .44 .40 .47 .43 .39 .35

- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Calculated Daily Intake, g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lysine, total 17.6 21.4 22.4 20.8 16.5 19.4 20.0 19.1
Lysine, digestible 14.4 17.5 18.1 16.4 13.6 15.8 16.0 15.0
Tryptophan 3.2 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.0 3.5 3.6 3.4
Threonine 11.6 14.1 15.2 14.1 10.9 12.8 13.6 13.0
Methionine 4.6 5.6 5.8 5.4 4.3 5.0 5.2 5.0
Methionine+cystine 10.0 12.2 13.0 12.1 9.4 11.1 11.6 11.1
Calcium 12.7 16.6 20.0 22.1 12.7 16.3 18.7 20.7
Phosphorus, total 11.3 14.6 17.5 19.2 11.2 14.3 16.2 17.7
Phosphorus, available 7.2 9.2 11.0 11.8 7.0 8.8 9.7 10.3
aAll diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions.
b Digestible and available nutrient levels are calculations based on a corn-soybean meal diet.
cSufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those in Table 11 for animals of these weights.
dAverage dietary ME density is 1.5 Mcal/lb.

Table 16. Example dietary additions of salt, trace minerals and vitamins from concentrates, Breeding Herd
base mixes, or premixesa, b
Type of diet Starter Grower Finisher Breeding
A “limit-feeding” program is rec-
Body wt, lb 8 to 45 45 to 130 130 to 250 ommended for developing gilts after
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Additions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - they reach about 230 lb and for ges-
tating females and breeding boars.
Minerals However, a “limit-feeding” program
Salt, % .3c .3 .3 .5 should limit only energy and not the
Copper, ppm 10 8 6 10 intake of other nutrients, such as
Iodine, ppm .25 .2 .15 .25 amino acids, minerals and vitamins.
Iron, ppm 125 100 75 125
Energy intake is limited to keep ani-
Manganese, ppm 15 12 9 30
mals from becoming too fat. Exces-
sive feeding of breeding animals
Selenium, ppmd .3 .3 .3 .3
leads to increased feed cost and
Zinc, ppm 125 100 75 125
interferes with reproduction and
Vitamins longevity. Sows that are overfed
immediately after breeding and
Vitamin A, IU/lb 2500 2000 1500 3000 throughout gestation often suffer
Vitamin D 3, IU/lb 250 200 150 300 high embryonic mortality, and thus
Vitamin E, IU/lb 14 11 8.5 30 produce smaller litters than sows fed
Vitamin K, mg/lbe 2 1.6 1.2 2 proper amounts. Sows that have
Riboflavin, mg/lb 5 4 3 5 become too fat tend to have more far-
Niacin, mg/lb 15 12 9 15 rowing difficulties, crush more pigs
Pantothenic acid, mg/lb 10 8 6 10 and eat poorly during lactation. This
Choline, mg/lb 0f 0 0 250 is especially true during the summer
Biotin, mg/lb 0 0 0 .1 when sows are subject to heat stress.
Vitamin B 12, mg/lb .015 .012 .009 .01 The dietary nutrient recommen-
Folic acid, mg/lb 0 0 0 .75 dations for developing gilts, gestat-
ing females and breeding boars
aIf selenium is not included in the trace mineral premix, one trace mineral premix will supply
shown in Table 14 assume that they
these additions. The amount of trace mineral premix added/ton of feed will vary.
b Two vitamin premixes (one for starter to finisher and one for breeding swine) will supply are fed 6, 4 and 5.5 lb of feed daily,
these additions. The amount of vitamin premix added/ton of feed will vary. respectively. When daily feed intake
cAdjust salt additions in the starter diet according to the quantity of dried whey and plasma is adjusted, it is important that the
proteins included in the diet. Dietary sodium levels > 3000 ppm are not likely to improve pig concentrations of amino acids, min-
dMaximum legal addition is .3 ppm. erals, and vitamins in the diet be
eMenadione activity. adjusted accordingly. Aim to pro-
fSoybean meal is an excellent source of choline. Starting diets containing less than 100 lb soy-
vide a constant daily intake of
bean meal/ton should contain 50 mg/lb of added choline. amino acids, minerals, and vitamins
regardless of feed intake.

How much feed should

gestating sows and developing
Table 17. Amino acid ratios for pigs in relation to lysine (lysine =100) gilts receive?
During mild weather (spring/
Type of diet Starter Grower Finisher Gestation Lactation fall) about 6 to 6.5 Mcal of ME per
animal per day (4 to 4.5 lb of a corn
Body wt, lb 8 to 45 45 to 130 130 to 250
or milo-soybean diet) will keep 350--
Lysine 100 100 100 100 100 to 400-lb gestating sows in “good”
Tryptophan 18 18 18 19 18 condition. However, energy intake
Threonine 64 66 68 81 64 will need to be decreased or increased
Methionine 26 26 26 26 25 depending on the condition and
Methionine + Cystine 57 57 58 67 48 weight of the sow and environmental
conditions. See Table 18 for approxi-
mate energy and feed needs of ges-

tating sows according to their body Table 18. Approximate daily energy and feed needs of gestating sows and 1- to 2-year-old
weight. Sows (350 to 400 lb) housed breeding boarsa
outside during the winter should
receive about 7.5 to 9.0 Mcal of ME/ Sows Boars
day (5 to 6 lb of a corn or milo- Body wt, lb Mcal ME/day lb feed/dayb Mcal ME/day lb feed/dayb
soybean meal diet). Developing gilts
300 5.4 3.7 5.9 4.0
should be restricted to about 90% of
400 6.5 4.4 6.9 4.7
ad libitum feed intake or about 6 lb/
day from about 230 lb until 2 weeks 500 7.4 5.0 7.9 5.3
before mating. aAnimals housed on dry floors in crates in an environmentally controlled facility with mini-
mal drafts and ambient temperature 65 oF.
How can limit-feeding of sows b Corn-soybean meal diet containing 1.5 Mcal ME/lb

be accomplished?
The success of limit-feeding during this time will maximize the after. By day four postfarrowing, the
sows and gilts depends on control- number of eggs released by the ova- sow should be given ad libitum (free
ling the intake of each animal. Care ries. Reduce feed intake to about 4 choice) access to feed. Record the
must be taken to see that each to 4.5 lb/day when mating occurs. amount of feed added to the sow’s
receives her share. Individual sow Overfeeding during early gestation feeder daily, especially if more than
feeding stalls are effective devices may increase embryonic mortality one person is feeding the sows.
for controlling boss sows. Interval and reduce litter size.
feeding is another practical method How about feeding after
for limiting the feed intake of sows
during pregnancy. With interval Should feed intake be weaning?
increased during late gestation? After weaning, feeding rate
feeding sows are allowed to con-
The majority of fetal develop- will depend on how adequately the
sume two or three days worth of
ment occurs during the last 2 to 3 female was fed during lactation
feed in one day and then wait two
weeks of gestation. Research indi- and her body condition. Generally,
or three days before being pro-
cates that giving sows 2 to 3 lb 4 to 4.5 lb/day of a corn or milo-
vided access to feed again. Adjust-
more feed per day during the last 2 soybean meal diet is adequate. Pro-
ments in daily intake are made by
to 3 weeks of gestation can slightly vide 5 or more pounds of feed/day
altering either the time on the
improve the number of pigs to thin sows. Do not withhold feed
feeder (2 to 12 hours) or time off
weaned per litter. Do not give extra from sows after weaning, because
the feeder (2 or 3 days). For exam-
feed to fat sows during late gesta- it reduces subsequent litter size.
ple, two hours out of 72 is an ade-
quate feeding time if enough feeder tion, or they probably will have
space is provided so all sows can poor feed intakes during lactation. How should developing and
eat at one time. With time on the breeding boars be fed?
feeders restricted, one feeder hole How should lactating sows be Guidelines for feeding develop-
per sow is essential. More total fed? ing boars are shown in Table 15.
feed is required during gestation Sows should be full-fed during When the boars weigh about 230 lb
when sows are interval-fed, lactation to obtain maximum milk they should begin to receive
because feed efficiency is reduced. production, minimize weight loss restricted quantities of feed to
For gilts every-third-day feeding is and improve rebreeding perfor- avoid excessive weight gain. Offer
not recommended, because they mance. Many sows perform best the boars about 5 to 5.5 lb of a corn
gain less weight and farrow smaller when they are allowed to consume all or milo-soybean meal diet/day
pigs than gilts fed once daily. Gilts the feed they can beginning the day (about 7.5 Mcal of ME/day). The
are not as able as sows to consume they farrow. Severe feed restriction diet should contain nutrient levels
large quantities of feed in short time after farrowing predisposes sows to similar to those for developing gilts
intervals. constipation and delayed return to shown in Table 14. When boars are
estrus. It is easier for some people, between about 1 year and 2 years
What about flushing? however, to detect lactational prob- of age, we suggest they be fed to
Litter size in limit-fed gilts can lems in sows if they are offered lim- gain about .4 to .55 lb/day (145 to
be increased by increasing their ited amounts of feed during the first 200 lb/year). To accomplish this
feed intake or allowing ad libitum 3 days after farrowing. If limit- and maintain fertility, feed breed-
access to feed beginning 11 to 14 feeding is practiced, provide at least ing boars a different diet than the
days before mating. This is called 3 lb of feed the day of farrowing and one used for gestating females. The
“flushing.” Higher energy intake increase the offering 3 lb/day there- goal is to restrict energy intake to

slow growth rate, but to maintain pulp, or 40% oats provide sows lines in Table 1 to avoid reducing
high amino acid, vitamin and min- about 350 g/d of NDF. There is no the energy density of the diet too
eral intakes to preserve fertility and strong evidence that increasing the much.
libido. Weigh boars periodically to NSP level in the lactation diet im-
determine the appropriate feeding proves sow reproductive perfor- How does fat affect breeding
rate for specific conditions. Table 18 mance. Fibrous ingredients in the herd performance?
gives approximate energy and feed- lactation diet may help control con- Feeding fat to sows during late
ing rates to allow boars to gain stipation, however (see the next gestation may improve pig
about .4 to .55 lb/day. Boars > 2 question). Bulky diets containing a preweaning survival rate by 2 to
years of age should be fed to gain high level of NSP results in a sow 3%. The greatest response to
at a slower rate, because they are that is more “satisfied” after con- dietary fat is achieved in herds in
nearing their mature body size. As suming a meal than one fed typical which pig preweaning survival rate
with sows, the daily feeding rate corn or milo-soybean meal-based is less than 80%. For best results,
must be changed to reflect differ- diets. The same situation has been sows should consume at least 2.5 lb
ences due to housing temperature observed with breeding boars. Con- of added fat before farrowing to im-
and body condition of the boar. sider that the costs associated with prove pig survival rate. Feeding a
manure handling may increase due lactation diet with 3% added fat at
What role does fiber or to the larger volume of solids pro- the rate of 6 lb/day for 14 days be-
nonstarch polysaccharides have in duced when high NSP diets are fed. fore farrowing would be sufficient.
sow diets? Sow feed intake usually
Plant-based feed ingredients Can sow constipation be decreases when fat is added to the
contain fiber or nonstarch polysac- controlled by feeding a specific lactation diet; however, energy
charides (NSP) which cannot be feed ingredient? intake may be increased slightly,
digested by pigs. Instead NSP are Maybe. Results with laxatives especially during hot weather. A
fermented by microorganisms in are variable. Most of the published greater increase in energy intake is
the large intestine. The most abun- research indicates that laxatives do likely during hot weather when
dant NSP in plants include cellu- not improve sow reproductive per- sows are drip-cooled. Much of this
lose, hemicelluloses and pectins. formance. Often sows are consti- additional energy consumed by
Gestating sows are excellent candi- pated because they are not given sows fed fat-supplemented diets is
dates to receive high NSP-contain- enough feed during the first few made available to the litter via the
ing diets. Limit-fed gestating sows days after farrowing. If sows are milk. Consequently, added fat may
obtain more energy from fibrous constipated, try offering them more increase litter gain but does little to
feedstuffs than growing pigs do feed after farrowing before adding reduce sow weight loss during
and they have a higher fermenta- a laxative to the diet. Also, check lactation.
tion capacity in the hindgut. In that the sows have an ample sup-
addition, sows can consume more ply of water. How can developing or
of a concentrate diet than necessary Fibrous feedstuffs or certain replacement gilts be fed to reduce
to meet their energy requirement chemicals may serve as laxatives. the number of “downer sows”?
during gestation. This excess feed Fibrous feedstuffs such as beet The dietary calcium and phos-
intake capacity can be exploited by pulp, alfalfa, oats, pysillium, soy- phorus levels we recommend for
including low-energy, bulky feeds bean hulls and wheat bran have a growing-finishing pigs shown in
in the diets of gestating sows. high water binding capacity and Table 11 support excellent rates of
Litter size weaned may be can act as a laxative. Chemical laxa- gain and feed efficiency, but are not
improved by about .5 pigs/litter tives include potassium chloride (15 sufficient to build the skeletal struc-
when NSP is added to the sow diet lb/ton), Epsom salts (30 lb/ton), ture and mineral reserves needed
during gestation. In addition, NSP and Glauber salts (60 lb/ton). These by developing gilts to reduce
in the sow diet may improve sow inclusion rates are recommended “downer sow” problems. The
longevity in the herd. To maximize when sows are fed 4 to 4.5 lb of dietary phosphorus level necessary
the chance of an improvement in feed/day. The level can be cut in to achieve maximum growth and
sow reproductive performance from half when sows are full-fed. Natural feed efficiency is at least .1% less
increased NSP intake, it seems sows laxative feedstuffs are preferred be- than that needed to achieve maxi-
should consume 350 to 400 g/d of cause mineral salts may alter water mum bone mineralization. Thus, we
neutral detergent fiber (NDF) dur- balance in the body and irritate the recommend that developing gilts
ing gestation. Diets containing 45% digestive system. Limit the amount from 45 to 230 lb be fed diets con-
wheat midds, 20% soybean hulls, of beet pulp, alfalfa, oats and wheat taining the levels of calcium and
25% alfalfa meal, 30% sugar beet bran in the diet according to guide- phosphorus shown in Table 15.

Dietary calcium and phosphorus optimizing pig performance and implications for both pigs and
recommendations for gilts after controlling feed costs in a swine people.
they are placed on a limit-feeding enterprise by limiting the time that
program at about 230 lb are shown nutrients are over- or underfed. In What happens when diets
in Table 14. addition, phase feeding reduces the contain too much protein?
amount of nitrogen and phosphorus Feeding excessive amounts of
Will higher dietary levels of pigs excrete. Starting pigs weighing protein and amino acids usually
calcium, phosphorus, and other less than about 25 lb should be fed wastes money, results in increased
nutrients improve feet and leg diets containing several specialty nitrogen excretion, and reduces
soundness? ingredients. Thereafter, switch them growth rate and feed efficiency. A
Probably not, although proper to grain-soybean meal-based diets greater amount of nitrogen in the
nutrition is clearly important in containing few, if any, specialty in- manure has the potential for con-
maintaining feet and leg sound- gredients. Reduce the nutrient den- taminating the environment,
ness. Many research studies have sity of the diet as pigs approach including increasing the level of
investigated the influence of nutri- market weight. ammonia in the atmosphere. Pigs
tion on feet and leg soundness. As also will consume more water and
long as the diets contained nutrient How does fat affect growing they may exhibit a mild diarrhea.
densities similar to the recommen- pig performance?
dations in this publication, no rela- In growing-finishing pigs, fat Should high levels of zinc be
tionship between nutrition and feet consistently improves feed effi- added to starting pig diets?
and leg soundness was found. In ciency. On average, feed efficiency Nutritionists typically add 100
other words, if pigs are fed accord- is improved by 2% for each 1% to 150 ppm of zinc to starting pig
ing to the guidelines in this publica- increment of added fat. Feed diets to meet requirements for
tion, any feet and leg soundness efficiency and daily gain are growth. Recently there has been
problems encountered likely are improved more by feeding fat to interest in feeding nursery pigs
caused by genetic or environmental pigs during the summer than the diets containing 2,000 to 3,000 ppm
factors other than nutrition. winter. For example, daily gain may of zinc to combat postweaning
be increased by 1% for each 1% ad- stress and diarrhea. Also, zinc ions
dition of fat in the summer, whereas cause the organism responsible for
Growing Pig little, if any, improvement in gain is swine dysentery (S. hyodysenteriae)
Management expected in the winter. Carcass fat to produce less toxin. Research
content is not greatly altered unless results indicate the response to
Pigs undergo many physiologi- added fat levels exceed 5% of the high levels of zinc in the diet is
cal changes between weaning and diet and the amino acid:calorie ratio highly variable; in some studies no
market weight. The digestive sys- in the diet is not maintained con- change in growth rate or feed effi-
tem converts from one best suited stant. Energy intake is a major fac- ciency has been observed, but in
to using milk to one suitable for the tor limiting lean growth rate in pigs others the response has been large
breakdown and absorption of weighing less than about 130 lb. Fat (Table 7). Also, feces are made
complex carbohydrates and pro- additions to grain-soybean meal firmer by high levels of zinc in the
teins found in grain and soybean diets may increase energy intake, feed. However, questions remain
meal. Daily feed intake normally especially in hot weather, and im- about how zinc-containing manure
increases steadily between weaning prove lean growth rate in young may affect anaerobic lagoons and
and market weight. Lean growth pigs. On the other hand, added fat the soil. Over 99% of the zinc fed to
rate reaches a plateau when the is less valuable in finishing pigs, be- pigs is excreted in the manure.
pigs weigh about 130 lb and cause energy intake from grain-soy- These factors suggest that the deci-
declines thereafter. These changes bean meal diets is often sufficient to sion to use high levels of zinc should
are the basis for the feeding recom- maximize lean growth rate. Fat be made on a case-by-case basis.
mendations listed for growing- often is added to starting pig diets Careful monitoring of pig perfor-
finishing pigs in this nutrition to aid in the manufacture of mance when high levels of zinc are
guide. pelleted, milk product-based diets. added is recommended. It is impor-
Pigs should have ad libitum Also, research indicates that as tant that the extra zinc be supplied
access to feeds reformulated to little as 2.5% added fat (50 lb/ton) by zinc oxide; otherwise toxicity
contain different ingredients and reduces dust in confinement build- problems may develop. Add 2,500 to
nutrient densities as they grow. This ings by about 25%. Similar effects 3,000 ppm (7.0 to 8.3 lb of zinc oxide/
is commonly called “phase feed- are observed in feed mills. Reduced ton of complete feed assuming the
ing.” Phase feeding is essential to dust levels have improved health zinc oxide contains 72% zinc) to feed

for a maximum of 28 days postwean- • Limit-feeding corn or milo-soybean meal diets is
ing, because zinc at these levels may The principle behind limit- not consistent enough to warrant
be toxic. Maintain about 10 ppm of feeding is to reduce the amount of routine use. Thus, evaluate the use
copper in any diet containing 2,000 excess energy pigs have available of betaine on a case-by-case basis.
to 3,000 ppm of zinc, because there is for fat synthesis. Research shows
no additional growth response from that restricting feed intake of finish- Example Diets
higher dietary copper fortification. ing pigs (> 125 lb) to 80 or 85% of
ad libitum causes an 11 to 17% Example diets for all classes of
What about separate sex (about .15 inches) reduction in 10th- swine are presented in Tables 19,
feeding? rib backfat. However, the number of 21, 22, 24 and 25. Ingredient analy-
Penning barrows separately days to market increases by about sis values in Table 29 were used to
from gilts and feeding them differ- two weeks. Limit-feeding can be formulate the diets. Diets contain-
ent diets allows producers to gain done by restricting the time pigs ing added fat were formulated to
better precision in feeding pigs. The have access to self feeders or floor contain the same lysine:calorie ratio
feed intake of gilts and barrows feeding several times each day. We as diets without added fat. Fat
begins to differ significantly when do not recommend limit-feeding to reduces feed intake and unless the
they weigh about 80 lb. From 80 lb 80 or 85% of ad libitum intake, be- amino acid density is increased pig
until market weight, gilts consume cause currently the increased pro- performance may be compromised
about 8% less feed than barrows duction costs (which include due to a shortage of amino acids
do, but they deposit lean tissue at increased management to monitor relative to calories. In general, these
least as fast as barrows. Thus, gilts and adjust feed delivery devices) diets promote best-cost gain.
need diets with a greater concentra- generally are not offset by a higher Because ingredient price and avail-
tion of amino acids than barrows carcass premium. ability are not constant, consider
do; otherwise they will experience using alternate feedstuffs to opti-
slower growth and poorer effi- • Dietary amino acid level mize cost of gain. Refer to Tables 1
ciency of gain, and produce car- In general, as dietary amino and 2 for guidelines when using
casses with lower lean content than acid density increases, carcass alternate energy and protein
their potential. The decision to backfat decreases. However, a large sources.
separate barrows from gilts and increase in the lysine level of fin-
feed them different diets should be isher diets causes a relatively small Diets for 8 to 45 lb pigs
based on the producer’s produc- reduction in backfat. In a recent
tion and marketing goals. A mar- large study, a 47% increase in For reasons explained in the
keting system that rewards carcass dietary lysine level (from .59 to Methods of Supplying Nutrients sec-
leanness (value-based) usually is .87%) for medium lean gain finish- tion we recommend that most pro-
necessary to maximize returns ing barrows reduced their backfat ducers purchase complete pelleted
from separate sex feeding. We have by 6% or .08 inches. No additional diets for starting pigs weighing less
provided separate amino acid rec- reduction in backfat was observed than about 25 lb. We present exam-
ommendations for barrows and when the diet contained more than ple starting diets to show many of
gilts in this publication. .73% lysine. In gilts, carcass backfat the typical ingredients used in start-
was reduced by 11% or .11 inches ing diets today. It is necessary to use
What nutritional technologies when dietary lysine level was at least three different diets for
are available to reduce carcass increased from .59 to .87% during starting pigs up to 45 lb to achieve
backfat or improve leanness? the finishing phase. good performance at low cost.
The most effective way to The starter 1/transition diet
reduce backfat or improve leanness • Betaine (Table 19) is a multipurpose diet.
is through genetic improvement. A byproduct of sugar beet pro- That is, it can be introduced to pigs
Nutritional strategies that maximize cessing, betaine currently is being before weaning as creep feed, fed
lean growth and minimize excess evaluated in finishing pig diets. In to starting pigs from 8 to 13 lb body
energy intake over that required for some cases backfat has been weight, or provided to pigs heavier
maximum lean growth will produce reduced by 8 to 14% when diets than 13 lb at weaning. Creep feed-
the leanest carcasses. See Table 7 for containing 1,250 ppm of betaine ing is recommended beginning at
a list of feed additives that are were fed for 35 to 40 days before about 10 days of age for pigs
effective in reducing carcass backfat slaughter. On the other hand, some weaned at 3 to 4 weeks of age and
or improving leanness. Other tech- studies have shown no response to later. There is general agreement
nologies are described below. betaine supplementation. We that a positive correlation exists
believe the response to betaine in between weight at weaning and

Table 19. Example diets for 8 to 45 lb growing pigs by providing small amounts of feed
Starter 1/ in a shallow pan or on the floor sev-
transitiona Starter 2 Starter 3 eral times each day. Be sure the pigs
Ingredient (8 to 13 lb) (13 to 25 lb)b (25 to 45 lb)b have access to fresh water.
1 1 2 1 2 Producers who wean pigs at
Corn 605 891 882 1209 1044
about 2 weeks old (8 lb body
Soybean meal, 44% CP 189 620 615 712 720 weight) should feed the starter 1
Soy protein concentrate 60 diet until the pigs weigh about 13
Dried whey, edible 550 300 300 100 lb. In addition, any pig that weighs
Plasma proteins, spray-dried 120 more than 13 lb at weaning, but is
Oat groats 250 less than 28 days of age, should be
Fish meal, select menhaden 100 80 provided about 3 lb of the starter 1
Blood meal, spray-dried 50
diet before it is given the starter 2
Fat (stabilized) 60 60 60 60
L-Lysine•HCl 3 1 1 1 1
diet. Body weight is not a good
DL-methionine 2 2 1 indicator of a weaned pig’s ability
Dicalcium phosphate to digest diets containing large
(22% Ca, 18.5% P) 11 25 13 24 22 amounts of the complex carbohy-
Limestone 13 18 15 19 18 drates and proteins found in grain
Salt 2 4 4 6 6 and soybean meal. Providing
Vitamin mixc 5 5 5 5 5
limited amounts of a highly digest-
Trace mineral mixc 3 3 3 3 3
Copper sulfate 1 1 1 1
ible, nutrient dense diet after wean-
Zinc oxide (72% Zn) 7 ing helps pigs make the transition
Antibiotic 20 20 20 20 20 to dry feed.
Total 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Table 20 shows suggested total
intakes of each starter diet accord-
Calculated analysis:
ing to pig weaning age. Many
Lysine, % 1.55 1.35 1.35 1.20 1.24
producers control nursery feed
Lysine:calorie, g/Mcal ME 4.6 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.7
costs by planning to feed a prede-
Protein, % 21.6 21.4 21.6 20.7 20.8
termined quantity of each diet.
Calcium, % .90 .85 .85 .75 .75
When the designated amount of a
Phosphorus, % .77 .67 .67 .62 .62
first diet is consumed, pigs are
aProvide a total of 4 lb/pig (at least 3 lb after weaning) to pigs > 13 lb at weaning, but < 28 days switched to the next, less expensive,
of age. diet in the sequence. It is important
b Ground whole oats can replace up to 300 lb of corn/ton if edema disease is a problem. Milo can
to monitor the weight of a few pigs
substitute for corn.
cSee Table 16 for nutrient levels. Amount added/ton of feed will depend on the carrier. chosen at random about every two
weeks to determine if the pigs are
growing as expected. Checking
Table 20. Suggested distribution of starting feed according to pig weaning agea growth rate helps ensure pigs are
Weaning age, days switched to the next diet in the
Diet (body wt, lb) 14 21 28 sequence at the proper time.
Diets for 45 to 250 lb pigs
Starter 1/transition (8 to 13) 6 3 3
Starter 2 (13 to 25) 15 15 12 Diets for growing-finishing pigs
Starter 3 (25 to 45) 45 45 45 are shown in Tables 21 and 22. Table
23 presents examples of how feed
Total 66 63 60
during the growing-finishing phase
Table 19 for ingredient composition.
may be distributed depending on
the pigs’ growth rate. Many produc-
subsequent performance. Pigs that weeks of age, the value of creep ers switch diets according to esti-
are heavier at weaning usually feed is questionable, because they mated pig weight. An alternative
maintain their weight advantage to often consume very little feed. The method would be to provide a pre-
market weight. Therefore, creep quality of the creep diet and how it determined amount of each diet.
feeding should be considered if it is managed has a significant impact When that amount is consumed,
will result in a heavier pig at wean- on whether creep feeding succeeds. switch pigs to the next diet in the
ing. For pigs weaned at less than 3 Encourage creep feed consumption sequence. This eliminates guessing

Table 21. Example diets for 45 to 130 lb growing pigsa the weight of pigs to decide when
Grower 1 Grower 2 to switch diets and the possibility of
(45 to 80 lb) (80 to 130 lb)
feeding higher nutrient dense diets
Ingredient 1 2 3 4 5
too long. It is important to monitor
Corn or milo 1367 1419 1272 1489 1319
Soybean meal, 44% CP 580 525 615 464 the weight of a few pigs chosen at
L-Lysine•HCl 2 random every three to four weeks
Fat (stablized) 60 to determine if the pigs are growing
Soybeans, full-fat, cooked 635
Dicalcium phosphate as expected. Checking growth rate
(22% Ca, 18.5% P) 22 23 22 17 15 helps ensure pigs are switched to
Limestone 18 18 18 17 18 the next diet in the sequence at the
Salt 6 6 6 6 6
Vitamin mixb 4 4 4 4 4 proper time. Phase feeding is most
Trace mineral mixb 3 3 3 3 3 convenient when facilities are oper-
Total 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 ated on an all-in/all-out basis. Pro-
Calculated analysis: ducers who have not fed pigs in this
Lysine, % 1.00 1.00 1.04 .85 .88
Lysine:calorie, g:Mcal ME 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.6 manner and who do not know the
Protein, % 18.4 17.5 18.8 16.4 16.7 feed intake patterns of their pigs
Calcium, % .70 .70 .70 .60 .60 can use the information in Table 23
Phosphorus, % .58 .58 .58 .51 .51
aAssumes a mixture of medium lean gain barrows and gilts. All diets are full-fed under as a reference. Average daily gain
thermoneutral conditions. data for growing-finishing pigs is
b See Table 16 for nutrient levels. Amount added/ton of feed will depend on the carrier. needed to use Table 23.

Table 22. Example diets for 130 to 250 lb finishing pigsa Diets for the breeding herd
Finisher 1 Finisher 2
(130 to 190 lb) (190 to 250 lb) Suggested gilt developing, ges-
Ingredient 1 2 3 1 2 3 tation, breeding boar, and lactation
Corn or milo 1613 1665 1548 1731 1646 diets are shown in Tables 24 and 25.
Barley 1888 The gestation diets shown are
Soybean meal, 44% CP 345 290 370 230 75
L-Lysine•HCl 2
designed to be fed so that sows
Fat (stabilized) 40 receive 5.9 Mcal of ME/day. If a
Soybeans, full-fat, cooked 315 different amount of energy intake is
Dicalcium phosphate required, reformulate the diets as
(22% Ca, 18.5% P) 14 16 14 12 8 11 described earlier. Feed used for the
Limestone 17 16 17 16 18 17
Salt 6 6 6 6 6 6 breeding herd will be about 2,200
Vitamin mixb 3 3 3 3 3 3 lb/animal/year in well managed,
Trace mineral mixb 2 2 2 2 2 2 confinement gestation units. That
Total 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 increases to about 2,500 lb/animal/
Calculated analysis: year in outdoor accommodations.
Lysine, % .70 .70 .72 .55 .49 .56
g:Mcal ME 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.7
Protein, % 14.3 13.4 14.6 12.2 12.3 12.4
Calcium, % .55 .55 .55 .50 .50 .50 Tools for
Phosphorus, % .47 .47 .47 .43 .43 .43
aAssumes a mixture of medium lean gain barrows and gilts. All diets are full-fed under Quantifying
thermoneutral conditions.
b See Table 16 for nutrient levels. Amount added/ton of feed will depend on the carrier.
Table 23. Examples of growing-finishing feed usage according to pig growth ratea We have provided nutrient rec-
Average daily gain (lb/day) from 45 to 250 lb ommendations based on fat-free
Diet (body wt, lb) 1.6 1.8 2.0
lean growth rate, 21-day litter
-------------------------lb of feed/pig---------------------
weight and feed intake in this pub-
Grower 1 (45 to 80) 90 80 75
Grower 2 (80 to 130) 160 140 125
lication. These factors influence the
Finisher 1 (130 to 190) 205 180 165 quantity of nutrients pigs require.
Finisher 2 (190 to 250) 240 210 190 By monitoring pig performance, it
Total 695 610 555 is possible to formulate diets to
aCorn or milo-soybean meal diets fed to barrows and gilts under thermoneutral conditions specific production situations and
with minimal feed wastage.

Table 24. Example diets for gestating sows, breeding boars, and developing gilts (230 lb reduce the consequences of under-
to breeding)
feeding or overfeeding nutrients.
boar and This section will describe tools to
developing use in quantifying pig performance.
Gestation gilt The procedures involve feeding
Ingredient 1 2 3 4 5 1 high nutrient dense diets to a
Corn or milo 1678 1588 1233 1400 1577 sample of pigs to evaluate their per-
Barley 1836 formance when dietary nutrient
Oats 500
Alfalfa hay, 16% CP 400 density is not likely a limiting fac-
Soybean meal, 44% CP 235 184 131 90 350 tor. Once the performance potential
Soybeans, full-fata 324 of the pigs is known, diets can be
Dicalcium phosphate formulated.
(22% Ca, 18.5% P) 47 48 44 43 32 34
Limestone 17 17 16 3 19 16
Salt 10 10 10 10 10 10 How do I estimate fat-free lean
Vitamin mixb 10 10 10 10 10 10 growth rate?
Trace mineral mixb 3 3 3 3 3 3 There are several methods to
Total 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 measure lean growth in swine. First,
Daily intake: you can determine the quantity of
Feed, lb 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.6 6.0c lean in the pig initially and in the
ME, Mcal 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 8.9 carcass at slaughter and the number
Lysine, g 10.0 10.1 10.0 10.0 10.4 19.0
of days on test. Use the following
Protein, g 220 218 229 237 259 387
formula to estimate rate of fat-free
Calcium, g 16.3 16.3 16.2 16.4 16.3 20.4
Phosphorus, g 13.6 13.5 13.5 13.6 13.6 17.7 lean gain:
Calculated analysis: lb lean/day on test = final lb lean - initial
Lysine, % .55 .57 .52 .50 .50 .70 lb lean
days on test
g:Mcal ME 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.2
Protein, % 12.1 12.3 12.0 11.9 12.4 14.2 Final pounds of lean in the car-
Calcium, % .90 .92 .85 .82 .78 .75
cass can be obtained by using the
Phosphorus, % .75 .76 .71 .68 .65 .65
aRaw or cooked.
lot average for fat-free lean index
b See Table 16 for nutrient levels. Amount added/ton will depend on the carrier. (FFLI) and hot carcass weight. This
cProvide breeding boars 5.5 lb/day to meet daily nutrient recommendations in Table 14. information is provided on packer
kill sheets in the Nebraska and
South Dakota area. The FFLI is the
Table 25. Example diets for lactating sows percentage of edible, lean meat in a
Lactation carcass, factoring out intramuscular
Ingredient 1 2 3 4 fat (i.e., marbling). Because the FFLI
Corn 1407 1322 1233 1294 adjusts lean content to represent no
Soybean meal, 44% CP 510 535 625 intramuscular fat, it will normally
Fat (stabilized) 60 be 5 to 7% less than customary per-
Soybeans, full-fata 685 cent lean values. Daily lean gain us-
Dicalcium phosphate ing the FFLI results in lean gain
(22% Ca, 18.5% P) 43 42 41 39 with 0% fat, therefore the values
Limestone 17 18 18 19
will be lower than lean gain ex-
Salt 10 10 10 10
pressed on a 5% fat basis. Use the
Vitamin mixb 10 10 10 10
Trace mineral mixb 3 3 3 3 following formula to estimate
Total 2000 2000 2000 2000 pounds of lean in the carcass:
Calculated analysis:
lb of lean = (FFLI/100) x HCWT
Lysine, % .90 .93 .92 1.05
Lysine:calorie, g:Mcal ME 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.3 where FFLI = fat-free lean index
Protein, % 17.1 17.3 17.2 19.1
Calcium, % .90 .90 .90 .90 HCWT = hot carcass weight, lb
Phosphorus, % .75 .75 .75 .75
aCooked. Raw soybeans have resulted in decreased pig weaning weights and increased sow
To estimate pounds of fat-free
weight loss during lactation compared with soybean meal.
b See Table 16 for nutrient levels. Amount added/ton of feed will depend on the carrier. lean in a 40 to 50 lb pig use the fol-
lowing equation:

lb of fat-free lean initially = .95 x [-3.65 Table 26. Estimated daily fat-free lean gain (lb/day) using the fat-free lean index and av-
+ (.418 x live wt, lb)] erage daily gaina
Fat-free lean index, %
For example, assume that a
group of pigs averaging 45 lb ini- Daily gain, lb 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
tially was tested for 100 days. At 1.2 .35 .37 .39 .41 .44 .46 .48 .50
slaughter, the group average for hot 1.4 .41 .43 .46 .48 .51 .53 .56 .58
carcass weight and FFLI was 180 lb 1.6 .47 .49 .52 .55 .58 .61 .64 .67
and 45, respectively. What is the av-
1.8 .52 .56 .59 .62 .65 .69 .72 .75
erage fat-free lean growth rate for
2.0 .58 .62 .65 .69 .73 .75 .80 .83
the group?
2.2 .64 .68 .72 .76 .80 .84 .88 .92
.95 x [-3.65 + (.418 x 45)] = 14.4 lb of lean 2.4 .70 .74 .78 .83 .87 .91 .96 1.00
initially aStarting and final weights are 45 and 250 lb, respectively. Carcass weight is 185 lb.
(45/100) x HCWT = 81 lb of lean at
Table 27. Adjustment factors for 21-day litter weight according to weaning agea
81 - 14.4 lb = .67 lb of fat-free
100 days lean per day on Age weighed, days Factor Age weighed, days Factor
14 1.30 21 1.00
15 1.25 22 .97
A second and quicker method
of estimating fat-free lean gain is 16 1.20 23 .94
shown in Table 26. Find the pigs’ 17 1.15 24 .91
FFLI across the top of the table and 18 1.11 25 .88
average daily gain on the left side. 19 1.07 26 .86
For example, a group of pigs hav- 20 1.03 27 .84
ing a FFLI of 45 and an average 28 .82
daily gain of 2.0 lb/day will have aAdapted from National Swine Improvement Federation, 1997.
an estimated fat-free lean gain of
.66 lb/day from 45 to 250 lb.
The most accurate method to the basis for the feeding recommen- tion should be available from at
measure the lean growth of your dations in this publication. least three tests before a final deci-
herd is to determine the lean Farm-specific feeding programs sion is made regarding whether to
growth curve of your growing-fin- for growing-finishing pigs are best classify the pigs as high, medium or
ishing pigs. This involves a mini- established by conducting growth low lean gain.
mum of five ultrasonic scannings at trials. Do this by randomly selecting
specific intervals throughout the 10 to 20 % (equal numbers of each What is the best way to obtain
growth phase on a representative sex if separate sex feeding is not 21-day litter weights?
sample of pigs. Also, feed intake practiced on the farm) of the pigs Litters should be standardized
measurements must be obtained from a farrowing group for each to between 8 and 10 pigs per litter
throughout the growth phase. The test. Pigs should weigh between 40 within 24 to 48 hours after birth.
scan data and feed intake data are and 50 lb at the beginning of the Collect litter weights before wean-
then sent to Purdue University test. Weigh the pigs and manage ing and as near 21 days of age as
where the specific lean growth them normally to market weight. To possible. Litters may be weighed
curve for individual farms are gen- ensure that nutrient intake is not between 14 and 28 days and the
erated. While this is the most costly limiting lean growth, feed diets weights adjusted to a 21-day basis
method, it also provides one of the containing 10% higher amino acid (Table 27). For example, a litter
greatest opportunities to formulate levels than those shown for high weighed 120 lb at 19 days of age.
diets for a given level of perfor- lean gain pigs in Tables 12 and 13. The 21-day litter weight would be
mance Terminate the test when the pigs 128.4 lb (120 x 1.07). If creep feed is
The equations for calculating average about 250 lb. Repeat the offered, it is important that litter
the FFLI are being revised as this test quarterly during the first year weights be obtained by 21 days of
publication goes to press. We used and semiannually thereafter. Record age to minimize the influence of
the FFLI provided by the National feed disappearance so nutrient creep feed intake on 21-day litter
Pork Producers Council in 1994 as intake can be estimated. Informa- weights. In genetic selection

programs the 21-day litter weight is ents often is confused. There are trace minerals. The total
adjusted for parity and number of four basic methods of supplying nutritional needs of pigs can be
pigs after transfer. We do not nutrients to pigs: 1) purchased com- met by combining premixes
believe these adjustments are plete feed; 2) grain plus concen- with grain, salt and sources of
necessary to apply the concepts trate or supplement; 3) grain plus protein, calcium and phospho-
outlined in this publication. soybean meal and basemix; or 4) rus. Typical inclusion rates are 5
Provide groups of lactating grain, plus soybean meal, salt, cal- to 10 lb/ton. Premixes are
sows diets containing 1.15% lysine cium and phosphorus source(s) and available with trace minerals
and collect 21-day litter weights. premix. A description of each of and vitamins combined or
Repeat the test quarterly during the these options follows. packaged separately. The
first year and semiannually thereaf- producer assumes more respon-
Complete feed. A ready-to-feed
ter. Record feed disappearance so sibility for correct diet formula-
product containing ingredients
nutrient intake can be estimated. In- tion and preparation and
that when combined meet the
formation should be available from variation in the quality of the
total nutritional needs of the
at least three tests before a final de- protein, calcium and phospho-
pig. The feed manufacturer
cision is made regarding whether to rus sources with this option
assumes all responsibilities for
classify the sows as capable of pro- than with the three other
ingredient quality and mixing
ducing litters weighing more or less options.
errors. The producer is respon-
than 120 lb at 21 days of lactation.
sible for using the product
Amino acid recommendations for The example diets shown in
lactating sows producing litters Tables 19, 21, 22, 24 and 25 are
weighing less than or greater than based on a premix program. We do
Concentrate or supplement. A
120 lb at 21 days are shown in Table not necessarily endorse a premix
mixture of ingredients formu-
14. program. Our intent is to show
lated to complement nutrients
common ingredients used to sup-
present in grain. When it is cor-
How can I estimate feed rectly mixed with grain, the
ply the major classes of nutrients
intake? necessary in a diet for pigs.
resulting diet will meet the total
Producers who operate build-
nutritional needs of pigs.
ings or rooms on an all-in/all-out
Typical inclusion rates are 300
How does one choose which
basis can use closeout information. method to use?
to 500 lb/ton for all classes of
Those with continuous flow pro- One method does not consis-
pigs except starting pigs. The
duction are advised to closely tently promote better pig perfor-
producer’s task is to mix the
monitor identified pens of pigs or mance or a lower cost of gain than
correct ratio of concentrate and
groups of sows. To estimate lactat- another. The major factors we think
ing sow feed intake attach a card to should be considered in choosing a
each farrowing crate and record the method of supplying nutrients to pigs
Basemix. A product generally
amount of feed added to the sow’s are shown in Table 28. Convenience
containing ingredients rich in
feeder daily. General guidelines for refers to the level of involvement the
minerals and vitamins. Base-
daily feed intake of pigs are shown producer has in making nutritional
mixes correctly mixed with
in Tables 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. decisions and feed preparation. Risk
grain and a protein source(s)
is the odds of a diet not containing
will satisfy the total nutritional
the intended concentration of nutri-
needs of pigs. Some basemixes
ents and quality of ingredients. Risk
Methods of may contain crystalline lysine
rates the transfer of responsibility
and animal protein products.
Supplying Typical inclusion rates are 50 to
from the feed manufacturer to the
producer as the producer assumes
100 lb/ton, although some
Nutrients basemixes for nursery diets are
more or less responsibility for proper
quality control and inclusion of
added at 200 to 400 lb/ton. The
nutrient sources in swine diets. Ser-
Making sound decisions about producer assumes the responsi-
vice is the amount of technical advice,
the method(s) used to supply pigs bility for variation in the quality
farm recordkeeping and other perks
nutrients is an important part of of the protein source(s) and for
offered. Cost includes costs of ingre-
feed program design. However, the correct blending of ingredients.
dients and services such as process
terminology used to describe the Premix. A product containing ing, blending, delivery, technical
methods of supplying pigs nutri- sources of vitamins and(or) advice, etc.

Table 28. Considerations in choosing a method of providing pigs nutrients What about mixing feed on the
Method Convenience Risk Service Costa Choices for producers range
from purchasing individual
Complete high low high high ingredients and manufacturing
diets on the farm to purchase and
delivery of complete feeds in meal

↓ ↑ ↓ ↓
or pellet form. Compare the fixed
Basemix and operating costs associated with
manufacturing feed on the farm
Premix low high low low to custom rates at local feed mills
to decide which option to use.
aIncludes costs of ingredients and services.
Generally, because of problems with
stocking several ingredients and the
Producers who put a high associated with feed quality can be difficulty in securing and maintain-
priority on convenience, minimal managed but it takes a commitment ing quality, fresh ingredients such
risk of having feed quality prob- of time and resources. See the sec- as dried whey and fishmeal, we
lems, and ample service will want tions on Feed Processing and recommend that most producers
to use complete feeds. However, Ingredient Quality for details on purchase complete pelleted feeds
cost is generally higher to justify the preparing quality pig feed. Select for starting pigs weighing less than
manufacturer’s assumption of these the method which provides the best about 20 to 25 lb. When feed for
risks and services offered. On the balance of factors you consider pigs weighing less than 20 to 25 lb
other hand, there is less cost in a important while maintaining a is made on the farm, we recom-
premix program, but it is a less competitive feed cost per unit of mend it be mixed using a basemix
convenient, higher risk, and lower gain. or concentrate that contains many
service-oriented program. The risks of the specialty ingredients shown
in the example diets in Table 19.

Table 29. Ingredient composition (as-fed basis)
Methio- Available Meta-
Trypto- Threo- Methio- nine Cal- Phos- Phos- bolizable Crude
Protein Lysine phan nine nine + cystine cium phorus phorus energy Fat Fiber
Feedstuff % % % % % % % % % kcal/lb % %
Alfalfa meal, dehy 17.0 .74 .24 .70 .25 .43 1.53 .26 .26 750 2.6 24.0
Alfalfa hay, early bloom 16.0 .68 .30 .67 .27 .50 1.30 .20 800 2.5 24.0
Bakery waste, dehy 10.8 .27 .10 .33 .18 .41 .13 .25 1682 11.3 1.2
Barley 11.3 .41 .11 .35 .20 .48 .06 .35 1322 1.9 5.0
Beet pulp 8.6 .52 .10 .38 .07 .13 .70 .10 1134 .8 18.2
Blood meal, flash-dried 87.6 7.56 1.06 4.07 .95 2.15 .21 .21 886 1.6 1.0
Blood meal, spray-dried 88.8 7.45 1.48 3.78 .99 2.03 .41 .30 .28 1338 1.3 1.0
Canola meal 35.6 2.08 .45 1.59 .74 1.65 .63 1.01 .21 1200 3.5 11.1
Corn distillers grain
w/sol., dehy 27.7 .62 .25 .94 .50 1.02 .20 .77 .59 1282 8.4 9.1
Corn distiller’s dried grain 24.8 .74 .20 .62 .43 .71 .10 .40 1234 7.9 11.9
Corn gluten feed 21.5 .63 .07 .74 .35 .81 .22 .83 .49 1184 3.0 6.8
Corn, high lysine 10.1 .42 .11 .37 .17 .37 .03 .28 .04 1560 4.0 3.7
Corn, high oil 8.3 .29 .07 .30 .19 .40 .03 .28 .04 1608 6.5 2.3
Corn, hominy feed 10.3 .38 .10 .40 .18 .36 .05 .43 .06 1459 6.7 5.0
Corn, yellow 8.3 .26 .06 .29 .17 .36 .03 .28 .04 1555 3.9 2.3
DL-methionine — — — — 99.0 99.0 — — — — — —
Beef tallow — — — — — — — — — 3491 100 —
Choice white grease — — — — — — — — — 3616 100 —
Poultry fat — — — — — — — — — 3718 100 —
Restaurant grease — — — — — — — — — 3730 100 —
Soybean oil — — — — — — — — — 3818 100 —
Fish meal, menhaden 62.9 4.81 .74 2.64 1.77 2.34 5.21 3.04 2.86 1527 9.4 .9
L-Lysine HCl 95.8 78.0 — — — — — — — — — —
L-Tryptophan — — 98.0 — — — — — — — — —
L-Threonine — — — 99.0 — — — — — — — —
Meat and bone meal,
50% CP 51.5 2.51 .28 1.59 .68 1.18 9.99 4.98 4.48 1011 10.9 2.4
Meat meal, 55% CP 54.0 3.07 .35 1.97 .80 1.40 7.69 3.88 1180 12.0 2.3
Millet, proso 11.1 .23 .16 .40 .31 .49 .03 .31 1340 3.5 6.1
Milo, grain sorghum 9.2 .22 .10 .31 .17 .34 .03 .29 .06 1518 2.9 2.2
Molasses, beet 6.6 — — — — — .12 .03 1080 .2 0
Molasses, cane 4.4 — — — — — .77 .08 909 .1 0
Oats 11.5 .40 .14 .44 .22 .58 .07 .31 .07 1232 4.7 10.7
Oats, high lysine 12.0 .50 .16 .44 .18 .40 .08 .30 1212 4.1 11.5
Oat groats 13.9 .48 .18 .44 .20 .42 .08 .41 .05 1575 6.2 2.5
Plasma proteins,
spray-dried 78.0 6.84 1.36 4.72 .75 3.38 .15 1.71 2.0 .2
Rye 11.8 .38 .12 .32 .17 .36 .06 .33 1390 1.6 2.2
Skim milk, dried 34.6 2.86 .51 1.62 .92 1.22 1.31 1.00 .91 1689 .9 .2
Soy protein concentrate 64.0 4.20 .90 2.80 .90 1.90 .35 .81 1591 3.0 3.5
Soy protein isolate 85.8 5.26 1.08 3.17 1.01 2.20 .15 .65 1618 .6 .4
Soybeans, full-fat, cooked 35.2 2.22 .48 1.41 .53 1.08 .25 .59 1677 18.0 5.2
Soybean meal, dehulled 46.5 2.91 .62 1.85 .67 1.37 .34 .69 .16 1536 3.0 3.4
Soybean meal, solvent 44.0 2.83 .61 1.73 .61 1.31 .32 .65 .20 1445 1.5 7.3
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 42.2 1.20 .44 1.33 .82 1.48 .37 1.01 1243 2.9 15.8
Triticale 12.5 .39 .14 .36 .20 .46 .05 .33 .15 1445 1.8 4.0
Wheat bran 15.7 .64 .22 .52 .25 .58 .16 1.20 .35 1034 4.0 10.0
Wheat, hard 13.5 .34 .15 .37 .20 .49 .06 .37 .19 1459 2.0 2.6
Wheat middlings,
<9.5% fiber 15.9 .57 .20 .51 .26 .58 .12 .93 .38 1375 4.2 7.8
Whey, dried 12.1 .90 .18 .72 .17 .42 .75 .72 .70 1450 .9 .2

Conversion Factors
Multiplied Multiplied
by the factor by the factor
Units below equals Units below equals Units
(a x b = c)
(c x d = e)
lb 453.6 g .0022 lb
lb .4536 kg 2.205 lb
kg 1,000 g .001 kg
kg 1,000,000 mg .000001 kg
g 1,000 mg .001 g
g 1,000,000 µg .000001 g
mg 1,000 µg .001 mg
mg/kg .0001 % 10,000 mg/kg
ppm .0001 % 10,000 ppm
mg/g 453.6 mg/lb .0022 mg/g
mg/lb 2.2 ppm .4536 mg/lb
mg/lb 2 g/ton .5 mg/lb
mg/g 1,000 ppm .001 mg/g
mg/kg 1.0 ppm 1.0 mg/kg
g/ton 1.1 ppm .907 g/ton
Mcal/lb 1000 kcal/lb .001 Mcal/lb

Abbreviations and Symbols

Ca calcium
CP crude protein
g grams
IU international unit
Mcal megacalorie
ME metabolizable energy
mg milligrams
ppm parts per million
P phosphorus
> greater than
< less than


Acidifiers, 16 Fat, 3-4, 30-31 Nutraceutical, 14-15

Aflatoxin, 13 Fat-free lean gain, 34-36 Nonstarch polysaccharides, 30
Amino acid antagonism, 12 Fat-free lean index, 34-36 Nutrient:calorie ratio, 24-25, 27
Amino acid balance, 5, 22 Feed additives, 14-17 Nutrient density, 24-25
Amino acid imbalance, 12 Feed intake, 20-22 Nutrient interactions, 10-12
Amino acid sources, 4-7 Feeding value, 2-5 Nutrient recommendations, 1, 22-28
Amino acid toxicity, 12 Fiber, sows, 30
Antibiotics, 15-16 Flavors, 17 Particle size, 17
Antioxidant, 3, 17 Flushing, 29 Pelleting, 19
Available phosphorus, 7, 39 Frost-damaged soybeans, 13 Phase feeding, 31
Fumonisins, 13 Phytase, 7, 16
Backfat, 3, 32 Premix, 37-38
Basemix, 28, 37-38 Gender, 21 Probiotics, 15-16
Betaine, 32 Genetics, 21 Protein sources, 4-7
Bioavailability, 9 Growing-finishing pigs, 24-26, 31-34 Proteinated trace minerals, 7, 9
Breeding boars, 26-30
Hammermills, 18-19 Quantifying performance, 34-37
Calcium:phosphorus ratio, 11 Health, 22
Carnitine, 16-17 High moisture corn, 13 Ractopamine hydrochloride, 16-17
Chelated trace minerals, 7, 9 Hydrated sodium calcium Roasting, 19
Chromium, 16-17 aluminosilicate, 16 Roller mills, 18-19
Clays, 13, 16
Complete feed, 37-38 Ideal protein, 5-7 Sampling techniques, 14
Concentrate, 37-38 Interval feeding, 29 Second generation, 14
Constipation, 30 Segregated early weaning, 22
Conjugated linoleic acid, 16-17 L-Lysine•HCL, 6-7 Separate sex feeding, 32
Copper sulfate, 8, 14, 16 Laxatives, 30-31 Sows, 27, 28-31
Creep feeding, 32-33 Lean gain, 22-25, 31, 34-36 Starting pigs, 24, 31-32
Crowding, 22 Limit-feeding, 29, 32 Supplement, 37-38
Crude protein, 4, 22 Litter weight (21-day), 34, 36-37
Crystalline amino acids, 6-7 Low protein corn, 4 Temperature, 20-21
Low test weight grains, 12-13
Daily nutrient intake, 24-27 Vitamin sources, 9
Developing boars, 27, 29 Medicated early weaning, 22 Vomitoxin, 13
Developing gilts, 27-29, 31 Mineral sources, 7-9
Digestible amino acids, 5-6 Mixing times, 19 Water consumption, 19-20
Downer sows, 30 Mold inhibitors, 17 Water quality, 20
Molds, 13 Water sweeteners, 20
Electrolytes, 9 Mycotoxins, 13
Energy sources, 1-4 Yucca plant extract, 16
Ergot, 13
Example diets, 32-35 Zearalenone, 13
Extrusion, 19 Zinc oxide, 8, 14, 16, 31-32

Additional Information Sources
Additional Information Sources
Item Available from
Item Available from
Swine Nutrition (ISBN 0-409-90095-8) CRC Press, Inc
Swine Nutrition (ISBN 0-409-90095-8) CRC Press, Inc
2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W.
2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W.
Boca Raton, FL 33431
Boca Raton, FL 33431
Pork Industry Handbook Media Distribution Center
Pork Industry Handbook Media Distribution Center
301 South 2nd Street
301 South 2nd Street
Lafayette, IN 47901-1232
Lafayette, IN 47901-1232
Alfalfa in Swine Diets (G117) Local Extension Offices in Nebraska or:
Alfalfa in Swine Diets (G117) Local Extension Offices in Nebraska or:
Mixing Quality Pig Feed (G892) Bulletins
Mixing Quality Pig Feed (G892) Bulletins
Full-Fat Soybeans for Pigs (G994) P.O. Box 830918
Full-Fat Soybeans for Pigs (G994) P.O. Box 830918
Weaned Pig Management and Nutrition (G821) Lincoln, NE 68583-0918
Weaned Pig Management and Nutrition (G821) Lincoln, NE 68583-0918
Conducting Pig Feed Trials on the Farm (EC270)
Conducting Pig Feed Trials on the Farm (EC270)
Altering Swine Manure by Diet Modification (G99-1390)
Altering Swine Manure by Diet Modification (G99-1390)
Nebraska Swine Reports
Nebraska Swine Reports
NRC Nutrient Requirements of Swine (ISBN 0-309-05993-3) National Academy Press
NRC Nutrient Requirements of Swine National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW
(ISBN 0-309-05993-3) 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW
Lockbox 285
Lockbox 285
Washington, DC 20055
Washington, DC 20055
Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production
Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production Butterworth Publishers
(ISBN 0-409-90190-3) Butterworth Publishers
(ISBN 0-409-90190-3) 80 Montvale Avenue
80 Montvale Avenue
Stoneham, MA 02180
Stoneham, MA 02180
Diseases of Swine (ISBN 0-8138-0338-1) Iowa State University
Diseases of Swine (ISBN 0-8138-0338-1) Iowa State University Press
Ames, Iowa 50014
Ames, Iowa 50014
Swine Production and Nutrition (ISBN 0-87055-450-6) AVI Publishing Company, Inc
Swine Production and Nutrition (ISBN 0-87055-450-6) AVI Publishing Company, Inc
Westport, Connecticut
Westport, Connecticut

University of Nebraska-Lincoln South Dakota State University

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of
May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the USDA.
Department of Abriculture. Elbert C. Dickey, Interim Director Mylp A. Hellickson, Director of CES, SDSU, Brookings.
of Cooperative Extension, University of Nebraska, Institute of SDSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer
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5M copies printed at no cost to the state. Partial funding provided by a grant
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