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Camarines Sur National High School

City of Naga

People who experienced and proven sleep paralysis

Research Paper Presented To:


Mr. Albert T. Adan

By:
Liezel Almazar Barrmeda 10- Celerio

February 26, 2018


Outline

Thesis Statement:

 Proven cases, causes and the people who experienced sleep paralysis.
I. Introduction
A. Sleep paralysis features waking up from sleep and being temporarily unable
to move and is often accompanied by visual hallucinations and fear.
II. Body
A. Proven cases of sleep paralysis
1. Hishikawa and Kaneko (1960) they experienced wakefulness and unabale
to move and sensing something.
2. Cheyne and Girard (2007) they felt presence during sleep paralysis and
it can be paranoid.
3. Solomonova (2008) experienced spatial or interpersonal /social.
4. Mcnally (2005) experienced post-traumatic stress disorder.
B. Causes of sleep paralysis based on the study

1. Depression are strongly associated with sleep paralysis, even after


removing factors such as use of antidepressants, excessive daytime
sleepiness and insomnia.
2. Anxiety disorders show severe sleep disturbances, again suggesting a
mediating role of sleep disturbance in the increased risk of sleep paralysis
in patients with anxiety disorders.
3. Panic disorder are risk factors for sleep paralysis.
4. Sleep Disruption provides strong evidence that disruption to the sleep
cycle can increase the risk of sleep paralysis.
C. Statistical Analysis

1. Bell et.al (1984) reported a 41% rrate of endorsing ever having sleep
paralysis in a group of 108 African Americans that included psychiatric
patients and healthy controls.

2. Paradis et.al (1997) reported a 47% among African Americans who were
receiving treatment anxiety and rates of recurrent sleep paralysis for white
patients and healthy volunteers of 7% and 6%.

3. Friedman et.al (2005) reported a similar prevalence rate for sleep


paralysis of 47% among African Americans who were receiving treatment
anxiety and rates of recurrent sleep paralysis for white patients and healthy
volunteers of 6% and 7%.

4. Ohayon et.al (2002) survey of Europeans provided evidence for


association of sleep paralysis.

5. Otto et.al (2006) noted a modest associations of sleep paralysis with panic
and phobic disorders but not with depression comorbidity.

6. Hinton et.al (2005) who found strong associations with post traaumatic
stress disorders among their highly trauma exposed Cambodian refugee
study participants.

III. Conclusion
A. Sleep paralysis have a proven cases with the people who experiencing it.
B. Sleep paralysis have a different causes based on the studies.
C. Sleep paralysis also need statistical analysis with the people who
reported.
Bibliography
Abrams, M.P., Mulligan A.O.,Caleton ,.RN., and Asmundson, G.J.C
(2008). Prevalence and correlates of sleep paralysis in Adults reporting
childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety.

Colten, R.H., Bruce, M.A., (2006). Sleep disorders and Sleep deprivation,
National Academy Publishers.

Marcus, M.B., Collins, C., Levitt, P., (2009).Sleep Disorder, Sleep


Paralysis,Chelsea Home Publishers.

Paradis, C., Friedman, S., Hinton, D.E., McNally, J.R., Solomon, Z.L.,
Lynson, K.A. (2009). The Assessment of the Phenomenology of Sleep
Paralysis: The Unusual Sleep Experiences Questionnaire (USEQ),
Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Szklo-coxe, M., Young, T., Finn, L., Mignot, E., (2006). Depression:
relationships to sleep paralysis and other sleep disturbances in a community
sample, European Publishers.

Thomas A. Mellman, M.D.,Notalelomwan Aigbogun, M.S., Ruth Elaine


Graves, Ph.D., William B.Lawson,M.D., Ph.D., and Tanya N. Alim, M.D.,
(2008). Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in
an adult African american population attending primary medical care,
Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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