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LESSON 1- Magnetic effect of a current-carrying

conductor.
(b) Single coil / Gegelung tunggal
Electromagnet / electromagnet
is a temporary magnet produce when current flow through a
conductor.
adalah magnet sementara yang terhasil bila arus mengalir
melalui konduktor

Pattern of magnetic field of a current –carrying


conductor .
Corak medan magnet untuk konduktor yang membawa arus.
(a) Straight wire / Dawai lurus

(c) Solenoid

The pattern of the magnetic field produced by a solenoid is


similar to that of a bar magnet.
Corak medan magnet yang dihasilkan oleh solenoid adalah
sama seperti magnet bar.

The magnetic field lines form a pattern of concentric circles


round the wire carrying the current.
Garisan medan daya magnet membentuk corak bulatan
sepusat sekeliling dawai yang membawa arus
The direction of the field around a wire can using the right
-hand grip rule The right hand grip rule is used to determine the direction of
Arah medan magnet sekeliling dawai dapat ditentukan the magnetic field of a solenoid:
menggunakan peraturan genggaman tangan kanan Hukum genggaman tangan kanan digunakan untuk
menentukan arah medan magnet solenoid

The right -hand grip rule / Hukum genggaman tangan


kanan

1
on the current. The cycle repeats rapidly as long as the switch
is pressed.
Bila suis ditekan, arus mengalir melalui solenoid dan teras besi
dimagnetkan. Angker besi lembut tertarik ke electromagnet.
Pemukul memukul gong menyebabkan loceng berbunyi.
Spring sesentuh bergerak menjauhi skru sesentuh dan
memutuskan litar. Teras besi hilang keelektromagnetannya.
Factors affecting the strength of the magnetic field of an Spring sesentuh menyentuh skru sesentuh dan melengkapkan
electromagnet litar, memyebabkan arus mengalir semula. Proses diulangi
Faktor yang mempengaruhi kekuatan medan magnet selagi suis ditutup.
elektromagnet
(1) Current / arus Relay switch / Suis geganti
When the current is increased , the strength of
the magnetic field increases.
Bila arus bertambah kekuatan electromagnet bertambah
(2) Number of turns of wire / bilangan lilitan gegelung
When the number of turns of wire is increased , the
strength of the magnetic field increases.
Bila bilangan gegelung bertambah kekuatan
electromagnet bertambah
(3) Type of the material of the core / jenis bahan teras
Iron core is able to concentrate magnetic field lines
Relay switch is used to control (switch on or off) another circuit
through it. Soft iron core is preferred compare to
that uses high voltage. When the switch is on, the small current
steel(hard iron) because it is easily magnetize and
flows through the solenoid and the soft iron core is magnetized.
demagnetize.
One end of the soft iron armature is attracted to the
Teras besi dapat menumpukan garisan medan daya
electromagnet and the other end of the soft iron armature push
magnet. Teras besi lembut digunakan berbanding keluli
and closes the contact. When the switch is off, no current flows
kerana ia senang dimagnetkan dan dinyahmagnet.
and the iron core loses its magnetism. The soft iron armature
(4) The shape of the iron core / bentuk teras besi
returns to its original position and the high voltage circuit is
U-shaped iron core has more stronger magnetic field
open.
than the straight iron core because U-shaped iron core
Suis geganti digunakan untuk megawal (menghidupkan dan
has two opposite poles close to each other.
memutuskan) litar lain yang menggunakan voltan yang tinggi.
Teras besi berbentuk U mempunyai kekuatan medan
Bila suis dihidupkan, arus kecil mengalir melalui solenoid dan
magnet yang lebih kuat berbanding teras besi lurus
teras besi lembut dimagnetkan. Satu hujung angker besi
kerana teras besi berbentuk U mempunyai kutub
lembut tertarik ke electromagnet dan hujung yang satu lagi
bertentangan yang rapat antara satu sama lain.
menolak dan menutup sesentuh. Bila suis dimatikan, tiada
pengaliran arus dan teras besi hilang keelektromagnetannya.
Uses of electromagnets / Kegunaan elektromagnet
Angker besi lembut kembali ke kedudukan asal dan litar voltan
Electric bell / Loceng elektrik
tinggi dimatikan

The circuit breaker

When the switch is pressed, the current flows through the


solenoid and the iron core is magnetized. The soft iron
A circuit breaker function to disconnect the power supply when
armature attracted to the electromagnet. The hammer strikes
there is too large current flowing through a circuit. When the
the gong, thus ringing the bell. The spring contact moves away
current get too high, the magnetic fields force become strong to
from the contact adjusting screw and breaks the circuit. The
pull the soft iron armature causing the contacts to be
iron core loses its electromagnetism .The spring contact
separated. The flow of current stopped. When the reset button
touches the screw again, remakes the circuit and the switches

2
is pressed , the soft iron armature back is pulled back to its
original position. (c) Fig. 10.3 shows the view from above of another vertical wire
Pemutus litar berfungsi untuk memutuskan litar bila arus yang carrying a current up through a horizontal card. A cm grid is
terlalu besar mengalir melalui litar. Bila arus adalah sangat marked on the card. Point W is 1 cm vertically
besar, daya medan magnet adalah menjadi kuat untuk above the top surface of the card.
menarik angker besi lembut dan menyebabkan sesentuh
terbuka. Pengaliran arus berhenti. Bila butang reset ditekan
angker besi lembut akan ditarik balik ke kedudukan asal/

The telephone ear-pieces


Fig. 10.3
State the magnetic field strength at S, T and W in terms of
the magnetic field strength at R. Use one of the
alternatives, weaker, same strength or stronger for each
answer.
at S ........................................................................

at T ........................................................................
When a person speaks through a telephone mouthpiece , at W........................................................................ [3]
sound energy is changed to a varying electric current. When
the varying electric current flows the soft iron core is
magnetized with varying strength. The electromagnet pull on 2. Fig. below shows a coil of wire wound around an iron core
the diaphragm. The diaphragm vibrates with the same
frequency as the varying current. The vibration of the
diaphragm causes a series of compressions and rarefactions
of the air. The sound waves is produced with the same
frequency as the original sound

TUTORIAL 1
Question
1.Fig. 10.1 and Fig. 10.2 show two views of a vertical wire
carrying a current up through a horizontal card. Points P a) Which end of the coil will be the north pole?
and Q are marked on the card.
................................................................................[1]

b) Draw the magnetic field lines around the


electromagnet. [2]

c) State the purpose of the iron core.


Fig 10.1 Fig 10.2 ................................................................................[1]
(a) On Fig. 10.2,
(i) draw a complete magnetic field line (line of force) d) Draw the direction that the compass will point . [1]
through P and indicate its direction with an arrow. [2]
(ii) draw an arrow through Q to indicate the direction in e) State and explain how the electromagnet can be
which a compass placed at Q would point. [1] strengthen by adjusting the rheostat.
(b) State the effect on the direction in which compass Q points
of ……………………………………………………………..
(i) increasing the current in the wire, .
......................................................................................[1] …………………………………………………………..
[2]
(ii) reversing the direction of the current in the wire.
f) Does it make a difference if the rheostat is placed at A
......................................................................................[1] instead of B ? Explain.

3
……………………………………………………………..
.

…………………………………………………………..
[2]