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GRE Physics Test ®

Practice Book
This practice book contains
! one actual, full-length GRE® Physics Test
! test-taking strategies

Become familiar with


! test structure and content
! test instructions and answering procedures

Compare your practice test results with the performance of those who
took the test at a GRE administration.

www.ets.org/gre
Table of Contents
Overview ....................................................................................................................................3
Test Content ..............................................................................................................................3
Preparing for the Test.................................................................................................................4
Test-Taking Strategies ................................................................................................................4
What Your Scores Mean ............................................................................................................5
Taking the Practice Test ............................................................................................................5
Scoring the Practice Test ...........................................................................................................5
Evaluating Your Performance ....................................................................................................5
Practice Test ...............................................................................................................................7
Worksheet for Scoring the Practice Test .................................................................................87
Score Conversion Table...........................................................................................................88
Answer Sheet ...........................................................................................................................89

Test takers with disabilities or health-related needs who need test preparation materials in
an alternate format should contact the ETS Office of Disability Services at stassd@ets.org.
For additional information, visit www.ets.org/gre/disabilities

Copyright © 2017 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.


ETS, the ETS logo, MEASURING THE POWER OF LEARNING, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, and
GRE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States and other countries.
Overview from a nationwide survey of undergraduate
physics curricula. The percentages reflect the
The GRE® Physics Test consists of about committee’s determination of the relative
100 multiple-choice questions. Testing time is emphasis placed on each topic in a typical
2 hours and 50 minutes; there are no separately- undergraduate program. These percentages are
timed sections. given below along with the major subtopics
This publication provides a comprehensive included in each content category.
overview of the GRE Physics Test to help you get Nearly all the questions in the test will relate
ready for test day. It is designed to help you: to material in this listing; however, there may
• Understand what is being tested be occasional questions on other topics not
explicitly listed here.
• Gain familiarity with the question types
I. Classical Mechanics (20%)
• Review test-taking strategies (such as kinematics, Newton’s laws, work
• Understand scoring and energy, oscillatory motion, rotational
• Practice taking the test motion about a fixed axis, dynamics of
systems of particles, central forces and
To learn more about the GRE Subject Tests,
celestial mechanics, three-dimensional
visit www.ets.org/gre.
particle dynamics, Lagrangian and
Hamiltonian formalism, non-inertial
Test Content reference frames, elementary topics in fluid
The test consists of approximately 100 five- dynamics)
choice questions, some of which are based on II. Electromagnetism (18%)
such materials as diagrams, graphs, experimental (such as electrostatics, currents and DC
data and descriptions of physical situations. The circuits, magnetic fields in free space,
aim of the test is to determine the extent of Lorentz force, induction, Maxwell’s
the test takers’ grasp of fundamental principles equations and their applications,
and their ability to apply these principles in electromagnetic waves, AC circuits,
the solution of problems. Most test questions magnetic and electric fields in matter)
can be answered on the basis of a mastery of III. Optics and Wave Phenomena (9%)
the first three years of undergraduate physics. (such as wave properties, superposition,
The test questions are constructed to simplify interference, diffraction, geometrical
mathematical manipulations. As a result, neither optics, polarization, Doppler effect)
calculators nor tables of logarithms are needed.
If the solution to a problem requires the use of IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical
logarithms, the necessary values are included Mechanics (10%)
with the question. (such as the laws of thermodynamics,
The International System (SI) of units is used thermodynamic processes, equations
predominantly in the test. A table of information of state, ideal gases, kinetic theory,
representing various physical constants and a few ensembles, statistical concepts and
conversion factors among SI units is presented calculation of thermodynamic quantities,
in the test book. Whenever necessary, additional thermal expansion and heat transfer)
values of physical constants are printed with the V. Quantum Mechanics (12%)
text of the question. (such as fundamental concepts, solutions
The approximate percentages of the test of the Schrödinger equation [including
on the major content topics have been set square wells, harmonic oscillators
by the committee of examiners, with input and hydrogenic atoms], spin, angular

GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book 3 | Page


momentum, wave function symmetry, test. However, the test covers a broad
elementary perturbation theory) range of subject matter, and no one is
VI. Atomic Physics (10%) expected to be familiar with the content
(such as properties of electrons, Bohr of every question.
model, energy quantization, atomic • Become familiar with the types of
structure, atomic spectra, selection rules, questions in the GRE Physics Test, paying
black-body radiation, x-rays, atoms in special attention to the directions. If you
electric and magnetic fields) thoroughly understand the directions
VII. Special Relativity (6%) before you take the test, you will have
(such as introductory concepts, time more time during the test to focus on the
dilation, length contraction, simultaneity, questions themselves.
energy and momentum, four-vectors and
Lorentz transformation, velocity addition) Test-Taking Strategies
VIII. Laboratory Methods (6%) The questions in the practice test illustrate the
(such as data and error analysis, types of multiple-choice questions in the test.
electronics, instrumentation, radiation When you take the actual test, you will mark
detection, counting statistics, interaction your answers on a separate machine-scorable
of charged particles with matter, lasers answer sheet.
and optical interferometers, dimensional The following are some general test-taking
analysis, fundamental applications of strategies you may want to consider.
probability and statistics) • Read the test directions carefully, and
IX. Specialized Topics (9%) work as rapidly as you can without being
Nuclear and Particle physics (such as careless. For each question, choose the
nuclear properties, radioactive decay, best answer from the available options.
fission and fusion, reactions, fundamental • All questions are of equal value; do not
properties of elementary particles), waste time pondering individual questions
Condensed Matter (such as crystal you find extremely difficult or unfamiliar.
structure, x-ray diffraction, thermal
properties, electron theory of metals, • You may want to work through the test
semiconductors, superconductors), quickly, first answering only the questions
Miscellaneous (such as astrophysics, about which you feel confident, then going
mathematical methods, computer back and answering questions that require
applications) more thought, and concluding with the
most difficult questions if there is time.
Preparing for the Test • If you decide to change an answer, make
sure you completely erase it and fill in the
GRE Subject Test questions are designed to oval corresponding to your desired answer.
measure skills and knowledge gained over a long
period of time. Although you might increase • Your score will be determined by the
your scores to some extent through preparation number of questions you answer correctly.
a few weeks or months before you take the test, Questions you answer incorrectly or for
last minute cramming is unlikely to be of further which you mark no answer or more than
help. The following information may be helpful. one answer are counted as incorrect.
Nothing is subtracted from a score if you
• A general review of your college courses answer a question incorrectly. Therefore,
is probably the best preparation for the to maximize your score it is better for you

4 | Page GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book


to guess at an answer than not to respond answers on the answer sheet. Stop working on the
at all. test when 2 hours and 50 minutes have elapsed.
• Record all answers on your answer sheet.
Answers recorded in your test book will Scoring the Practice Test
not be counted. The worksheet on page 87 lists the correct
• Do not wait until the last few minutes of answers to the questions. The “Correct Response”
a testing session to record answers on your columns are provided for you to mark those
answer sheet. questions for which you chose the correct answer.
Mark each question that you answer correctly.
What Your Scores Mean Then, add up your correct answers and enter
your total number of correct answers in the space
The number of questions you answered correctly labeled “Total Correct” at the bottom of the page.
on the whole test (total correct score) is Next, use the “Total Score” conversion tables on
converted to the total reported scaled score. page 88 to find the corresponding scaled score.
This conversion ensures that a scaled score For example, suppose you chose the correct
reported for any edition of a GRE Physics Test is answers to 67 of the questions on the test. The
comparable to the same scaled score earned on “Total Correct” entry in the conversion table of
any other edition of the test. Thus, equal scaled 67 shows that your total scaled score is 820.
scores on a particular test indicate essentially
equal levels of performance regardless of the test Evaluating Your Performance
edition taken.
GRE Physics Test total scores are reported on Now that you have scored your test, you may
a 200 to 990 score scale in ten-point increments. wish to compare your performance with the
Test scores should be compared only with performance of others who took this test.
other scores on the Physics Test. For example, The data in the worksheet on page 87 are
a 780 on the Physics Test is not equivalent to a based on the performance of a sample of the test
780 on the Chemistry Test. takers who took the GRE Physics Test in the
United States.
Taking the Practice Test The numbers in the column labeled “P+”
on the worksheet indicate the percentages of
The practice test begins on page 7. The total examinees in this sample who answered each
time that you should allow for this practice test question correctly. You may use these numbers as
is 2 hours and 50 minutes. An answer sheet is a guide for evaluating your performance on each
provided for you to mark your answers to the test question.
test questions. Interpretive data based on the scores earned
It is best to take this practice test under timed by a recent cohort of test takers are available on
conditions. Find a quiet place to take the test the GRE website at www.ets.org/gre/subject/
and make sure you have a minimum of 2 hours scores/understand. The interpretive data show,
and 50 minutes available. for selected scaled score, the percentage of test
To simulate how the administration will be takers who received lower scores. To compare
conducted at the test center, print the answer yourself with this population, look at the
sheet (pages 89 and 90). Then go to the back percentage next to the scaled score you earned
cover of the test book (page 86) and follow the on the practice test. Note that these interpretive
instructions for completing the identification areas data are updated annually and reported on GRE
of the answer sheet. When you are ready to begin score reports.
the test, note the time and begin marking your

GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book 5 | Page


It is important to realize that the conditions By comparing your performance on this practice
under which you tested yourself were not test with the performance of other individuals
exactly the same as those you will encounter who took GRE Physics Test, however, you will be
at a test center. It is impossible to predict how able to determine your strengths and weaknesses
different test-taking conditions will affect test and can then plan a program of study to prepare
performance, and this is only one factor that yourself for taking the GRE Physics Test under
may account for differences between your standard conditions.
practice test scores and your actual test scores.

6 | Page GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book


FORM GR1777

77
GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS®

PHYSICS TEST

Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.


GRE, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, ETS, EDUCATIONAL TESTING
SERVICE and the ETS logos are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.

7
TABLE OF INFORMATION

Rest mass of the electron me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg

Magnitude of the electron charge e = 1.60 × 10−19 C


Avogadro’s number NA = 6.02 × 1023

Universal gas constant R = 8.31 J/(mol ∑ K)

Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K


Speed of light c = 3.00 × 108 m/s

Planck’s constant h = 6.63 × 10−34 J ∑ s = 4.14 × 10−15 eV ∑ s


j = h/2 p
hc = 1240 eV ∑ nm
Vacuum permittivity ! 0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C 2/(N ∑ m 2)

Vacuum permeability m 0 = 4 p × 10−7 T ∑ m/A

Universal gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10−11 m 3/(kg ∑ s 2)


Acceleration due to gravity g = 9.80 m/s 2
1 atmosphere pressure 1 atm = 1.0 × 105 N/m 2 = 1.0 × 105 Pa

1 angstrom 1Å = 1 × 10−10 m = 0.1 nm

Prefixes for Powers of 10 Rotational inertia about center of mass

10−15 femto f 1 2
Rod M
12
10−12 pico p
1
Disc MR 2
10− 9 nano n 2
10− 6 micro m 2
Sphere MR 2
5
10−3 milli m
10−2 centi c
10 3 kilo k
10 6 mega M
10 9 giga G
1012 tera T
1015 peta P

8
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Thistest
This teststarts
startson
onpage
page10.
4.

9
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PHYSICS TEST
Time— 170 minutes
PHYSICS TEST
100 Questions
Time— 170 minutes
100 Questions
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or
completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or
completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

1. A net force FA acts on object A, and a net force


1. A acts
FBnet on object
force FA acts The
B.on mass A,
object of object is
B force
and a net
twice the mass of object A, and the acceleration
F B acts on object B. The mass of object B is
of object
twice B is twice
the mass that A,
of object of object Which of
and theA.acceleration
theobject
of following
B isistwice
true of forces
that FA and
of object FB ? of
A. Which
the following
1 is true of forces FA and FB ?
(A) FB F 2. Two objects sliding on a frictionless surface,
4 A as represented above, collide and stick together.
1 2. Two objects sliding on a frictionless surface,
(A) F 14 FA How much kinetic energy is converted to heat
(B) FBB F as represented above, collide and stick together.
2 A during the collision?
1 How much kinetic energy is converted to heat
(B) FB F
(C) FB F 2A A during
1 the collision?
(A) J
9
(C) FB FA 1
(A) 1 J
(D) FB 2 FA (B) 9 J
6
(D) FB 2 FA 1
(B) 1 J
(E) FB 4 FA (C) 6 J
2
(E) FB 4 FA 1
(C) 3 J
(D) 2 J
4
3
(D) 5 J
(E) 4 J
6
5
(E) J
6

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11
-5-
3. Two simple pendulums A and B consist 6. The electric field of a plane electromagnetic wave
of identical
3. Two simplemasses suspended
pendulums A andfrom strings
B consist 6. of
Thewave number
electric field kofand angular
a plane frequency wwave
electromagnetic is
of length L and L , respectively.
of identical Amasses suspended
B The two
from strings given
of wavebynumber + eyangular
E = E0(ekx and ) sin(kz frequency
wt). Whichw of
is
pendulums
of length Loscillate in equal gravitational fields. the following
A and LB , respectively. The two given by E = gives
E0(ex the
+ eydirection
) sin(kz ofwt)
the associated
. Which of
If the periodoscillate
pendulums of pendulum
in equal is twice the period
B gravitational fields. magnetic B ? the direction of the associated
fieldgives
the following
of pendulum A, which of the following is
If the period of pendulum B is twice the period true
(A) ez field B ?
magnetic
of
of the lengths A,
pendulum of the twoofpendulums?
which the following is true (B) e ex + ey
(A) z
of the lengths
1 of the two pendulums? (C) eex + eey
(A) LB = L (B) x y
4 A
(A) LB =
1
L (C) exex ezey
(D)
14 A (E) eey eez
(B) LB = LA (D) x z
2
1 (E) ey ez
(B) LB = L
2 A
(C) LB = LA 7. Which of the following is true about any system
(C) LB = LA that undergoes a reversible thermodynamic
7. Which of the following is true about any system
(D) LB = 2LA process?
that undergoes a reversible thermodynamic
(D) LB = 2LA (A) There are no changes in the internal energy
process?
of the system.
(E) LB = 4LA (A) There are no changes in the internal energy
(B) The temperature of the system remains
of the system.
(E) LB = 4LA constant during the process.
(B) The temperature of the system remains
(C) The entropy of the system and its
constant during the process.
environment remains unchanged.
(C) The entropy of the system and its
(D) The entropy of the system and its
environment remains unchanged.
environment must increase.
(D) The entropy of the system and its
(E) The net work done by the system is zero.
environment must increase.
(E) The net work done by the system is zero.
8. For which of the following thermodynamic
processes is the increase in the internal energy
4. For the circuit shown in the figure above, what is 8. For which of the following thermodynamic
of an ideal gas equal to the heat added to the gas?
the current i through the 2 W resistor? processes is the increase in the internal energy
4. For the circuit shown in the figure above, what is (A)
of anConstant
ideal gastemperature
equal to the heat added to the gas?
(A) 2 A i through the 2 W resistor?
the current (B) Constant volume
(B) 4 A (A) Constant temperature
(A) 2 A (C) Constant pressure
(C) 5 A (B) Constant volume
(B) 4 A (D) Adiabatic
(D) 10 A (C) Constant pressure
(C) 5 A (E) Cyclic
(E) 20 A (D) Adiabatic
(D) 10 A (E) Cyclic
(E) 20 A
5. By definition, the electric displacement current
through a surface S is proportional to the
5. By definition, the electric displacement current
(A) magnetic
through flux Sthrough
a surface S
is proportional to the
(B) rate of change of the magnetic flux through S
(A) magnetic flux through S
(C) time integral of the magnetic flux through S
(B) rate of change of the magnetic flux through S
(D) electric flux through S
(C) time integral of the magnetic flux through S
(E) rate of change of the electric flux through S
(D) electric flux through S
(E) rate of change of the electric flux through S

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13
-7-
9. The root-mean-square speed of molecules in an 12. A single-electron atom has the electron in the
ideal gas of molar mass M at temperature T is 2 state. The number of allowed values of
9. The root-mean-square speed of molecules in an 12. A single-electron atom has the electron in the
(A) 0 of molar mass M at temperature T is
ideal gas the quantum number m is
2 state. The number of allowed values of
(A) 0 the quantum
(A) 1 number m is
RT (B) 2
(B) (A)
M
RT (C) 31
(B) (B)
(D) 42
M (C)
RT (E) 53
(C) (D) 4
M
RT (E)particle
13. A 5 of mass m is confined inside a
(C)
M one-dimensional box (infinite square well) of
3RT 13. A particle of mass m is ground
confined inside a is
(D) length a. The particle’s state energy
M one-dimensional box (infinite square well) of
3RT which of the following?
(D) length a. The particle’s ground state energy is
M
3RT which
(E) (A) of the following?
M 8ma
3RT
(E) (A) 2
10. Light ofM variable frequency shines on the metal (B) 8ma 2
surface of a photoelectric tube. Einstein’s theory 8ma 2
10. Light
of the of variable frequency
photoelectric shines
effect predicts thatonthe
the metal (B) 2
2
surface of a photoelectric tube. Einstein’s theory (C) 8ma2
(A)thework
of function of
photoelectric the metal
effect is proportional
predicts that the ma2
to the frequency (C) 2 2 2
(A)
(B) work
work function
function of
of the
the metal
metal is
is proportional
proportional (D) ma 2
to the frequency 2ma
2 2
to the wavelength (D) 2 22
(B)
(C) work
currentfunction of the
in the tube is metal is function
a linear proportionalof a
to the wavelength (E) 2ma2
the wavelength 2 mc
2 2
a
(C) current indifference
(D) potential the tube isnecessary
a linear function
to stop theof (E)
the wavelength
emitted electrons is a linear function of 2mc 2 length is the only combination of
14. The Planck
(D) potential difference
the frequency above necessary to stop
the threshold the
frequency the factors G (Newton’s gravitational constant),
emitted electrons is a linear function
(E) potential difference necessary to stop the of 14. The(Planck’s
Planck length is the
constant / 2 only combination
), and of of
c (the speed
the frequency above the threshold
emitted electrons is equal to the work frequency the factors G (Newton’s gravitational constant),
light) that has units of length. Which of the
(E) potential
functiondifference necessary to stop the (Planck’s constant / 2 ), and c (the speed of
emitted electrons is equal to the work following gives the Planck length?
light) that has units of length. Which of the
function X rays, appearing as sharp lines following 1/ 2
11. Characteristic G gives the Planck length?
on a continuous background, are produced (A) 3 1/ 2
11. Characteristic X rays, appearing as sharp lines cG
when high-energy electrons bombard a metal (A) G3
on a continuous background, are produced
target. Which of the following processes results (B) 3c
when
in the high-energy
characteristicelectrons
X rays? bombard a metal cG
target. Which of the following processes results (B) 32
(A)theElectrons producing
X rays?erenkov radiation G
in characteristic (C) c
(B) Electrons colliding with phonons in the metal c
(A) Electrons filling
producing G2
(C) Electrons inner erenkov radiation
shell vacancies that are (C)
c
(B) Electrons colliding with phonons
created in the metal atoms in the metal (D) cG
(C)
(D) Electrons
Electrons filling innerwith
combining shellprotons
vacancies that are
to form
created in the metal atoms (D) cG
G
neutrons (E)
(D)
(E) Electrons
Electrons combining
undergoingwith protons
Coulomb to form
scattering c
neutrons G
with nuclei (E)
(E) Electrons undergoing Coulomb scattering c
with nuclei

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15
-9-
15. The speed of light inside of a nonmagnetic 18. Two identical satellites, A and B, are in circular
dielectric material with a dielectric constant orbits around Earth. The orbital radius of A is
15. The speed of light inside of a nonmagnetic 18. Two identical satellites, A and B, are in circular
of 4.0 is twice that of B. Which of the following gives
dielectric material with a dielectric constant orbits around Earth. The orbital radius of A is
the ratio of the angular momentum of A to the
of is 109 m/s
(A)4.01.2 twice that of B. Which of the following gives
angular momentum of B ?
(B) 8 the ratio of the angular momentum of A to the
(A) 3.0
1.2 10109 m/s
m/s angular
(C) 1.5 10
(B) 3.0
8
108 m/s
m/s (A) 4 momentum of B ?
8
(D) 1.0 10
(C) 1.5 10 m/s8 m/s
(A) 4
7 (B) 2
(E)
(D) 7.5
1.0 10108 m/s
m/s
(E) 7.5 107 m/s (B) 2
16. Fermat’s principle of ray optics states, “A ray of (C) 2
light follows the path between two points which
16. Fermat’s principle of ray optics states, “A ray of (C) 12
requires the least time.” This principle can be (D)
light follows the path between two points which
used to derive which of the following?
requires the least time.” This principle can be 12
(D) 1
usedI. to
Snell’s
derivelaw of refraction
which of the following? (E) 2
2
II. The law of reflection 1
I. Snell’s law of refraction (E)
III. Rayleigh’s criterion for resolution 2
II. The law of reflection 19. A 10 kg box slides horizontally without friction
III. IRayleigh’s
(A) only criterion for resolution at a speed of 1 m/s. At one point, a constant
19. A 10 kg box slides horizontally without friction
(B) II only force is applied to the box in the direction of its
(A) I only at a speed of 1 m/s. At one point, a constant
(C) III only motion. The box travels 5 m with the constant
(B) II only force is applied to the box in the direction of its
(D) I and II force applied. The force is then removed, leaving
(C) III only motion. The box travels 5 m with the constant
(E) II and III the box with a speed of 2 m/s. Which of the
(D) I and II force applied. The force is then removed, leaving
following gives the magnitude of the applied
(E) II and III the box with a speed of 2 m/s. Which of the
17. Consider two identical systems, 1 and 2, each force?
following gives the magnitude of the applied
consisting of a planet in circular orbit about a (A) 1 N
force?
17. Consider two identical systems, 1 and 2, each
much heavier star. For system 1 the radius of (B) 2 N
consisting of a planet in circular orbit about a (A) 1 N
the orbit is a, and for system 2 the radius of (C) 3 N
much heavier star. For system 1 the radius of (B) 2 N
the orbit is 4a. Which of the following gives (D) 4 N
the orbit is a, and for system 2 the radius of (C) 3 N
T (E) 5 N
ratio, is 14a.
the orbit , ofWhich of theoffollowing
the period system 1 gives
to the (D) 4 N
TT2 (E) 5 N
the ratio, 1
, of 2the 20. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at the
period of system
T ? period of system 1 to the
2 center of a circular conducting loop of radius a
20. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at the
periodT of system 2 ? that is carrying current I ?
(A) 1 1 center of a circular conducting loop of radius a
TT2 that
(A) T1 1 (A) is4 pm
carrying
0Ia 2 current I ?
1
(B) T12 (A) 4pm0 Ia 2
TT2 2 (B) m0 Ia
1
(B) T1
T 12 21
(C) (B) m0 Ia
TT2 4 (C) 0
1
(C) T1
14
(D) T12 (C) 0moI
(D)
TT2 8
(D) T1
1 m2 aI
81 (D) mo I
(E) T21 (E) 2ao 2
TT2 16 4mpoaI
1
(E) 1 (E)
T2 16 4pa 2

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17
-11-
21. Let w p , wd , and wa be the cyclotron 24. Which of the following gives the total spin
quantum number of the electrons in the ground
frequencies
21. Let w p , wdof, protons,
and wa deuterons, and alpha
be the cyclotron 24. Which of the following gives the total spin
state of neutral nitrogen (Z = 7) ?
particles, respectively, quantum number of the electrons in the ground
frequencies of protons,in the same and
deuterons, magnetic
alpha
state 1of neutral nitrogen (Z = 7) ?
field. Therespectively,
particles, frequencies are related
in the samebymagnetic
which (A)
2
1
of the The
field. following? (Assume
frequencies that thebyparticle
are related which (A)
(B) 21
masses are in the ratio
of the following? 1 : 2that
(Assume : 4.)the particle
(B) 3
(C) 1
masses
(A) w p are wind thewratio
a 1 : 2 : 4.) 2
3
(C)
(B)
(A) w p wd wa 25
(D)
(C) w p
(B) wd wa 2
5
(D)
(D) w p
(C) wd wa 27
(E)
2
(E) w p
(D) wd wa 7
(E)
2
(E) w p wd wa 25. Consider a Hermitian operator  with the
22. The emission spectrum of the doubly ionized
property aAˆ 4Hermitian
25. Consider 1 . Which of theAˆfollowing
operator with the
lithium
22. The emission Li++ (Z =of
atom spectrum 3, theA =doubly
7) is identical
ionized
to that of a hydrogen
++ atom in which all the is
property Aˆ pair
an allowed4
1 . of eigenvalues
Which of  ?
of the following
lithium atom Li (Z = 3, A = 7) is identical
wavelengths are (A)an0,allowed
is 1 pair of eigenvalues of  ?
to that of a hydrogen atom in which all the
(A) decreased
wavelengths areby a factor of 9 (B) 1,
(A) 0, 1 1
(B) decreased by a factor of 49 (C) 1, i
(A) decreased by a factor of 9 (B) 1, 1
(C) decreased by a factor of 81 (D)
(B) decreased by a factor of 49
(D) increased by a factor of 9 (C) 1,
1, i i
(C) decreased by a factor of 81 (E)
(D) 11,+ ii, 1 i
(E) increased by a factor of 81
(D) increased by a factor of 9 (E) 1 + i, 1 i
(E) increased by a factor of 81
23. In an atom of hydrogen, the electron is bound to
pˆ 2
a proton. In an atom of positronium, the electron
23. In an atom of hydrogen, the electron is bound to Tˆ
is bound to a positron instead of a proton. Which 2p̂m2
a proton. In an atom of positronium, the electron T̂ pˆ 2
of the following gives the approximate Rydberg 2mV xˆ
is bound to a positron instead of a proton. Which
constant for positronium? (For a nucleus of Hˆ
of the following gives the approximate Rydberg 2p̂m
2
4 Ĥ V x̂
constant for positronium?me e(For a nucleus of
infinite mass, R .) 2m
2 43
8 em0e ech 26. Consider the kinetic energy operator T̂ and the
infinite mass, R .) Hamiltonian
8 e0 2 ch3 26. Consider the operator Ĥ above.
kinetic energy Which
operator T̂ and the
(A) 0.0005R
of
Hamiltonian operator Ĥ above. Which be
the following pairs of observables can
(B)
(A) 0.5R
0.0005R measured simultaneously with no restriction
of the following pairs of observables can be
(C)
(B) 0.999R
0.5R on their precision?
measured simultaneously with no restriction
(D)
(C) 2R
0.999R on xˆ and
(A)their pˆ
precision?
(E)
(D) 1880R
2R
(A) xx̂ˆ and Tp̂ˆ
(B)
(E) 1880R
(C) x̂ˆ and
(B) H andTˆpˆ
(C) Hˆ and Tp̂ˆ
(D)
(E) ˆ and
(D) TĤ ˆ
and pT̂
(E) Tˆ and p̂

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27. Electromagnetic radiation emitted from a nucleus
is most likely to be in the form of
27. Electromagnetic radiation emitted from a nucleus
(A)most
is gamma
likelyrays
to be in the form of
(B) microwaves
(A) gamma rays
(C) ultraviolet radiation
(B) microwaves
(D) visible light
(C) ultraviolet radiation
(E) infrared radiation
(D) visible light
(E) infrared radiation

28. A sample of nitrogen gas undergoes the cyclic


thermodynamic process shown above. Which of the
28. A sample of nitrogen gas undergoes the cyclic
following gives the net heat transferred to the system
thermodynamic process shown above. Which of the
in one complete
following cycle
gives the net1heat2transferred
3 1 ?to the system
in one80
(A) complete
J cycle 1 2 3 1?
(B) 80
(A) 40 JJ
(C) 40 J
(B) 40 J
(D) 80 J
(C) 40 J
(E) 180 J
(D) 80 J
(E) 180 J

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29. For an ideal gas, consider the three thermodynamic
processes— labeled 1, 2, and 3 —shown in the PV diagram
29. For an ideal gas, consider the three thermodynamic
above. Each process has the same initial state and the same
processes— labeled 1, 2, and 3 —shown in the PV diagram
final volume. One process is adiabatic, one is isobaric, and
above. Each process has the same initial state and the same
one is isothermal. Which of the following correctly identifies
final volume. One process is adiabatic, one is isobaric, and
the three processes?
one is isothermal. Which of the following correctly identifies
Adiabatic
the three processes? Isobaric Isothermal
(A) 1 2 3
Adiabatic Isobaric Isothermal
(B) 2 1 3
(A) 1 2 3
(C) 2 3 1
(B) 2 1 3
(D) 3 1 2
(C) 2 3 1
(E) 3 2 1
(D) 3 1 2
(E) 3 2 1

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30. The driver of a police car hears an echo of the 34. A rod measures 1.00 m in its rest system. How
car’s siren from a wall toward which the car is fast must an observer move parallel to the rod
30. The driver of a police car hears an echo of the 34. A rod measures 1.00 m in its rest system. How
moving with a speed of 3.5 m/s. If the speed of to measure its length to be 0.80 m?
car’s siren from a wall toward which the car is fast must an observer move parallel to the rod
sound is 350 m/s and the frequency of the siren is
moving with a speed of 3.5 m/s. If the speed of (A)measure
to 0.50c its length to be 0.80 m?
600 Hz, the driver hears the echo at a frequency
sound is 350 m/s and the frequency of the siren is (B) 0.60c
nearest to which of the following? (A) 0.50c
600 Hz, the driver hears the echo at a frequency (C) 0.70c
(B) 0.60c
(A) 588toHz
nearest which of the following? (D) 0.80c
(C) 0.70c
(B) 594 Hz (E) 0.90c
(A) 588 Hz (D) 0.80c
(C) 600 Hz
(B) 594 Hz (E) 0.90c
(D) 606 Hz 35. A particle decays in 2.0 ms in its rest frame. If
(C) 600 Hz
(E) 612 Hz the same particle moves at u = 0.60c in the lab
(D) 606 Hz 35. A particle decays in 2.0 ms in its rest frame. If
frame, how far will it travel in the lab before
(E) 612 Hz the same particle moves at u = 0.60c in the lab
31. The first five harmonics produced by an organ decaying?
frame, how far will it travel in the lab before
pipe open at both ends are 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 150 Hz,
31. The first five harmonics produced by an organ (A) 150 m
decaying?
200 Hz, and 250 Hz. Which of the harmonics,
pipe open at both ends are 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 150 Hz, (B) 288 m
if any, will survive once the pipe is closed at (A) 150 m
200 Hz, and 250 Hz. Which of the harmonics, (C) 360 m
one end? (B) 288 m
if any, will survive once the pipe is closed at (D) 450 m
(C) 360 m
(A) end?
one 50 Hz, 150 Hz, and 250 Hz only (E) 750 m
(D) 450 m
(B) 100 Hz and 200 Hz only
(A) 50 Hz, 150 Hz, and 250 Hz only (E) 750 m
(C) 150 Hz and 250 Hz only 36. The rest mass of a particle with total energy
(B) 100 Hz and 200 Hz only
(D) 200 Hz only 5.0 GeV and momentum 4.9 GeV/c is
(C) 150 Hz and 250 Hz only 36. The rest mass of a particle with total energy
(E) None approximately
(D) 200 Hz only 5.0 GeV and momentum 4.9 GeV/c is
(E) None
32. A refracting telescope consists of two converging (A) 0.1 GeV/c2
approximately
2
lenses separated by 100 cm. The eye-piece lens (B)
(A) 0.2
0.1 GeV/c
GeV/c22
32. A refracting telescope consists of two converging (C) 0.5 GeV/c
has a focal length of 20 cm. The angular (B) 0.2 GeV/c22
lenses separated by 100 cm. The eye-piece lens (D) 1.0 GeV/c
magnification of the telescope is (C) 0.5 GeV/c22
has a focal length of 20 cm. The angular
(E) 1.5 GeV/c
(D) 1.0 GeV/c2
(A) 4
magnification of the telescope is
(B) 5 (E) 1.5 GeV/c2
(A) 4 37. If charge +Q is located in space at the point
(C) 6
(B) 5 (x = 1 m, y = 10 m, z = 5 m), what is the total
(D) 20 37. If charge +Q is located in space at the point
(C) 6 electric flux that passes through the yz-plane?
(E) 100 (x = 1 m, y = 10 m, z = 5 m), what is the total
(D) 20
(A)
electric flux that passes through the yz-plane?
(E) 100
33. The best type of laser with which to
do spectroscopy over a range of visible (A) 1
(B)
33. The best type of laser with which to
wavelengths is
do spectroscopy over a range of visible (B) Q
(C) 1
(A) a dye laser
wavelengths is eQ0
(B) a helium-neon laser (C) Q
(A) a dye laser (D) e0
(C) an excimer laser
(B) a helium-neon laser 2Qe0
(D) a ruby laser
(C) an excimer laser (D)
(E) a neodymium-YAG laser (E) 02 e0
(D) a ruby laser
(E) a neodymium-YAG laser (E) 0

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38. A point charge Q is placed at the center of a
hollow, conducting spherical shell of inner radius
38. A point charge Q is placed at the center of a
a and outer radius b, as shown above. A net
hollow, conducting spherical shell of inner radius
charge q is placed on the conducting shell. If the
a and outer radius b, as shown above. A net
electric potential is assumed to be 0 at infinity, the
charge q is placed on the conducting shell. If the
magnitude of the electric potential at r, where
electric potential is assumed to be 0 at infinity, the
a < r < b, is
magnitude of the electric potential at r, where
(A) 0 a < r < b, is
(A) 0
Q
(B)
4 pe0 r Q
(B)
4 pe0 r
Q q
(C)
4 pe0 r Q q
(C)
4pe0 r
Q
(D)
4 pe0 a Q
(D)
4 pe0 a
Q q
(E)
4 pe0 b Q q
(E)
4pe0 b

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-21-
39. The figure above shows three arrangements of
one electron (e) and two protons (p). Which of the
39. The figure above shows three arrangements of
following is true about the magnitude F of the net
one electron (e) and two protons (p). Which of the
electrostatic force acting on the electron due to the
following is true about the magnitude F of the net
protons?
electrostatic force acting on the electron due to the
protons?
(A) F1 F2 F3
(B)
(A) F11 F22 F33
(C)
(B) F11 F32 F23
(D)
(C) F12 FF31 F23
(E)
(D) F22 F13 F31
(E) F2 F3 F1

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-23-
40. A series AC circuit with impedance Z consists
of resistor R, inductor L, 40.
andAcapacitor
series ACC,circuit with impedance Z consists
as shown above. The ideal emf source has R, inductor L, and capacitor C,
of resistor
a sinusoidal output given by e as shown
emax sinabove.
wt , The ideal emf source has
and the current is given by f ). given by e emax sin wt ,
max sin( wt output
I aI sinusoidal
What is the average power dissipated
and theincurrent
the is given by I I max sin( wt f ).
What iscurrent.)
circuit? ( I rms is the root-mean-square the average power dissipated in the
2 circuit? ( I rms is the root-mean-square current.)
(A) Irms R
2
(A) Irms R
1 2
(B) I R
2 rms
1 2
(B) I R
(C)
1 2
I Z 2 rms
2 rms
1 2
(C) I Z
1 2
(D) Irms R cos f 2 rms
2
1 2
(D) I R cos f
(E)
1 2
I Z cos f 2 rms
2 rms
1 2
(E) I Z cos f
2 rms

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41. The quantum efficiency of a photon detector is 0.1.
If 100 photons are sent into the detector, one after the
41. The quantum efficiency of a photon detector is 0.1.
other, the detector will detect photons
If 100 photons are sent into the detector, one after the
(A)
other,exactly 10 times
the detector will detect photons
(B) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of
(A) exactly 10 times
about 0.1
(B) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of
(C) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of about 1
about 0.1
(D) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of about 2
(C) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of about 1
(E) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of about 3
(D) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of about 2
(E) an average of 10 times, with an rms deviation of about 3

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33
-27-
42. Two students perform an experiment in which 44. A particle in an infinite square well has as
they drop a ball from rest from a known height itsparticle
initial wave
42. Two students perform an experiment in which 44. A in anfunction an equal
infinite square mixture
well has asof
above the ground and measure the speed of
they drop a ball from rest from a known height the first three
its initial waveorthonormal
function an stationary states:
equal mixture of
the ball just before it strikes the ground. From
above the ground and measure the speed of x ,0 A x x x .
repeated measurement, the students estimate Y y
the first three orthonormal
1 y y
2 stationary
3 states:
the ball just before it strikes the ground. From
the uncertainty in the measured speed of the The value of the normalization
repeated measurement, the students estimate Y x,0 A y1 x y 2 x y 3 x . A is
constant
ball to be 10 percent. Which of the following
the uncertainty in the measured speed of the equal to which
The value of theofnormalization
the following?constant A is
gives the uncertainty in the kinetic energy of
ball to be 10 percent. Which of the following
the ball? (Assume the uncertainty in the ball’s equal 1to which of the following?
gives the uncertainty in the kinetic energy of (A)
mass is negligibly small.)
the ball? (Assume the uncertainty in the ball’s 13
(A) is
mass 5%negligibly small.) (A) 1
(B) 3
(B) 10%
(A) 5% 12
(C) 15% (B)
(B) 10% (C) 1 2
(D) 20%
(C) 15%
(E) 40% (C) 1
(D) 20%
(D) 2
(E) 40%
43. Which of the following wave functions represents
a solution to the Schrödinger equation for an (D) 2
43. Which of the following wave functions represents (E) 3
electron in the 2s state of a hydrogen atom?
a solution to the Schrödinger equation for an (E) 3
( c is a constant and a is the Bohr radius.)
electron in the 2s state0 of a hydrogen atom?
( c iscacos
(A) constant
q and a0 is the Bohr radius.)
(A) c cosq
r
(B) c exp
a0
r
(B) c exp
ra0 r
(C) c 1 exp
2 a0 2 a0
r r
(C) c 1 exp
2ra0 2 ra0
(D) c 1 exp cos q 45. A matter wave of energy E > 0 and wave
2 a0 2 a0
r r number k is incident from the left on a potential
(D) c 1 exp cos q 45. A matter wave of energy E > 0 and wave
2ra0 2 ra0 well of width L and depth V . The top of the
(E) c 1 exp sin q exp if number k is incident from the0 left on a potential
2 a0 2 a0 well
well is
of at zero energy
width and theV bottom
L and depth of the well
r r 0. The top of the
(E) c 1 exp sin q exp if is at V , as shown in the figure above. Thewell
2 a0 2 a0 well is at0 zero energy and the bottom of the
spatial
is at Vpart of the wave function in region 3 has
0, as shown in the figure above. The
which
spatial of
parttheoffollowing
the wave forms?
function(Ainisregion
a constant.)
3 has
which
(A) Aeof ikx
the following forms? (A is a constant.)
ikx
(B)
(A) A sin
Ae kx
(C)
(B) A coskx
Asin kx
ik x
(D)
(C) Ae
Acos (k
kx k)
(D)
(E) Aeikkxx (k
(k realk)and positive)
kx
(E) Ae (k real and positive)

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46. Spring 1 has force constant k1 and spring 2 has 48. A uniform solid disk starts from rest and rolls
force constant k2 ,constant
where k1k and k2 . spring
If the same down an inclined plane without slipping. After
46. Spring 1 has force 2 has 48. A uniform solid disk starts from rest and rolls
1 some time, what fraction of the disk’s total kinetic
external force is applied to both springs,
force constant k2 , where k1 k2 . If the same which down an inclined plane without slipping. After
energy is rotational kinetic energy?
of the following is true about the extensions some time, what fraction of the disk’s total kinetic
external force is applied to both springs, which energy1 is rotational kinetic energy?
(of the
x1 and x
following) and
2 is truetheabout
storedthe
potential energies
extensions (A)
(( U1x and 4
1 andU 2 x) of
2
the two
) and springs?
the stored potential energies (A) 1
1
( U1 Extension
and U 2 ) of the two springs?
Stored Potential Energy (B) 4
3
1
(B) 1
(A) Extension
x1 x2 Stored Potential
U 1 U Energy
2 (C) 3
2
(B)
(A) x1 x2 U1 U2 1
(C) 2
(C)
(B) x1 x2 U1 U2 (D) 2
3
2
(D)
(C) x1 x2 U1 U2 (D) 3
(E) 3
(E)
(D) x1 x2 U1 U2 4
3
(E)
(E) x1 x2 U1 U2 4
49. Two projectiles are launched from ground level
with the
49. Two same initial
projectiles speed. The
are launched maximum
from height
ground level
h1 reached
with by initial
the same projectile 1 isThe
speed. twice the maximum
maximum height
height h2 reached
h1 reached by projectile
by projectile 2. If
1 is twice and 2
the 1maximum
denote the
height respective
h2 reached by launch angles,
projectile 2. If as1 measured
and 2
from thethehorizontal,
denote respectivethese angles
launch satisfy
angles, which of
as measured
the following relationships?
from the horizontal, these angles satisfy which of
47. A stone is glued to the top of a light wooden
block that floats in a pool of water, as shown in the
(A) following
cos 1 relationships?
2 cos 2
47. A stone is glued to the top of a light wooden
Figure 1 above. Assume that exactly 50 percent (B)
(A) sin
cos 22 sin
cos 22
block that floats in a pool of water, as shown in 11
of the block is under water, and that the stone
Figure 1 above. Assume that exactly 50 percent (C)
(B) tan
sin 11
tan 22
2 sin
has half the weight of the block. If the block and
of the block is under water, and that the stone (D) sin 2sin
stone are flipped over, as shown in Figure 2, and (C) tan 11 2 tan2 2
has half the weight of the block. If the block and
replaced in the pool, the amount of the block (E)
(D) cos
sin 2cos
2sin 2
stone are flipped over, as shown in Figure 2, and 11 2
under water will be
replaced in the pool, the amount of the block (E) cos 1 2cos 2
(A) less
under thanwill
water 50% be
(B) still 50%
(A) less than 50%
(C) between 50% and 75%
(B) still 50%
(D) between 75% and 100%
(C) between 50% and 75%
(E) 100%, since the stone and block sink
(D) between 75% and 100%
(E) 100%, since the stone and block sink

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50. When an object is located 25 cm from lens 1, an inverted
image is produced 100 cm from the lens, as shown in Figure 1
50. When an object is located 25 cm from lens 1, an inverted
above. A second lens with a focal length of +20 cm is placed
image is produced 100 cm from the lens, as shown in Figure 1
110 cm from the first lens, as shown in Figure 2 above.
above. A second lens with a focal length of +20 cm is placed
Which of the following is true of the image produced by
110 cm from the first lens, as shown in Figure 2 above.
lens 2 ?
Which of the following is true of the image produced by
(A) It
lens 2 ?is real and inverted relative to the object.
(B) It is real and upright relative to the object.
(A) It is real and inverted relative to the object.
(C) It is virtual and inverted relative to the object.
(B) It is real and upright relative to the object.
(D) It is virtual and upright relative to the object.
(C) It is virtual and inverted relative to the object.
(E) An image cannot be produced in this situation.
(D) It is virtual and upright relative to the object.
(E) An image cannot be produced in this situation.

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51. A grating spectrometer can just barely resolve 53. A microwave line has a laboratory wavelength of
two wavelengths of 500 nm and 502 nm, l mm. If the Hubble constant H 75wavelength
(km/s)/Mpc,
51. A grating spectrometer can just barely resolve 53. A microwave line has a laboratory of
respectively. Which of the following gives the observed wavelength for the line from a
two wavelengths of 500 nm and 502 nm, l mm. If the Hubble constant H 75 (km/s)/Mpc,
the resolving power of the spectrometer? galaxy 100 Mpc distant is about
respectively. Which of the following gives the observed wavelength for the line from a
(A) resolving
the 2 power of the spectrometer? (A) 250100
galaxy nmMpc
shorter
distant is about
(B) 250 (B) 25 nm shorter
(A) 2 (A) 250 nm shorter
(C) 5,000 (C) the same
(B) 250 (B) 25 nm shorter
(D) 10,000 (D) 25 nm longer
(C) 5,000 (C) the same
(E) 250,000 (E) 250 nm longer
(D) 10,000 (D) 25 nm longer
(E) 250,000 (E) 250 nm longer
52. A gas cell with an optical path length of 10 cm is
placed in one arm of a Michelson interferometer.
52. A gas cell with an optical path length of 10 cm is
If the light source for the interferometer is a laser
placed in one arm of a Michelson interferometer.
with wavelength l = 632.2 nm, then 100 fringes
If the light source for the interferometer is a laser
are counted as the gas cell is evacuated. What is
with wavelength l = 632.2 nm, then 100 fringes
the index of refraction of the original gas?
are counted as the gas cell is evacuated. What is
(A) 1.00063
the index of refraction of the original gas?
(B) 1.00032
(A) 1.00063
(C) 1.00016
(B) 1.00032
(D) 0.99968
(C) 1.00016
(E) 1.00016
(D) 0.99968
(E) 1.00016

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54. The AC circuit shown above contains an ideal rectifying diode. If the function generator supplies
0 sin shown
54. Thet AC Vcircuit t , which of the
above following
contains describes
an ideal the voltage
rectifying diode.across the resistor?
If the function generator supplies
(A)t V0 sin t , which of the following describes the voltage across the resistor?

(A)

(B)
(B)

(C)
(C)

(D)
(D)

(E)
(E)

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55. The Fourier series expansion of a function f x that is
periodic
55. The withseries
Fourier period 2p is of a function f x that is
expansion
periodic awith
0 period 2p nx
is)
f ( x) an cos( bn sin(nx ).
2
a0 n 1 n 1
f ( x) a cos( nx ) bn sin(nx ).
If f x is2 given byn the graph above, which of the following
n 1 n 1
statements about by
If f x is given thethe
coefficients is true?
graph above, which of the following
(A) an = 0 about
statements for allthe
n coefficients is true?
(A) bann =
(B) = 00 for
for all
all nn
(C)
(B) bann =
= 00 for
for all
even n n only
(D) = 0 for even only
(C) ann = 0 for even nn only
b
(E)
(D) ban = foreven
= b0nfor all n n only
n
(E) an = bn for all n

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57. Which of the following statements is (are) true for
a Maxwell-Boltzmann description of an ideal gas
57. Which of the following statements is (are) true for
of atoms in equilibrium at temperature T ?
a Maxwell-Boltzmann description of an ideal gas
I. Thein
of atoms average velocity
equilibrium of the atoms Tis ?zero.
at temperature
II. The distribution of the speeds of the atoms
I. The average velocity of the atoms is zero.
has a maximum at u = 0.
II. The distribution of the speeds of the atoms
III. The probability of finding an atom with zero
has a maximum at u = 0.
kinetic energy is zero.
III. The probability of finding an atom with zero
(A) Ikineticonly energy is zero.
56. A sample of N molecules has the distribution of
(B) II only
speeds shown (A) I only
56. A sample of Ninmolecules
the figure has
above. P u du is an
the distribution of (C) I and II
estimate of the number of molecules with speeds (B) II only
speeds shown in the figure above. P u du is an (D) I and III
(C) I and II
between andnumber
u + duof
, and this number (E) II and III
u the
estimate of molecules with is
speeds (D) I and III
nonzero only up to 3u , where u
between u and u + du0 , and this number
0 is constant.
is (E) II and III
58. A monatomic ideal gas changes from an initial
Which of the following gives the value of
nonzero only up to 3u , where u is constant. a?
0 0 58. Astate (Pi , Vi , ideal
monatomic Ti, ngas
i) to a final from
changes state an
(Pfinitial
, Vf ,
N following gives the value of a ?
Which of the , ), where < , = ,
(A) a T
state n P P V V T
f(P , V , T , i n ) fto a ifinalf state i (Pf , and
< T
f Vf ,
f
3u0 i i i i
N nTi ,= nnf ),. Which
where Pi < Pf , Vi = Vf , Ti < Tf change
of the following gives the and
(A) a N f f
(B) a 3u0 in entropy of the gas?
n = n . Which of the following gives the change
i f
2u0
N in entropy
3 of the
T f gas?
(B) a Nu0 (A) nR ln
(C) a 2 2
u0 3 TTif
N (A) nR ln
(C) a 3N 23 T
(D) a u0 (B) nR ln i
2u0 2 TTf
3N 3
(D) a (B) nR ln i
2 25 T
(E) a Nu0 (C) nR ln f
2 TTif
(E) a N 5
(C) nR ln
25 T
(D) nR ln i
2 TTf
5
(D) nR ln i
2 Tf
(E) 0
(E) 0

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-41-
59. Low-energy electrons are accelerated between electrodes in a tube filled with a gas in the Franck-Hertz
apparatus represented above. A plot of current collected versus accelerating voltage is also shown. The
59. Low-energy electrons are accelerated between electrodes in a tube filled with a gas in the Franck-Hertz
data provide evidence for which of the following?
apparatus represented above. A plot of current collected versus accelerating voltage is also shown. The
(A)
data Electronic energy for
provide evidence losses dueofonly
which the to elastic collisions
following?
(B) Excitation energies of the gas atoms of 4.9, 9.8, and 14.7 eV
(A) Electronic energy losses due only to elastic collisions
(C) Excitation energy of the gas atoms of 4.9 eV only
(B) Excitation energies of the gas atoms of 4.9, 9.8, and 14.7 eV
(D)
(C) Atomic energy
Excitation levels
energy of gas
of the 4.9,atoms
9.8,ofand 14.7only
4.9 eV eV
(E) Atomic energy levels of 4.9 and 9.8 eV
(D) Atomic energy levels of 4.9, 9.8, and 14.7 eV only
(E) Atomic energy levels of 4.9 and 9.8 eV only

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49
-43-
60. A photon of wavelength is scattered 63. The operators for the total angular momentum
from an electron through an angle .
60. A photon of wavelength is scattered and its
63. The three projections
operators areangular
for the total Jˆ x , Jˆ y , Jˆz ,
Ĵ and momentum
Which of the following correctly gives the
from an electron through an angle . respectively.
and The commutator
its three projections are Ĵ between
and Ĵ x , two
Ĵ y , Ĵ z ,
wavelength of the scattered photon? ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
Which of the following correctly gives the operators  and is A, B between
respectively. The B̂commutator AB BA two.
wavelength hof the scattered photon?
(A) 1 cos Which Aˆ and
of the
operators following ˆ true?
Bˆ is is
A, Bˆ ˆ ˆ BA
AB ˆ ˆ.
mc
h Which
(A)
(B)
h 1 cos
mc 1 cos (A) Jˆ of 2 the
, Jˆ z following
0 is true?
mc
h (A) Jˆˆ 22 , Jˆˆ z 0
(B) h 1 cos (B) J , J z i Jˆ y
(C) mc 1 cos
mc (B) J ˆ2 ˆ i0 Jˆ y
(C)
h
h 1 cos (C) Jˆ x ,, JJˆ yz
(D) mc 1 cos
mc (C) Jˆˆ x , Jˆˆ y 0
h (D) J x , J z i Jˆ z
(D) h mc 1 cos
(E) 1 cos ˆ ˆ ˆ
mc (E) JJˆ xx , J ziJˆ y , Jˆiz J z 0
(D)
h
(E) 1 cos
mc (E) Jˆ x iJˆ y , Jˆz 0
61. Excited states of the helium atom can be
characterized as para- (antiparallel electron 64. The suspension cable of a 1,000 kg elevator
61. Excited states of the helium atom can be snaps, sending the elevator moving downward
spins) and ortho- (parallel electron spins). 64. The suspension cable of a 1,000 kg elevator
characterized as para- (antiparallel electron through its shaft. The emergency brakes of
The observation that an ortho- state has lower snaps, sending the elevator moving downward
spins) and ortho- (parallel electron spins). the elevator stop the elevator shortly before it
energy than the corresponding para- state can be through its shaft. The emergency brakes of
The observation that an ortho- state has lower reaches the bottom of the shaft. If the elevator
understood in terms of which of the following? the elevator stop the elevator shortly before it
energy than the corresponding para- state can be fell a distance of 100 m starting from rest, the
(A) The Heisenberg
understood in terms of uncertainty principle
which of the following? reaches the bottom of the shaft. If the elevator
heat that the brakes must dissipate to bring the
(B) The Pauli exclusion principle fell a distance of 100 m starting from rest, the
(A) The Heisenberg uncertainty principle elevator safely to rest is
(C) The Bohr model of the atom heat that the brakes must dissipate to bring the
(B) The Pauli exclusion principle (A)
elevator safely100 to
J rest is
(D) Nuclear hyperfine coupling
(C) The Bohr model of the atom (B) 1,000 J
(E) Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics (A) 100 J
(D) Nuclear hyperfine coupling (C) 10,000 J
(E) Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics (B) 1,000 J
62. A particle of mass m and spin zero is in a (D) 100,000 J
(C) 10,000 J
(E) 1,000,000 J
62. A particle of mass isotropic
three-dimensional m and spin
wellzero is in a
described (D) 100,000 J
(E) 1,000,000 J
1
three-dimensional
by V r m 2 risotropic
2
, wherewell
r2 =described
x2 + y2 + z2.
2
1
by V r m 2 r 2 , where r2 7= x2 + y2 + z2.
2
How many states have energy ?
2
7
How many states have energy ?
(A) 1 2
(B) 2
(A) 1
(C) 4
(B) 2
(D) 6
(C) 4
(E) 8
(D) 6
(E) 8

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51
-45-
65. A uniform rod of length L and mass M is
released from rest at q 0 and rotates about a
65. A uniform rod of length L and mass M is
horizontal axis through its base, as shown in the
released from rest at q 0 and rotates about a
figure above. What is the angular acceleration of 66. Two identical, ideal springs, each with force
horizontal axis through its base, as shown in the constant k, are attached in series and hung
the rod as a function of q ? (Ignore the effects of
figure above. What is the angular acceleration of 66. Two identical, ideal springs, each with force
friction and air resistance.) vertically. When a block of mass m is attached
the rod as a function of q ? (Ignore the effects of constant k, are attached in series and hung
to the two-spring system, the block moves down
frictiong and air resistance.) vertically. When a block of mass m is attached
(A) a distance x from the relaxed state, as shown in
2gL to the two-spring system, the block moves down
the figure above. Which of the following gives the
(A) g a distance x from the relaxed state, as shown in
angular frequency of the block when it oscillates
(B) 2Lq the figure above. Which of the following gives the
L vertically?
g angular frequency of the block when it oscillates
(B) 6 gq
(C) L cos q vertically?
2k
L (A)
6g m
(C) 3g cos q 2k
(D) L sin q (A)
23g
L km
(B)
(D) 12 gsin q m
k
(E) 2L sin q (B)
L
12g mk
(C)
(E) sin q 2m
L k
(C)
2mk
(D) 2 p
x
k
(D) 2 p
2xk
(E) 2 p
x
2k
(E) 2 p
x
67. A block attached to a spring is moving along the
x-axis on a frictionless horizontal surface. What is
67. A block attached to a spring is moving along the
the Hamiltonian for the block?
x-axis on a frictionless horizontal surface. What is
the H 0
(A) Hamiltonian for the block?
(A) H 0
(B) H kx
(B) H kx
k 2
(C) H x
2
k22
(C) H x
(D) H 2p k 2
x
2pm2 2
k 2
(D) H 2 x
(E) H 2pm 2k x 2
2pm2 2
k 2
(E) H x
2m 2

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53
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68. A conducting sphere is solid except for three spherical
cavities inside. Cavity A contains a point charge of +2q,
68. A conducting sphere is solid except for three spherical
cavity Binside.
cavities contains a point
Cavity charge ofa point
A contains 4q, charge
and cavity C is
of +2q,
empty, as shown above. What charges are induced on the
cavity B contains a point charge of 4q, and cavity C is
inner surfaces of the spherical cavities?
empty, as shown above. What charges are induced on the
innerCavity A of the Cavity
surfaces Cavity C
B cavities?
spherical
(A) Cavity
2q A Cavity
+4q B Cavity
0 C
(B)
(A) 2q
2q +4q
+4q 0 2q
(C)
(B) 2q
2q +4q
+4q 6q
2q
(D) +2q
(C) 2q 4q
+4q 06q
(E) +2q +2q +2q
(D) +2q 4q 0
(E) +2q +2q +2q

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55
-49-
69. A magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the 71. Consider the Pauli spin matrices sx , sy , and
plane
69. A of a circular
magnetic field iscoil of area
directed 0.2 m2 and 250
perpendicular to the sz. The product
71. Consider sy ismatrices
sx spin
the Pauli equal to swhich of the
x , sy , and
turns. of
plane If the magnetic
a circular coilfield is increased
of area 0.2 m2 and from
250 following?
s . The product s s is equal to which of the
z x y
0.01
turns.TIftothe
0.06 T during
magnetic a time
field interval of
is increased 0.25 s,
from (A) 0
following?
the
0.01average
T to 0.06induced EMF
T during in theinterval
a time coil is of 0.25 s, (B) s
(A) 0z
(A) average
the 0.04 Vinduced EMF in the coil is (C)
(B) sszz
(B) 0.1 V
(A) 0.04 V (D)
(C) ssy zsx
(C) 2.5 V
(B) 0.1 V (E)
(D) 10 V
(C) 2.5 V (D) ssyssx
y x
(E) 50 V (E) sy sx
(D) 10 V
72. The binding energy per nucleon is greatest for
(E) 50 V
which of the following nuclei?
72. The binding energy per nucleon is greatest for
which of the following nuclei?
(A) 3 He
2
43
(A)
(B) 22 He
4
56
(B)
(C) 2 He
26 Fe
56
235Fe
(C)
(D) 26 92 U
235
238 U
(D)
(E) 92 U
92
70. The figure above depicts a step potential with 238
(E) 92 U
U x above
70. The figure 0, depicts
for xa step
0 potential
(region 1),
with 73. The negative muon, m has properties
UUx x !U 0,0 , for
for xx 00 (region
(region 2).
1), most similar to which of the following?
73. The negative muon, m has properties
A beam
U xof particles
!U 0 , with
for xE >00 is incident
(region 2). from (A)
mostQuark
similar to which of the following?
the left. The momentum of the particle in each (B) Boson
A beam of particles with E > 0 is incident from (A) Quark
region has the form k . The reflection coefficient (C) Photon
the left. The momentum of the particle in each (B) Boson
R for the interface at x = 0 is (D) Meson
region has the form k . The reflection coefficient (C) Photon
(A)forRthe 0interface at x = 0 is
R (E) Electron
(D) Meson
(A) R 0 (E) Electron
4 k1k2
(B) R
(k14k1k22 )2
(B) R
(k1 k 2 )2
(k1 k 2 )2
(C) R
(k11
(k k22 )22
(C) R
(k1 k 2 )2
(k1 k 2 )2
(D) R
(k11
(k k22 )22
(D) R
(k1 k 2 )2
4 k1k2
(E) R
(k1 4k1kk22)2
(E) R
(k1 k 2 )2

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57
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74. Which of the following correctly gives the quark
and antiquark content of a lepton and a baryon?
74. Which of the following correctly gives the quark
Lepton
and antiquark Baryon
content of a lepton and a baryon?
Quarks Antiquarks Quarks Antiquarks
Lepton Baryon
(A) 0 0 3 0
Quarks Antiquarks Quarks Antiquarks
(B) 0 0 1 1
(A) 0 0 3 0
(C) 1 0 1 1
(B) 0 0 1 1
(D) 1 1 2 0
(C) 1 0 1 1
(E) 1 1 3 0
(D) 1 1 2 0
(E) 1 1 3 0

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59
-53-
75. Under certain conditions, a beam of electrons
impinging on a crystal surface will diffract and
75. Under certain conditions, a beam of electrons
a scattering pattern of the beam can be obtained.
impinging on a crystal surface will diffract and
What is the approximate kinetic energy of the
a scattering pattern of the beam can be obtained.
electrons needed in order to see the pattern?
What is the approximate kinetic energy of the
(Assume the lattice spacing of the crystal to
electrons needed in order to see the pattern?
be 0.4 nm.)
(Assume the lattice spacing of the crystal to
(A) 0.1 eV be 0.4 nm.)
(B) 1 eV
(A) 0.1 eV
(C) 10 eV
(B) 1 eV
(D) 100 eV
(C) 10 eV
(E) 1000 eV
(D) 100 eV
(E) 1000 eV

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61
-55-
76. A beam of positive ions is initially moving in the +x-direction
with nonrelativistic velocity. The beam enters a velocity
76. A beam of positive ions is initially moving in the +x-direction
selector in which the electric field E is oriented along the
with nonrelativistic velocity. The beam enters a velocity
+y-direction and the magnetic field B is oriented along the
selector in which the electric field E is oriented along the
+z-direction, as shown above. Which of the following gives
+y-direction and the magnetic field B is oriented along the
the critical speed uc at which the ion beam is not deflected
+z-direction, as shown above. Which of the following gives
as
theitcritical
movesspeed
through
u the
at velocity
which theselector?
ion beam is not deflected
c
as
(A)it moves
uc EB through the velocity selector?
(A) uc EB
1
(B) uc
EB
1
(B) uc B2
(C) uc EB
E
B2
(C) u BE
(D) ucc
E
B
(D) uc E
(E) uc E
B
E
(E) uc
B

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63
-57-
77. Under ideal conditions, the electric and
magnetic fields inside a superconductor
77. Under ideal conditions, the electric and
are zero. Maxwell’s equations imply that
magnetic fields inside a superconductor
which of the following must be true just
are zero. Maxwell’s equations imply that
outside the surface of the superconductor?
which of the following must be true just
(A) B =the
outside 0 surface of the superconductor?
(B) B is perpendicular to the surface.
(A) B = 0
(C) B is tangential to the surface.
(B) B is perpendicular to the surface.
(D) B is time independent.
(C) B is tangential to the surface. 79. A block with mass m1 that slides on a frictionless
(E) The magnetic flux is quantized.
(D) B is time independent. table is attached by ammassless string
79. A block with mass that slides on over a
a frictionless
(E) The magnetic flux is quantized. massless, frictionless 1pulley to a hanging ball
table is attached by a massless string over a
with mass m2 , as shown in the figure above.
massless, frictionless pulley to a hanging ball
The tension
with mass min ,the string must
as shown in thebefigure above.
2
(A) tension
The equal toinmthe
2 g string must be
(B) greater than
(A) equal to m2 gm2 g
(C)
(B) less thanthan
greater m2 gm g
2
(D) equalthan
(C) less to mm1gg
2
78. A positive charge, +q, oscillates up and down, (E) greater
(D) equal tothan
m gm1g
1
as represented in the figure above. What is the (E) greater than m1g
78. A positive charge, +q, oscillates up and down,
direction of the Poynting vector S at point P ?
as represented in the figure above. What is the
(Assume P is located far to the right of +q.)
direction of the Poynting vector S at point P ?
(A) Toward
(Assume P isthelocated
left far to the right of +q.)
(B) Toward the right
(A) Toward the left
(C) Toward the top of the page
(B) Toward the right
(D) Toward the bottom of the page
(C) Toward the top of the page
(E) Into the page
(D) Toward the bottom of the page
(E) Into the page

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80. Two planets of mass m revolve around a star of
80. Two
mass planets
M in aofcircle
massofmradius
revolve around
r , as a star
shown of
in the
82. As represented in the figure above, a light ray
mass M
figure in a The
above. circletwo
of planets
radius rare
, asalways
shownon
in the refracts from air into a rectangular block of plastic
82. As represented in the figure above, a light ray
with an index of refraction n > 1. At a point on
opposite sidesThe
figure above. of the
twostar. The are
planets orbital period
always on T of refracts from air into a rectangular block of plastic
the side of the block, the ray partly reflects (at an
3 with an index of refraction n > 1. At a point on
r period T of angle of of
60the
) and partly
opposite
the sides
planets is ofofthe
theform
star. T
The orbital
2p . the side block, therefracts. The
ray partly value (at
reflects of the
an
GM 3 angle a is
r angle of 60 ) and partly refracts. The value of the
the planets
What is theisvalue
of the M ?T 2 p GM .
ofform angle
(A) 30a is
What is themvalue of M ? (A) 30
(A) M
2 (B) 60
m
(A) M m
(B) M 2 (B) 60 n
4 (C) cos 1
m 2
(B) M
(C) n
4 (C) cos 11 n
(C) m (D) sin 2
(D) M
4 2
m n
(D) M m (D) sin 11
(E) M 4 (E) tan n 2
2
m
(E) M (E) tan 1 n
2 83. Assume that the solar flux at Earth’s surface
81. White light is normally incident on a puddle of 2
is 1,000 W/m
83. Assume that theand that
solar theatsunlight
flux Earth’s issurface
normal
water (index of refraction 1.33). A thin (500 nm)
81. White light is normally incident on a puddle of to a completely 2 reflecting surface with an area
layer of oil (index of refraction 1.5) floats on the is 1,0002 W/m and that the sunlight is normal
water (index of refraction 1.33). A thin (500 nm) of
surface of the puddle. Of the following, the most to a3 completely
m . What isreflecting
the total radiation force
surface with anexerted
area
layer of oil (index of refraction 1.5) floats on the on the 2surface?
strongly reflected wavelength is of 3 m . What is the total radiation force exerted
surface of the puddle. Of the following, the most
(A) 500 reflected
strongly nm wavelength is on
(A)the2 surface?
10 6 N
(B) 550 nm (B) 21 10
(A) 10 56 NN
(A) 500 nm
(C) 600 nm (C) 55
(B) 550 nm
(D) 650 nm (B) 1 10 N
2 10 N
(C) 600 nm (D)
(C) 23 N 10 5 N
(E) 700 nm
(D) 650 nm (E)
(D) 63 NN
(E) 700 nm
(E) 6 N

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67
-61-
84. The hydrogen lines observed in the spectrum of 85. Protons used in cancer therapy are typically
the quasar 3C9 are shifted so far into the red that accelerated to about 0.6c . How much work must
84. The hydrogen lines observed in the spectrum of 85. Protons used in cancer therapy are typically
their wavelengths are three times as long as those be done on a particle of mass m in order for it to
the quasar 3C9 are shifted so far into the red that accelerated to about 0.6c . How much work must
observed in the light from hydrogen atoms at rest reach this speed, assuming it starts at rest?
their wavelengths are three times as long as those be done on a particle of mass m in order for it to
in a laboratory on Earth. If it is assumed that the
observed in the light from hydrogen atoms at rest reach this speed,
(A) 0.25mc 2 assuming it starts at rest?
shift is entirely due to the relative motion of
in a laboratory on Earth. If it is assumed that the
3C9 and Earth, the relative speed of the quasar is (B)
(A) 0.60mc 2
0.25mc 2
shift is entirely due to the relative motion of
(A) 2c
3C9 and Earth, the relative speed of the quasar is 2
(C)
(B) 0.60mc 2
0.67mc
(B) c 2
(A) 2c
(C) 0.8c 0.67mc 2
(D) 1.25mc
(C)
(B) c 2
(D) 0.5c (E) 1.25mc 2
(D) 1.60mc
(C) 0.8c
(E) 0.3c
(D) 0.5c (E) 1.60mc 2
86. The sign of the charge carriers in a doped
(E) 0.3c semiconductor can be deduced by measuring
86. The sign of the charge carriers in a doped
which of the following properties?
semiconductor can be deduced by measuring
(A) Specific
which heat
of the following properties?
(B) Thermal conductivity
(A) Specific heat
(C) Electrical resistivity
(B) Thermal conductivity
(D) Magnetic susceptibility
(C) Electrical resistivity
(E) Hall coefficient
(D) Magnetic susceptibility
(E) Hall coefficient

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69
-63-
87. In the experimental setup above, two masses, m1 and m2 ,
arethe
87. In connected by a massless
experimental stringtwo
setup above, over a massless
masses, pulley.
m1 and m2 ,
Mass m slides
are connected
1 on a frictionless surface. The values of
by a massless string over a massless pulley. the
two
Massmasses can be
m slides onmeasured, as well
a frictionless as the
surface. distance
The d and
values of the
1
the speed
two ofcan
masses mass
be m 1 as it passes
measured, x1 asand
as well theagain at x2d. The
distance and
experiment
the speed ofcan be m
mass usedastoitdo whichx ofand
passes the again
following?
at x . The
1 1 2
I. Demonstrate
experiment can be momentum conservation
used to do which of the following?
II. Demonstrate energy conservation
I. Demonstrate momentum conservation
III. Measure the value of the acceleration due to gravity
II. Demonstrate energy conservation
(A)
III. IMeasure
only the value of the acceleration due to gravity
(B) II only
(A) I only
(C) III only
(B) II only
(D) I and II
(C) III only
(E) II and III
(D) I and II
(E) II and III

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71
-65-
88. An airplane drops a payload while traveling due 89. Two balls, identical in every way except that one
north, parallel to the ground, at a constant speed has twice the mass of the other, are dropped from
88. An airplane drops a payload while traveling due 89. Two balls, identical in every way except that one
of 100 m/s. If air resistance is neglected, what is rest from the same height so that they both reach
north, parallel to the ground, at a constant speed has twice the mass of the other, are dropped from
the velocity of the payload relative to the plane terminal speed before hitting the ground. If it is
of 100 m/s. If air resistance is neglected, what is rest from the same height so that they both reach
4.0 s after it is released? assumed that the drag force varies like the speed
the velocity of the payload relative to the plane terminal speed before hitting the ground. If it is
squared, what is the ratio of the terminal speeds
(A) s0after it is released?
4.0 assumed that the drag force varies like the speed
of the balls? (Note: The subscripts h and l
(B) 40 m/s down squared, what is the ratio of the terminal speeds
(A) 0 denote the heavy and light masses, respectively.)
(C) 80 m/s down of the balls? (Note: The subscripts h and l
(B) 40 m/s down
(D) 100 m/s north and 40 m/s down denoteu the heavy and light masses, respectively.)
(C) 80 m/s down (A) h 1
(E) 100 m/s south and 40 m/s down
(D) 100 m/s north and 40 m/s down uul
(E) 100 m/s south and 40 m/s down (A) h 1
u
(B) hl 2
uuhl
(B) 2
u
(C) hl 2
uul
(C) h 2
u
(D) hl 2 2
uuhl
(D) 2 2
u
(E) hl 4
uuhl
(E) 4
ul

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72 -66-
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73
-67-
90. One end of a horizontal, massless spring is attached to a wall.
A mass of 0.30 kg is attached to the other end of the spring
90. One end of a horizontal, massless spring is attached to a wall.
and rests on a table. The mass is displaced 0.030 m from its
A mass of 0.30 kg is attached to the other end of the spring
equilibrium position and released. It has a speed of 0.040 m/s
and rests on a table. The mass is displaced 0.030 m from its
as it passes through its equilibrium position. In the absence of
equilibrium position and released. It has a speed of 0.040 m/s
friction, what is the total mechanical energy of the system?
as it passes through its equilibrium position. In the absence of
(A) 0.24what
friction, mJ is the total mechanical energy of the system?
(B) 0.38 mJ
(A) 0.24 mJ
(C) 0.48 mJ
(B) 0.38 mJ
(D) 0.75 mJ
(C) 0.48 mJ
(E) 0.96 mJ
(D) 0.75 mJ
(E) 0.96 mJ

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74 -68-
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-68-
SCRATCH WORK

75
-69-
93. An inertial reference frame S moves at constant
speed
93. An with respect
inertial reference to frame
a second
S inertial
moves at reference
constant
frame S. An observer in S measures the
speed with respect to a second inertial reference energy
E, momentum p, and position x of
frame S. An observer in S measures the energy a moving
particle
E, at time p,
momentum t for
anda position
particularxevent. An
of a moving
observeratintime
particle S measures energy Eevent.
t for a particular , momentum
An
p , and position x at time t for
observer in S measures energy E , momentum the same
moving
p , and particle
positionatxtheatsame
time event.
t forWhich
the sameof the
following
moving is an expression
particle at the sameofevent.
a relativistic
Which of the
91. The diagram above shows a Carnot cycle for an invariant for this event?
following is an expression of a relativistic
idealdiagram
91. The air conditioner, whicha is
above shows to cool
Carnot a house
cycle for anon a invariant
(A) x for x this event?
hot
idealsummer day. The which
air conditioner, air conditioner
is to coolabsorbs
a househeat
on a (B)
(A) xp xp
at the lower temperature inside and pumps
hot summer day. The air conditioner absorbs heat it to (C) tp t p
(B)
the environment
at the at the higher
lower temperature insidetemperature
and pumps outside.
it to (D) tE t E
(C)
2 2
Which of the following gives the
the environment at the higher temperatureratio of the heat
outside. (E) E 2 E pc
(D) E E 2
pc
Q bc absorbed
Which in the house
of the following (i.e.,
gives thebetween
ratio of points
the heatb (E) E 2 pc
2
E2 pc
2

and c on the cycle) to the work done during the 94. Consider three identical, ideal capacitors. The first
Q bc absorbed in the house (i.e., between points b
cycle? capacitor three
94. Consider is charged to a voltage
identical, V0 and then
ideal capacitors. The first
and c on the cycle) to the work done during the
(A) 0
cycle? disconnected from the battery. The other
capacitor is charged to a voltage V0 and then two
(B) 0.033 capacitors,
disconnected initially
from theuncharged
battery. and
Theconnected
other two in
(A) 0
(C) 0.97 series, are then connected across theconnected
first
(B) 0.033 capacitors, initially uncharged and in
(D) 1.0 capacitor. What is the final voltage on the first
(C) 0.97 series, are then connected across the first
(E) 30.
(D) 1.0 capacitor?
capacitor. What is the final voltage on the first
(E) 30.
92. A particle in an infinite square well with walls at capacitor?
V
2 2 (A) 0
92. xA=particle
0 and inx =anLinfinite squareE well9 with walls
has energy . The at V5
22 (A) 0
92 mL
2
V5
= 0 and xthat
xprobability = Lthe energyisEbetween 2x .= The
hasparticle 0 and (B) 0
2mL V3
x = L/6 is that the particle is between x = 0 and
probability (B) V0
3
(C) 0
x(A) 1/36is
= L/6 V02
(B) 1/6 (C) 2V
(A) 1/36 20
(C) 1/3 (D)
(B) 1/6 3
(D) 1/2 2V 0
(C) 1/3 (D)
(E) 1 (E) V03
(D) 1/2
(E) 1 (E) V0

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76 -70-
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SCRATCH WORK

77
-71-
95. A charge of 5.0 µC is distributed uniformly 96. The magnetic field inside a long coil of wire
around a ring 1.0 m in radius. A point charge of (solenoid) has a certain magnitude and direction
95. A charge of 5.0 µC is distributed uniformly 96. The magnetic field inside a long coil of wire
+3.0 µC is at the center of the ring. The work when the coil is air filled. If a diamagnetic
around a ring 1.0 m in radius. A point charge of (solenoid) has a certain magnitude and direction
required to move the point charge 1.0 m in a material is inserted in the coil, how do the
+3.0 µC is at the center of the ring. The work when the coil is air filled. If a diamagnetic
direction normal to the plane of the ring is most magnitude and direction of the magnetic field
required to move the point charge 1.0 m in a material is inserted in the coil, how do the
nearly change?
direction normal to the plane of the ring is most magnitude and direction of the magnetic field
(A) 40 mJ
nearly Magnitude
change? Direction
(B) 80 mJ (A) Increases
Magnitude Same
Direction
(A) 40 mJ
(C) 100 mJ (B) Increases Opposite
(B) 80 mJ (A) Increases Same
(D) 140 mJ (C) Decreases Same
(C) 100 mJ (B) Increases Opposite
(E) 270 mJ (D) Decreases Opposite
(D) 140 mJ (C) Decreases Same
(E) 270 mJ (E) No change Opposite
(D) Decreases Opposite
(E) No change Opposite

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78 -72-
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SCRATCH WORK

79
-73-
97. The figure above shows two identical simple pendulums, each with mass m and suspended by a massless rod
of length a. The pendulums are coupled by a massless spring of force constant k. The coordinates qi measure
97. The figure above shows two identical simple pendulums, each with mass m and suspended by a massless rod
the angular displacements from vertical, as shown. Which of the following gives the Lagrangian for the
of length a. The pendulums are coupled by a massless spring of force constant k. The coordinates qi measure system?
(Assume small angular displacements qi .)
the angular displacements from vertical, as shown. Which of the following gives the Lagrangian for the system?
(Assume small
1 2angular displacements
1 qi .) 1 2
(A) L ma q 21 q 22 mga q 21 q 22 ka (q2 q1 )2
2 2 2
1 1 1 2
(A) L 1 ma 22 q 221 q 22 mga q 2 q 2 12 ka 2 (q2 q1 )2
2
(B) L 2 ma q 1 q 2 21 mga q 211 q 22 ka (q2 q1 )
2 2 2
1 1 1 2
(B) L 1 ma 22 q 221 q 22 mga q 2
q 2
12 ka 2 (q2 q1 )2
2
(C) L 2 ma q 1 q 2 21 mga q 211 q 22 ka (q2 q1 )
2 2 2
1 1 1 2
(C) L 1 ma 22 q 221 q 22 1 mga q 221 q 22 ka (q2 q1 )2
(D) L 2 ma q 1 q 2 2 mga q 1 q 2 2
2 2
1 1
(D) L 1 ma 22 q 221 q 22 1 mga
2
2 q 1 q 22
2
(E) L 2 ma q 1 q 2 2 ka (q2 q1 )
2 2
1 2 2 2 1 2
(E) L ma q 1 q 2 ka (q2 q1 )2
2 2

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80 -74-
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-74-
SCRATCH WORK

81
-75-
98. The spacing between the parallel Bragg planes in 99. Consider an electron in the n 4, 1 state in
a certain crystal is d . Electrons of fixed energy,
98. The spacing between the parallel Bragg planes in 99. hydrogen. Which
Consider an of the
electron following
in the n 4, final 1states
statecan
in
corresponding to a given wavelength l , are
a certain crystal is d . Electrons of fixed energy, NOT be reached by an allowed transition?
hydrogen. Which of the following final states can
incident on the crystal. Which of the following is
corresponding to a given wavelength l , are 3,
(A) nbe reached 2by an allowed transition?
the minimal condition for strong reflection for at NOT
incident on the crystal. Which of the following is
least two different angles? (B) nn 3, 12
the minimal condition for strong reflection for at (A) 3,
(A) ltwo ddifferent angles?
least (C) nn 3,
(B) 3, 10
(D)
(C) nn 3,2, 00
(A) l dd
(B)
2 (E) n
(D) n 2, 1, 0 0
d
(B) l 2d
(C)
2 (E) n 1, 0
(D)
(C) l 2d d
(D) d
(E) l d
2
d
(E) l
2

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82 -76-
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SCRATCH WORK

83
-77-
57
100. A room-temperature Mössbauer absorption spectrum for the 14.4 keV gamma-ray transition of Fe is
3
illustrated in the figure above. From the data, it can be deduced that the lifetime of the excited state is
2
approximately
(A) 100 ms
(B) 100 ms
(C) 100 ns
(D) 100 ps
(E) 100 fs

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this test.

84
-78-
SCRATCH WORK

85
-79-
I
NOTE: To ensure prompt processing of test results, it is important that you fill in the blanks exactly as directed.
SUBJECT TEST

A. Print and sign


your full name PRINT: ___________________________________________________________________
(LAST) (FIRST) (MIDDLE)
in this box:
SIGN: ____________________________________________________________________

6. TITLE CODE
Copy this code in box 6 on Copy the Test Name and Form Code in box 7 on your answer
your answer sheet. Then 7 7 9 7 6 sheet.
0 0 0 0 0
fill in the corresponding
ovals exactly as shown.
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Physics
TEST NAME ___________________________________
3
4
3
4
3
4
3
4
3
4
GR1777
FORM CODE ___________________________________
5 5 5 5 5
6 6 6 6 6
7 7 7 7 7
8 8 8 8 8
9 9 9 9 9

GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS SUBJECT TEST


B. The Subject Tests are intended to measure your achievement in a specialized field of study. Most of the questions are
concerned with subject matter that is probably familiar to you, but some of the questions may refer to areas that you
have not studied.
Your score will be determined by the number of questions you answer correctly. Questions you answer incorrectly or
for which you mark no answer or more than one answer are counted as incorrect. Nothing is subtracted from a score
if you answer a question incorrectly. Therefore, to maximize your score, it is better for you to guess at an answer than
not to respond at all.
You are advised to use your time effectively and to work as rapidly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend
too much time on questions that are too difficult for you. Go on to the other questions and come back to the difficult
ones later if you can.
YOU MUST INDICATE ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THE SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET. No credit will be given
for anything written in this examination book, but you may write in the book as much as you wish to work out your
answers. After you have decided on your response to a question, fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
BE SURE THAT EACH MARK IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE OVAL. Mark only one answer to each
question. No credit will be given for multiple answers. Erase all stray marks. If you change an answer, be sure that all
previous marks are erased completely. Incomplete erasures may be read as intended answers. Do not be concerned that
the answer sheet provides spaces for more answers than there are questions in the test.

Example: Sample Answer

What city is the capital of France? A B C D E CORRECT ANSWER


(A) Rome PROPERLY MARKED
A B C D E
(B) Paris
A B C D E
(C) London IMPROPER MARKS
A B C D E
(D) Cairo
A B C D E
(E) Oslo

DO NOT OPEN YOUR TEST BOOK UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Educational Testing Service


86 Princeton, New Jersey 08541
Worksheet for the GRE Physics Test, Form GR1777
Answer Key and Percentages* of Test Takers Answering Each Question Correctly

QUESTION CORRECT QUESTION CORRECT


P+ P+
Number Answer RESPONSE Number Answer RESPONSE
1 E 92 51 B 33
2 E 41 52 B 29
3 E 70 53 D 39
4 B 64 54 B 56
5 E 30 55 B 45
6 B 47 56 B 64
7 C 59 57 D 46
8 B 64 58 A 69
9 D 91 59 C 20
10 D 59 60 A 57
11 C 41 61 B 50
12 E 79 62 D 36
13 D 77 63 A 63
14 A 76 64 E 78
15 C 48 65 D 43
16 D 53 66 C 52
17 D 74 67 E 77
18 C 34 68 A 71
19 C 70 69 D 52
20 D 60 70 D 43
21 E 43 71 E 32
22 A 49 72 C 49
23 B 50 73 E 74
24 C 31 74 A 53
25 B 51 75 C 19
26 E 66 76 E 74
27 A 71 77 C 43
28 C 47 78 B 41
29 D 63 79 C 54
30 E 32 80 D 26
31 E 32 81 C 20
32 A 39 82 D 59
33 A 23 83 C 25
34 B 82 84 C 55
35 D 53 85 A 38
36 D 56 86 E 50
37 D 52 87 E 66
38 E 24 88 B 44
39 C 86 89 B 47
40 A 23 90 A 70
41 E 28 91 E 25
42 D 44 92 B 55
43 C 41 93 E 70
44 A 85 94 D 24
45 A 37 95 A 22
46 A 76 96 C 34
47 A 53 97 A 52
48 B 52 98 D 22
49 B 49 99 B 48
50 C 30 100 C 21

Total Correct: _____________

Total Scaled: _____________

* The numbers in the P+ column indicate the percentages of test takers in the United States who answer each
question correctly.

GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book 87 | Page


Score Conversions for the GRE Physics Test, Form GR1777

TOTAL SCORE
Total Correct Scaled Score Total Correct Scaled Score
84-100 990 43 590
83 980 42 580
82 970 41 570
81 960 40 560
80 950 38-39 550

79 940 37 540
78 930 36 530
77 920 35 520
76 910 33-34 510
75 900 32 500

74 890 31 490
73 880 30 480
72 870 28-29 470
71 860 27 460
70 850 26 450

69 840 25 440
68 830 23-24 430
67 820 22 420
66 810 21 410
65 800 20 400

64 790 18-19 390


63 780 17 380
62 770 16 370
61 760 14-15 360
60 750 13 350

59 740 12 340
58 730 11 330
57 720 9-10 320
56 710 8 310
55 700 7 300

54 690 6 290
53 680 5 280
52 670 4 270
51 660 1-3 260
50 650 0 250

49 640
48 630
47 620
46 610
44-45 600

88 | Page GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book


Enter your last name, first name initial (given name), and
1. NAME middle initial if you have one. GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS ® - - SUBJECT TEST SIDE 1
Omit spaces, apostrophes, Jr., II., etc. First
Name Middle
Last Name only (Family Name or Surname) - First 15 Letters Initial Initial Use only a pencil with soft, black lead (No. 2 or HB) to complete this answer sheet.
DO NOT USE INK Be sure to fill in completely the space that corresponds to your answer choice.
Completely erase any errors or stray marks.
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
4
B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B BE SURE EACH MARK IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE INTENDED SPACE AS ILLUSTRATED HERE: .
YOU MAY FIND MORE RESPONSE SPACES THAN YOU NEED. IF SO, PLEASE LEAVE THEM BLANK.
3

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 1 A B C D E 24 A B C D E 47 A B C D E 70 A B C D E 93 A B C D E
2
763338

89176-02954 • TF212E70

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 2 A B C D E 25 A B C D E 48 A B C D E 71 A B C D E 94 A B C D E
F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F 3 A B C D E 26 A B C D E 49 A B C D E 72 A B C D E 95 A B C D E
1

G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G 4 A B C D E 27 A B C D E 50 A B C D E 73 A B C D E 96 A B C D E
H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
Q3442/1-2/2

5 A B C D E 28 A B C D E 51 A B C D E 74 A B C D E 97 A B C D E
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 6 A B C D E 29 A B C D E 52 A B C D E 75 A B C D E 98 A B C D E

GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book


J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J 7 A B C D E 30 A B C D E 53 A B C D E 76 A B C D E 99 A B C D E
K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 8 A B C D E 31 A B C D E 54 A B C D E 77 A B C D E 100 A B C D E
L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L 9 A B C D E 32 A B C D E 55 A B C D E 78 A B C D E 101 A B C D E
M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 10 A B C D E 33 A B C D E 56 A B C D E 79 A B C D E 102 A B C D E
N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 11 A B C D E 34 A B C D E 57 A B C D E 80 A B C D E 103 A B C D E

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 12 A B C D E 35 A B C D E 58 A B C D E 81 A B C D E 104 A B C D E
P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P 13 A B C D E 36 A B C D E 59 A B C D E 82 A B C D E 105 A B C D E

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 14 A B C D E 37 A B C D E 60 A B C D E 83 A B C D E 106 A B C D E
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 15 A B C D E 38 A B C D E 61 A B C D E 84 A B C D E 107 A B C D E
S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 16 A B C D E 39 A B C D E 62 A B C D E 85 A B C D E 108 A B C D E
T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T 17 A B C D E 40 A B C D E 63 A B C D E 86 A B C D E 109 A B C D E
All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U 18 A B C D E 41 A B C D E 64 A B C D E 87 A B C D E 110 A B C D E
V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V 19 A B C D E 42 A B C D E 65 A B C D E 88 A B C D E 111 A B C D E
W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W 20 A B C D E 43 A B C D E 66 A B C D E 89 A B C D E 112 A B C D E
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21 A B C D E 44 A B C D E 67 A B C D E 90 A B C D E 113 A B C D E
Copyright ® 2012 by Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 22 A B C D E 45 A B C D E 68 A B C D E 91 A B C D E 114 A B C D E
®

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 23 A B C D E 46 A B C D E 69 A B C D E 92 A B C D E 115 A B C D E
– – – – – – – – – – – – Item responses continued on reverse side.

2. 3. DATE OF BIRTH 4. LAST FOUR DIGITS OF 7. TEST NAME (on back cover of
5. REGISTRATION 6. TITLE CODE your test book)
YOUR NAME: SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (on back cover of
Month Day Year
(Print) Last Name (Family or Surname) First Name (Given) M.I. NUMBER (from your admission ticket) your test book)
(U.S.A. only)
Jan.
MAILING ADDRESS: 0 0 0 0
FORM CODE (on back cover of
Feb. your test book)
(Print) P.O. Box or Street Address
Mar. 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

April 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
City State or Province
May 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8. TEST BOOK SERIAL NUMBER
(number in upper right corner of front cover of
your test book)
June 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Country ZIP or Postal Code July 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Aug. 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
CENTER: SHADED AREA FOR ETS USE ONLY
City State or Province Sept. 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Oct. 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Country Center Number Room Number Nov. 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Dec. 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
SIGNATURE:

89 | Page
SIDE 2 CERTIFICATION STATEMENT
Please write the following statement below, DO NOT PRINT.
“I certify that I am the person whose name appears on this answer sheet. I also
SUBJECT TEST agree not to disclose the contents of the test I am taking today to anyone.”
Sign and date where indicated.

COMPLETE THE
CERTIFICATION STATEMENT,
THEN TURN ANSWER SHEET
OVER TO SIDE 1.

SIGNATURE: DATE:
Month Day Year

BE SURE EACH MARK IS DARK AND COMPLETELY FILLS THE INTENDED SPACE AS ILLUSTRATED HERE: .

record of this test or the cancellation will be sent to the recipients you indicated, and there will be no scores for this test on your GRE file.
YOU MAY FIND MORE RESPONSE SPACES THAN YOU NEED. IF SO, PLEASE LEAVE THEM BLANK.

If you want to cancel your scores from this test administration, complete A and B below. You will not receive scores for this test. No
116 A B C D E 148 A B C D E 180 A B C D E 212 A B C D E
117 A B C D E 149 A B C D E 181 A B C D E 213 A B C D E
118 A B C D E 150 A B C D E 182 A B C D E 214 A B C D E
119 A B C D E 151 A B C D E 183 A B C D E 215 A B C D E
120 A B C D E 152 A B C D E 184 A B C D E 216 A B C D E

IF YOU DO NOT WANT THIS ANSWER SHEET TO BE SCORED


121 A B C D E 153 A B C D E 185 A B C D E 217 A B C D E
122 A B C D E 154 A B C D E 186 A B C D E 218 A B C D E
123 A B C D E 155 A B C D E 187 A B C D E 219 A B C D E
124 A B C D E 156 A B C D E 188 A B C D E 220 A B C D E
125 A B C D E 157 A B C D E 189 A B C D E 221 A B C D E
126 A B C D E 158 A B C D E 190 A B C D E 222 A B C D E
127 A B C D E 159 A B C D E 191 A B C D E 223 A B C D E
128 A B C D E 160 A B C D E 192 A B C D E 224 A B C D E
129 A B C D E 161 A B C D E 193 A B C D E 225 A B C D E
130 A B C D E 162 A B C D E 194 A B C D E 226 A B C D E
131 A B C D E 163 A B C D E 195 A B C D E 227 A B C D E
132 A B C D E 164 A B C D E 196 A B C D E 228 A B C D E
133 A B C D E 165 A B C D E 197 A B C D E 229 A B C D E

B. Sign your full name here:


134 166 198 230

To cancel your scores from this test administration, you must:


A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E
135 A B C D E 167 A B C D E 199 A B C D E 231 A B C D E
136 A B C D E 168 A B C D E 200 A B C D E 232 A B C D E
137 A B C D E 169 A B C D E 201 A B C D E 233 A B C D E
138 A B C D E 170 A B C D E 202 A B C D E 234 A B C D E
139 A B C D E 171 A B C D E 203 A B C D E 235 A B C D E
140 A B C D E 172 A B C D E 204 A B C D E 236 A B C D E
141 A B C D E 173 A B C D E 205 A B C D E 237 A B C D E
142 A B C D E 174 A B C D E 206 A B C D E 238 A B C D E
143 A B C D E 175 A B C D E 207 A B C D E 239 A B C D E
144 A B C D E 176 A B C D E 208 A B C D E 240 A B C D E
145 A B C D E 177 A B C D E 209 A B C D E 241 A B C D E
A. Fill in both circles here . . .

146 A B C D E 178 A B C D E 210 A B C D E 242 A B C D E


147 A B C D E 179 A B C D E 211 A B C D E

TR TW TFS TCS 1R 1W 1FS 1CS 2R 2W 2FS 2CS

FOR ETS USE ONLY 3R 3W 3FS 3CS 4R 4W 4FS 4CS

5R 5W 5FS 5CS 6R 6W 6FS 6CS

90 | Page GRE ® Physics Test Practice Book


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