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UNIT 1

SAFETY

Objectives of Unit 1
1.1 Introduction
1.2 When things go wrong
1.3 Safety culture
1.4 Safety- factors
Self-assessment test
Progress test
Answers to self-assessment test
Bibliography / Webography
OBJECTIVES OF UNIT 1

The main objectives are:


 understand the safety factors
 use standard words and phrases
 send messages according to the models
 understand the connection between organizational and safety
culture

1. Safety
"Built in Spain; owned by a Norwegian; managed from Glasgow; chartered by the
French; crewed by Russians; flying a Liberian flag; carrying an American cargo; spilling
oil onto the Welsh coast".

Headline The Independent - February 22, 1996, after a crude-oil carrier was wrecked
off the coast of Wales.

1.1 Introduction
These last 2 decades accident-prevention in the nautical trade has had enormous attention
from both national and international authorities, and from ship owners and -builders.
Especially after a few major shipping-disasters in the early nineties, inquiries into the causes
of accidents have resulted in a greater emphasis on safety in navigation.
International investigation into marine accidents has shown that some 80% of all maritime
mishaps, accidents and disasters are caused by human failure or crew's negligence.
The investigation has shown that the most frequent cause of marine disasters lies with
communication, or rather mis-communication, both intership, intra-ship and between vessels
and Vessel Traffic Service-stations (VTS-stations).
1.2 When things go wrong...
Small or massive fires, flooding that will cause such a list that the vessel will capsize and be
wrecked, collisions, groundings, acts of piracy, persons overboard, injuries and casualties,
major environmental pollutions, minor damages or damages beyond repair any mishap,
incident, accident or disaster will inevitably have consequences for the vessel and cargo, her
crew and the environment. These consequences may range from catastrophic to minor.
When there is a total loss of ship and/or cargo, loss of lives, or a widespread and severe
environmental damage, we speak of catastrophic consequences.
When there is severe damage to ship and/or cargo, when seriously injured persons require
hospitalisation, or when there is severe environmental damage, we speak of major
consequences. When there is significant damage to ship and/or cargo, when injured persons
require medical attention, or when there is significant local damage to the environment, we
speak of moderate consequences. When there is minor damage to ship and/or cargo, when
persons are suffering from minor injuries that do not require medical attention, or when there
is hardly any environmental damage, we speak of minor consequences that are negligible.

1.3 Safety culture

Organisational culture is one feature widely implicated in accidents across safety critical
industries.

Safety culture is one aspect of organisational culture. Safety culture encompasses the values,
beliefs and attitudes held within the organisation that guide the way people behave in the
workplace. It shapes the decisions people make, their priorities and the actions they take.

Poor safety culture may render an organisation more vulnerable to accidents. A positive and
improving safety culture is a critical component of effective risk and safety management
systems.

1.4 Safety-factors
The safety of passengers and crew, ship and cargo is determined by both internal and external
factors, but most of all by the Human Factor.The internal factors (IF) that may influence
safety are: the ship's dimensions and draft, her rudder, propulsion system and navigational
instruments.The external factors (EF) are formed by weather conditions, currents and tides,
characteristics of fairways and unforeseen events. In documents the term "Act of God"
indicates that the shipowner will not be held responsible for damage caused by natural
disasters.Good seamanship refers to The Human Factor (HF) and depends on the quality of
the seafarers on board. And because most vessels have been manned with multi-lingual crews,
special attention should be paid to the introduction of the internationally standardised form of
maritime communication on every ship in the world.

Self-assessment Test

Supply the missing (linking) words

Human factors is an important component of safety management in public


transport.

Human factors and ergonomics is an applied science concerned … studying


and optimising the performance of individuals and teams in the workplace. It
draws on methods and principles from psychology and other behavioural and
social sciences, … engineering, biomechanics and physiology.

The primary aim of human factors in safety critical industries (… transport) is


to reduce error and improve safety, efficiency and effectiveness … an
understanding of human capabilities and limitations, and the way people
interact … other people, the equipment they operate, and their living and
work environment.

Human factors is concerned with understanding … the performance of the


individual … of the team as a whole.

Progress test
Give the right form of the verbs:

Human Factors (be) a science that (focus) on how humans (interact) with
the environment in their workplace. It (examine) the workplace factors that
influence the decisions and actions of workers.

No one (go) to work (intend) to be injured. The decisions and actions that
workers (take) make sense to them at the time given their goals, knowledge
and focus of attention.

The human factors approach to an investigation (ask) why a worker's


decision or action (make) sense to that worker at the time.
Answers to self-assessment test

Supply the missing (linking) words

Human factors is an important component of safety management in public transport.

Human factors and ergonomics is an applied science concerned with studying and optimising the performance of
individuals and teams in the workplace. It draws on methods and principles from psychology and other behavioural
and social sciences, as well as engineering, biomechanics and physiology.

The primary aim of human factors in safety critical industries (including transport) is to reduce error and improve
safety, efficiency and effectiveness through an understanding of human capabilities and limitations, and the way
people interact with other people, the equipment they operate, and their living and work environment.

Human factors is concerned with understanding both the performance of the individual and of the team as a whole.

Bibliography / Webography
1. Georgescu, M. Maritime English, Students’ Coursebook, 3rd year, 2nd
term (on www.cmu-edu.eu)
2. Georgescu, M. Outboard Communication, (2010), Nautica Press,
Constanţa, ISBN 978-606-8105-13-0.
3. Chirea-Ungureanu, C. English Grammar in Use-Exercises and Quizzes,
(2010), Editura Nautica, ISBN 978-606-8105-14-7.
4. Chirea-Ungureanu, C. Developing English Communication and
Understandimg Skills on Board Ship, (2013), Editura Crizon, Constanta,
ISBN 978-606-8476-09-4.
5. Van Kluijven, P. C..The International Maritime Language Programme.
(IMLP) (2005) CD- ROM. Alkmaar: Alk & Heijnen Publishers. Maritime
English CD-ROM
6. Murphy, R. Essential Grammar In Use. 1st ed. Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press, 1990 (ISBN 0 521 35770 5).
7.http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simpre-prepro/exercises
(visited 12.04.2013)