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Asian J. Dairy & Food Res., 34(2) 2015: 98-103

Print ISSN:0971-4456 / Online ISSN:0976-0563

2015: 98-103 Print ISSN:0971-4456 / Online ISSN:0976-0563 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE


Energy consumption during manufacturing of different dairy products in a commercial dairy plant: A case study

P.K. Prabhakar*, P.P. Srivastav and K. Murari 1

Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal–721 302 (India).

Received: 18-08-2014

Accepted: 19-03-2015

DOI: 10.5958/0976-0563.2015.00020.2

ABSTRACT The purpose behind the energy optimization and management for dairy plant is to control
ABSTRACT The purpose behind the energy optimization and management for dairy plant is to control

ABSTRACT The purpose behind the energy optimization and management for dairy plant is to control the energy consumption for getting the overall maximum efficiency. For a case study of energy consumption in manufacturing of dairy products, a multi-product dairy plant was selected. The product technology and dairy operations of different dairy products were explored under batch process to identify the high energy consuming centers termed as critical control point (CCPs). Various equations for heat and mass transfer, flow rate, electrical consumption, were used to find the actual utilities consumption (steam, water, electrical energy) in dairy operations. The data of this case study was compared with previous study and found that the energy conserving status was declining. It is, therefore, essential that existing plant should be well instrumented and plant manufactures be encouraged to give more accurate service consumption figures so that energy audit can be made accurately.

Key words: Commercial dairy plant, Critical control points (CCPs), Dairy products, Data Energy consumption, Utilities.

INTRODUCTION Energy is the most critical element for economic development as its optimized use has become an issue of International importance (Katre and Murari, 2007). Dairy and other food processing industry usea high amount of energy in processing, manufacture and storage of various products due to obsolete technology (Janzekovic, 2009 and Charan and Prasad, 1993). Energy in dairy plants directly refers to the utility’s generation and consumption such as steam, refrigeration, electricity and water. Water and steam are used as heat transferring mediumin dairy operations. Water consumption is very high in most of the dairy operations (Hall 1957, Patil 1977, Gedam 1996, Upadhyay 1998, Pandya 1998) Dairy industry consists of various sections like raw milk reception, processing section, products section, storage and dispatch section. It is estimated that one third of the energy used by the dairy industry is actually in the processing operations and the refrigeration plant accounts about 50-60% of total electrical consumption (Bhadania, 1998) as average refrigeration is most energy input (Arunachalam, 1982 and Rivet, 1988).In order to run the plant economically and efficiently, accurate data on consumption of above mentioned utilities must be available for examining and then improving the energy consumption because of an increase in the energy

*Corresponding author’s e-mail: 1 Department of Dairy Engineering Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Science and Technology, Patna, Bihar (Bihar).

consumption is also due to inefficient use of dairy equipment (Kumar and Anand, 2003).

The conservation activities are generally described as a series of actions to stop the wastage by modifying the systems, by rectifying or replacing the equipment. (Kumar, 2008). By applying these techniques in the dairy industries, the cost of dairy products can be reduced.The new technological equipment like CIP system in food processing industry, replacing the depreciated one, will improve the competitiveness and efficiency of the companies’ business activities and will promote fulfillment of the requirements of the district European Union (EU) legislation also (Janzekovic, et al. 2009).

The engineering and technical approach to determine the productivity and plant efficiency on a daily basis has not been carried out as it has been in other industries. For all these practices, it becomes essential to collect data on energy required for manufacture of different dairy products and to analyze the same to identify the high energy consuming centers termed as “Critical Control Points (CCPs)” (Verma, 1988) for effective energy conservation and management. This informative and generative work will help the DairyPlant Authority to take appropriate action for effective and solid energy conservation and management. This data can also be

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system. The steam flow ratewas calculated by the following equation (Das, 2005).

used for suitable energy generating equipments and to adopt measures to reduce the energy utilization in the processing of dairy products. The energy crisis has become a big issue for the entire world. Hence, there is a need to study on energy conservation techniques. Keeping in view all these aspects, a project has been undertaken to study the energy conservation in a commercial dairy plant.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant details: The study was made with a commercial dairy plant having the milk reception capacity of approx. 200000 litre per day.The plant is mainly engaged in the processing of fluid milk, which is marketed under different names depending upon the fat content viz. Gold (6%), Shkati (4.5%), Cow milk (3.5%), Healthee (3%), Smart (1.5%). Apart from these, Plant also manufactures ghee, peda, table butter, paneer, ice-cream, dahi, lassi and matha etc.

Measuring Techniques Temperature, pressure and flow measurement: The energy consumed in the various dairy operations was evaluated by measuring the different parameters like temperature, pressure, flow measurement and steam measurement. Temperature at various points was measured by using a temperature recorder and dial thermometer already connected and fitted with the equipments. The place where no automated system for temperature measurement, there temperature was measured by using a mercury thermometer. Pressure was measured by pressure gauge alreadyconnected with the specific equipment and pipeline.

Flow measurement is an important parameter for the calculation of milk, cold water and hot water for the various operations. Various techniques and methods were used to determine the flow rate of milk, cold and hot water. Any of the following two methods may be used.

Bucket method: In this method the flow rate was measured by collecting a quantity of liquid in a container in specified time. In each, two or threereplications were made and the average was taken from the result for calculation. This method was used to measure the flow rate of water in can washing operations, in milk and cream pasteurizer.

Tank level method: In this method, the basic principle involved is the change in the level of the tank was noted in afixed time. The mass flow rate was calculated from tank diameter or cross sectional area and density.

Steam measurement:The following two methods were employed to measure the steam rate in various sections.

Enthalpy balanced method:The method was used to determine the steam consumption in the direct steam injection

the steam consumption in the direct steam injection (1) Where, W s is the steam flow


Where, W s is the steam flow rate (kg/h), W p is water or product flow rate (kg/h), C p is the specific heat of water or product, (kJ/kg- o C), T 1 is the initial temperature of hot or product ( o C), T 2 is finaltemperature heated water or product, H s is enthalpy of steam at an injection pressure (kJ/kg), C pc is the specific heat of condensate (kJ/kg- o C). This method was employed in milk and cream pasteurizer hot water heating.

Condensate weighing method: Especially this method is used where steam is supplied for heating surface. The amount of condensate was taken as the measuring parameter for determining the steam used. The amount of condensate coming out was measured in a known time. When condensate was discharged from the trap, the surplus heat in the condensate caused a flash of steam. This flash per kg of condensate was taken as a correction factor corresponding to the pressure.

Lyle (1947) gave the correction factor for flashing to be applied to condensate that was being discharged at atmospheric pressure in Table 1.

Calculation methods: The different procedures, methods and mathematical formulae employed in the calculation of utilities consumption in various sections and equipments are discussed below.

Water: Water is mostly used for cleaning purposes like cleaning of equipments, storage tanks, cans, crates etc. in the various sections. The consumed water was calculated by multiplying the water flow rate and time required for cleaning. Steam properties: Steam consumption in the khoa, paneer and ice-cream mixing was determined by the condensate weighing method.The steam pressure at various heating points of the equipments and the pipeline was taken from the steam gauge fitted with equipments. Considering steam used in the dairy

TABLE 1: Correction factor for flash steam





(kgf/cm 2 )

(kg/kg of

(kgf/cm 2 )

(kg/kg of





































plant is saturated. Thus, the temperature, enthalpy, and latent heat of saturated steam at its absolute pressure P s (Pa) would be calculated by following empirical equations developed from the data given in the steam table

equations developed from the data given in the steam table (2) (3) (4) Where, T s
equations developed from the data given in the steam table (2) (3) (4) Where, T s
equations developed from the data given in the steam table (2) (3) (4) Where, T s




Where, T s is temperature of saturated steam at P s ( o C), L s is latent heat of saturated steam (kJ/kg) , H s is enthalpy of saturated steam at P s ( o C) and P s is saturation steam pressure (kgf/cm 2 )

Refrigeration: The refrigeration of product in cold storage is done by direct expansion of air chillers employed in the dairy industry. Refrigeration load, in this case is calculated by:

industry. Refrigeration load, in this case is calculated by: (5) Where, M = Refrigerant mass flow


Where, M = Refrigerant mass flow rate (kg/h), D = compressor bore diameter (m), L is compressor stroke (m),N is the rpm of compressor, n is the number of cylinder; V g is specific volume of refrigerant at suction (m 3 /kg). The net refrigerant effect was calculated by the formula (Gear, 1977)

effect was calculated by the formula (Gear, 1977) (6) Where, Q is a net refrigeration effect


Where, Q is a net refrigeration effect (kJ/kg), H f is enthalpy at the discharge of expansion valve (kJ/kg),H g is enthalpy at the suction of the compressor (kJ/kg) and total refrigeration effect (kJ/h) is given by M*Q. Chilling of raw milk and pasteurized milk by using chilled water and the refrigeration load are calculated by:

chilled water and the refrigeration load are calculated by: f (7) Where, Q is refrigeration load(MJ/kg),Mis



Where, Q is refrigeration load(MJ/kg),Mis chilled water mass flow rate (kg/h), C p is the specific heat of chilled water, a T 1 is the initial temperature of chilled water ( o C), T 2 = final temperature of chilled water ( o C) and f is a factor which relates the heat loss in the chilled water pipeline while conveying it from the chilled water tank to the equipment (the value is taken as 1.1)

Electricity: The energy meter is an instrument which can directly measure electrical energy consumption. However, the electrical consumption may be calculated from watt or

HP rating and time of operation of drive motors of pump, conveyers, agitators, blowers, and fans. And the technique can be used for lighting devices. Consumed energy, unit of kWh=

----------------------------------------------------------- wattrating of the devices*no of hours used (8)


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of the study carried out for the consumption of water, steam, refrigeration and electricity in the manufacturing of peda, dahi, ghee, ice-cream, lassi, butter, pasteurized milk, and paneer in a commercial dairy plant are presented and discussed. On the basis of the product technology of aforesaid products, the required utilities consumptions were checked and calculated. After examining and analyzing the data, the possible recommended conservation techniques were presented.

Water consumption: The water consumption in different operations and sections such as cleaning purpose, products section, different storage and processing section was calculated and discussed separately. The calculated value and major findings of water consumption has been presented in Table 2 and 3 respectively. In milk reception section, maximum water consumption was found in case of crate washing while minimum in tanker washing.

The water consumption study was done on daily average no. of cans, tanker and crates. It is clear from the table 2 and result that the amount of water used per can washing was found to be more compared to the previous study(Gedam, 1966). Water consumed in the tanker and crate washing was found less compared to data presented by Gedam, 1996, which can be improved by implementing a complete mechanized washing process. The quantity of water used for washing the cans after caustic washing is the major cause for high consumption, so it requires significantly good worker efficiency, optimal number of flushing, control on water flow rate during flushing and timing.

Table 3 indicates that the water consumed in pasteurizer cleaning in the plant was found 9920 liter per cleaning where as 5548 litres in the case of cream pasteurizer.

TABLE 2: Water consumption in milk reception section.







(l/per entity)

Can washing (1105 cans per day)



Tanker washing (17 tankers per day)



Crate washing (3723 crates per day)



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TABLE 3: Water consumption in processing section and storage tank cleaning


No ofcleaning

Water consumption


Milk pasteurizer cleaning



Cream pasteurizer cleaning



Water required for cleaning of RMTs



Cream tank cleaning



Pre pack



Lassi culturing tank



Flavoring tank



Aging tank



Water consumption in various tanks like aging, flavoring, lassi culturing, RMTs, cream tank can be managed by manual control, awareness and judicious use.

The total water consumption in pasteurizer cleaning varied with the capacity of pasteurizer, final flushing, draining time, operator skill and care.

The fundamental use of water in product section is mainly for the washing purpose. Apart from this, it was found that water is used for lowering the temperature of product up to a desired level. It is evident from the Fig. 4 that peda manufacturing consumed more water. In the plant, 6 kettles were used per batch having capacity only 80 kg each. So, the amount of processed milk is very low, but the regular and intermittent washing of kettles and floor is a necessary operation at each batch.

Steam consumption: The steam consumptionsfor the various operations in the selected dairy are presented. The steam consumption in can, tanker and crate washing of the plant are given in Table 4. Steam consumption per can, tanker and crate per cleaning was found to be 0.351, 3.21 and 0.234 kg (Table 4).

The steam requirement in milk pasteurization was found to be 37.26 kg per 1000 liters of milk processed (Table 5). The steam requirement in pasteurization of cream in the plant was reported as 97.57 kg per 1000 liter of cream processed. In both the cases, steam used indicated more amount than reported value by Gedam (1996) viz. 33.1 kg and 63.6 kg per 1000 liters of sample processed respectively.

Fig. 2 reveals that peda manufacturing is a most steam consuming among the experimented dairy products since, for peda, milk is concentrated by boiling and finally a dry mass was prepared with approximately 76% total solid. Steam consumption has a considerable relationship with the TSS of the products, but not with coagulated products (Abhichandani, 1977). Steam was consumed more in lassi (28-30% TSS) and less in dahi (17-18% TSS) preparation.

TABLE 4: Steam and thermal energy consumption milk reception section for cleaning and sanitizing.


No. of









Can sanitization












17 3.210 8626.27 Crate 3723 0.234 628.83 FIG 1: Water consumption of dairy products (Product

FIG 1: Water consumption of dairy products (Product Section)

1: Water consumption of dairy products (Product Section) FIG 2: Steam consumption in manufacturing of dairy

FIG 2: Steam consumption in manufacturing of dairy products

Refrigeration consumption: The refrigeration consumption for processing and storage of milk has been presented in the Table 6. The daily refrigeration load in the plant is most valuable for the cold storage. Refrigeration consumption in cold storage was found 32990.491 kJ for 24 hour operation. Cold storage is the heart of the dairy industry. But still, significant saving can be made through proper management and care.

Electrical energy consumption: Daily electrical energy consumption in the dairy plant is calculated and tabulate in Table 7. The maximum amount of electricity consumption was recorded in utilities generation section, so called engineering section.

Critical Control Points (CCPs) determination for the plant and suggested conservation methodology: The higher and unexpected consuming utilities in the dairy equipments and operations are considered as CCPs, for which various possible recommendations for energy conservation techniques were made.



TABLE 5: Steam and thermal energy consumption in processing section and storage tank cleaning


Milk processed (l)

Steam consumed (Kg/1000 l milk)

Thermal Energy (GJ/1000 l milk)

Milk pasteurization




Cream pasteurization





Steam consumed (Kg/day)

Thermal energy (GJ/day)

Milk pasteurizer cleaning



Cream pasteurizer cleaning



Raw milk storage tank cleaning



Silos cleaning



Cream tank cleaning



Pre- pack cleaning



Lassi culturing tank cleaning



Flavoring tank cleaning



Aging tank cleaning



TABLE 6: Refrigeration load for milk processing and cold storage


Refrigeration load (MJ/day)

Milk pasteurization


Cream pasteurization


Raw milk chilling


Market milk chilling


Paneer making


Ice cream making


Cold storage


TABLE 7: Electrical energy consumption in the different section of dairy plant.


Electrical energy (kWh)

Product section


Processing section


Utilities generation (Engg. Section)


RMRD (Raw milk reception dock)


Energy conservation methods on water consumption- The following suggestions are given optimal and efficient use of

utilities. In the plant, it has been found that water is flowing continuously throughout the day from hosepipes irrespective of whether water is used or not. Some ways for improving the utilization of water are given below.

· Dairy staff should be instructed for judicious use of water.

· Concerned man power must be trained in effective and optimal use.

· The end diameter and shut off valve of hose pipe should be a central point for users.

· There should a periodical examination of consumption and also be compared withearlier data.

· A water recovery system should be installed at various feasible points.

Energy conservation methods on steam consumption- The

most effective use of steam starts from the boiler, because the boiler is the source for producing the steam.

· Steam traps must be used and kept in best condition.

· Proper matching of temperature and pressure of fuel to the burner.

· Boiler blow down should be done in optimal time.

· Periodical checking of water softening plant to avoid the scaling

· Proper control of fuel gas temperature.

Besides these, the most important recommendation on dairy operations and equipment are:

· Most effective instrumentation and control system should be installed.

· Condensate should be utilized for heating or as feed water to the boiler.

· Continuous manufacturing of peda and ghee can save

thermal energy losses.

· Heat losses from product surface can be minimized by

heating the product in suitable scraped heat exchangers till

the products attain boiling temperature.

· There should an optimal gap between the cold, hot and steam pipelines

· Minimizing reprocessing of milk

Energy conservation method on refrigeration consumption

· Quick maintenance of leakage as soon as possible.

· Cold storage should not be left open.

· The chilled water pipeline should be monitored to ensure the insulation.

· Keep insure about the refrigerant leakage.

· Selecting right temperature for storing the products.

· Through educating man’s power about the proper use and handling of cold storageand freezer.

· Recirculation of chilled water.

Energy conservation methods of electrical energy:

· To ensure the proper matching of motor and machinery.

· Unnecessarily lighting should be avoided.

· Efficient pump should be installed.

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operation.The main features of this study to find out the energy consumption for various operations and equipments and to suggest ways and means for the improvement. The data of this case study was compared with previous study and found that the energy conserving status is declining. It is, therefore, essential that existing plant is instrumented well and at a significant level. Plant manufactures should be encouraged to give more accurate service consumption figures for the desire.

· Solar lighting plant must be installed.

· Machinery and conveying should be lubricated regularly.

CONCLUSIONS In these days, the cost of milk and milk based products is going up due to the cost of raw materials and energy required for processing. The cost of milk depends upon utilities consumption, such as water, steam, refrigeration and electricity. Thus, a case study was done to examine the status for the further improvement in the energy conservation

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Pandya, A. I. (1998). Energy Economics of Indigenous dairy products, A compendium of short\ term training course on energy conservation in dairy processing operations, SMC College of dairy science, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand. Patil, R. B. (1977). Water, steam and refrigeration consumption in multiproduct dairy plants. Unpublished M.Tech. Thesis, Agricultural Engineering Department, IIT. Kharagpur. Rivet (1982). Efficient use of energy in refrigeration system. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology. 35(3): 92-95 Upadhyay,J. B. (1998). Efficiency utilization of steam in dairy processing operations,A compendium of short term training course on energy conservation in dairy processing operations, SMC College of dairy science, Gujrat Agricultural University, Anand. Verma, R. D. (1988). Some aspects of energy conservation in dairy processing. Indian Dairyman. 41(7): 389-391.