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FISH SCALE MOLD AS AN ALTERNATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL

MATERIAL

Alec N. Tobias
Researcher

Mr. Carlos M. Oro


Research Adviser

Navotas National High School


M. Naval St., Sipac, Navotas City
Philippines, 1485

1
ABSTRACT

The study aims to find another use of Milkfish locally known as “Bangus”
(Chanoschanos) scales were regarded as waste materials which produced unpleasant odors
and clogged canals. Scales of this fish is abundant in Navotas City (Fishing Capital),
Philippines.

Nowadays, Organizations and environmental concerns are present everywhere. Thus,


the researcher conducted a survey from the market regarding the segregation of waste materials
specifically the fish scales. Based on the data gathered, the researcher found out that there is
an alarming rate of 32.5 kg fish scales wasted per day, 227.5 kg a week, 910 kg per month and
10,920 kg in one year.

Hence, it gives the idea to come up this project and thought that these fish scales can
be used as a raw material in making fish scale mold as an alternative instructional tool.

As the results of study, gives a clear indication that the fish scales can be used as an
additive for resin products to make it unique, attractive, harder and durable.

Also, the by-products or samples toys were submitted for extractable lead (Pb) test at
Department of Science and Technology, Industrial Technology Development Institute
Standards and Testing Division. The products passed the lead standard requirement of 90
mg/kg.

This alternative instructional material was used in Kindergarten to test its


effectiveness and usefulness. Based on the formative test, the mastery level attained in pre-
test is 62.50% and was increased in post-test into 97.73%, with an increment of 35.23% in
mastery level.

A successful study of this research would reduce the waste materials in the market
that causes unpleasant smell and clogged canals, its most important feature is its usefulness
as an instructional material and it could be a source of income for Navoteños.

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Table of Contents

Title Page 1
Abstract 2
Table of Contents 3
Acknowledgement 4
Introduction and Background of the Study 5-8
Statement of the problem
Significance or purposes of the study
Definition of terms Scope and limitations
Review of literature on the areas relevant to the study
Research Method and Process 9 - 15
Survey
Collection
Soaking and Drying
Boiling, Grinding and Drying
Pounding and Pulverizing
Silicon Mold Making
Mixing of Formulations
Casting
Physical Performance Test
Water Absorption
Compressive Strength
Flame Resistance
Freezing Resistance
Extractable Lead (Pb) Testing
Computation of Expenses and Market Value
Test for Effectiveness and Usefulness of the Material
Results and Findings 16 - 22
Conclusions & Recommendation 23
References 24
Appendices 25 – 38

3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to Ms. Emma D. Tayag (Head of Inorganic Chemistry Section), Ms.Hermelina

H. Bion (Division Chief), and Ms. Sonia A. Jalandoon (OIC Chemistry Laboratory) for

testing the chemical content of the pulverized Milkfish scales and to Mr. Elyson Keith P.

Encarnacion OIC, Inorganic Chemistry Section and Rosario T. Fuertes, MSc, RCh, for testing

the Extractable Lead (Pb) of fish mold under the Industrial Technology Development Institute

(ITDI) by the Standards and Testing Division.

To Mr.Leonilo G. Daan (Librarian Staff of ITDI) for giving me the procedures on

making resin figurines and helped me to complete my project, thank you very much.

To the fish vendors in San Roque Market and Malabon Market who willingly gave us

the fish scales which are the main concern of this project, I give my greatest thanks to you.

To my parents who are very supportive and understanding. To my research adviser,

for this opportunity and always there to guide me. To all my teachers and our beloved

principal Dr. Maria Cristina A. Robles for the moral support. Thank you so much.

Above all to our Almighty God!

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Introduction

Background of the Study

Navotas City is known as the


Fishing Capital of the Philippines

[The red mark represents
Navotas Fishport Complex,
located at North Bay Boulevard]

Navotas is known as the Fishing Capital of the Philippines. Locals heavily rely on seawater
and the city has been developed into a Marine Industrial Estate. One of the most abundant
product brought and caught is Milkfish, Chanos chanos, locally known as “bangus” or
“bangos”.
This study aims to give usefulness to Milkfish scales since they are regarded as wastes
that produce unpleasant odors and may end up clogging canals.
We wanted to use milkfish scale as an additive to resin, that can create different shapes
as an alternative instructional tool, and to be used in Kindergarten pupils to enhance the
learning skills and improve its competency in science or mathematics.
A great impact of the study is the production of the instructional materials that can be
used for education and business which may end up reducing the waste present in our
environment.

Statement of the Problem


1. Researcher aims to find other use for the fish scales that scatter and produce unpleasant
odors all through the market and wanted to help the environment.
2. We wanted to create a material cheaper than resin and use it as an additive that is still
durable and comparable to pure resin products.
3. Produce alternative instructional material for Kindergarten that can helps to enhance and
develop fine-motor skills and hand-eye coordination of the early grades.

5
Significance of the Study

The product intents to promote a concern for health. In a sense of decreasing the pollutants
that are present in our environment. If fish scales aren’t disposed properly they produce
unpleasant odors. It takes years for the scales to decompose and in due time these may become
a contributor in clogging of canals.

We have made these in forms of different shapes that have been used for educational
purposes. These interactive molds were given to children in the kindergarten and were used
in the teacher’s lesson, it proved to be effective and fun.

Not only does it lessen waste but can also be a source of income. A cheaper alternative to
pure resin figures. They are manipulative and can be molded into different shapes.

It aims to innovate the use of fish scales that are thrown away or pollutes the economy’s
environment. To make use of them and create a material both durable and useful.

Definition of Terms

Abundant - existing or available in large quantities; plentiful:

Resin - a sticky flammable organic substance, insoluble in water, exuded by some trees and
other plants (notably fir and pine). Compare with gum.

Synthetic - (of a substance) made by chemical synthesis, especially to imitate a natural product

Viscous - having a thick, sticky consistency between solid and liquid; having a high viscosity

Unstable - prone to change, fail, or give way; not stable

Hazardous – risky; dangerous

Unpleasant – causing discomfort, unhappiness, or revulsion; disagreeable

Innovate - make changes in something established, especially by introducing new methods,


ideas, or products

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Scope and Limitation

In this research, the researcher used the scales of Milkfish locally known as Bangus
(Chanoschanos) as an additive in resin. No other part of the said fish was used in this study.
This research was focused only on how this fish scales can be used as an additive in making
resin figurines and to produce alternative instructional materials, other things, results, and
effects which are produced and came up on the researcher research were not given much
attention and significance.

Review of Related Literature

A figurine is a statuette that represents a human, deity or animal. Figurines may be


realistic or iconic, depending on the skill and intention of the creator. The earliest were made
of stone or clay. Modern versions are made of ceramic, metal, glass, wood and plastic.

Modern figurines, particularly those made of plastic are often referred to as figures.
Sometime a plastic called Polyvinyl chloride is used with figures often referred to as a PVC
figure and sometimes if it's a collection a PVC set. They can encompass modern action figures
and other model figures as well as Precious Moments, Mr. Stubbs and Hummel figurines,
Bobbleheads and all kinds of memorabilia. Two companies which produce figurines are
Royal Doulton and Lladró. (The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States, 2004,
Cambridge University Press, 328 pages by Li Liu)

Resin is a natural or synthetic compound which begins in a highly viscous state and
hardens with treatment. Typically, resin is soluble in alcohol, but not in water. There are a
number of different classes of resin, depending on exact chemical composition and potential
uses. There are numerous applications for resins, ranging from art to polymer production, and
many consumers interact with products which contain resin on a daily basis.

Natural resin comes from plants. A classic example is pine sap, which has the
characteristic sharp odor of terpene compounds. Substance is very viscous but hardens
overtime.

7
Plant resin can be clear to dark brown in color, and it varies in opacity and hardness.
Some plant resin is also extremely volatile, since it contains unstable compounds.
For the most part, polymers made with “resins” are actually made with synthetic resin,
which is cheaper and easier to refine. Synthetic resin is much more stable, predictable, and
uniform

Most resin figurines are small, lightweight and detailed sculptures in sizes ranging
from 5 to 8 inches in height and weighing between 1 to 4 lbs. However, different types of
resin sculptures which are much larger and come with their own display stands. (By Tatyana
Ivanov, eHow Contributor)

Research Method and Process

Design and Details of the Project

The study was conducted for the intention to promote a concern for health. In a sense
of decreasing the pollutants that are present in our environment.

This research aims to innovate the use of fish scales that are thrown away or pollutes
the environment. To make use of them and create a material both durable and useful. To create
colorful and durable shapes for pupils to use and enhance their basic skills.

The number of respondents that were involved were 10 vendors. These respondents
were the ones who sell fish, specifically milkfish and resides in either the marketplaces of
Navotas or Malabon. The researcher chose to retrieve 10 respondents because it felt that the
said number is big enough and that it was the number that was manageable at the given time
frame. A series of questions regarding their knowledge about wasted fish scales were asked
in the survey and was required to be answered by all respondents that would participate,
although the inclusion of their names was optional.

The researcher decided to use standard “questionnaire in paper” form as a way to


retrieve needed results for the research because mainly it is convenient. It is convenient for
the researcher because the stated marketplaces are near the researcher’s residence. For the
respondents, they did not have to stop by in a certain place and answer the questionnaire. It
also goes without saying that the answers are kept in private.

8
The results of the survey were analyzed through using different graphs attained from
the results of the survey. It provided the researcher to easily show the behavior of the results.

Materials and Equipment

Ø Fish scales
Ø Resin
Ø Lime
Ø Sodium Hypochlorite
Ø Silicon
Ø Blender

I. Survey
1. How many fishes are you able to sell in a day?
2. How long does it take until every fish has been sold?
3. How many of these fish’s scales, do you think are being wasted?
4. Where are these fish’s scales being thrown out?
5. Who collects these thrashes?
6. Who is the person responsible for taking the trash out?

II. Procedures
1. Collecting of milkfish scale from the market
Fish used in the study is milkfish (Chanoschanos). Fish scales were gathered at Tres,
and Tangos marketplace in Navotas City and Bayan marketplace in Malabon City.

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2. Washing the fish scale with running water
Milkfish scales were washed with tap water until the scales are thoroughly clean.

3. Soaking
Create a mixture consisting of water, lime (apog), and sodium hypochlorite. The scales
were soaked for 3 hours. This makes the scales turn white.

4. Drying
Fish scales were air-dried for three days to prevent them from deteriorating before the
process begins.

10
5. Boiling, Grinding, and Drying
The fish scales were boiled for an hour at 100 . After boiling the scales were blended
and chopped into fine pieces. Let it dry until crisp.

6. Pounding and Pulverizing


Upon drying, the scales are ready to be pulverized.

7. Silicon Mold Making


Create a barricade and arrange the shapes preferred and put ½ inch allowance in every
side. Pour the silicon mixture. (100 ml of silicon + 5 ml catalyst) Let it dry and you
have your mold.

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8. Mixing of Formulations
Combine the pulverized fish scales and polyester resin. Stir and make mixture even.
(50g pulverized scales: 50g polyester resin + 2ml catalyst) Add toner to colorize the
shapes

9. Casting
Pour the mixture into the silicon mold. Let it dry for about 30 minutes or until product
hardens.

III. Testing
Sample Tiles
Pure resin, consists of 100% resin
Formulation one, consists of 50% resin and 50% pulverized scales
Formulation two, consists of 40% resin and 60% pulverized scales
Formulation three, consist of 30% resin and 70% pulverized scales

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A. Test for Water Absorption
The four sample tiles were soaked in 300 grams of water for three hours.

B. Test for Compressive Strength


The four sample tiles were placed between the top of two distant stands, each
tiles were tested by gradually increasing load until the tile had reach it limits
and broke.

C. Test for Burning Resistance


The four sample tiles were place above lit flames for three minutes.

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D. Test for Freezing Resistance
The four sample tiles were positioned in a freezer for three hours.

E. Extractable Lead (Pb) Testing


The samples (finished product) were sent to DOST IDTI Standards and Testing
Division for the testing of extractable lead found in the fish molds. Method used
was ISO 8124-3: 1997$ ; SMEWW², 3113 B.

F. Computation of Expenses and Market Value


The price of materials used were computed and solved.
153
Php 153 - Resin 1 kg *1,000 grams of resin
Php +60 - Hardener can make up to 48
Php 213 - Capital pieces of the product

4.237 USD – Capital Suggested Retail Price: 0.132 USD

G. Test for Effectiveness and Usefulness of the material in Education


The shapes were handed out to the teacher to be used by the kindergarten
children as an interactive tool.

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Results and Findings

Analysis of Data and Interpretation of results and findings

Survey

Average fishes sold per day From this column graph,


we can say that on

500 average from the three


marketplaces there are
0
Tres Bayan Tangos 130 kilograms of fish sold

kilograms
per day.

Average Time in which all fishes are sold


From this pie graph, it is shown
that almost half of merchants
have sold out their fishes by 1
o’clock in the afternoon
11:30 AM 12 noon 1:00 PM 2:00 PM

From this column graph, we can


Average fish scales wasted per day
say that on average from the three
100
marketplaces there are one-fourth
0 kilograms of fish scales that are
Tres Bayan Tangos
wasted per kilogram of fishes sold
kilograms
per day.

Timestamps for Scales


Wasted

1 year: 10,920 kg
We can conclude Annual time stamp

from the graphs that for wasted fish
there is an alarming 1 month: 910 kg scales. Showing the

rate of 32.5 kg of average scales
fish wasted per day. 1 week: 227.5 kg accumulated.


1 day: 32.5 kg

15
Table 1: Thickness, length and width and volume of samples with different formulation

Same data were used to compare the different tests done to the different formulation
of the samples.

Table 2: Mean of Water Absorption


Formulation Thickness Length Width Volume Weight

Pure resin 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch 2 inch3 (32, 25 g


mm) (101.6 (25.4 mm) 774.128
mm) mm2)

50% Pulverized 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch 2 inch3 (32, 25 g


fish scale + 50% mm) (101.6 (25.4 mm) 774.128
resin mm) mm2)

60% Pulverized 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch 2 inch3 (32, 25 g


fish scale + 40% mm) (101.6 (25.4 mm) 774.128
resin mm) mm2)

70% Pulverized 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch 2 inch3 (32, 25 g


fish scale + 30% mm) (101.6 (25.4 mm) 774.128
resin mm) mm2)

Formulation Water Absorption %

Pure resin 0%

50% Pulverized fish scale + 50% resin 0%

60% Pulverized fish scale + 40% resin 0%

70% Pulverized fish scale + 30% resin 0%

The samples were soaked in 300 grams of water for 3 hours. The data shows that all of
the formulations did not absorb water.

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Table 3: Compressive Strength

Formulation Mean of Compressive Maximum load in kg


Strength

Pure resin 0.5348 Kg/cm2 13.8 Kg (30 lbs)

50% Pulverized fish scale + 0.4456 Kg/cm2 11.5 Kg (25 lbs)


50% resin

60% Pulverized fish scale + 0.3565 Kg/cm2 9.2 Kg (20 lbs)


40% resin

70% Pulverized fish scale + 0.2674 Kg/cm2 6.9 Kg (15 lbs)


30% resin

The compressive strength of the different formulation was compared to the pure resin. The data
shows that results are almost the same with one another.

Table 4: Mean of Porosity

Formulation Porosity %

Pure resin 0%

50% Pulverized fish scale + 50% resin 0%

60% Pulverized fish scale + 40% resin 0%

70% Pulverized fish scale + 30% resin 0%

After soaking the samples in 300 grams of water for 3 hours, the volume of the all the
samples did not change.

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Table 5: Flame Resistance
Formulation Changes

Pure resin released foul odor and it easily turned


black, big portion of the resin was
damaged

50% Pulverized fish scale + 50% resin released an odor same with frying a
Milkfish and it did not burn easily,
little portion of the sample was
damaged

60% Pulverized fish scale + 40% resin released an odor same with frying a
Milkfish and it did not burn easily, the
fire did not flare up, a little portion of
the sample was damaged

70% Pulverized fish scale + 30% resin released an odor same with frying a
Milkfish and it did not burn easily, the
fire did not turn big and it seems like it
will stop, very little portion of the
sample was damaged

The results showed that all of them released odor and burned.

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Table 6: Freezing Resistance
Formulation Changes

Pure resin no change

50% Pulverized fish scale + 50% resin no change

60% Pulverized fish scale + 40% resin no change

70% Pulverized fish scale + 30% resin no change

The results showed that all of the samples did not show any changes at all.

Table 7: Extractable Lead Testing DOST-ITDI


Sample Sample Code Test Requested Test Method Result

Interactive ICS-2017-0164 Extractable GF-AAS 13.4 µg/kg


Fish Scale Materials
Blocks

The standard extractable lead found in toys is 90 mg/kg.

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Effectiveness and Usefulness Results

To test the effectiveness and usefulness of the Manipulative Instructional Materials, the
researcher used the said materials in Kindergarten II-Yellow class. With the help of the teacher-
in -charge the pre-test and post-test were administered.

The researcher noticed that only 5 out of 22 pupils got the perfect score and three (3)
pupils got the lowest score during pre-test. In order to enhance the skills of the students and
develops the fine-motor skill and hand-eye coordination. After the pre-test, the researcher and
the teacher- in- charge applies the Instructional materials on her discussion and gives group
activity in the class. During discussion and activity, the researcher found out that the pupils
were interested. They love sorting and matching the chunky shapes.

Then, the post-test was given to the same pupils. Based on the comparative analysis of
the test results, the Mastery level both pre-test and post-test gained 62.50% and 97.73%
respectively.

The improve performance of the students is relevant to the features of the materials,
because of its size is fit enough, easy to grasp and feature rounded corner and edges. That the
reasons why most of the pupils were interested and active during activity.

Hence, the researcher concluded that the products are effective and useful as
manipulative instructional materials.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TEST RESULTS
(FORMATIVE TEST)

120

100

80

Standard Deviation
60
Mastery Level
40 Mean

20

0

Pre- Post
Test Test

No. of HPS HSO LSO Range Mean Mastery SD


Cases Level

Pre-Test 22 8 8 2 6 5.00 62.50 1.34

Post Test 22 8 8 7 1 7.82 97.73 0.9

Based on the test results the Post Test got 97.73% Mastery Level compared with Pre-
Test gained 62.50% ML. This implies that the Instructional Materials used is effective and
useful for the pupils.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

The researcher concluded that we can minimize the waste material in market through
segregation of fish scales. Based on the results and findings of the study, the white granulated
texture of the pulverized Milkfish scales could be used as an additive and filler in resin. The
by-products are comparable with pure resin product. The production of figurine and different
shapes of toys as an alternative instructional material is cheaper and comparable with the
commercial resin figurine in terms of durability, flame and freezing resistance.
The researcher concluded that the 50-50 formulation is best among the three resin
bonded formulations. This formulation gives an indication that the quality of the product is still
equal. By using the 50-50 formulation the production of resin using 1 Kg of resin would be
doubled without changing the quality of the products.
To test the effectiveness and usefulness of the Manipulative Instructional Materials, the
researcher used the said materials in Kindergarten II- Yellow class. During activity, noticed
that the pupils were interested and loved sorting and matching the chunky shapes. The features
of the products can help the students to be active in the class. The size is enough and fit, these
are easy to grasp and has a feature rounded corner and edges. Most of the pupils are really
interested and active during activity. In addition to this the said products also passed the
required lead content standard for toys. Thus, the toys are safety to use.
The Comparative Analysis of test results indicates the good performance of the pupils.
The results show the highest increment of 35.23%. The Mastery level in pre-test and post-test
was 62.50% and 97.73% respectively.
Hence, the researcher concluded that the said products are effective and useful as
manipulative instructional materials. It can help the pupils to develop their fine-motor and
hand-eye-coordination. Also, to enhance students’ skills and improve teaching and learning
process.
Therefore, the researcher would like to recommend the use of the pulverized Milkfish
scales or other fish scales as an additive and filler in resin to produce different shapes and use
in making instructional Materials with good quality and enough quantity, with cheaper retailing
price and easy production. The researcher also believed that this study would help Navoteños
(residence in the Navotas City, Philippines) to earn extra income and has good impact to our
environment. It can help to lessen waste materials in the market.

22
References and Resources

Storer, Tracey I., Usinger, Robert L., Stebbins, Robert C., and Nybakken, James W.
(1979) General Zoology Sixth Edition McGraw-Hill Book Company, USA

Hickman C Jr., Roberts L., Larson A.,Ober C., and Garrison C. (2006) Integrated
Principles of Zoology Wm. C. Publishers

Charles Weichert and William (1979) Elements of Chordate Anatomy Fourth Edition
McGraw-Hill Inc.

Miller, M. Michael (2007). Minerals Yearbook. U.S. Geological Survey


.
Helfman, G.S., B.B. Collette and D.E. Facey (1997) The Diversity of Fishes Blackwell
Science


Jean Langenheim (2003) Plant Resins: Chemistry, evolution, ecology, and
ethnobotany", Timber Press, Portland, O

Kumagai, S., Bagarinao, T. U., & Unggui, A. (1985). Growth of juvenile milkfish
Chanos chanos in a natural habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 22(1), 1-6.

Calcium Oxide from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_oxide Accessed on June 9,


2017

Pauly, Daniel, and Rainer Froese 2001. Fish Stocks. In: Simon Levin (ed.). Encyclopedia

of Biodiversity. Academic Press, San Diego, Vol. 2: 801-814.

23
APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Measurement:

Table 1: Thickness, length and width and volume of samples with different formulation

Formulation Thickness Length Width Volume Weight

Pure resin 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch (25.4 2 inch3 (32, 25 g

mm) (101.6 mm) mm) 774.128

mm2)

50% Pulverized 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch (25.4 2 inch3 (32, 25 g

fish scale + 50% mm) (101.6 mm) mm) 774.128

resin mm2)

60% Pulverized 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch (25.4 2 inch3 (32, 25 g

fish scale + 40% mm) (101.6 mm) mm) 774.128

resin mm2)

70% Pulverized 0.5 inch (12.7 4 inches 1 inch (25.4 2 inch3 (32, 25 g

fish scale + 30% mm) (101.6 mm) mm) 774.128

resin mm2)

24
Table 2: Water Absorption

Trial Pure resin 50% 60% 70%


Pulverized fish Pulverized fish Pulverized fish
scale + 50% scale + 40% scale + 30%
resin resin resin
1 0% 0% 0% 0%

2 0% 0% 0% 0%

3 0% 0% 0% 0%

Table 3: Porosity

Trial Pure resin 50% 60% 70%


Pulverized fish Pulverized fish Pulverized fish
scale + 50% scale + 40% scale + 30%
resin resin resin
1 0% 0% 0% 0%

2 0% 0% 0% 0%

3 0% 0% 0% 0%

25
Appendix 2. Computation

A. Computation for the Water Absorption

% Water Absorption= Soaked weight in grams-Fixed weight in grams


Fixed weight in grams

Pure Resin
50-50 Formulation
1. 25-25x 100% = 0 1. 25-25x 100% = 0
25 25

2. 25-25x 100% = 0
2. 25-25x 100% = 0 25
25
3. 25-25x 100% = 0
3. 25-25x 100% = 0 25
25

60-40 Formulation 70-30 Formulation

1. 25-25x 100% = 0 1. 25-25x 100% = 0


25 25

2. 25-25x 100% = 0 2. 25-25x 100% = 0


25 25

3. 25-25x 100% = 0 3. 25-25x 100% = 0


25 25

26
B. Computation for the Mean Water Absorption

Mean= Total of the Water Absorption


No. of Trials

Pure Resin 50-50 Formulation

0 0
0 0
+ 0 + 0
0 0

0= 0% 0= 0%
3 3

60-40 Formulation 70-30 Formulation

0 0
0 0
+ 0 + 0
0 0

0= 0% 0= 0%
3 3

27
C. Computation for Compressive Strength

Compressive Strength= Breaking Load (KG)


Area

Pure Resin 50-50 Formulation


$%.' $$.)
1. = 0.5348 Kg/cm2 1. = 0.4456 Kg/cm2
().'*+, ().'*+,

$%.' $$.)
2. = 0.5348 Kg/cm2 2. = 0.4456 Kg/cm2
().'*+, ().'*+,

$%.' $$.)
3. = 0.5348 Kg/cm2 3. = 0.4456 Kg/cm2
().'*+, ().'*+,

60-40 Formulation 70-30 Formulation

-.( +.-
1. = 0.3565 Kg/cm2 1. = 0.2674 Kg/cm2
().'*+, ().'*+,

+.-
2. = 0.2674 Kg/cm2
-.( ().'*+,
2. = 0.3565 Kg/cm2
().'*+,

+.-
3.
-.(
= 0.3565 Kg/cm2 3. = 0.2674 Kg/cm2
().'*+,
().'*+,

28
D. Computation for the Mean Compressive Strength

Mean= Total of the Compressive Strength


No. of Trials

Pure Resin 50-50 Formulation

0.5348 Kg/cm2 0.4456 Kg/cm2


0.5348 Kg/cm2 0.4456 Kg/cm2
+ 0.5348 Kg/cm2 + 0.4456 Kg/cm2
1.6044 Kg/cm2 1. 3368 Kg/cm2

1.6044 Kg/cm2 1. 3368 Kg/cm2


3 3

= 0.5348 Kg/cm2 = 0.4456 Kg/cm2

60-40 Formulation 70-30 Formulation

0.3565 Kg/cm2 0.2674 Kg/cm2


0.3565 Kg/cm2 0.2674 Kg/cm2
+ 0.3565 Kg/cm2 + 0.2674 Kg/cm2
1. 0695 Kg/cm2 0.8022 Kg/cm2

1. 0695 Kg/cm2 0.8022 Kg/cm2


3 3

= 0.3565 Kg/cm2 = 0.2674 Kg/cm2

29
E. Computation for Porosity

% Porosity= Saturated weight of the sample-fixed weight of sample


Saturated weight of the sample-Weight of the sample

Pure Resin
50-50 Formulation
1. 25-25x 100% = 0 1. 25-25x 100% = 0
25 25
2. 25-25x 100% = 0 2. 25-25x 100% = 0
25 25
3. 25-25x 100% = 0 3. 25-25x 100% = 0
25 25

60-40 Formulation 70-30 Formulation

1. 25-25x 100% = 0 1. 25-25x 100% = 0


25 25

2. 25-25x 100% = 0 2. 25-25x 100% = 0


25 25

3. 25-25x 100% = 0 3. 25-25x 100% = 0


25 25

30
F. Computation for the Mean Porosity

Mean= Total of the Porosity


No. of Trial

Pure 50-50
Resin Formulation
0 0
0 0
+0 +0
0 0
0=0%/3 0=0%/3

60-40 70-30
Formulation Formulation
0 0
0 0
+0 +0
0 0
0=0%/3 0=0%/3

Page | 31

Appendix 3. UTILIZATION OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL.

Administered the Pre-Test

Administered the Post Test

Page | 32

After Pre-Test the teacher in charge used the instructional material in the class.

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Appendix 4. Sample Activity
Name: ____________________________________Date: _______________ Score:
_______

Directions: Encircle your ANSWER. Choose the correct shape and color from
Column B and match this in Column A.

Column A Column B

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Appendix 5. Survey Questionnaires:

Survey

1. How many fishes are you able to sell in a day?

___________________________________________________

2. How long does it take until every fish has been sold?

___________________________________________________
3. How many of these fish’s scales, do you think are being wasted?
___________________________________________________
4. Where are these fish’s scales being thrown out?
___________________________________________________
5. Who collects these trashes?
___________________________________________________
6. Who is the person responsible for taking the trash out?
___________________________________________________

Note: Questions to vendors are translated verbally in Filipino.


Page | 35

Appendix 6. Test Report of Extractable Lead (Pb)

Page | 36

The researcher conducted an interview in three marketplaces

The researcher removing scales from milkfish Collector of fish scales and entrails

Fish scales that are waste which produce unpleasant odors and pollutes the market

Page | 37

Fish Scale Mold as an Alternative Instructional Material

Page | 38