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Abaqus Verification Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual Abaqus 6.1 2 Verification Manual

Abaqus 6.12

Verification Manual

Abaqus Verification Manual Abaqus 6.1 2 Verification Manual

Abaqus

Verification Manual

Legal Notices

CAUTION: This documentation is intended for qualied users who will exercise sound engineering judgment and expertise in the use of the Abaqus Software. The Abaqus Software is inherently comple x, and the examples and procedures in this documentation are not intended to be exhaustive or to app ly to any particular situation. Users are cautioned to satisfy themselves as to the accuracy and results of their analyses.

Dassault Systèmes and its subsidiaries, including Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., shall not be responsible for the accuracy or usefulness of any analysis performed using the Abaqus Software or the procedures, examples, or explanations in this documentation. Dassault Systèmes and its subsidiaries shall not be responsible for the consequences of any errors or omissions that may appear in this documentation.

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Preface

This section lists various resources that are available for help with using Abaqus Uni ed FEA software.

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Support page.

1. Element Verification Overview

Contents

CONTENTS

Element verification tests: overview

1.1.1

Eigenvalue tests

Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements

1.2.1

Eigenvalue extraction for unconstrained patches of elements

1.2.2

Acoustic modes

1.2.3

Simple load tests

Membrane loading of plane stress, plane strain, membrane, and shell elements

1.3.1

Generalized plane strain elements with relative motion of bounding planes

1.3.2

Three-dimensional solid elements

1.3.3

Axisymmetric solid elements

1.3.4

Axisymmetric solid elements with twist

1.3.5

Cylindrical elements

1.3.6

Loading of piezoelectric elements

1.3.7

Love-Kirchhoff beams and shells

1.3.8

Shear flexible beams and shells:

I

1.3.9

Shear flexible beams and shells:

II

1.3.10

Initial curvature of beams and shells

1.3.11

Normal definitions of beams and shells

1.3.12

Constant curvature test for shells

1.3.13

Verification of section forces for shells

1.3.14

Composite shell sections

1.3.15

Cantilever sandwich beam: shear flexible shells

1.3.16

Thermal stress in a cylindrical shell

1.3.17

Variable thickness shells and membranes

1.3.18

Shell offset

1.3.19

Axisymmetric membrane elements

1.3.20

Cylindrical membrane elements

1.3.21

Verification of beam elements and section types

1.3.22

Beam added inertia

1.3.23

Beam fluid inertia

1.3.24

Beam with end moment

1.3.25

Flexure of a deep beam

1.3.26

Simple tests of beam kinematics

1.3.27

Tensile test

1.3.28

i

CONTENTS

Simple shear

1.3.29

Verification of the elastic behavior of frame elements

1.3.30

Verification of the plastic behavior of frame elements

1.3.31

Three-bar truss

1.3.32

Pure bending of a cylinder: CAXA elements

1.3.33

Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric temperature field: CAXA elements

1.3.34

Cylinder subjected to asymmetric pressure loads: CAXA elements

1.3.35

Cylinder subjected to an asymmetric pore pressure field: CAXA elements

1.3.36

Modal dynamic and transient dynamic analysis with CAXA and SAXA elements

1.3.37

Simple load tests for thermal-electrical elements

1.3.38

Hydrostatic fluid elements

1.3.39

Fluid link element

1.3.40

Temperature-dependent film condition

1.3.41

Surface-based pressure penetration

1.3.42

Gasket behavior verification

1.3.43

Gasket element assembly

1.3.44

Cohesive elements

1.3.45

Coriolis loading for direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis

1.3.46

Pipe-soil interaction elements

1.3.47

Element loading options

Continuum stress/displacement elements

1.4.1

Beam stress/displacement elements

1.4.2

Pipe stress/displacement elements

1.4.3

Shell, membrane, and truss stress/displacement elements

1.4.4

Cohesive element load verification

1.4.5

ELBOW elements

1.4.6

Continuum pore pressure elements

1.4.7

Continuum and shell heat transfer elements

1.4.8

Coupled temperature-displacement elements

1.4.9

Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements

1.4.10

Piezoelectric elements

1.4.11

Continuum mass diffusion elements

1.4.12

Thermal-electrical elements

1.4.13

Rigid elements

1.4.14

Mass and rotary inertia elements

1.4.15

Abaqus/Explicit element loading verification

1.4.16

Incident wave loading

1.4.17

Distributed traction and edge loads

1.4.18

Patch tests

Membrane patch test

1.5.1

Patch test for three-dimensional solid elements

1.5.2

ii

CONTENTS

Patch test for cylindrical elements

1.5.3

Patch test for axisymmetric elements

1.5.4

Patch test for axisymmetric elements with twist

1.5.5

Patch test for plate bending

1.5.6

Patch test for beam elements

1.5.7

Patch test for heat transfer elements

1.5.8

Patch test for thermal-electrical elements

1.5.9

Patch test for acoustic elements

1.5.10

Contact tests

Small-sliding contact between stress/displacement elements

1.6.1

Small-sliding contact between coupled temperature-displacement surfaces

1.6.2

Small-sliding contact between coupled thermal-electrical-structural surfaces

1.6.3

Small-sliding contact between coupled pore pressure-displacement elements

1.6.4

Finite-sliding contact between stress/displacement elements

1.6.5

Finite-sliding contact between a deformable body and a rigid surface

1.6.6

Finite-sliding contact between a deformable body and a meshed rigid surface

1.6.7

Finite-sliding contact between coupled temperature-displacement elements

1.6.8

Finite-sliding contact between coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements

1.6.9

Finite-sliding contact between coupled pore pressure-displacement elements

1.6.10

Rolling of steel plate

1.6.11

Beam impact on cylinder

1.6.12

Contact with time-dependent prescribed interference values

1.6.13

Contact between discrete points

1.6.14

Finite sliding between concentric cylinders—axisymmetric and CAXA models

1.6.15

Automatic element conversion for surface contact

1.6.16

Contact with initial overclosure of curved surfaces

1.6.17

Small-sliding contact with specified clearance or overclosure values

1.6.18

Automatic surface definition and surface trimming

1.6.19

Self-contact of finite-sliding deformable surfaces

1.6.20

Contact surface extensions

1.6.21

Adjusting contact surface normals at symmetry planes

1.6.22

Contact controls

1.6.23

Contact searching for analytical rigid surfaces

1.6.24

Multiple surface contact with penalty method

1.6.25

Automated contact patch algorithm for finite-sliding deformable surfaces

1.6.26

Surface-to-surface approach for finite-sliding contact

1.6.27

Surface smoothing for surface-to-surface contact

1.6.28

General contact in Abaqus/Standard

1.6.29

Interface tests

Thermal surface interaction

1.7.1

Coupling of acoustic and structural elements

1.7.2

iii

CONTENTS

 

Coupled thermal-electrical surface interaction

1.7.3

Friction models in Abaqus/Standard

1.7.4

Friction models in Abaqus/Explicit

1.7.5

Cohesive surface interaction

1.7.6

Rigid body verification

Rigid body mass properties

1.8.1

Tie and pin node sets

1.8.2

Rigid body as an MPC

1.8.3

Rigid body constraint

1.8.4

Including deformable element types in a rigid body

1.8.5

Connector element verification

Damped free vibration with initial conditions

1.9.1

Sinusoidal excitation of a damped spring-mass system

1.9.2

Multiple instances of connector elements

1.9.3

Individual connector option tests

1.9.4

Connector elements in perturbation analyses

1.9.5

Tests for special-purpose connectors

1.9.6

Special-purpose stress/displacement elements

Flexible joint element

1.10.1

Line spring elements

1.10.2

Distributing coupling elements

1.10.3

Drag chain elements

1.10.4

Miscellaneous tests

Rebar in Abaqus/Standard

1.11.1

Rebar in Abaqus/Explicit

1.11.2

Convection elements: transport of a temperature pulse

1.11.3

Continuum shells: basic element modes

1.11.4

Transverse shear for shear-flexible shells

1.11.5

Linear dynamic analysis with fluid link

1.11.6

Rigid bodies with temperature DOFs, heat capacitance, and nodal-based thermal loads

1.11.7

Analysis of unbounded acoustic regions

1.11.8

Nonstructural mass verification

1.11.9

Mass adjust verification

1.11.10

2.

Material Verification

Overview

Material verification: overview

2.1.1

iv

Mechanical properties

CONTENTS

Elastic materials

2.2.1

Viscoelastic materials

2.2.2

Mullins effect and permanent set

2.2.3

Hysteretic materials

2.2.4

Temperature-dependent elastic materials

2.2.5

Field-variable-dependent elastic materials

2.2.6

Large-strain viscoelasticity with hyperelasticity

2.2.7

Nonlinear large-strain viscoelasticity with hyperelasticity

2.2.8

Transient internal pressure loading of a viscoelastic cylinder

2.2.9

Rate-independent plasticity

2.2.10

Rate-dependent plasticity in Abaqus/Standard

2.2.11

Rate-dependent plasticity in Abaqus/Explicit

2.2.12

Annealing temperature

2.2.13

Temperature-dependent inelastic materials

2.2.14

Field-variable-dependent inelastic materials

2.2.15

Johnson-Cook plasticity

2.2.16

Porous metal plasticity

2.2.17

Drucker-Prager plasticity

2.2.18

Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity model

2.2.19

Equation of state material

2.2.20

Progressive damage and failure of ductile metals

2.2.21

Progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced materials

2.2.22

Creep

2.2.23

Concrete smeared cracking

2.2.24

Concrete damaged plasticity

2.2.25

Two-layer viscoplasticity

2.2.26

Brittle cracking constitutive model

2.2.27

Cracking model: tension shear test

2.2.28

Hydrostatic fluid

2.2.29

Composite, mass proportional, and rotary inertia proportional damping in Abaqus/Standard

2.2.30

Material damping in Abaqus/Explicit

2.2.31

Mass proportional damping in Abaqus/Explicit

2.2.32

Thermal expansion test

2.2.33

Thermal properties

Thermal properties

2.3.1

v

CONTENTS

3. Analysis Procedures and Techniques Overview

Procedures options: overview

Dynamic analysis

Modal dynamic analysis with baseline correction Steady-state dynamic analysis for two-dimensional elements Steady-state dynamic analysis for infinite elements Random response analysis Single degree of freedom spring-mass systems Linear kinematics element tests Mass scaling

Fluid dynamic analysis

Time accurate laminar vortex shedding Two-dimensional turbulent channel flow Lid-driven flow in square and skewed cavities Flow over a backward-facing step at Reynolds number 800 Flow through porous media

Crack propagation

Crack propagation analysis Propagation of hydraulically driven fracture

Substructuring

Substructure rotation, mirroring, transformation, and constraints Substructure recovery with * TRANSFORM Degenerated elements within a substructure

* SUBSTRUCTURE LOAD CASE with centrifugal loads Thermal-stress analysis with substructures Substructure preload history Substructure removal Substructure library utilities Substructure damping Substructures with rebar Frequency extraction for substructures Substructures with large rotations Coupled structural-acoustic analysis with substructures

Electromagnetic analysis

Eddy current analysis Magnetostatic analysis

vi

3.1.1

3.2.1

3.2.2

3.2.3

3.2.4

3.2.5

3.2.6

3.2.7

3.3.1

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.3.5

3.4.1

3.4.2

3.5.1

3.5.2

3.5.3

3.5.4

3.5.5

3.5.6

3.5.7

3.5.8

3.5.9

3.5.10

3.5.11

3.5.12

3.5.13

3.6.1

3.6.2

Piezoelectric analysis

CONTENTS

Static analysis for piezoelectric materials

3.7.1

Frequency extraction analysis for piezoelectric materials

3.7.2

General analysis procedures for piezoelectric materials

3.7.3

Submodeling

Submodeling: overview

3.8.1

Two-dimensional continuum stress/displacement submodeling

3.8.2

Three-dimensional continuum stress/displacement submodeling

3.8.3

Cylindrical continuum stress/displacement submodeling

3.8.4

Axisymmetric continuum stress/displacement submodeling

3.8.5

Axisymmetric stress/displacement submodeling with twist

3.8.6

Membrane submodeling

3.8.7

Shell submodeling

3.8.8

Surface element submodeling

3.8.9

Heat transfer submodeling

3.8.10

Coupled temperature-displacement submodeling

3.8.11

Pore pressure submodeling

3.8.12

Piezoelectric submodeling

3.8.13

Acoustic submodeling

3.8.14

Shell-to-solid submodeling

3.8.15

Gasket submodeling

3.8.16

Miscellaneous submodeling tests

3.8.17

Acoustic and shock analyses

Volumetric drag

3.9.1

Impedance boundary conditions

3.9.2

Transient acoustic wave propagation

3.9.3

Adaptive meshing applied to coupled structural-acoustic problems

3.9.4

CONWEP blast loading pressures

3.9.5

Blast loading of a circular plate using the CONWEP model

3.9.6

Model change

Model change: overview

3.10.1

Stress/displacement model change:

static

3.10.2

Stress/displacement model change:

dynamic

3.10.3

Stress/displacement model change:

general tests

3.10.4

Heat transfer model change: steady state

3.10.5

Coupled temperature-displacement model change: steady state

3.10.6

Contact model change

3.10.7

Acoustic model change: steady state

3.10.8

Pore-thermal model change

3.10.9

vii

CONTENTS

Symmetric model generation and analysis of cyclic symmetry models

Symmetric model generation and results transfer

3.11.1

Analysis of cyclic symmetric models

3.11.2

Abaqus/Aqua analysis

Aqua load cases

3.12.1

Jack-up foundation analysis

3.12.2

Elastic-plastic joint elements

3.12.3

Design sensitivity analysis

Design sensitivity analysis

3.13.1

Transferring results between Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

Transferring results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard

3.14.1

Transferring results from one Abaqus/Standard analysis to another Abaqus/Standard analysis

3.14.2

Transferring results from one Abaqus/Explicit analysis to another Abaqus/Explicit analysis

3.14.3

Transferring results with * BEAM GENERAL SECTION

3.14.4

Transferring results with * SHELL GENERAL SECTION

3.14.5

Adding and removing elements during results transfer

3.14.6

Transferring rigid elements

3.14.7

Transferring connector elements into Abaqus/Explicit

3.14.8

Transferring hourglass forces

3.14.9

Changing the material definition during import

3.14.10

Transferring results with plasticity

3.14.11

Transferring results with damage

3.14.12

Transferring results with hyperelasticity

3.14.13

Transferring results with viscoelasticity

3.14.14

Transferring results for a hyperelastic sheet with a circular hole

3.14.15

Transferring results with hyperfoam

3.14.16

Transferring results with orientation

3.14.17

Miscellaneous results transfer tests

3.14.18

Transferring results between dissimilar meshes

Transferring results between dissimilar meshes in Abaqus/Standard

3.15.1

Direct cyclic analysis

Direct cyclic and low-cycle fatigue analyses

3.16.1

Meshed beam cross-sections

Meshed beam cross-sections: overview

3.17.1

Meshing and analyzing a two-dimensional model of a beam cross-section

3.17.2

Using generated cross-section properties in a beam analysis

3.17.3

viii

Complex eigenvalue extraction

CONTENTS

 

Complex eigenvalue extraction

3.18.1

Eulerian analysis

CEL analysis of a rotating water disk

3.19.1

Smoothed particle hydrodynamic analysis

Smoothed particle hydrodynamic analysis

3.20.1

Co-simulation

Fluid-structure interaction of a cantilever beam inside a channel

3.21.1

Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation

3.21.2

Adaptive remeshing

Pressurized thick-walled cylinder

3.22.1

Error indicators

3.22.2

Frequency extraction using the AMS eigensolver

Frequency extraction using the AMS eigensolver

3.23.1

Steady-state dynamics with nondiagonal damping using the AMS eigensolver

Steady-state dynamics with nondiagonal damping using the AMS eigensolver

3.24.1

Periodic media analysis

Media transport

3.25.1

4.

User Subroutines

DFLUX

4.1.1

DISP

4.1.2

DLOAD

4.1.3

FRIC

4.1.4

FRIC_COEF

4.1.5

GAPCON

4.1.6

GAPELECTR

4.1.7

HARDINI

4.1.8

HETVAL

4.1.9

RSURFU

4.1.10

SDVINI

4.1.11

UAMP

4.1.12

UANISOHYPER_INV and VUANISOHYPER_INV

4.1.13

UEL

4.1.14

UELMAT

4.1.15

UEXPAN

4.1.16

UFLUID

4.1.17

ix

CONTENTS

 

UGENS

4.1.18

UHARD

4.1.19

UINTER

4.1.20

UMAT and UHYPER

4.1.21

UMATHT

4.1.22

URDFIL

4.1.23

USDFLD

4.1.24

UTEMP , UFIELD , UMASFL , and UPRESS

4.1.25

UVARM

4.1.26

UWAVE and UEXTERNALDB

4.1.27

VDISP

4.1.28

VDLOAD : nonuniform loads

4.1.29

VFRIC , VFRIC_COEF , and VFRICTION

4.1.30

VUAMP

4.1.31

VUEL

4.1.32

VUFIELD

4.1.33

VUHARD

4.1.34

VUINTER

4.1.35

VUINTERACTION

4.1.36

VUMAT : rotating cylinder

4.1.37

VUSDFLD

4.1.38

VUVISCOSITY

4.1.39

VWAVE

4.1.40

5.

Miscellaneous Options Miscellaneous modeling options

Adaptive mesh for solid elements in Abaqus/Standard

5.1.1

* ADJUST

5.1.2

* AMPLITUDE

5.1.3

Spatially varying element properties

5.1.4

* BOUNDARY

5.1.5

* CONSTRAINT CONTROLS

5.1.6

* COUPLING

5.1.7

* DISPLAY BODY

5.1.8

* EMBEDDED ELEMENT

5.1.9

* GEOSTATIC, UTOL

5.1.10

* IMPERFECTION and * PARAMETER SHAPE VARIATION

5.1.11

* INERTIA RELIEF

5.1.12

* SURFACE, TYPE=CUTTING SURFACE

5.1.13

* KINEMATIC COUPLING

5.1.14

* MATRIX INPUT

5.1.15

x

Mesh-independent spot welds

*

*

* PRE-TENSION SECTION

* RADIATION VIEWFACTOR: symmetries and blocking

*

* SHELL TO SOLID COUPLING

* STEP, EXTRAPOLATION Surface-based fluid cavities

* SURFACE BEHAVIOR

* TEMPERATURE, * FIELD, and * PRESSURE STRESS

* TIE Coupled pore-thermal elements

MPC

ORIENTATION

RELEASE

Miscellaneous output options

* ELEMENT MATRIX OUTPUT

* SUBSTRUCTURE MATRIX OUTPUT

Integrated output variables Rigid body motion output variables Element nodal forces in beam section orientation

xi

CONTENTS

5.1.16

5.1.17

5.1.18

5.1.19

5.1.20

5.1.21

5.1.22

5.1.23

5.1.24

5.1.25

5.1.26

5.1.27

5.1.28

5.2.1

5.2.2

5.2.3

5.2.4

5.2.5

1.0

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

This is the Veri cation Manual for Abaqus. It contains a large number of test cases that serve as basic verication of these programs. Each test case veries one or several well-de ned options in the code. The test cases are sufciently small that, in most cases, the co rrect results can be calculated by hand. This manual is divided into chapters based on the type of capability that is tested. The problems in the element veri cation chapter test the element library exte nsively. Other chapters document tests of materials, procedures, user subrout ines, miscellaneous options, and impo rting results from Abaqus/Explicit into Abaqus/Standard. In addition to the Verication Manual, there are two other manuals that contain worked problems. The Abaqus Benchmarks Manual contains benchmark pro blems (including the NAFEMS suite of test problems) and standard analyses used to evaluate the performan ce of Abaqus. The tests in this manual are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simplied versions of real problems. The Abaqus Example Problems Manual contains many solved examples that test the code with the type of problems that users are likely to solve. Many of these problems are quite difcult and test a combination o f capabilities in the code. The qualication process for new Abaqus releases includes r unning and verifying results for all problems in the Abaqus Example Problems Manual, the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual, and the Abaqus Veri cation Manual. It is important that a user become familiar with the Abaqus Benchmarks Manual, the Abaqus Example Problems Manual, and the Abaqus Verication Manual before any analysis is done to determine the level of verication that has been done of the capab ilities that will be used. The user should then decide whether any additional veri cation is necessary before starting the analysis. All input les referred to in the manuals are included with the Abaqus release in compressed archive les. The abaqus fetch utility is used to extract these input les for use. For example, to fetch input le ec12afe1.inp for “Eigenvalue extraction for singl e unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1, type

abaqus fetch job=ec12afe1.inp

Parametric study script ( .psf ) and user subroutine ( .f ) les can be fetched in the same manner. All les for a particular problem can be obtained by leaving off the le extension. The abaqus fetch utility is explained in detail in “Fetching sample input les,” Section 3.2.14 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual. It is sometimes useful to search the input les. The ndkeyword utility is used to locate input les that contain user-specied input. This utility is de ned in “Querying the keyword/problem database,” Section 3.2.13 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual.

1.0–1

1. Element Verification

“Overview,” Section 1.1

“Eigenvalue tests,” Section 1.2

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

“Simple load tests,” Section 1.3

“Element loading options,” Section 1.4

“Patch tests,” Section 1.5

“Contact tests,” Section 1.6

“Interface tests,” Section 1.7

“Rigid body veri cation,” Section 1.8

“Connector element veri cation,” Section 1.9

“Special-purpose stress/displ acement elements,” Section 1.10

“Miscellaneous tests,” Section 1.11

1.1

Overview

“Element verication tests: overview,” Section 1.1.1

1.1–1

OVERVIEW

1.1.1

ELEMENT VERIFICATION TESTS: OVERVIEW

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

This chapter de nes the basic tests used to verify the correct behavior of the elements in the Abaqus library and documents the results of the tests. Veri cation of various print and le output options is also provided in these tests. The test set is divided into cat egories as described below.

“Eigenvalue tests,” Section 1.2

This set includes two tests for most element types. In the rst of these tests all the modes and frequencies of a single, unrestrained element are extracted. The second test extracts the modes and frequencies of a patch of unrestrained elements. These tests verify th e correct representation of rigid body modes and the correctness of each element’s stiffness and mass. The tests also reveal any singular “hourglass” modes that may be present in reduced -integration elements. A third test is performed to extract the natural modes of vibration of an organ pipe modeled with acoustic elements. Only the number of zero-energy modes has been veri ed for the tests. The rst nonzero eigenvalue is shown only for purposes of comparison. These tests are not performed for heat transfer elements and some other nonstructural elements.

“Simple load tests,” Section 1.3

In these tests a simple domain, such as a rectangle in two dimensions or a rectangular prism in three dimensions, is discretized with the minimum number of elements. Sufcient kinematic boundary conditions are imposed to remove rigid body motion only. The loadings that are applied are ones for which the element being tested is capable of re presenting the solution e xactly; for example, rst-order elements are loaded so as to cause a constant stress state, while second-order elements are loaded into a linearly varying stress state. The result s are checked against exact calculations. Several such tests are necessary for structural elements (beams and shells) because of their complexity, and different tests are used for the elements that are based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and for those that provide shear exibility. The tests also include discontinuous structures (plates joined at an angle and frames) to test the discontinuous * NORMAL de nition option, and they include shells and membranes with variable thickness. The * TRANSFORM and * ORIENTATION options are veri ed in some tests. The problem descriptions contain the solution with which the results are compared. Where analytical solutions are not available, a lternative numerical solutions are used.

“Element loading options,” Section 1.4

In these tests the distributed loadings provided for each element are veried by checking the equivalent nodal forces, uxes, or charges that are calculated for each load type. All degrees of freedom are suppressed, and the various distributed loadings offered for the element type are applied in a series of

1.1.1–1

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

steps. The reactions are veri ed against exact calculation for the interpolation function. The values of the output variables presented are “exact” in the nite element sense and, unless noted otherwise, are also exact in the analytical sense. To check thermal loading, free and constrained th ermal expansions of elements are also tested.

Thermal loads are dened by giving the temperature,

coefcient. Generalized plane strain elements have an additio nal reference node associated with the generalized

plane strain condition. Depending on the particular test, degrees of freedom generalized plane strain reference node are constrained or left free.

plane strain reference node are constrained or left free. , along with a nonzero thermal expansion

, along with a nonzero thermal expansion

,
,

, and

left free. , along with a nonzero thermal expansion , , and of the “Patch tests,”

of the

“Patch tests,” Section 1.5

The patch test requires that, for an arbitrary “patc h” of elements, when a solution corresponding to a state of constant strain throughout the patch is prescribed on the boundary of the patch, the constant strain state must be obtained as the solution at all str ain calculation points th roughout the patch. For heat transfer elements the patch test requires that constant temperature gradients are calculated throughout the patch when the temperatures corresponding to the constant gradient solution are prescribed on the boundary. The acoustic elements are similarly tested for constant pressure gradients, and the thermal- electrical elements are tested for constant potential gradients. The patch test is generally considered to be a necessary and sufcient condition for convergence of the solution as the element size is reduced, excep t for shell elements of the type used in Abaqus, for which the test is not rigorously re quired, but for which it is common ly accepted as a valuable indicator of the element’s quality. Thus, this test plays a key role in the verication process. In the patch tests done in Abaqus a patch is de ned as a mesh with at least o ne interior element and several interior nodes. The elements in the patch are nonrectangular, although element edges are kept straight. (Second-order elements do not always pass the patch test if their edges are not straight.) The shell elements are tested for plate and cylindrical patches only. Basic veri cation of the geometric nonlinearity capability is included in these tests by prescribing large rigid body rotations of the models under state s of constant strain and verifying the invariance of the solution with respect to the rotation.

“Contact tests,” Section 1.6

This section contains tests of the various contact capabilities available in Abaqus.

“Interface tests,” Section 1.7

This section contains tests of the various interface capabilities available in Abaqus. This category currently consists of modeling surface interface conditions in heat transfer problems, coupled acoustic-structural problems, coupled the rmal-electrical problems, and friction.

“Rigid body verification,” Section 1.8

This section contains tests of the rigid body elements available in Abaqus/Explicit.

1.1.1–2

“Connector element verification,” Section 1.9

ELEMENT VERIFICATION

This section contains tests of the conn ector elements available in Abaqus.

“Special-purpose stress/displ acement elements,” Section 1.10

This section describes tests of some of the special-purpose stress/displacem ent elements available in Abaqus that are not tested in other sections of this manual. SPRING- and MASS-type elements are tested with the eigenvalue frequency analyses o f “Eigenvalue extraction for single unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1. ELBOW-type elements are also tested in “Eigenvalu e extraction for single unconstrained elements,” Section 1.2.1, as well as in the simple load test described in “Veri cation of beam elements and section types,” Section 1.3.22, an d the distributed load test described in “ELBOW elements,” Section 1.4.6. GAP-type elements are tested with the contact el ements, as described in “Contact between discrete points,” Section 1.6.14.

“Miscellaneous tests,” Section 1.11

This category contains tests of the rebar options, transport of a temperature pulse in convection elements, transverse shear for shear- exible shells, and linear dynamic analyses with uid link elements.

1.1.1–3

1.2 Eigenvalue tests

EIGENVALUE TESTS

“Eigenvalue extraction for single un constrained elements,” Section 1.2.1

“Eigenvalue extraction for unconstrain ed patches of elements,” Section 1.2.2

“Acoustic modes,” Section 1.2.3

1.2–1

1.2.1

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION FOR SINGLE UNCONSTRAINED ELEMENTS

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Product: Abaqus/Standard

Elements tested

Acoustic elements, beams, cohesive elements, elbows, membranes, pipes, shells, trusses, continuum elements (except coupled pore pressure-displacement and coupled tempe rature-displacement elements), piezoelectric elements, springs, and masses.

Problem description

The models consist of a single element. There are no boundary conditions, except as required in spring- mass (see ““SPRING, MASS, and JOINT2D elements” ) and piezoelectric tests. For the piezoelectric element tests one electric potential degree of freedom is constrained to remove singularities from the dielectric portion of the structural stiffness.

Note: There are no mass terms associated with potential degrees of freedom.

Results and discussion

The results presented in Table 1.2.1–1 through Table 1.2.1–7 show the number of zero-energy modes and the rst nonzero eigenvalue. Some elements have nonrigid-body zero-energy modes. Where two values are given in the zero-energy modes column, the rst is the number of zero-energy modes and the second is the number of rigid-body zero-energy modes. When an assembly of elements is tested, as in “Eigenvalue extraction for unconstrained patches of elements,” Section 1.2.2, the nonrigid-body zero-energy modes disappear. The eigenvalue is sho wn only for purposes of comparison. Elements with quadrilateral geometry can be degenerated to triangular shape; these results are denoted by “(triangle)” in the tables. Results for the piezoelectric elements are reported for Step 2.

Table 1.2.1–1 Acoustic elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

AC1D2

1

1.509 × 10 8 4.527 × 10 8 1.122 × 10 8 1.122 × 10 8 9.971 × 10 7 4.116 × 10 8

AC1D3

1

AC2D3

1

AC2D4 (triangle)

1

AC2D4

1

AC2D6

1

1.2.1–1

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

AC2D8 (triangle)

1

4.077 × 10 8 4.447 × 10 8 1.482 × 10 8 4.447 × 10 8 3.743 × 10 7 5.775 × 10 8 4.447 × 10 8 1.132 × 10 8 1.218 × 10 8 1.218 × 10 8 9.331 × 10 7 4.887 × 10 8 4.870 × 10 8 4.527 × 10 8

AC2D8

1

AC3D4

1

AC3D6

1

AC3D8

1

AC3D10

1

AC3D15

1

AC3D20

1

ACAX3

1

ACAX4 (triangle)

1

ACAX4

1

ACAX6

1

ACAX8 (triangle)

1

ACAX8

1

Table 1.2.1–2 Beam elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

B21

3

1.675 × 10 9 1.675 × 10 9 4.621 × 10 9 4.621 × 10 9 1.379 × 10 10 1.379 × 10 10 3.127 × 10 9 3.127 × 10 9 8.534 × 10 7 8.534 × 10 7 7.170 × 10 9 7.170 × 10 9 2.050 × 10 8

B21H

3

B22

3

B22H

3

B23

3

B23H

3

B31

6

B31H

6

B31OS

6

B31OSH

6

B32

6

B32H

6

B32OS

6

1.2.1–2

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

B32OSH

6

2.050 × 10 8 1.714 × 10 10 1.714 × 10 10

B33

6

B33H

6

 

Table 1.2.1–3 Cohesive elements.

Element

Number of zero- Energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

COH2D4

5/3

1.0256 × 10 6 1.0256 × 10 6 1.2820 × 10 5 5.1282 × 10 5

COHAX4

5/1

COH3D6

12/6

COH3D8

16/6

Table 1.2.1–4 Elbow and pipe elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

ELBOW31

6

5.481 × 10 7 3.230 × 10 5 3.230 × 10 5 1.065 × 10 8 1.675 × 10 9 1.675 × 10 9 4.621 × 10 9 4.621 × 10 9 3.127 × 10 9 3.127 × 10 9 9.321 × 10 9 9.321 × 10 9

ELBOW31B

6

ELBOW31C

6

ELBOW32

6

PIPE21

3

PIPE21H

3

PIPE22

3

PIPE22H

3

PIPE31

6

PIPE31H

6

PIPE32

6

PIPE32H

6

The membrane elements have no bending stiffness, which accounts for the high number of nonrigid- body zero-energy modes.

1.2.1–3

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Table 1.2.1–5 Membrane elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

M3D3

6

2.350 × 10 8 1.615 × 10 8 3.140 × 10 5 3.622 × 10 8 7.274 × 10 8 7.274 × 10 8 7.274 × 10 8 5.225 × 10 8 1.231 × 10 9 1.535 × 10 9 7.582 × 10 9 6.313 × 10 8

M3D4

7

M3D4R

7

M3D6

9

M3D8

11

M3D8R

12

M3D9

12

M3D9R

13

MAX1

2

MAX2

2

MCL6

9

MCL9

9

 

Table 1.2.1–6 Shell elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

S3/S3R

6

1.985 × 10 6 3.071 × 10 6 3.071 × 10 6 3.074 × 10 6 3.073 × 10 5 1.165 × 10 4 1.165 × 10 4 7.189 × 10 7 3.049 × 10 5 1.228 × 10 5 1.229 × 10 5 1.229 × 10 5 1.229 × 10 5

S4

6

S4R

6

S4R5

6

S8R

8/6

S8R5

7/6

S9R5

7/6

STRI3

6

STRI65

6

SAXA11

4/3

SAXA12

5/3

SAXA13

6/3

SAXA14

7/3

1.2.1–4

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

SAXA21

3

2.636 × 10 6 4.075 × 10 5 4.075 × 10 5 4.075 × 10 5 1.231 × 10 9 2.636 × 10 6 1.942 × 10 8 1.942 × 10 8

SAXA22

3

SAXA23

3

SAXA24

3

SAX1

2/1

SAX2

1

SC6R

6

SC8R

6

 

Table 1.2.1–7 Truss elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

T2D2

3

1.143 × 10 10 1.143 × 10 10 3.429 × 10 10 3.429 × 10 10 1.143 × 10 10 1.143 × 10 10 3.429 × 10 10 3.429 × 10 10

T2D2H

3

T2D3

4/3

T2D3H

4/3

T3D2

5

T3D2H

5

T3D3

7/6

T3D3H

7/6

Table 1.2.1–8 Two-dimensional continuum elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

CPE3

3

2.488 × 10 8 2.488 × 10 8 8.373 × 10 7 8.373 × 10 7 1.196 × 10 8 1.196 × 10 8 3.140 × 10 5

CPE3H

3

CPE4

3

CPE4H

3

CPE4I

3

CPE4IH

3

CPE4R

3

1.2.1–5

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

CPE4RH

3

3.140 × 10 5 3.868 × 10 8 3.868 × 10 8 1.289 × 10 8 1.289 × 10 8 7.535 × 10 8 5.024 × 10 8 7.535 × 10 8 7.535 × 10 8

CPE6

3

CPE6H

3

CPE6M

3

CPE6MH

3

CPE8

3

CPE8H

3

CPE8R

4/3

CPE8RH

4/3

CPEG3

5/3

4.662 × 10 8 4.662 × 10 8 8.373 × 10 7 8.373 × 10 7 1.086 × 10 8 1.086 × 10 8 3.140 × 10 5 3.140 × 10 5 3.599 × 10 8 3.599 × 10 8 7.168 × 10 8 5.024 × 10 8 7.168 × 10 8 7.168 × 10 8 2.350 × 10 8

CPEG3H

5/3

CPEG4

5/3

CPEG4H

5/3

CPEG4I

3

CPEG4IH

3

CPEG4R

5/3

CPEG4RH

5/3

CPEG6

3

CPEG6H

3

CPEG8

3

CPEG8H

3

CPEG8R

4/3

CPEG8RH

4/3

CPS3

3

CPS4

3

1.615 × 10 8

CPS4I

3

1.088 × 10 8

CPS4R

3

3.140 × 10 5

CPS6

3

3.622 × 10 8

CPS6M

3

1.206 × 10 8

CPS8

3

7.274 × 10 8

CPS8R

4/3

7.274 × 10 8

1.2.1–6

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Table 1.2.1–9 Axisymmetric continuum elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

CAXA41

4/3

2.015 × 10 8 4.887 × 10 7 4.887 × 10 7 4.887 × 10 7 2.015 × 10 8 4.887 × 10 7 4.887 × 10 7 4.887 × 10 7

CAXA42

4/3

CAXA43

4/3

CAXA44

4/3

CAXA4H1

4/3

CAXA4H2

4/3

CAXA4H3

4/3

CAXA4H4

4/3

CAXA4R1

5/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4R2

8/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4R3

11/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4R4

14/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4RH1

5/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4RH2

8/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4RH3

11/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA4RH4

14/3

9.615 × 10 6

CAXA81

3

2.437 × 10 8

CAXA82

3

8.526 × 10 7

CAXA83

3

8.526 × 10 7

CAXA84

3

8.526 × 10 7

CAXA8H1

3

2.156 × 10 8

CAXA8H2

3

8.461 × 10 7

CAXA8H3

3

8.461 × 10 7

CAXA8H4

3

8.461 × 10 7

CAXA8R1

5/3

2.405 × 10 8

CAXA8R2

6/3

8.457 × 10 7

CAXA8R3

7/3

8.457 × 10 7

1.2.1–7

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

CAXA8R4

8/3

8.457 × 10 7

CAXA8RH1

5/3

2.099 × 10 8

CAXA8RH2

6/3

8.384 × 10 7

CAXA8RH3

7/3

8.384 × 10 7

CAXA8RH4

8/3

8.348 × 10 7

CAX3

2/1

7.402 × 10 8

CAX3H

2/1

7.402 × 10 8

CAX4

2/1

1.022 × 10 9

CAX4H

2/1

1.022 × 10 9

CAX4R

2/1

1.011 × 10 7

CAX4RH

2/1

1.011 × 10 7

CAX4I

1

7.711 × 10 7

CAX4IH

1

7.456 × 10 7

CAX6

1

1.448 × 10 8

CAX6H

1

1.448 × 10 8

CAX6M

1

8.949 × 10 7

CAX6MH

1

8.949 × 10 7

CAX8

1

2.437 × 10 8 2.156 × 10 8 2.405 × 10 8 2.099 × 10 8

CAX8H

1

CAX8R

2/1

CAX8RH

2/1

Table 1.2.1–10 Three-dimensional continuum elements.

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

C3D10

6

4.500 × 10 9 4.500 × 10 9 4.500 × 10 9 7.486 × 10 7

C3D10H

6

C3D10I

6

C3D10M

6

1.2.1–8

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

C3D10MH

6

7.486 × 10 7 1.695 × 10 9 1.967 × 10 9 1.084 × 10 9 1.379 × 10 8 3.436 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 4.082 × 10 3 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.768 × 10 8 3.128 × 10 8 1.558 × 10 8 1.236 × 10 8 2.007 × 10 8 2.213 × 10 8 2.032 × 10 8 1.467 × 10 8

C3D15

6

C3D15H

6

C3D15V

6

C3D15VH

6

C3D20

6

C3D20H

6

C3D20R

12/6

C3D20RH

12/6

C3D27 (21 nodes) C3D27 (22 nodes) C3D27 (23 nodes) C3D27 (24 nodes) C3D27 (25 nodes) C3D27 (26 nodes) C3D27 (27 nodes) C3D27H (21 nodes) C3D27H (22 nodes) C3D27H (23 nodes) C3D27H (24 nodes) C3D27H (25 nodes) C3D27H (26 nodes) C3D27H (27 nodes) C3D27R (21 nodes) C3D27R (22 nodes) C3D27R (23 nodes) C3D27R (24 nodes) C3D27R (25 nodes) C3D27R (26 nodes) C3D27R (27 nodes) C3D27RH (21 nodes) C3D27RH (22 nodes) C3D27RH (23 nodes)

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

9/6

6

6

6

1.2.1–9

ELEMENT EIGENMODES

Element

Number of zero- energy modes

First nonzero

type

eigenvalue

C3D27RH (24 nodes) C3D27RH (25 nodes) C3D27RH (26 nodes) C3D27RH (27 nodes)

6

1.022 × 10 8 2.767 × 10 7 2.509 × 10 7 3.069 × 10 7 3.623 × 10 9 3.623 × 10 9 3.846 × 10 8 3.472 × 10 8 4.186 × 10 7 4.186 × 10 7 4.186 × 10 7 4.186 × 10 7 1.184 × 10 6 1.184 × 10 6 1.410 × 10 5

 

6

6

9/6

C3D4

6

C3D4H

6

C3D6

7/6

C3D6H

7/6

C3D8

6

C3D8H

6

C3D8I

6

C3D8IH

6

C3D8R

6

C3D8RH

6

CCL9

9/6

CCL9H

9/6

1.0572

CCL12

6

3.1502 × 10 8 3.1502 × 10 8 1.089 × 10 10 4.449 × 10 8 3.767 × 10 9 3.394 × 10 9 2.213 × 10 9 1.214 × 10 9

CCL12H