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NAZI POLICIES AND THEIR IMPACT

Hitler had no clear economic program when he became chancellor in 1933. In the 25-point program of 1920, the Nazis had claimed to want to respond to the needs of small farmers (29 percent of the working population) and smaller urban traders. However, as with much of what Hitler said in his quest for power, he displayed little depth of commitment once he reached the top - despite his avowed ideological commitment to the traditional peasant working on the soil. Indeed, as the likelihood of power had grown nearer, he had increasingly looked to reassure big business, which could fund his campaigns and make his dreams a reality.

What is the message of the above passage?

big business, which could fund his campaigns and make his dreams a reality. What is the

NAZI POLICIES AND THEIR IMPACT

POLICY INFLUENCES • IDEOLOGICAL AIMS: • Volksgemeineschaft: national community • members work to support others

POLICY INFLUENCES

IDEOLOGICAL AIMS:

Volksgemeineschaft: national community

members work to support others

contribute to greater good of nation

control how people live, work, spend leisure time

German people act as one

based on blood and race

‘master race’

people live, work, spend leisure time • German people act as one • based on blood

POLICY INFLUENCES

IDEOLOGICAL AIMS:

Weltanschauung: common world view that bound people together

Volksgenossen: members of community

Aryan

political and socially committed

united around nationalist and anti-Semitic goals

Ideal German: peasant farmer

eradication of social and racial outsiders

nationalist and anti-Semitic goals • Ideal German: peasant farmer • eradication of social and racial outsiders
nationalist and anti-Semitic goals • Ideal German: peasant farmer • eradication of social and racial outsiders
nationalist and anti-Semitic goals • Ideal German: peasant farmer • eradication of social and racial outsiders

NAZI ECONOMIC POLICY

ECONOMIC POLICY

ECONOMIC POLICY NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NSDAP)

NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NSDAP)

ECONOMIC POLICY

ECONOMIC POLICY NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NSDAP)

NATIONAL SOCIALIST

GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NSDAP)

ECONOMIC POLICY

‘Socialist’ acknowledgements, early 1933

all peasant debts - 12 billion Reichmarks - were suspended

high tariffs on imported foodstuffs

Reich Food Estate, Richard Darré

gave peasant farmers guaranteed prices on their produce

Reich Entailed Farm Law, Sept. 1933

prohibited confiscation of Aryan farms between 18-25 acres

on their produce • Reich Entailed Farm Law, Sept. 1933 • prohibited confiscation of Aryan farms
on their produce • Reich Entailed Farm Law, Sept. 1933 • prohibited confiscation of Aryan farms

ECONOMIC POLICY

ECONOMIC POLICY NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NSDAP) ‘NATIONAL’ ASPECT OF THE PARTY’S NAME WAS THE

NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NSDAP)

‘NATIONAL’ ASPECT OF THE PARTY’S NAME WAS THE REAL DRIVING FORCE BEHIND NAZI ECONOMIC POLICY

ECONOMIC POLICY

“At no time did National Socialism develop a consistent economic or social theory.” -Richard Grunberger, historian

Wehrwirtschaft: a defense economy

after 1936, ‘managed economy’ - state regulated economic life

autarky - self-sufficiency, development of large-scale farms

acceleration of rearmament - supported big business

1,600 cartel arrangements

(1933-1936)

companies work together to reduce production costs and improve efficiency

70% of German production controlled by monopolies, 1937

industrialists closely associated with Nazis

Krupp: arms and steel

I.G. Farben: chemicals

conflict between private ownership and state direction

conflict between ‘guns and butter’

Farben: chemicals • conflict between private ownership and state direction • conflict between ‘guns and butter’

GROUPS: Divide into 4 groups (2 groups of 3, 2 groups of 4). Each group will be responsible for completing their section of the green outline AND presenting a 10 minute presentation on the information before Thanksgiving.

Social policies — dealing with society or human welfare (the quality of a person’s life). Includes discrimination, human rights, civil rights (speech, expression, criticizing the gov’t). Includes any policy concerning family, education, religion, etc.

Cultural policies - dealing with culture and heritage. Includes values, norms, beliefs, language. Involve activities related to the arts and creative sectors such as painting, music, dance, literature, films, culture, etc.

Economic policies - dealing with economic production and policy

Political policies - dealing with political process of the nation - voting, serving in public office, form interest groups or political parties.

Obtain your information from any section of Chapter 4 or your own research.

NAZI ECONOMIC POLICY

DR. HJALMAR SCHACHT - ECONOMIC IMPROVEMENTS

Problems, 1932-33

unemployment peaked at 6 million

exports reduced by 61%

Nazi Solution

appointed Dr. Schacht (’33)

June 1933: Law to Reduce Unemployment

gov’t spending on public works

subsidies for private construction

encouraged industry (loans, tax breaks)

Other measures to reduce unemployment

recruitment into Reich Labor Service (RAD)

Autobahnen: 4,350 miles of roads

regulation to outlaw use of machinery

expansion of (exclusive) bureaucracy

discouragement of female labor

conscription, 1935

use of machinery • expansion of (exclusive) bureaucracy • discouragement of female labor • conscription, 1935

DR. HJALMAR SCHACHT - ECONOMIC IMPROVEMENTS

Mefo bills: credit notes guaranteed by the gov’t; paid back with interest in 5 yrs

deficit financing:

July 1934 - debt repayment ceased; creditors given BONDS

bond: contract that promises repayment in the future; annual interest paid

Sept 1934: The New Plan

increased regulation of imports

trade with less-developed countries (Balkans, South America)

Other factors

dissolution of trade unions

banning of strikes

propaganda

seizure of Jewish property ($800 million)

propaganda • seizure of Jewish property ($800 million) “Schacht’s creation of credit, in a country that

“Schacht’s creation of credit, in a country that had little liquid capital and almost no financial reserves, was the work of a genius.” - William Shirer, historian

that had little liquid capital and almost no financial reserves, was the work of a genius.”

READY FOR WAR IN 1939?

1936: Schacht urged to cut spending (esp. rearmament) - Hitler disagreed

FOUR YEAR PLAN, Hermann Goering, director

key characteristics:

autarky

industry support

steelworks

production of heavy machinery

targets for private industry

‘managed economy’ in cooperation with big business

overall targets not met

still imported a third of all raw materials

bureaucratic inefficiency

NOT ready for war in 1939

‘guns and butter’

miscalculated response of Britain/France

memo: “the German armed forces must be operational within four years” “the German economy must be fit for war within four years”

did the Nazis perform an ‘economic miracle’?

YES OR NO?

“What we have achieved in two and a half years in the way of a planned provision of labour, a planned regulation of the market, a planned control of prices and wages, was considered a few years ago to be absolutely impossible. We only succeeded because behind these apparently dead economic measures we had the living energies of the whole nation.”

From a speech by Hitler to the Reichstag, 1935.

YES

unemployment, economic investments, trade

did the Nazis perform an ‘economic miracle’?

NO

economic situation in 1933 was not as bad as Hitler said

Brüning had ended reparations, unemployment had started to fall in July 1932.

Work creation schemes had been established and the world experienced economic recovery from late 1932.

Reserves of foreign currency were low

deficit

rearmament strained the economy

price of food rose, reliance on imports

no coherent Nazi economic policy

policy not carefully thought out, evolved according to whims

myth of economic miracle perpetrated by propaganda

GROUPS: Divide into 4 groups (2 groups of 3, 2 groups of 4). Each group will be responsible for completing their section of the green outline AND presenting a 10 minute presentation on the information before Thanksgiving.

Social policies — dealing with society or human welfare (the quality of a person’s life). Includes discrimination, human rights, civil rights (speech, expression, criticizing the gov’t). Includes any policy concerning family, education, religion, etc.

Cultural policies - dealing with culture and heritage. Includes values, norms, beliefs, language. Involve activities related to the arts and creative sectors such as painting, music, dance, literature, films, culture, etc.

Economic policies - dealing with economic production and policy

Political policies - dealing with political process of the nation - voting, serving in public office, form interest groups or political parties.

Obtain your information from any section of Chapter 4 or your own research.

NAZI ECONOMIC POLICY

SPEER’S WARTIME ECONOMY

Victories gave Germany a false sense of confidence

resources not used efficiently (women remained home, skilled workers drafted)

no central authority to direct labor

forced to sustain a long war, 1940

Albert Speer, minister of armaments (’42)

series of committees undermined by bureaucracy

clashed with other leaders

Speer, minister of armaments (’42) • series of committees undermined by bureaucracy • clashed with other
Speer, minister of armaments (’42) • series of committees undermined by bureaucracy • clashed with other
Speer, minister of armaments (’42) • series of committees undermined by bureaucracy • clashed with other

SPEER’S CENTRAL PLANNING BOARD

Purpose: organize allocation of raw materials (into armaments)

set norms for multiple use of parts (avoided duplication)

substitution in raw materials

increased industrial capacity

placed bans/limits on manufacture of luxury goods

set schedules for outputs

organized the distribution of labor, machinery, etc.

Outcomes

for outputs • organized the distribution of labor, machinery, etc. • Outcomes • armament production rose

armament production rose 50%

for outputs • organized the distribution of labor, machinery, etc. • Outcomes • armament production rose
“The Germans have failed to prove worthy of their Führer. I must die and all
“The Germans have failed to prove worthy of their Führer. I must die and all

“The Germans have failed to prove worthy of their Führer. I must die and all Germany must die with me.” -Hitler

I must die and all Germany must die with me.” -Hitler ECONOMIC WARTIME ISSUES • Hitler

ECONOMIC WARTIME ISSUES

Hitler refused to see reality

would not ration or cut consumer production

didn’t allow women to work until 1943

increasingly dependent on forced labor

production continued despite military defeats

shrinking resources

By 1945, economy crumbled and failed

established problems AND bombing raids

defeats • shrinking resources • By 1945, economy crumbled and failed • established problems AND bombing

FINISH FRONT OF GREEN OUTLINE BY WEDNESDAY (11/22). I will check it during advisory.

NAZI POLICIES AND THEIR IMPACT

“those who have the youth on their side control the future.” - Hans Schemm, leader

“those who have the youth on their side control the future.” -

Hans Schemm, leader of the Nazi Teachers’ League.

To what extent do you agree?

EDUCATION & THE YOUTH

IMPORTANCE OF YOUTH

Effort to ‘win’ over the new generation

youth movements

control of education

IMPORTANCE OF YOUTH • Effort to ‘win’ over the new generation • youth movements • control
IMPORTANCE OF YOUTH • Effort to ‘win’ over the new generation • youth movements • control
IMPORTANCE OF YOUTH • Effort to ‘win’ over the new generation • youth movements • control

YOUTH!

BALDUR VON SCHIRACH

Appointed ‘youth leader’ in 1933

took control over all youth organizations (except Catholic)

Membership of the Hitler Youth became mandatory, 1936

Catholic youth groups closed, 1939

(except Catholic) • Membership of the Hitler Youth became mandatory, 1936 • Catholic youth groups closed,

He gave himself great airs, with his dark leather coat, his whip and his Mercedes, whose driver waited for him in front of the door. After dinner Hitler – at that time he was still Herr Hitler to us – sat down at the piano and played some Wagner followed by some Verdi. He addressed me as Du, for I was only seventeen and he was over forty. Then he took his leave and my father went with him.

"So I told him what I had seen. Hitler's reply was, "You are sentimental." He stood up, I stood up, [and] I said, "Herr Hitler, you ought not to be doing that." I thought I could allow myself to say so because I had known him [for] so long. I have hurt him deeply, what's more in front of other men who were there. Then Hitler said: "Every day 10,000 of my best soldiers die on the battlefield, while the others carry on living in the camps. That means the biological balance in Europe is not right anymore."

NAZI YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS

Aims:

train boys for war

train girls for motherhood

Characteristics:

“Never before in German history had the young been so courted… seduced by the feeling of being something special.”

activity and competition penalized the weak or uncommitted

values of: honor, discipline, self-sacrifice

contempt for: intellect and sensitivity

encouraged to spy on families, report

Tests for admission to the Pimpfen included:

• recitation of Nazi dogma and all the verses of the Nazi Party anthem

map reading

participation in war games

• sporting standards (running, long jump)

• participation in a cross-country march

• oath and vow to the Führer (You, Father, are our commander! We stand in your name.

(You, Father, are our commander! We stand in your name. BOYS   GIRLS   Pimpfen (cubs)

BOYS

 

GIRLS

 

Pimpfen (cubs)

6-10 years

Junge Mädel (JM)

10-14 years

Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ)

10-14 years

Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM)

14-18 years

Hitlerjungend (HJ)

14-18 years

Glaube und Schönheit (League of Faith and Beauty)

18-21 years

EDUCATION!

GERMAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

Reich Education Ministry, 1934

Bernhard Rust

élite schools: Napolas, Adolf Hitler Schools, Ordensburgen

RADICAL revision of curriculum

biology: racial differences, Nazi interpretation of Darwin’s theories

history: sense of responsibility toward ancestors and grandchildren

German: nationalism and folklore

sport: new emphasis (minimum of 1 hour/day)

new subjects: genetics, racial theory, military studies (boys), home econ (girls)

emphasis (minimum of 1 hour/day) • new subjects: genetics, racial theory, military studies (boys), home econ
emphasis (minimum of 1 hour/day) • new subjects: genetics, racial theory, military studies (boys), home econ

GERMAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

Teachers subject to Nazi controls

1933 Civil Service Law; many dismissed

1939 all teachers became Reich civil servants

National Socialist Teachers’ League

special ‘camps’ to…

reinforce Nazi values

partake in sport

re-education

Anti-Semitism

‘Jewish theses banned (Einstein)

Many Jewish scientists emigrated from Nazi Germany, including twenty past or future Nobel Prize winners. Among them was Albert Einstein.

emigrated from Nazi Germany, including twenty past or future Nobel Prize winners. Among them was Albert
emigrated from Nazi Germany, including twenty past or future Nobel Prize winners. Among them was Albert

“the Nazis sought to wean youth from parental to party control.” To what extent did the Nazis achieve this goal?

“the Nazis sought to wean youth from parental to party control.” To what extent did the
“the Nazis sought to wean youth from parental to party control.” To what extent did the
Vaughn Shoemaker, Chicago Daily News (1938)

Vaughn Shoemaker, Chicago Daily News (1938)

READ 3.13 : THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NAZIS AND THE CHURCH WITHIN GERMANY

1. What was the Nazi relationship with the Church?

2. Why did German Churches not offer more resistance to the Nazi

regime?

3. Did the Nazis succeed in controlling the Churches?

4. Should the Catholic Church have made an apology for failing to oppose

the Holocaust? Can an apology ever atone for mistakes made in the past?

READ 3.15 : NAZISM’S AFFECT ON THE ARTS AND MEDIA

1. Were culture and the arts merely forms of propaganda in the

Nazi state?

2. Did the Nazi regime succeed in creating a Volksgemeinschaft?

MINORITY REPORT

PRESENTATION: MONDAY, DECEMBER 4TH

• Must do outside research (laptops, books, etc)

10-15 minute presentations

Include

Description of Nazi policies that affected minority group

How the policies impacted the minority group

• The response of the public to policies

• Pictures

• Primary Sources (at least 2) (Doctor, Nazi official, victim, victim’s

family, etc)

1.Beggars and the homeless

2.Homosexuals

3.Jehovah’s Witnesses 4.Biological outsiders 5.Mentally & physically handicapped

PARTNERS

Imagine you are interviewing Hitler for a TV new program at the end of 1938. Produce 5 questions (related to Hitler’s consolidation of power) SWAP with a partner Fill in the replies that Hitler might have given

to Hitler’s consolidation of power) ➤ SWAP with a partner ➤ Fill in the replies that

PAIR, SHARE

1234, ABCD

1. Draw a flow chart to show the stages by which Hitler consolidated his rule.

2. Write an obituary for Röhm (who died in the Night of the Long Knives). Comment on his significance and include why he had to die. You would decide whether your obituary is for a pro-Nazi German newspaper or a more neutral British one.

3. Make a chart on which you can record the arguments that Hitler was a strong dictator and those that suggest he was a weak dictator.

4. Create a graph to illustrate Hitler’s foreign policy successes and failures 1933-45. Identify three significant turning points and below your graph indicate how/why each turning point increased or decreased support for Hitler and the Nazi State.

• I felt this coming. I tried unsuccessfully to assassinate Hitler in 1945. I am not concerned with jurisdiction of the court as Hess or others are. History will show the trials to be necessary.

• To Leon Goldensohn, April 14, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - (2004)

• 20 years. Well … that's fair enough. They couldn't have given me a lighter sentence, considering the facts, and I can't complain. I said the sentences must be severe, and I admitted my share of the guilt, so it would be ridiculous if I complained about the punishment.

• To Dr. G. M. Gilbert, after receiving his sentence. Quoted in "Nuremberg Diary" by G. M. Gilbert - History - (1995)

• Hitler's dictatorship differed in one fundamental point from all its predecessors in history. His was the first dictatorship in the present period of technical development, a dictatorship

which made complete use of all technical means for the domination of its own country. Through technical means like the radio and the loud-speaker, eighty million people were deprived of independent thought. It was thereby possible to subject them to the will of one man.

• 1946. Quoted in "Nuremberg: The War Crimes Trial" by Richard Norton-Taylor, Nicolas Kent - Drama - (1997)

• The young district leader chose Baubaus wallpapers at my suggestion, although I had hinted that these were “Communist” wallpapers. He waved that warning aside with a grand

gesture: “We will take the best of everything, even from the Communists.” In saying this he was expressing what Hitler and his staff had already been doing for years: picking up anything promised success without regard for ideology…

• Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs, New York: NY, Simon and Schuster (1970) p. 22

• A new large-scale war will end with the destruction of human culture and civilization. Therefore, this this trial must contribute toward preventing such degenerate wars in the future, and toward establishing rules whereby human beings can live together.

• Nuremberg trials, (31 August 1945)

• The danger that hung over Moscow in the winter of 1941 struck [Hitler] as similar to his present predicament. In a brief access of confidence, he might remark with a jesting tone of voice that it would be best, after victory over Russia, to entrust the administration of the country to Stalin, under German hegemony, of course, since he was the best imaginable man to handle the Russians. In general he regarded Stalin as a kind of colleague. When Stalin's son was taken prisoner it was out of this respect, perhaps, that Hitler ordered him to be given especially good treatment.

• Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs, New York: NY, Simon and Schuster (1970) p. 306

• Actually, a kind of state socialism seemed to be gaining more and more ground, furthered by many of the [Nazi] party functionaries. They had already managed to have all plants owned

by the state distributed among the various party districts and subordinated to their own district enterprises

easily become the framework for a state-socialist economic order. The result was that our organization, the more efficient it became, was itself providing the party leaders with the instrum

for the doom of private enterprise.

Our very system of industrial direction in the interests of war production could

• Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs, New York: NY, Simon and Schuster (1970) p. 359

Twenty years. Well

that's

fair enough. They couldn't have given me a lighter sentence, considering the facts, and I can't complain. I said the sentences must be severe, and I admitted my

share of the guilt, so it would be ridiculous if I complained about the punishment.

• In the burning and devastated cities, we daily experienced the direct impact of war. It spurred us to do our utmost weaken the morale of the populace.

the

bombing and the hardships that resulted from them did not

• Quoted in "Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs" - Page 363 - by Albert Speer - National socialists - (1971)

• The Nuremberg Trial stands for me still today as an attempt to break through to a better world. Still today I acknowledge as generally correct the reasons of my sentence by the

International Military Tribunal. Moreover, I still today consider as just that I assume the responsibility and thus the guilt for everything that was perpetrated by way of, generally speaking, c after my joining the Hitler Government on the 8th February 1942. Not the individual mistakes, grave as they may be, are burdening my conscience, but my having acted in the leadership. Therefore, I for my person, have in the Nuremberg Trial, confessed to the collective responsibility and I am also maintaining this today still. I still see my main guilt in my having approved the persecution of the Jews and of the murder of millions of them.

• Testimony of Albert Speer, Munich, 15 June 1977

• Hatred of the Jews was Hitler's motor and central point perhaps even the very element which motivated him. The German people, the German greatness, the Empire, they all meant

nothing to him in the last analysis. For this reason, he wished in the final sentence of his testament, to fixate us Germans, even after the apocalyptic downfall in a miserable hatred of the

Jews

on the Jews; just as if the air-terror against the civilian population actually suited him in that it furnished him with a belated substitute motivation for a crime decided upon long ago and emanating from quite different layers of his personality. Just as if he wanted to justify his own mass murders with these remarks.

When

speaking of the victims of the bomb raids, particularly after the massive attacks on Hamburg in Summer 1943, he again and again reiterated that he would avenge these vict

• Testimony of Albert Speer, Munich, (15 June 1977)

• So long as Hitler had temperamental outbursts of hate, there was yet hope for a change towards more moderate directions. Therefore, it was the resoluteness and coldness which

made his outbreaks against the Jews so convincing. In other areas when he announced horrifying decisions in a cold and quiet voice, those around him, and I myself knew that things had now become serious. And with just this cold superiority he declared also, when we occasionally had lunch together, that he was set to destroy the Jews in Europe.

• Testimony of Albert Speer, Munich, (15th June 1977)

FARMERS/PEASANTS

• March-October 1933

• All peasant debts suspended

high tariffs

• May 1933

Protection of Retail Trade: help urban traders

• September 1933

Reich Food Estate: guaranteed prices on produce

Reich Entailed Farm Law: security of tenure

WEHRWIRTSCHAFT

• July 1933-December 1936 • new cartel arrangements:

companies work together to

reduce costs, increase efficiency

1937

• 70% monopolies on production

• FARMERS/PEASANTS Failure

• Took second place to Wehrwirtschaft

• defense economy that would provide for Germany’s needs in future war

• demanded development of large- scale farms

rearmament

WEHRWIRTSCHAFT • Failure • conflict between ‘guns and butter’

“Reducing unemployment, stimulating the economy and addressing the balance of payments problem, which resulted from the collapse of the export market, were issues the Nazis had to address if they were to retain credibility and support.

• UNEMPLOYMENT June 1933 - March 1935

• Dr. Hjalmar Schacht passed laws

• government spending on public works

• subsidies for private construction

income tax rebates/loans to encourage industry

• Dr. Hjalmar Schacht’s other measures

• emergency relief

Reich Labour Service

• construction of a motorway

• regulations (no machines if there was labor available)

discourage female labor

‘Schacht’s creation of credit, in a country that ad little liquid capital and almost no financial reserves, was the work of a genius.’ -William Shirer

STIMULATE THE ECONOMY

 

• June 1933 • Dr. Hjalmar Schacht

tax concessions to businesses

mefo bills (deficit financing)

• paid foreign debt in Reichsmarks

• creditors given bonds instead of debt repayment

September 1934

The New Plan

• increased government regulation of imports

development of trade

• Success

 

serious of trade agreements (import raw materials, export German goods)

no labor troubles (no unions, banned strikes, propaganda)

seizure of Jewish property

 

gaining of Austrian assets

ECONOMIC MIRACLE?

YES!

• Unemployment fell

• 6 million - 2.5 million within 18 months

• By 1936, 1.6 million unemployed

• By 1939, 200,000 unemployed

• Investments increased

from 17.1 billion (1932)

• 18.4 billion (1933)

23.6 billion (1939)

NO!

Situation wasn’t as bad as Nazi’s portrayed

• Brüning, July 1932

ended reparations and unemployment started to fall

work creation schemes established

• Basis of ‘Nazi economic miracle’

• Policies not a total success

reserves of foreign currency low

• deficit

rearmament strain

• price of food rose

• Most policies were not carefully thought through and evolved according to political whims.

HERMANN GOERING

August 1936 Four-Year Plan

self-sufficient

• industrial plants (synthetics, chemicals, steelworks, heavy machinery)

• issue regulations controlling foreign exchange, labor, raw materials

• targets for private industry established through six sub-offices

SUCCESS

extended Nazi control by setting up ‘managed economy’ in cooperation with big business

• growth in output in all of the key areas

FAILURE

overall targets were not met

• production of synthetic substitutions were costly

• By 1939, still imported a third of all raw materials

• impeded by bureaucratic inefficiency and internal rivalry

need to maintain the production of consumer goods

economic crisis may have lead to war

• FAILURE of WAR • when war broke out, Germany was not prepared.

• rearmament only half completed

• German victories a result of enemies weaknesses

• resources not used effectively

SUCCESS

• Labor supplies maintained

• armament production rose

factories reached peak production in 1944

• ALBERT SPEER

• managed to turn wartime production around

April 1942: Central Planning Board: organize allocation of raw materials

• set norms for the multiple use of manufactured parts (prevent duplication)

• increased industrial capacity

placed bans on manufacture of unnecessary goods

• set schedules and issued output comparisons

• organized distribution

• FAILURE

• Hitler remained unrealistic

reluctant to endorse rationing or cut in consumer production

did not want German women in factories

War caused economy to crumble in 1945

• ‘The Germans have failed to prove worthy of their Führer. I must die and all Germany must die with me.”-Adolf Hitler’s order to Speer, 1945

DOMESTIC & SOCIAL POLICY (3.11)

Influenced by Volksgemeineschaft (belief in a national community) steps to world domination:

1. Nationalism and a common world view

2. Aryan and political and socially committed contribute to greater good control how people lived, worked, relaxed

3. strive towards the goals of the state

contribute to greater good ➤ control how people lived, worked, relaxed ➤ 3. strive towards the
contribute to greater good ➤ control how people lived, worked, relaxed ➤ 3. strive towards the
contribute to greater good ➤ control how people lived, worked, relaxed ➤ 3. strive towards the

CHURCHES (3.13)

Nazi attempt to use/control Churches due to similar ideologies never fully controlled Protestants or Catholics pagan faith met with limited success

HITLER’S YOUTH (3.14) ARTS & MEDIA (3.15)

intense indoctrination

Weimar culture (experimental, modernist) rejected in favor of a controlled and conservative approach arts should glorify Nazi values

modernist) rejected in favor of a controlled and conservative approach ➤ arts should glorify Nazi values

MINORITIES (3.16)

Persecuted for social, religious and racial non-conformity policies became more radial as the regime grew more secure attempts to create ‘Jew-free’ society

Holocaust (death of 6 million Jews)

WOMEN (3.17)

Conservative aimed to keep women ‘in the home’ inconsistent b/c women were encouraged back into the workplace in war years

aimed to keep women ‘in the home’ ➤ inconsistent b/c women were encouraged back into the
aimed to keep women ‘in the home’ ➤ inconsistent b/c women were encouraged back into the

Potential Examination Questions Three of these questions will appear on your exam tomorrow. You will pick one question to answer.

• Examine the conditions that enabled Hitler to rise to power in Germany

• Evaluate the importance of ideology in Hitler’s rise to power

Examine the success of National Socialist economic policies

• Examine the status and role of women in Nazi Germany.

• ‘Under Nazism, the lives of ordinary German families were significantly affected in the years 1933 to 1939.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement?

“Successful foreign policy was essential for the maintenance of power by authoritarian leaders.” With reference to one authoritarian leader, to what extent do you agree with this statement?

KNOW ECONOMIC POLICIES AND

CONTRIBUTIONS OF

SCHACHT

GOERING

SPEER

KNOW ECONOMIC POLICIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF ➤ SCHACHT ➤ GOERING ➤ SPEER
KNOW ECONOMIC POLICIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF ➤ SCHACHT ➤ GOERING ➤ SPEER

EXPLAIN the disagreement many

historians have over why Hitler went to

war. (p. 111-112) In your opinion, which

historian do you think is correct? Why?

•Mason

•Overy

•Taylor

•Klein