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atm Io. ~."9. etteoth. 28 WoY• •

VOl.\ NO.4 29 MARCH,I945

G RADAR BOMBIN(T
IUSULTS (TOOD Page b
() 85% OF AI RC.RAFT
KEPT FLYINC7 Page 7
THE EFFECTS OF
G INCENDIARY ATTACKS Page CJ

() DITCH I NuS R.EDUC.ED


b7 PERCENT Page 22
XX I B 0 M B ERe 0 M MAN D

~IIITElliGENCE REPORT
29 March 1945

XXI BOMCOM OPERATIONS


Nag~a Gets it Again 3
Kobe Hit by 2,328 Tons 4
8 Square Miles Damage to Osaka 5
Ra'dar Bombing Results Good 5
85~ of BolICom Aircraft Kept Flying 7
Photo Coverage of the ·.Veek 7
Saipan under New J.!anagement 8
XXI BOllCOll TARGETS
The Effects of Incendiary Attacks 9
Photo Interpretation Reports 11
JAPANESE ~ DEFE!lSE
~ighter Reaction I'leak at Night 13
Peashooter Pete Gets Eager 14
Peashooter Pete Right about George 11 16
Gunners _ Don't Let the Nip Fool You 16
New Jap Armament 16
!Y!lS INTELLIGENCE
Jap Flak Score Drops 17
Jap Tricks Don't 710rk 19
Jap Medium Flak 20

AIR-SQ RESCUE

How to Help Lifeguard SUbs 21


Ditebings Reduced f{/ Percent 22
~M Iq·u

the primary target visually and by


radar from 5.200' to 9,000 teet.
A1:rcratt ot this wing found up to
e/lO cloud 0'l8r the target.
Seven aircrert re<turned early and
one was forced to ditch about 80

~IT AGAIN
mileS' north of Iwo Ji_a. H"lIJever-l:
10 surv1vors were picked up 'uy a w
on 20 Karch. There were no casual-
ties.
_ round out a series of five 3!4TH WING
II: incendiary blows, Nagoya,
b had been second on the list,
It 1s InteR1~ i~~:~~o:et~Y er:.:-
port be a source t.a.tf ott1cers '11110 haVi II
r~1sited on the night of 18-19
All but one of the 49 aircraft
airborne from the 314th Wing were
bet ere.., anll S hi operltlOlll or b. effective. They dropped 228 tons
legit1lD.ate internt 1n~ "11l.hln thoU on the prirDary target through 0/10
the ~lt ~~~ ;:!,,' U1t Irldtst pOl- 'tle Jaj)s, who aclready had been
lting over the radio that the
to 2/10 cloud. One a1:rcratt re-
;i;11.l1
c1r'eulatlon 1"11'1111511111 under thI
I defense was beiDf; double-cros-
turned early.
provUl0h5 ot ,IJI. :'Ieo.S.
'Dy the changing XXI Bomber Com- EHFJIY DEFENSE
In order that • :w:1a1:II or Intelll~ I tactics, had just settled down
Kenetl My be lneluOed tbII report 1s .,edicting the tilte of the night
inn an overall clauthcltlllll or Sec- The Wings reported approximately
~at. "'!hen the natura of Ult IIlterial Ilons when this one, staged lat_ 119 enemy aircraft sighted and 40
"~rant, I Indlvlltual art-lelu have TI_ I&an U!ual, threw them ort the attacks. Four of the fighters made
caino ala.-fir secur1ty c14ntricatton. I again. 12 attacks on one B-29 25 miles
the nport. 1. '0 asu1\bleo th&t the west of Tori Shi. on the way out.
cO:llpollllnt sett-lons ~'Y be rfllloved and • 2203, Marianas Time. 310 a1:r-
cl.rcQUUd or (nell up_utely. Ir Pllr- tt of the 73rd, 310th and 314th Flak was medium to heavy. meager
t1eM are Tljl1'oGuelo, .-.eurtty rq;\lle._ were airborne for the urban- to moderate end inaccurate. Fifty
tim, lIN.St b, obs'rYlO and th, 'oure. trial area of that city. Rine-
encl1tlo. to suty searchlights, with prob-
returned early, but the other able radar control. tracked atr-
Corrupoll4el\lCa Tlp.r<I1114 tbU flUb. dropped 1,880 tons of incend- cral't accuretely onr Chlta Penin-
Heation shll114 be &ll4rautol. to U1, c ... sula and CNer the target area. SOIIl8
uu!1114 Geoenl, Ut Somber COlliC6n/1 • rockets were seen in the viclnity
"PO eM, c/o POlIt:utt:', St.n rranctsco'
Cal1fornia, Attentton: /I:, or S, .1.-2. • of !SU and Yokkaichi.
73RD WING

& "PL.
AllES D, GAllCIA
ColOlltl, A.ir CarPI
A.C or 8, .1..2
bundred torty of the aircraft
CID tt'le 73rd Wing.
tons on the
'Ihey put
target -- 106
,118 by radar. 14 viSually and
RESULTS

Early, _oke_covere~ photos or


the target __ all that were avaU-
able tar several d&7S, showed • to..
~UTH: C.G. • C.I'itial.o...~.
'by radar with visual correct-
Bombing was done from 4,500 tal damage to Nagoya or 2.8 square
DA';~th 19ot.S F ,000 teet through 0/10 to 2/l0s mUes. However, &5 thiS is -.r1tteD
, • Eleven returned early and additional covera!e haa been ob-
were no casualties or clall1S tained and that total nCllf stands at
~
\ t t the enemy.
5.7 square .Ues or lasOJ. 4e-
stroyed.
313T8 \'fINO The visible d.... 11 locaWCS
3l3t!"l mounted 121 aircraft, south, south...t and .outbwUit of
It Which dropped 552 tons on the Nagora caltle.
2,328 11
Ninety two percent
B-egs airborne against :!..
night of 16..17 March 410'"
bombs on the prlmarr +~
add1 tional three, mak:11lC7
309 "hich bombed I hit ou.,1
A total of 2,328 tOil
diaries were loosed on tilt"
ban ares. 250 of the bOlllI
ing radar and 56 bOlllbl~
The aVerage bomb lOadlllg
pcp"mo.! per Sircratt..
280 ENEMY FIGHTF1lS
The wlllAs 't'9ported
13nemy a1rcrart rot r,
140 tc 150 unaggressife
executed attacks. Vost
BIllY fighters were Irv1Qgs,
Tanya, Tojas and Osear8.
Flak was medlUlll aDd
gar to intense and Inae
was largely contlnuou!1J,
.,1 th some predicted eooet
One aircraft possibly QlI
over the target by Bnt
Three aircraft failed
trom the mission __ 0.9
the number airborne. .,
eO. at 111'O Jiaa.
66a, !\ubota Iron and kachine norks,
RESULTS major da:lage. Target 1761, -Nitta
!'rom partlal1,. e Leather Belt Manufactur1ng Company,
Photographs t whieh 15 minor damage. lIiner damage also
Phuto Reconnaissance "a!! intlicted on 1191, Mabudoki
Elng1ne Works; 173:5. Japan Dyestuff
been able to obtain at lIanutactur1n& Co:upanYi 53. Osaka
this report, photo :
have located burned
225,610,000 square re!!~
at'" DllIll8ge to O!aka caused by the
Harbor; 3e4. FukuZaki Step Power
Plant.
1.830 aeres or 2.66 s~_· BoaCom m1!1sion on the night of The photo abene. While 1t shows
.4 March 1s 8.1 Square miles. a great deal ot d"'mage (burned out
Numbered targets dal dest%'uetion is almost entirely areas outlined in black) UlI:ls1rate.
ed No. II, the Kawasaki entrated 1n one area south"est the difficulty ot photo reconnais-
t.ha castle. sance. Many photo aiss10QS tail to
I and Car COlllpany.
1ndus1:zo1' veu
area..
in
otber ;
wer.
the Ka... sa k1 aDd Vltsub
..
Industries damaged or dastroyed
Target 686, O!aka J(et81
get coverage because ot the inter-
m1 ttent clouds dr!ttica: C7V'8r the
,arfeb. althou&h the ....ther g8D-
r--'" severe dalD8ge. Target era 17 1181 be good.
n 1ol,o,,,CM IUS

A NEW OPPOOTUJllITI
This concentration ot industry
:he _Ui tary value or 8 ..29 in- within so tew cities and this bigh
cendiary strikes has been qJ8!l- degree ot inflalll:lllabUity are with-
tloned, as "a:'l anticipat8l3, by out parallel in any other moClern
the Japanese radio. 'lhe Jap_ industrial country. These condi_
ane,e, hOlfeT8r. Imow a. well as we tioos present an opportunity tor
Ilow much the recent m B.C. strat- incendiary attack with an expendi-
'IY has set them back Militarily. ture or bOlllb tonnase!l that cannot
be Judged by exPerience gained in
Besid.. the tabulated appraisal the European theater.
Of tarcet. damaged or destroyed by
the incendiary strikes, a brier re_ A major teature of the Japanese
Yle" or the entire mUitery aspects econom1.c structure tbat invites in_
Or thee. minioos seelll5 1n order. cendiary attAck is the tremendous
part played in war production by
PURPOSE:. TO SHORTEN WAR the small household industries.
thousands of little sbops otten lo-
The primary purpose oC these at_ cated in a tront or back roca ot
taco is to destroy/damage the rac- individual residences, or !lull
tories mak1na: the weapons, equip_ ~Caotaries· consisting or hardly
Mnt and supp11es needed by the aora than a caapI. ot lathes opera-
Japanese to carryon the war i; the ted by a ta. people.
'hiPS,' shipyards and railroad Cao_
Slitles that carry raw materials The products, generally machine
,Dd Cinished gooCls; the saurc .. oC parts and other sll&l1 industrial
,ower needed to run the raotories. items, are token to the large fac-
:bips and railroads i the essential tories and sold to thell on a scrt
!OlllllUDication 11nes; and the 'II'&re- of pieee_work basis, a practiee
ouses containing ra'll' materials or similar to the faraing_out s1!1tea
'1nlllhed goods awai till& rabrication in England and on the Continent be-
shipment. tore the advent ot the Industrial
Revolution. In Japan the two sys_
Unfortunately Car the Japanese tems work hand ill hand, with tbe
__ ry of the obJectives enumerated b.ome 1Dd:a.trla.l serving as a con_
~bove 11e within or illllMdiately ad- tribu'tina: factor to the lIl&in pro-
.cent to known h1&tl1y inf1alllmable duction syste. of the factories •
~tions or their rew PJ'incipal
itte.. As seen trom the air, the "AoorA IS EXAIIPLB
trtldng aspect of then cities is
e rtrtually so11d IIl8SS of one end In 5&'&018, tor exuple, ttuo.e
'0 stary house., over ~ C11I1SY large bicycle assembly plants Gb-
'oodel1 structures, with only a rel- taiDed Tirtual17 all their eOllpo-
,tiftl,. slllall proportion oC 1IlU1t1- nents trOIll IIltUlY satellite household
tcried modern buildings. shq,ps in the nel.g,hbo:~oo4. Tbase


I~
i=;~=
.
,
on army contracts
now. Many of the large toy shops
(a1Jllost all of them household In-
mens urate with force
selected for attack
points to aee~plish '::"l1olI
. ". ~::

are designated. theiSe ~les· 0' t'o detailea cvunt 15 pos_ PAR..LYZING BLOW -
I dustrles) are DOW engaged in flnl- '~le, of eours8, but it is sigD.1f_
I ,bing aDd assembling small compo- ant to note that as long ago as Aside from tengible evidences or
. nents. Household cutlery shops are Excluding the So-call 8:5, over 8,000 Tokyo factories ~estruction of wartime installa_
;, reported to be producing components industries·, Tok;yo ia Ja e4 .... destroyed or damaged by fue tions, there is no realistic method
tor precision instruments. ing manufacturing cit P8Q"~De in the great sarthquske end or reducing to stattst1cal terl!lS,
war industries repres~' Prl e of that year. It 15 of fur_ if it wau1d serve any userul pur_
chiDes and machine to 1nted ... interest to note that the area pose to do so, the millions of man
It IS 1lllposslble to Judge the ics precision instr 0 s, el~tated by fire in 1923 or 17 ~ours lost to Jap war industries by

~
extent of their contribution, eum' and aircraft uments, e miles 15 approximately the the forced migration or workers to
~~~c intelligence sources all strei~ , It 1s. 1t ,and, as the fLre damllge resultlns outlying shelter &reas, by the pro_
to
par • v a tratlll our 9 Ilarch attack. :ess or restorins a lIinbUfll or es_
the 1'll crtacee of' these househo tion and communication ceQ pt ,ential civilian goods snd services
InaU;~es to total Japanese pro-
duction of "ar materials. This
terminus of practically ;n, For those more interested in
main railroads on the 1!;:,II"e they have been than whBre
aDd by the absorptioo of I118npOl!'8l'
and materials in reconstructlco.
system frequently Is referred to as Honshu, as well as the adm1~ are going, the search for a
invisible industry, for it Is ob- tiOD seat of government ancf7G8:Dtage fLgure to describe the The destruetion or a consider-
·/tOl1$1y impossible to spot the lo- great industrial concerns e teet of the 9 ),larch attack on the able D.WIber or sizable industrial
cations of such 8 vast number ot ing Japan's war lZlachine ~ese ·ability to wage war" pleots and hundreds, possibly thou-
tam!:,. enterprises. • ..ises many weeks of research. saDds, of satellite ractories b.
this one attack was a paralyzing
'SRA1)CJiII PLANTS"
15,000 FACTORIES IN TOno We here limit ourselves to a b101!' to the entue Jap..nese war .ma-

Sl1ghtly larger. but equally


Within the city of Toqo
39 were over 15,000
la.
ttua1 1istins or th1ngs destroyed
damaged and to a general sta~
factorlllt or what we believe have been
chine !'rom whieh it CllDrlot fully
recover as long as the war against
tllem las ts.
41ttlcult to single out and dertne playing five persons or mon.' efl'ects of the attack 00. Jap
as ':0 name and location are the 1s estimated that nearly U ...bUit1es _ a method of attack
'shadow plants". small fectories these were lOCated in sect1Q111goed to capitalize on the basic ~ the following pSJe the DUIII·
Within the shadow of large indus_ the cit1 defined as ZONES I fca1 defects io. the Japanese bered targets in Toqo aDd the
trial Itl5tallaUons. and serving (most inflammable and som~~ trial system described 1n ear- damage to them are discussed.
them as an added source of proouc_
tiOD.. lntle.mmable, respectively). :~p~sr:.:.gr~.~P~"::';' "::::::_:_:_::_=o_:::_; ;i_·o·_·__·o-.iiii;;_;;;;;;~
'i1I'.180 inviSible industry and the
system of shadow plants are looked
upon as a whole, the thousands ot
enterprises added together, because
of mea large IIlmber, small Size,
and 41sperslon thl'oughout the large
eitleJ!l, Illake poor indiv1dual tar-
gets. They can best be destroye d 17 11 Kar 45 Toqo Damage
by widespread COnflagrations. I. 14 Kar 45 Nagoya City
11 Mar 0&5 Tokyo_Jlito-Izu
PRECISION BEQUIREO 12 Ilar 0&5 KUllano_HalD8m8tsu
12 liar 0&5 ~u_O~_Oo'''_
Bueh, then, are the factors un_ o-R11
der1Y i l1& r&eent 12 liar 0&5 Tolqo-JIito-Sb1&uoka
attacks against
pri.eip«1 Japanese urban industr1l!1l Report No.
4'
46 13 Mal" 0&5 Tokyo-1&U.
cra!'t. Report Ro. 3 1:5 liar 45 Ok:1oan-Ok1oa- Q'QDto
areas. TheJ!le attacks eall for a Southern Bo1ullu
high order of preciSion aDd tlnlil1&. !rerart Report Ro. 0& 10& liar 0&5
It ls DO ~eration to say that AS we know trOlll p~trl- eaent to SurTey Report
•• Report 18 liar 45 rree Ballooall

..._
.ora cve goes into the selection iograPhYt the conflagrat1 0D 14 liar 0&5 1IaI0ra-Sbuuom
of 51ming points for such lliSS10bS y the 9 larch attack d8,tr 80. 4.3
Report Ro.... 13 11&1' 45 ~'bU-... t "'.ebo-

...
than is the Case for all. attack on a square miles of ZONE I ~ '1
5 1aonoaek1-br~
siqJle large factory, S~U8re miles of ZONE 11._
tolr;ro-lito
atl'uetion of 16.7 square 111 '1 R.port Woo 47 17 Mar 45
'1 R.port 10. 48 16 Jar 0&5 ••gora-Osa1la..... uun-
Information concerning locations the end of this report 11 •
of priDe!pal obJeetives to be des_ t1oD. or 22 tarsets known to
strayed by this attack. witlll '1 Report Bo. 50 19 Jar 415 .,.
troyed -uat be evaluated ill the
l1£ht or lU"eu of intlumabllit1 ment aa to their led iV1dual '1 ReKort 10. S3
oee eport 10. 0&2
19 Jar .15
18 Iar .15
00'"
TokGl'OUft A/P.T·JAOS
fue defens.s, grouDd wInd data' talle. aM the etfeets of 19 ..,. .15 T_IM Blq Reunl
ete. , ar\u ·wtu.cb a target are~ I true tl On or damqe OD the 1
Report Ro. III
'.Ie.,-.nt Report 10. 19 181&1'4& T-1719-.1..1 . , 41
wb1cIl prcm.... best reeultA C!0lI_ , ..e,nent R.port 10. 21 18 IIaI' 0&15 IIqoJa CUr-B..loa. 1&1
What about all those
11
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'TER REACTION WEAK AT NIGHT
._~

t:;::~ .. mr.::i ";;:;1,,::'-


There 15 a progressive increase
in the number of interceptors s~~

. _...... ..... -
ed on night m1ssions. However, the
-_.
,.", ,.-, missions were flown over ditterent
areas and tbe t1gures must be 10.
terpreted accordingly.

.........-,. ...... --,,..,. ..._u._ ......... .._" ..


~..-. '!'be enemy i8 not a8 aole or w11-

,. -_...
• ... _ " ...,. tool
'''' to attack our formations dur- l'he folloWiD6 table sb0W'5 the
, _.- .." ...." '''''' . ,..
night missions n th the aggres-
'.ness displayed on day missions.
comparison between ene1ll1 fighter re.
action·at day and at niRht:

,... ,-- •.- to,......l l ... , •• _ ..


:m:;:....::.:':=::-~":
..... ''''-''''
CCIIPARISCB ~ FIGHTER REACTIQJ AID KFPICT-DAI IlISSICBS JJID IIGRt IlISSICBS

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ToIqoI••S07' I Ouleal lobe

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