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aestt'1oatlon oanoeUec'l -

• DIUCfrB .0. 5200.9. ef:teotlve 2t aw.::::::.__

VOl I M02 IS MARCH 1945

FOR XXI 8.C. PlIv- 9





- . .
. .::

Japs booby_trapped Uarlne dead

night with pressure-release charges.

Front-line troops
ill/! Marine uniforms.
8011 of all beaches IS volcanic aSh, ute.
ing from the water to Airfield No.1. It ill FOR THE XXIBA
loolle and will ·not permit passage ot any type At any point from the targ!
Wheeled vehicle. back to home base it will be ea!
o:c.'~ \ ~-/I} to pick up one of our Homers. 01
.......- / tain 8 bearing. or contact tt
Enemy antiaircratt projectiles were seen w11 J ground. station or rescue faeUltll
three·.foot parachutes at 2.000 teet. To each par. '!'he costly operation of taking when anticipating trouble. The!
achute "85 suspended by 8. tour_foot cable an '*:be rcrtr8ss of 1"0 Jlma is already facUities will also enable us 1
jeet two teet long whieh spurted stream81's ~lng oft in improved operating relay constant and accurate Iote:
flame. ondltlons for our Varlanes-based 11gence from 1_0 back to the 1!aJ
1-29s. 1be toughest feature or XXI lel18s.
IOmber Command missions has been RElAXES PLIGHT PLANS
Enemy snipers reported concealing themsel~e 3,000 mile haul over unfriendly
under our dead during daylight hours and
cOIlillf&tars, unbroken but for a short Iwo increases the t'lexiblli1
out at night to fire. .Dtarim over hostile Japan. Now we or oW' flight plans. We can use
.ave a half-way station 627 miles as an assembly or departure poi~
~th of Saipan, a "front-sight" to Fuel consumption and t1nling facto;
Prisoner of war states that rain water tbannel our aircraft to and trom can be better estimated as a resu:
only enemy source of water and is stored in dr*rgets on Honshu. of advance last..minute weather da'
at each installation. from Iwo. It make! possible
All agencies of the XXI Bomber flight plan in which the entire r'
omend benefit by the Iwo ce.mpa1gn. tW'n route from target to base
Three hundred pound depth charges, type~atiOns, Communlcatipns, Intel- flown in daylight. thus reduCi!
found buried in ground rigged as land mine or enee, Air Sea Rescue, Weather night ditchings.
by trap. Booster held up by block detonator Photo Reconnaissance are al-
booster with delay train running to Kiska- d1 snowballing the boost this It affords an 8llIergenc1 laD
hand grenade. Fuse delay train about Ii feet 10 X" mile speck in the Pacific af.. ing ground nCl'J. Startled 1Iarin
ds us. saw one of our B_29s returning tr
a mission manage a precariOUS b
DlPROVES COMYUNICATICNS successful landing, then refUel a
Eight hundred pillboxes takeoff there on " Mareh 'While t
counted in the zone or action of the A vastly extended range in ~ battle still raged. several 2
Division in the center of the line. ,ications facilitles el1l111nates have avoided an illlll1Dent ditchi
_ of our navigational headaches. by settlng down there slnee. 'lib
the near future we will have the Aviation Engineers have finis
On D plus 10 mail delivered to ating at two a Vicro_Wave Early ed their work. it assures us of
achutA. 'nlng Site, a Radio Range, VHF gas station both for emergency u
ler and Loran Chain. Non-Direc- and for staging attacu with an 1
,onal HCllers will be installed on creased bomb load. It ls equal
three of the Volcano Islands useful as a roost for rtFtel' a1
ta Iwo Jima. Iwo Jima and PUnami craft which are operating tael"e I
J1Dla). in increasing numbers.

over which reconnal~sance 1s ~ ~
A subsidiary Air-Sea Rescue n:;es ~~; ~;~:l~ma~~n~b~:!~l!~:~~
formation !rom extensive areas ll« t

Unit is already operating at Iwo no .surfe.ce or other reports ~
J1lJla. Three search planes are
based there now and more are on the
way. Routine daily searches are
been ava11able..
Lying directly on the IllOst
n KE
nO'i'l' conducted from the Marianas usl route 1l"00. the Marianas to ~
clear to the Jap mainland. and In an area frequente(l by ~~ Target for 1.1195100 No. 39 on -'l.tsu, the target of last resort.
1wo J1mals constant reports ";1."~ "\farch, was the l.lus8shlno piant. with 34.5 tons. r!U'gets or opportun-
A lifeguard destroyer has re- one reliable cheek on condl~' Nakajima Aircraft Factory 1n Tokyo. tty, Shlzuoka, !,':aug, Toyaha, 15_
cently been placed on station north existing along the route. 1, This effort called for the joint land and ()nlya. were hit with 21
of Iwo &s a permanent facility to participation of the 73rd and 313th tons by seven aircraft. Fifteen
aid in rescue of ditched B-29 crews. 'Nings __ 10 squadrons from the 73rd failed to banb for mechanical reas-
Heretofore. the only permanent res- ASSISTS PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE and sayen from the 313th. ons. There were 177 effective sor.
cue agency we could provide north ties.
of Iwo the rescue SUb. which For XXI Photo Reconnaissall6 In anticipation of good morn_
",ill continue to function too. the picture is equally brl8htt ing visibility for bombing, takeoff No enemy aircraft were encount-
Crews dLtched in Jap waters can now In reconnaissance staged frOID It was scheduled for 0110. By 0246 ered on the mission. Flak ran from
have fighter protection until res- or later i f flights are based tbrl 192 aircraft were airborne -- 114 meager to intense, accurate to in-
cued. take orrs can be delayed long af1l of which were from the 73rd. accurate and was mostly barrage with
the time required to reach HQ!I some continuously pointed and pre-
The area between 1'11'0 and Japan
will be increasingly active with from the Marianas. Arriving over the primary tar_ dicted fire.
both friendly vessels and aircraft, This delayed departure frat get, crewmen found it socked in and
turned onto the secondary, the ur_ No aircraft was lost to enemy
greatly enhancing chances of sight_ base much closer to our targets PI action or accident although one was
ing am rescue. Further carrier mits a later and more accurate ~ ban area of Tokyo, which was hit
from 159 aircraft with 979 X 500- forced to ditch because of a fuel
strikes against Honshu will be fre- port of weather conditions antle pound GPs. 82 X 2,OOO-pound OPs and leak. Nine survivors were rescued.
quent. XXI Bomber Comma~d crews pated, a factor vital to phot~ Thus, of 2,112 crewmen airborne for
will be briefed on locations of 589 X SOD-pound incendiary bombs --
It is bound to eliminate a ~ a total of 474 tons. Bo:nbing alti- the mission, only two were lost.
these friendly forces and how to percentage of the effort now wan tudes ranged fro:n 25.000 to 30,000 rour additional men were wounded
contact them if in distress. on flights which encounter unta" seriously and seven slightly. Six
feet. --
able photographic conditions. aircraft suffered battle damage.
PILLS WEATHm OATA GAPS Eleven aircraft bombed Ramam-
The shorter haul to HonShu
1110J1ma lies in the central also permit our F-13s to remain
area of a vast oceanic expanse where eral hours longer over Japan,
heretofore no surface reports have compl1shing in one good day'S
been available. The installation
of upper wind and upper air sound_
in.g equipment and reports therefrom
what has taken several missions
to unpredictable weather. Tro'
some fronts often encountered
A new type mission, underteken the target. Photo bombs also were
will p:rove an important link in the tween the Marianas and Iwo first by the 314th Wing. was car- dropped'.
chain of weather information neces_ will not interfere with fl ried out during the period. The
sary to forecast weather accurately, staged from Ilrc. primary object was to obtain radar On the 6th two aircraft of the
scope photographs of Japanese tar· 313th Wing attacked the northwest
To date. weather reconnaissance Iwo Jima is bound to be a gets. In addition to taking the coast of f.J\1Shu. taking more than
has been limited to the radius of seat for some time to cOlDe, ~: scope photos the B-29s bcmbed the 300 pbotos and hitting JoJi with
action of B.29s from Guam or Saipan. far as the XXI Bomber COllllla targets. four 500 pounders.
The use of Iwo Jille as a staging concerned, it's a mighty val'
base for this effort will increase bit of real estate poking out The first Radar Scope Photo On two subsequent missions the
by roughly 600 mUes the radius the Pacific half way to our tar, 1Iiss ion was flown by the :314 th on 3l4th viSited Nagoya and Wakayama
and the Shizouka Engine Plant, hit_

4. March. Target was the 8i tolN
Aircraft Plant at Nagoya. Eight tlng these t.argets with a total of
aircraft dropped 39 SOD-pro.nd Dps 25 tons. 'Dle 313th _de a run OD
and 24 SOO_pound IBs on the prilllU"1 the coast west or Osaka, kyushU,
target and on Yuda. SiX bombed by HonsbU and 121e ID1aDd Sea. One or
radar and two viSually. these a1J"crett dropped sU: 5()000

~~~ ~ ~1f(jJA
pound GPs on 0ka;yam8 lIbich ...e be-
The second RSPlf was out the lined to bave hit an 011 storese

.., - """
area. llucb. or this work done bJ
following day agains t the VUsashino
both wt.nss was at less tbaD usual

plant of NakaJlu in Tokyo. Ten
B-29s partlcipe.ted and etgbt c!ropped bClllblng altitudes.
13 tons of incendiaries and GPs on

~ 11
~ 10

The 1I1s!l1on we! No. 40. The
target: 1okyo. The intention: To REPORTS FROM WINGS
burn down as much as possible of
Tokyo'S l11dustrlal and urban area. This was the main portiOQ
Sy 2018 hours on the night of I wings
the prel1minary report. Frolll
came additional details.
9 Uarch. 325 B_295 of the XXI Bom-
ber Commattd were airborne to do the 'l'tle 73rd got 138 of their
Job -. 161 trom the 73rd ~'llng. 110 over the target. Eight drop~
from the 313th and 54 from the targets of opportunity and 15
3!4th. 411 carried full loeds ot
I Ibcendlarles 1n 81~eble clusters -- non-effective. One aircraft
about five tons per aircraft. believed to have gO,ne down Over
target. '1'his was the first 1l'1nc
In 8:'1 ways it was the biggest over Tokyo.
, and boldest strike the Bomber Com-
, mand hed attempted. The 3l3th had 110 airb orne
95 over the primary. Three ditc
REPORT TO \'/ASHINCTON Eight bombed other targets.

AfteJ' prel1ll11nary tabulations, The 314th, last over the

tlere 15 the report which went 1n to \ get, had the roughest time. ~
lVashlngtoll: nine of 54 reached the target.
bombed another target. One d1
Two hundred eighty five air- ed, and seven other aircraft
craft bombed the primary target by missing.
radar and visually through one to
seven ten~hs clouds from 5,000 to CREWS REPORT
9,000 fee::. They dropped. 3,663·X
69-pOUlld tncendlary bo~bs and 8,556 From the crews themselves
X 333t-pound incendiary bombs _ a much more dramatic accounts of
totel or 1,554 tons. mission ••• of Jap searchl1ghts s'
ning the surface of the ocean
Results on the primary target ing to pick up the early planet,
were excellent. (For confirmation of thermals over' the burning
see the next page.) Smoke rose to which tossed the heavy bombers
16,000 feet and general conflagra_ thousand feet higher ••• of names
tion wes reported. Fires were seen Smoke roaring d01ln through the
150 miles frall the city. get area, fanned by 40 knot wi
Twenty Six aircraft returned At least one crew was so de'
early. Seventeen B-295 baabed
Choisni P~int. r~tsuora. Kasucigau_
ra Airfield, Chichi Jima,
Jime, Hachijo Jima end from land_
mined to hit the primary that
ter getting lost it went back
to sea and came in again. They
- the morning after l
ported a bad time trying to Thil il Tokyo .- I. leen by a 'rd Pho~o Reconnaileance Squadron
fall to Tokyo. Fires later were back into the "traffic pat caoon on tho IIlOming of 10 March, Ibou~ 12 houri .tter the city Vie
reported at most of these targets. and finally turned on landing 11, bOl'llbe~ by 2'" 8-29' of the nrd, 'l'th and 'l~th 80l11bardlllont. Willf;'.
Flak was l1gh t to heavy, meag- before they made it,
er to intsnse and accurate to in- The light gray area., enololed by black linee, Ire charred
accurate. Enemy air OPposition was The figures used 1n thiS ruine. Thoro aro 16.7 .quare ailoe ot thea -- ~l,l,o.OOO equaro
sl1ght. Searchl1ghts picked up port are not final, especially teot.
cost of tle aircraft at landfall aircraft losses. Based on prel:
and carrisd them over the target. nary reports. 12 aircraft were ra: Flape etart.1~ northo"t. or \he palao.. (center and lCllfor right
Some rock!ts were reported over the ing or lost. Cne is believed in t.he photogrlph) vere Iprlld by a qo knot ... 1Dd whioh tanned t.hft
target area and barrage balloons have been lost over the target. lout.hward thr~h the city. LI.. t.hlln l' percent or tho No. I In-
ware obse.rved ahead and to the four Which ditched, 40 of the oendilry lOne r_.inl et&nUn,r;. 1!00utifuU
right of the course. crew members have been rese' 1M •
Seven other aircraft are miss ins" l~w .~. _ _ ~_
I.MI" g..- , . ",,~"CII I~, ,,~.
= ., _
... .... _~~





6" and 40·
6",24· ,40·
6· ,24" ,40·
I Good
Good to Excelleu
Good ,"-
» "" J
SliGO No Photography-tlechan. TrOUble ~
el61 27 Feb45 Tokyo
27 Feb45 Nanse! Sb.oto 6" and 40· \ Excellent
Illf" Nanse! Shoto 6",24",40" Good
'063 27 Feb45
2 liar 45 Nagoya No Photography-Cloud COV8rS8'
'0" No Photography-Claud Covera~
5.65 2 Mar 45 Nansel Shoto
4 Ilar 45 Tokyo Abortive-No Photography
SI67 6 liar 45 RaMel Shoto No Photography-ClouCl Coveraae
me 7 liar 45 Toqo Abortive-No Photography
...9 8 Mar 45 Tokyo-lzu 6",04",40" Good

8 liar 45
8 liar 45
8 )far 45
6" ,24· ,40"
6· ,24",40·
6· ,24· ,40·
Poor to Fair
Poor to Good
.Ir,. 9 Ilar 45
9 lar 45
~sbu East~lUruma~
6 R ,24- R ,40-
6· ,24- ,40·
Poor to Good

."', 10 1llU" 45
Bhilllonosek1_Xure (Ie proeesslnt U~.ter_ine4)
TAMASHIMA AREA alrcraft or all'cratt parts plants
9'1' 10 liar 415 'toqo 6 R ,24- ,40· cellent reported here are thought to be
MAY BECOME A coaverted spinning mills.
On the southwest portion of In three or these towns there
IWEATHER 8.195 OUT THIRTY ONE TIMES HonshU Island. about haltway be.
tween Kobe and KUre on the Inlend
See. evidence points to the develop-
ment or a new aircraft manufactur-
are 1l11lS belonging to the 'lura-
shlkl spinn1ns co~paR1. a concern
'Which recently obtained a llcense
Thirty ooe tilDes since e? P'eb_ to .nt.,. the aircraft industry un-
ruary, 3-29s ba.e been over the Jap des'Qooyer and one bf Dumbo. ing center. der the nue of 'lurashik1 Aircraft
hOlleland and enviroM on weather Vission No. 264 was forced • CoapaDl.
strlke millSionll. On almo:!lt halt of This area 111 in the viclnlt,.
these _taslons (14) bOlllbs were drop_ dltch on the night of 7 Februar. of Okayama. a city which had a pop- About three aDd one-balt m.Ies
ped. A total or 35; tOM were re_ after a SUccessful run on "akld, ulation or 163.000 1n 1940. It .ast of 'l'..,h1ma aa4 just south of
leased Of! r.ora, lIlnato, Nabe. Air_ The survivors were soon spotted c.nters aore exactly on the vil- tbe 'I11la&' of 'l'suruhlll&, the Itt.-
drCllllI, lanoya Airdrolll6, Osaka, Veda. a destroyer 160 m11es frOID SatpaDf' lases or TamaShiO'la, Tsuruhtraa, subishi Ab"oratt Co.paD)" hal bUUt
'lobe, IfObeaka, Tokyo. Sumura. Uakld Eight men were picked uP. but !l.Uruhik1 and Hayashll1&. The first • larSe plADt ('l'aI'g.t Bo. 90.27-
end aD UIHJIll.t1tied coastal city. died on board the destroyer. two are on the seacoa.t at the U81 _ the 111 tlub1Jbi Aircraft Coa-
aouth of the TakahaShi Ri.,."', 15 paOl, 'l'uUb1aa Pleat). PrisODlll'S
1"11'0 of the weather strike m1!_ To the lOth or March. B_84s _ , miles southeas t or OkaJlUI&. The of war &Dd otbU' tntel11geac. In
sion .ireraft ta1led to return. On the 655th Weather Squadron bid second two 11e inland .....n 02' ttl. put ban indlcated that eD-
28 'ebru&ry Mission No. 238 was made five runs to areas south or till eight 1D11es towards Okarama • staal for the planes -.nutactur.d
forced to ditch. On 2 Varch nine Varianas to pick up weather Wen-- here han been Md' at IltsublShi'S
SUM'horl WVI rllcued __ eight by matton and observe signs or en" The area hu beaD known In the .....t ensine plant at IapJa ('l'Vget
actiVity. past as a ten1le cent.,., and with 90.20-1«5).
one 11'IIportant 1al0Wll uo.ptiOO, the
It 1s quite possible that Vlt-
sublahl now awnl 01' 15 interested
in the Dewly created KUrashlkl Air-
craft CompaD1 I and that parts and
perhaps easlnes are planned to be
produced In the vicinity. This
would .au the area a self ·con~
aircraft production center, simllar
~11 10118 measure to Nagoya, In the
heart or the well_detended Inland
Certainly the existence ot
these tactorie, suggest, the devel- The rirst photography ot ~
OplMot ot an expanding parts and subishi's Tamashtma plant (8 Deel
c~pon.ntl lub_contracting system conttrlled not only the reported I
teedla:.g tnto ttl. Tamashlma assembly utence or the ractory, but .:
11na. tllt;subishl Is not the only the tact that although it WlU 0:
a11'craft COIIlpal:lJf whose name 15 only 75 percent completed, it I
linked with this general area by ready .as in production, and ~
prlso11ers ot war and other ground ently concentrating on the til
Intorutlon. Tachlkawa Is 'aId to engined bomber ~Betty".
haY. I ractory at Fuku3h1ma,and Ra-
"8111,h1 to have another at P'Uku1ama. Later photography (16 Peb t
sOllIe EO m11es to the 'tIl'ut. showed that one building which I
just started, was about 50 Ptl1'Ol
completed two months later. r
in the accompanying photo takq
the t1lll.e or the earlier recoIlllll
sance and reproduced here be.
1)IIMl/fiE TO
2 0
it is clearer than the later pbII
graph. )
Building "B" cOI'15Uted ia
cnber only of girders, but
completed by February.

Building "e" showed alm~t

progress, but at ~D" and "E"
or small buildings had been
Photograpbs taken Ie d8'S Disruptive camouflage paint ap:
atter the 73rd Wing strike ot on the buildings at ~F~.
19 January on the Kawasaki, Air_
cr&tt COllpan:r plant at Akashi LOORS LIKE BIG PROJ~T
(tarStlt 1547) shOWed that about
12 percent ot the damaged root Upon completion, the Ta,
area bad been repaired, plant is expected to have
4,000.000 square teet or roof c'
No d~ged major buildings age, an area comparing rev,
had betn repaired completely
and the:oe WlUl no tlTi4ence that witb the larger a1r!'rame malT
the pla~t waa operational. uring-assembly priority targetl,

Thirty tin ot the 47 air_ As other 1l!1portant Jap

craft sten On the tield on im_ cratt manutacturing centers are • Uitsub1ahi's new aircraft plant at Tamuh1Jl~
strayed. or dalll8.ged, and as tbe was 7!5 percent cOlipleted and alJoeadJ in pro-
lIediate poat-strike photographs duction CD 8 Dee_her 1944 'llbea th1a XXI B.C.
had not been .ovett, indicating teel the need or more and b'
tha~ thtse 35 had been damaged baabers to attack Allied bases reconnaissance photo was taken. (Jbotol taken
by bo~bs or ware incomplete at ting ever nearer to the hOlD' since sh.ClW construetlcn near1ns c.:apleticn.)
the time ot the .trike. landa. IIlt5ubisbi at TamashDa
tbe surrounding ~teeder" Cal
take on 1ncreaaing target
- 16
• This reconnaissance photograph of Tokyo was taken on 27 Feb..
rury 1945, two days atter the XXI BomCom'S first tbree~"l~
s~rlke. 169 X 500 GPs and 2,049 X 500 IBs ."ere dropped by radar
OJ the primary (Tokyo urban area). The black pattern or dSllla,
CluSed by this strike Is accentuated In the photograph by t~e
llght snow tall on surrounding areas.
The major portion of the dSlll8ge 15 In the densely populated
section or the city between the northeast corner or the IllIp8r1ll.1
Palace area CA). and the west bank of the Sumlde River 1n the Vi.. IME of .1I.ttock. by E/A
cln1tr ot the Royogoku Bridge (B). Scattered burned_out areas or AND THE TIME ELEMENT
considerable size are visible In l:I8ny parts of the city. !lJ TIME E'OIJ»ed time
!%of., [,%oM
The total aree damaged is epprOJl:1metely 28,000.000 square - "hOWing the relationship be-
tween the number of en8::llY aircraft
feet. attacks sustained by 8-295 O'9'er
0400·0700 180AtIN. 95 96 Honshu and the time and sequence at
5-295 over the target. These stUd-
ies show a concentration of e~y
attacks at and near bombs away tor
0448·0620 92 MfN. 80 76 14l1issions. There appears to be a
relationship between the number or
attack3 received l!ll1d the t1.llle elapsed
between f1rst and last bO:llbs away.
0322·0538 136M1N. 50 56 there appears to be no relation be.
tween the QU::llber of attacks received
Olli0708 89MIN 50 H by the respective eo~bat units and
the sequence 1n Which they fIe.
A>HS: '71012 130-14 1f.-17·t8·19 20 22-2+26 2.9. over the target.

data above and the ohart below _hoW the dlatrlbutlon of enemy aircraft st-
• from tLme or ftr.t boebe away to time ~t Ieet bombs away on 14 combat
lone. ~our time intervale bave bean oho.en to provide a comparatlT8 atudJ




The procedure 1s 1l1ustnted o o

by the following example:
the sama time read tne drill
EXAMPLE each course orf the Drift Illd
Flak eanputer speed 250 J~PH 2. Record 'Cne reSUlt.
Actua~ TAS 300 MPH form such as shown in figure,
\nnd 150 I.!PR ,
from 00 3. Compute Ground SPetd
tors for the seven COUrses !II
To htermlne the Ground Speed bova from the fOI'llIUla:
Factors !Uld Dr11't~ on the 12 courses
to the target. Ground Speed Factor: Flak
puter Speed : actual grOUnd S'
1. Using the computer:
a. 4. Obtain the Ground
Set the DrlL't 'Ind1ca_ Factors and Drifts for the ~
tor so that
with 300 on ~: p~~; A~r ~~;~~1~~, il18 ftve courses by the use or
metry. (For two courses maltlre
same angle with the wInd dlreet
b. Sl.i,.de the Wind peed f the Ground Speed Factors aDd
Drifts will be the same.)
SUde dO'm until ISO on t,he, Wind.
Speed s:ale coincides with the .,", ' . The Japanese, as a race. are
901nt 1 en the Ground Speoo. flate. RESULTS
.100al1y unstable. Not sInce
J have they felt at ease in the Necessarily, an all~perV6ding
c. Swlna the True Air/ The grOUnd speeds and CIlI.d. Their humorle!S fanat1clSIl atmosphere or hypocriSy is created.
Speed Arm around until the point H as reM off the computer are:IDe aspect or a lack or propor. Even higher cOllllD&nds lIl&y be deceiv~
lies 11'1 succ~sS1on ClD. .Unes LK, LQ, corded 1n fIgure 7. I inherent in the fantasies con~ ad by lower. Th1s procedure causes
LP. LO, W. u:. and lJ t and read ofr ling their or1gin and IDiSs10D, little apparent damage in victory;
on Mch Hne the Ground Speed. At The Ground Speed FactCl'lI 'Il"hlch they have been 1ndoctrl~ in dereat it he1ghtans existina
tabUlated In Table 1. . ..,. strains •

The completeness or Japanase A further consequence or this
.' 15bl1PH lII1'at1on, the f1rmness of their aspect ot Japanese psychology is a

'J' ,., r
r- ..... -h--_
Dtrinatlon that they are a dl.
~race waging a holy war, is an
late source or streD8th fOl'
persistent inability to understand
other peoples. In dealing with the
nationals ot conquered areas this
157 MPH . - mpose or conquest. In the blind spot bas had serious conse-
IS'ORIFT run it is potentIally a weak. quenees. Even elements whicb oris-
bO" inally welcomed. Japanese oceupatlon
195MPH are alienated by the d1aregard ot
2fl'OOlFT !he result is a leck of that individual r1ghts aDd personal d1&-
270· 90· CourS! ot proportion, of balance. nity cbaracteristic or Japllaese
operates as a steadying tac. Ueatlll8nt.


WIND '''''"'''
3O'DRlrJ 0°
30 0 aM 3300
60° • 300 0
10 the conduct of modern war
even IDOl'e 1JIlportant. In the A srapblc il1uatrat.1oa or •
120' 1.89 .stul occupation ot conquered situation tbUS creahd is aftorded
".J4SMIlH 90° 0 e70 0 0.9& ,torles. by excerpts trOfll a letter b7 a n.u-
26"OAlf, 1200 0 240 0 pino to the Cc.an41ac QeMl"al of
"0" ISo·
],50 0
210 0
lao o
The Japaoea. selt-ZOl&bteOQlDU'
180" I'"DRIFT e Japanese leaders have in- their bell.t that dlYlne descent
ed the !lves or the people on cent8l'S 1Ilt'a111bUlty, 1. "tleeted
premises conceroins their 01'_ in tne alteration of "Unlawtul Con-
spirit and place in the world (I~ct- to -Dtacipl1lU1- In the title.
UNl~WF ~ INU ~id not commit such cruel acts BRUTALITY ,
1b1. l&ek of persrt'ctive, of a

'I am .",nld'Ul that the Ja - In the event the Fil1pino, ,"': Similar testimony from a well_ sense of proportion, is turther ex_
enes "'" hSS orrive ' in the .itte' e'" outr""e', the ,ourt, l1ucated Indian captain, a medioal emplified in the humorlessness
",ill"in' I"en" for the pur- tMn decreede e puniShment tn tricer captured at Singapore, ~us­ characteristic of many Japanese,
,osee of treeing the Filipino' fit tM ,ri. • There .e' no ains the theory that the Japanese This trait also plays a part in the
fro' thO oOO'e"ive en' ",ts-
toriel QCe,on partY oe.ber', e-
oc, for '!.rect bO'llY pun. annot
iSh.ent or for ,triking'ith l1en
comprehend the reaotion Jf
peoples to the brutality
brutal treatment inflicted by Jap-
enese on conquered peoples.
bich they regard as a normal ex-
l"te' b, un1e. .ea" ." bore fiS" or ""ing kicke' .m ~ssion of dominance. • TI::le tension of war seellS to
ru1 boots •••
increase this bumorlessness. In
-'n'\es! facts, the s i III i1at y ~Not only are we Filipinos peacet1me, the knock.about buffoon_
in race and the friendlY rela- unable
Ufe en' to property
secure protection or arkation
a' pro.ise' The informs
of Du~h
'etched the e._ ery of tbe lo"er class lllU!Iic balls
tions bet'tfeen Japan and the
PhiliPpines encourage the Fili-
fr"'" the Jep,ne,e ,oldier,. bu', 0""
of the. vOlun,'eti.e troops,
on the contrery, .e receive 0 fight ,ide by " ,..ei" ,""o.ere
was a favorite recreation of many
Japanese. But when war comes in

pinos t, support and aid Japan the door humor goes out tbe window
cruel end ,evag e puni'h.en', ..,e. • th the Jep- for the lfuration.
in the "ar against Britain and
The greater part of the Filipino
"Bu', the behavior of the
families are still in hiding in
the .ountein' to e,cepe tho "Nine hu .. i dre~s
general study or
A hun-
of diaries and notebooks 0,,",
Japanel e ~my and people is de- corpore1 puni'h.ent .ete' "'. 'olO1e" or
by Jepene,e soldier, .. ,
berka' on theTIl sace
ppet troop,)
(,ub- in Allied ban~s 1.s the best evi-
plorable and interferes with lnformaDt ship as e._
the ~ence of this lack.
the a~option of such a natural
and cClllllllendable att i tude by the ~The farmers have been COD- families ha~ a:;:-
womenfolk aDd These diaries express maDJ' e-
motions - exultation, rage, deter_
pelled to vi,it Army Ree,qu'" the. off, but • .::b1e, to see mination, despa1J' _ but no ray or
Filipinos .. ,
ters flve ti.e' in one 'ey to to ,peek. W"",en ..:;ot all,,","" bw:aor creeps in. This incapacity
~. i o~~
-For your Excellency'S refer- ,ollect the!.r .oney fro, tilt 0 '0 '0 .ere beet 0 e"e.pted to rec ognin the ludicrous makes
ence, I shall narrate examples he
,e1e. If the rormer, tirin, " ,10the, taro :d ",d possible sucb ~sp1ritual exercises-
of tbe violence and cruelty of repeated trips to "my Re'. iepene,e, ,",,0 .ere en y "'. as are here illustrated:
Jap6]ese troops. quorters, 'hould que,tion .. 0 thi, by the"
"Filipinos have had their
faces slaPped and have been
officer in charge as to ti"ll$
peyment, the offi,er .i11 ,r~* .
kic1red and stamped on until un-
concious, because they did not
,tamPslap his face, kicK ..
on him. ~ i tThwas
ad;Z e informant
the seri remarked that
~t.I.I -Ulr~~ R
diser~~ination, rU~istaoce Dutc~ain
salute 'll'hen ordered. Uany Fil- "With the exception of n-- e Japanese to obous 1ntention of
ipinos have been tied to posts
'ro ~11l« .~,. 194•.
ial being of the willing Otod.l', c!IIted' 1t Jecta_t llrII11r
and exposed to the heat, with-
out food, because of similar
by America "as pleasant; th eb inhuman methodsnative 'troops, ~_o_ Ul.en1J'ri.1t:"~ft:~d_ t l'Uet1aQ
net simple, it was alsO eas1 ive to this. were not con-
th, t'011001'1zIc ::_~t ber-.rte,.
o.oq b' de.e1c1 t,.Oop. It
t101:1 ~l.l be • - ot ~P""e,.
"'ndure. Cont~ol by Japan I In his op1nion the Japanese
Ilrllt 1'111 ""e1t,'-ft07'erd. t4eb
"Other Filipinos, because of eXisted no l.,nger than fl '. e"illlt1ls in human form. The1J' I:all., ~Q.1!lC .. n 1'011
snall errars, have had their months ano. from experience, iple of ruling sub3ugated
haoos tied behind their backs is extremely harsh. Not 1 ,tries by terror, threat and
otb.. tta. . . . llQ:f
-hoGl:Ilc!lU". G'1
. . . 1l1Ibt, Gil' at

botta ~!~ til, ~..,

by the thumbs with thin cord dogs and caraboa should ture is enacted to an extreme
}~d haIe been exposed to heat :1'"_ "&1JI,
t'~'-cIClQe GJ'

aIJcI _ . to tbj
treeted so. '~t1Qa" ~ bello. ~t:
~l.l Ute
h r a ong the. Such incidents
ave occurred repeatedly. r.... 1I01U0... h
"Upon recollection of
experience, we cannot helP -The civilian populatiOns of ... ·111 acI4ttiGa
-The former rulers of the clu~ing that the Japanes ' aupied countries are rull,. a- ......Ilt -'1 looat '.r..t••'"
~ otl... ~U
Filipinos. the Americans, even 40 tt" _
of 3ustice is based on in
lIJ'Iu ~U:t 'W'-uJ
at the time of the wer "i th A- e of the shallowness of high t'o.1lGf lib
and brutal punishment •••• 401tl,.
merica in 1900_1901, positively aunding phras.s such as 'Asia
'or the Asiatics', 'Co_prosper_
tIJe-~_tate a .... ~
1ty Sphere'. They reallze that
,taoO.j or .~ -. ~ a "~4
cr~ssed ithe Japanese propaganda is
'~tcbt: ~~.!!~
- ...., .
On the original ~ocument "Unlawful Conduct" "as O\1t ...
to cut ..
• itabe, an~ are only awaitins
·Discipline" written in. Ithe opportunity to riSe aplnst l! 'Cat: ...._.... _ I.I
~he1r oppress ors. -
between their concept or tb'
89 ~escen(led frOID the G~s ::"
opinion of other peoPles
i/.. · It_~\~_ point, has made them at
and aggressive. ,

') Consciousness ot anCient

o!J rmrlng from Chine. of nearlr ~
element of their CUlture ...
mo<1ern borrowing from. the 'W~
scientific techniques I or 1lIU1\
end political end financlal cra
utten, has only increased thti
tlant belligerence.

I .- ~
Caught bet_een the Ees\
the West, the Japanese have MlII
l ated an explosive Inferlorlq. t
plex, and both worlds are sutttt.

. ~t.eW
Whlle humorlessness
taits and IIlllkes POSSible
the blast of the explOSion.

~S ",.; .. ~;-::.~.z.~:\,~
~ \
) 0 )~
I\.!f! .1

tanetlclsm 1n Victory. 1t may ...u .r- ~ .!.Y_

prcn'e a drawback in defeat. Tbe ~.
elllo'tlonal rSl18e or the Japanese 16 ,,:._ ~:.. ~ .-;'~:":~:~l~{N;
"'ialent, froll exultation to
blackest despair. the -=·.'='::~::'-"':-~~i'"3T."."',,:;~,::::::-.{,=:,::.,'.c'.
- ..... __ ~
A .!lense or humor has served as An authoritative stateme1l\
e shock.absorber to individuals and ~inreriority feelings" made bJ
to other naUons in tiding them Col. Robert B. lUtchell, aMI
ovr grim times. Of all modern States ArIllY Medical Corps, Execd:
peO?lel, this quality 15 most con. Officer, 42nd General Hospl1
sPi:u ous l1 absent in the Japanese. lends weight to this theory:
, -Inferiority feelings (-
so-called complex) arise 1n
It the Japanese seldom gea. 1ndivHlual as a result of
uill817 laUih they dread being discrepancy between potent1l~
hUShed at. Their fear or ridicule t1es and achievement, that bl
is ODe of the llIost pOWerful con. the 'discrepancy between ~
trols in ....eryday conduct and in flown ambition and comparatt
public attairs. Japanese children ly poor reality.
Vt bot reprimanded with an upla.
11&t100. that their act 15 morally ~This conflict continud
Wl'C'D&. They are warned ~Ir YOU do develop because the degrll
tbt" you. Will be laughed at.~ anxiety generated becomel
bearable, and as a remedy
S1mUarly, in r.qdal times, a indiVidual proceeds to ind
S&lNraill'Ol11d pledge his honor with
the apr.sUon: ~lt I faU. YOU in fantasy, which he adopts
Substitutes tor attainable _
afI! 1&u&h at me in public.~
Thus he passes from fee!1ngS
inferiority to grandiose id'
Jepane'e dignity is hypersen. or his own importance, whicb
l1~b•• fOUnded upon an interiOrity time he is unable to d1st~.'
COl.plu:. The discrepancy
trom reality. - (From ATIS I
search Report No. 76)