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Math 7 - 3.1/3.

2 - Rates of Change and the Definition of the Derivative

Defns. The average rate of change of C œ 0 ÐBÑ with respect to B on the interval Ò+ß +  2Ó is

0 Ð+2Ñ0 Ð+Ñ
C+@ œ 2

and the instantaneous rate of change of 0 with respect to B at B œ + is

lim 0 Ð+2Ñ0
2
Ð+Ñ
2Ä!
if this limit exists.

Defns. The derivative of 0 at an interior point + of its domain is the number

0 w Ð+Ñ œ lim 0 Ð+2Ñ0


2
Ð+Ñ
if this limit exists.
2Ä!

The derivative of 0 at a left endpoint + of its domain is the number

0 w Ð+Ñ œ lim 0 Ð+2Ñ0


2
Ð+Ñ
if this limit exists.
2Ä!

This is called the right-hand derivative of 0 at +.

The derivative of 0 at a right endpoint + of its domain is the number

0 w Ð+Ñ œ lim 0 Ð+2Ñ0


2
Ð+Ñ
if this limit exists.
2Ä!

This is called the left-hand derivative of 0 at +.

This defines a new function, 0 w ÐBÑ, called the derivative of 0 .

If 0 w exists at B œ +, then we say 0 is differentiable at +.


If 0 w exists at all points of the domain of 0 , then we say 0 is a differentiable function.

Two immediate applications:

0 w Ð+Ñ is the slope of the tangent line of the graph of C œ 0 ÐBÑ at B œ +

and 0 w Ð+Ñ is the instantaneous rate of change of 0 ÐBÑ at B œ +

Notation: Denote the derivative of C œ 0 ÐBÑ by 0 w ÐBÑ "f prime of x"


and by Cw "y prime"