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Trionfi (cards)

Trionfi (cards)

Trionfi (Italian: [triˈomfi], 'triumphs') are 15th-century Italian playing cards with

allegorical content related to those used in tarocchi games. The general English

expression "trump card" and the German "trumpfen" (in card games) have developed

from the Italian "Trionfi".

Contents

History

Surviving decks Handmade Uncut sheets Decks with classical motifs

See also

References and notes

External links

History

Cary sheet, Milan c. 1500.
Cary sheet, Milan c. 1500.
Earliest known list of trumps (Venice, c.1480-1500)
Earliest known list of trumps
(Venice, c.1480-1500)

Many of the motifs found in trionfi are found in trionfo, theatrical processions that were

popular in the Italian Renaissance. The Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara, once owned by the

ducal House of Este, contains many murals depicting these floats. Petrarch wrote a poem

called I Trionfi which may have served as inspiration. [1]

The earliest known use of the name "Trionfi" in relation to cards can be dated to 16

September 1440 in the records of a Florentine notary, Giusto Giusti. [2] He recorded a

In a letter from 11 November 1449, Antonio Jacopo Marcello used the expression

triumphorum genusfor a deck that was produced sometime between 1418 and 1425. [4][5] It

lost, but Marcello provided a copy of da Tortona's description which offers details about the

deck and a cursory explanation of how it is played. [6][7] It likely had a total of 60 cards (four

kings, forty pip cards and sixteen trumps). The forty-four plain-suited cards used birds as

suit signs and the trumps presented sixteen Roman gods. In two suits, the pip cards are in

reverse order as in many of the oldest card games. [a]

Two decks from June 1457 seem to relate to a visit at Ferrara of the young Milanese heir of

the dukedom Galeazzo Maria Sforza in July/August 1457. [8] Each deck consisted of 70

cards — the modernTarot deck typically has 78.

The first attestation of a deck with 78 cards was in a poem by Matteo Maria Boiardo

of Ferrara written between 1461–1494. The deck was structured like modern tarots,

but the motifs and suits signs of the Boiardo deck are totally different. He used

classical figures for the face cards and trumps. Pier Antonio Viti of Urbino (c. 1470-

1500), brother ofTimoteo Viti, provided a commentary of Boiardo's poem as well as

rules. He likely commissioned the production of these decks of which two

incomplete packs have survived. Both the rules and the deck were likely conscious

departures from common trionfi decks. [9]

Met sheet, Ferrara c. 1500.
Met sheet, Ferrara c. 1500.

trump is the Angel, followed by the World. This group spread mainly southward

highest, followed by Justice and the Angel. This group spread mainly to the

northeast to Venice and Trento where it was only a passing fad. By the end of the

16th century, this order became extinct. In Milan, the World was the highest,

Marseilles". [10][11]

The earliest known appearance of the word "Tarocho" as the new name for the game is in Brescia around 1502. [12] "Tarochi" was

used in June 1505 in Ferrara. In December 1505, "Taraux" decks are mentioned as being produced in the papal enclave of Avignon in

France. [13] Around this time, the word Trionfi seems to modify its character in a playing card context; it appears as a game of its own

(Rabelais knows a "Tarau" and a "Triumphe" game) and seems no longer connected to the specific allegorical cards. This is most

likely due to the popularity of Trionfa which usurped the old name. The word taroch was used as a synonym for foolishness in the

same period. [14] As the Fool, which excuses the player from following suit, is the most unique feature separating the old game from

Trionfa, it may be the reason for the adoption of "Tarocho".

Surviving decks

Expensive hand-painted, and usually gilded, decks custom-made for powerful clients have been preserved in greater numbers than

mass-produced decks. More cards from the 15th and early 16th centuries have survived than those from the late 16th or 17th

centuries.

Handmade

There are around 15Visconti-Sforza tarot decksmade for the rulers of Milan. These are the best preserved:

The Pierpont-Morgan-Bergamo deck (estimated to be produced 1452) possibly relates to a trionfo in Milan, AugustMaria Visconti and Francesco Sforza in October 1441 1453 The Brera-Brambilla deck made for Francesco Sforza

1453

The Brera-Brambilla deck made for Francesco Sforza1452) possibly relates to a trionfo in Milan, August 1453 The following decks were made in

The following decks were made in Florence: [15][16]

The de Gaignières deck by the same artist as the one above, mistakenly attributed t o de Gaignières deck by the same artist as the one above, mistakenly attributed toCharles VI of France [17]

The Rothschild - Bassano deck, half of the pack survive but only one trump remains Rothschild-Bassano deck, half of the pack survive but only one trump remains

The Ercole d'Este deck in the Cary Collection [ 1 8 ] Ercole d'Este deck in the Cary Collection [18]

Uncut sheets

The Cary sheet (c.1500) along with the si x Novati cards (c.1600) found in Sforza Castle Cary sheet (c.1500) along with the sixNovati cards (c.1600) found in Sforza Castle, Milanese ancestor to theTarot of Marseilles [19]

The Budapest - Met sheets, examples of Ferrarese tarocchi (c.1500) which died out around 1600 [ Budapest-Met sheets, examples of Ferrarese tarocchi (c.1500) which died out around 1600 [20]

The Rosenwald sheets, early Florentine tarots (late 15th century) before their development into Minchiate [ 2 Rosenwald sheets, early Florentine tarots (late 15th century) before their development intoMinchiate [21]

Various "Portuguese-suited " sheets and cards from the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples ; "Portuguese-suited" sheets and cards from thePapal States and the Kingdom of Naples; a relative of theSicilian tarot

Decks with classical motifs

At least two incomplete decks inspired by Boiardo 's poem yBoiardo's poem

The copper-engravedSola Busca tarot , late 15th century, only deck with all 78 cards intact Sola Busca tarot, late 15th century, only deck with all 78 cards intact

The Leber deck held in the Municipal Library o f Rouen , early 16th century Leber deck held in the Municipal Library ofRouen, early 16th century

The Cicognara deck is lost but a few cards were copied, possibly created by the same Cicognara deck is lost but a few cards were copied, possibly created by the same person who made the Leber deck

See also

References and notes

The Emperor, the only surviving trump from the Rothschild-Bassano deck. He carries aflorin while holding
The Emperor, the only surviving
trump from the Rothschild-Bassano
deck. He carries aflorin while holding
a sceptre surmounted by thefleur-
de-lis, both symbols ofFlorence.

1.

Dummett, Michael (1980).The Game of Tarot. London: Duckworth. p. 87.

2.

3.

Pratesi, Franco (2012). "In Search of Tarot Sources". The Playing-Card. 41 (2): 100.

4.

Pratesi, Franco (1989). "Italian Cards - New Discoveries".The Playing-Card. 18 (1, 2): 28–32, 33–38.

5.

6.

Caldwell, Ross G.R. (2004). "Marziano da Tortona's Tractatus de deificatione sexdecim heroum".The Playing-Card. 33 (1, 2): 50–55, 111–126.

7.

8.

9.

Dummett, Michael (1980).The Game of Tarot. London: Duckworth. pp. 76–77, 419–423.

10.

Dummett, Michael (1980).The Game of Tarot. London: Duckworth. pp. 387–417.

11.

Dummett, Michael; McLeod, John (2004).A History of Games Played with the Tarot Pack. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 13–16.

12.

Depaulis, Thierry (2008). "Entrefarsa et barzelletta: jeux de cartes italiens autours de 1500".The Playing-Card. 37 (2): 89–102.

13.

Depaulis, Thierry (2004). "Des "cartes communément appelées taraux" 1ère Partie".The Playing-Card. 32 (5): 199–

205.

14.

Vitali, Andrea. Taroch - 1494 (http://www.letarot.it/page.aspx?id=264)at Le Tarot Cultural Association. Retrieved 31 January 2018.

15. Fiorini, Cristina (2006). "I tarocchi della Collezione Rothschild al Louvre".The Playing-Card. 35 (1): 52–63.

16. Caldwell, Ross (2007). "Giovanni del Ponte and the dating of the Rothschild cards in the Louvre".The Playing-Card. 36 (1): 51–62.

Retrieved 8 March 2017.

20. Gjerde, Tor. Italian renaissance woodcut playing cards(http://cards.old.no/irwpc/)at old.no. Retrieved 8 March 2017.

a. This ranking can also be found inTarot, Triomphe, Ombre, Maw, Unsun Karuta, Madiao, Khanhoo, Ttôm, and Ganjifa.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 February 2018, at 22:29.