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KA CHAPTER VI

PHYLUM ANNELIDA ¼ ,uSfyMk ½ fjaxoeZ


KINGDOM : ANIMALIA ; ,uhekfy;k
SUBKINGDOM : EUMETAZOA ; lr cgqdks"kh;
SUPER PHYLUM : NONCHORDATA ; INVERTEBRETA

Ekgk foHkkx % uksVksdkSMZ jfgr ] vfLFk jfgr


PHYLUM foHkkx : ANNELIDA ] NYykru Ñfe ! fjaxoeZ
EVOLUTION : CAMBRIAN PERIOD; dsfEczz;u ;qx 400 fefey;u
o"kZ iwoZ
CLASSES 3 : POLYCHAETES ; OLIGOCHAETES ; HIRUDINAE

MARINE WORMS; EARTHWORMS ; LEECHES

Ckgqds’kh;&leqnzh]deds’kh;&Fkytyoklh]fg:fMuh&tksadtkfr;
HABITAT : MAINLY AQUATIC-BOTH MARINE AND FRESHWATER;

TERRESTRIAL - DAMPNESS LOVING

fuokl % izeq[kr;k tyoklh -& lkxj oklh ]>jusoklh ] uehoklh


HABITS AND : FREE SWIMMING / SEDENTRY ;TRIPLOBLASTIC

SPECIAL FEATURES : SOFT , LONG, SEGMENTED, COELOMATE,

BILATERALLY SYMMETRICAL RING WORMS

UNI/BISEXUAL;WELL DEVELOPED ORGAN SYSTEMS

LoHkko vkSj igpku % pj & vusd rSjkd] db jsaxus okys ]dqN vpj ¼ vpy
½]NYysnkj

f=ijrh;] dksey ] yEcs ] lSxeSaVsM ¼ vusd [kaM ;qDr ½ ]


nzoiw.kZ

xqgk ¼ varjvkdk’k ½]f}leHkkxh ],dfyaxh @f};ksuh; ] ekaly ]

vkSjxu fllVe ¼vax ra= ½ fodflr

CHARACTERISTICS : fo’ks"krka,a %
1 VERMIFORM ; CUTICLE COVERED;

dhVru Ñfe ] D;qfVdy ¼ miRopk ½<ds


2 SETAE (CHAETAE ) ON SEGMENTS IN MOST

Ckkyksa tSls ^'kwd* ¼ lhVh@dhVh ½gj


lSxeWaaaVa ¼ [kaM ½ ij

3 RESPIRATION THROUGH SURFACE / GILLS/ PARAPODIA

'olu &ru lrg ls @ fxYl ls @ iSjkiksfM;k ls


4 BLOOD CIRCULATION- CLOSED ; 0--MANY ‘HEARTS’

TWO MAIN BLOOD VESSELS

jDr lapkj & can iz.kkyh ]0-- dbZ ^ fny *] nks izeq[k
ukM+h
5 EXCRETION THROUGH NEPHRIDIA

xqnsZ leku uSQ+zhfM;k & vusd


6 DISTINCT HEAD, TRUNK, ‘TAIL’

Li"V @vLi"V” flj ] /kM+ ] ^ iwaN *


7 BRAIN, GANGLIA , 1 / 2NERVECORD(S), NERVES

1 efLr"d ] xSaxfy;k ¼ xqPNs ½] 1 uljLls lk@2jLls ]ulsa

8 SENSE ORGANS - EYES / EYESPOTS, PALPS,

ANTENNE , TENTACLES,OTHER RECEPTERS

vk[ksa]@vkbZLikSV~l] Li’kZd& iSYi ],UVhuk ¼ J`afxdk


½]VSUVWdYl]vU;
9 PARAPODIA AND BRISTLES IN MANY

ix ls isjkiksfM;k vkSj dM+s cky ls fczlYl db;ksa


esa

10 REGENERATION POWER IN MANY

vax iqqujfueZk.k 'kfDr vf/kdrj esa

11 STRAIGHT GUT TUBE FROM MOUTHTO ANUS

Lkh/kh [kkáikpu uyh ¼ xV ½ eq[k ls xqnk rd


12 LONGITUDNAL AND CIRCULAR MUSCLES

yEcs ls ykSqftV~;wMuy vkSj xksy o`Rrkdkj¼


ljD;qyj ½elYl
13 MOVE BY CONTRACTION OF MUSCLES; PARAPODIA

EklYl ds ladqpu ls ]uUgs ixksa&


iSjkiksfM;kvksa]lhVh ls db;ksa esa

14 REPRODUCTION 1 ASEXUAL - BY BUDDING;


FRAGMENTATION ; 2 SEXUAL VARIOUSLY

Ikztuu&1 v;ksuh;&rudfyls ]VwVVwVds] 2 ;ksuh;&db izdkj-ls

o.kZu 3
dgus dks ge egt+ NksVs ls Ñfe gSa
ij dbZ xq.kksa ds ge cM+s /kuh gSa
yk[kksa yk[kksa cjlksa ls bl t+eha is
igkMh >juksa ls ysdj lkxjry ryd
ge viuh cfLr;ka c[k+wch clk;s gq,
txg txg gypy epk;s gq, gSa
xksy xksy yEcs yEcs NYysnkj V~;wcnkj T+;knkrj
NksVs cM+s gkst+ikbi tSlk gksrk ftudk vkdkj izdkj
^NYyksa* ls tqM+s tqM+s ls [kaMksa ds gksrs
lSxeWUV;qDr ftuds 'kjhj

gj [kaM ds Hkhrj gksrk ftuds vaxksa dk ,d lSV gS


gj [kaM ds Åij gksrs ftuesa T+;knkrj] cky ls lhVh gSa
gj [kaM dh lkbM~l esa gksrs ftuesa dbZ ds] uUgs ix ls iSjkiksfM;k
gj [kaM esa gksrs T+;knkrj ds ftuesa xqnsZ ls nks uWQzhfM;k
ykbV] dSfedYl] Vp] VsLV lSal djrs ;s
vk[kksa ls ]vkbZLikSV~l ls iSYIl ],UVhuk] lhVh
ls
rFkk VWUVWdYl lh dbZ cgqmi;ksxh bfUnz;ksa
ls
efLr"d gksrk muesa ,d ij fny *vusd*] db;ksa esa
rhuksa Dyklst dh jpuk rFkk thoup;kZ esa
gSa dbZ egRoiw.kZ varj
fofHkUu Lihlht+ esa vaxksa izR;axksa ds
uEcj] vjsateSaV] vkSj ikst+h’ku rd esa
;s vkrsa gaS fn[kkbZ lkQ+ ut+j
4
Eklyu
fdlh ds gSa dbZ vk[ksa fdlh ds gSa gh ugha
fdlh ds gSa db fny fdlh gh ds gSa gh ugha
fdlh ds gSa db iSjkiksfM;k fdlh ds gSa gh ugha
fdlh ds gSa db db lhVh fdlh ds gSa gh ughsa
iksyhphV rks gSa lpeqp vtwcksa ds ?kj
jax jaxhys Qwyksa ls dbZ lqUnj lqUnj
lkjs eSjhu] db rSjus esa ekfgj fLoej
db vpy vpj lhMWUVªh tho exj
xgjs lkxj ry rd esa jgrs thou Hkj
gkSV oSUV~l ds ikl rd fo"kerkizseh V~;wcqyj
Li"V flj ]/kM+ rFkk iwaN okys ;s gksrs ,sls
ftuds flj is gksrk ,d lqUnj lk rkt exj
nks vka[ksa ij vusd vkbZLikSV~l lkjs cnu esa
flj] rkt] lkbM~l] Vsy] fxYl dgha Hkh!lc ij!
,UVhuk] VSUVSdYl vkSj iSYIl ds vykok
lhVh ds xqPNksa okyk ,d tksM+k iSjkiksfM;k
[kkuk xSnj djus] pyus] lkal ysus esa
Lkgk;d gksrs buds gj lSxeSaV ij
fxYl ftuls lkal ysrs ] [kkuk xSnj djrs
yxs gksrs buds vkxs ds lSxeSUV~l ij
vusdksa esa fny gksrk gh ugha ij
dqN esa gkVZ leku gksrs iYlsfVax oSlYl:ih
dbZ dbZ ^ fny * exj !

5
jSlfijs’ku gksrk fLdu ls] fxYl ls
vkSj iSjkiksfM;k rd ls lc esa
dqN gh Lihlht+ gksrha buesa fo’ks"kdj
Lo;aizdk’k ;kuh ck;ksY;qfefulSaV exj
;wuhlSDlqvy gksrs ;s vf/kdrj
iztuu gksrk ftuesa cfMax ls ]
;k vnHkqr vf}rh; ,fiVksdh ls
LieksaZ@v.Mksa ls Hkjs fiNys lSxEkWaV~l
lSdM+ksa dhVksa ds
vyx gks rSj rSj igqapdj lkxj lrg is ftleasa
lc lkFk lkFk xSehV~l NksM+rs f[kyrh pkanuh esa
vkSj Q+fVZykbt+s’ku gksrk rc ogka bl izdkj [kqys
esa
t+kbxksV ls curk ykjok ] dk;kdYi ls dhV
iw.kZ gksrk ,d thoupØ gt+kjksa dk ,d lkFk lizhr

vksfyxksphV~l dsapq, ls vFkZoeZ rks gksrs


NksVs NksVs] fcuk vka[k ds] ij dke ds cM+s
Pkkch gSa ;s yk[kksa yk[kksa yksxksa dh [k+q’kh
dh
db QzS’kokVj db VSjSLfVª;y ueh izseh lHkh
[ksrksa esa ckx cxhpksa esa VuYl [kksn ,;js’ku
djrs
vkSjxSfud eSVhfj;y feyk cukrs mitkm mUgsa
dksey ru gS budk yEck lk ue D;qfVfdy ls <dk <dk
,fiMjfel gS budh vusdksa vkbZLikSV~l ls ekuks tM+h tM+h
vudksa fjaXl ls lSxeSaV~l gksrs buesa tqM+s tqM+s
gj lSxeSaV ij ,d fjax NksVs NksVs ckyksa tSls lhVh dh
gj lSxeWaV esa gksrk ,d xSaxfy;k ,d tksM+h uSQ+jhfM;k dh
6
fnekx+ NksVklk ,d] ij fny vusd] nks ls ikap tksM+s ftrus
Vp ghV isu VsLV LeSy izS’kj lSal djus esa l{ke gSa ;s dhM+s
dksbZ jSfLijsVjh vkSjxu ugha] xSl ,Dlpsat djrs ue fLdu ls
,d nks tksM+k VSLVht+],d tksM+k vksojht+ dk gksrk t+:j vycRrk
E;qdl cuk ,d DykbVSye iV~Vk iztuu esa Iys djrk jksy cM+k
gksrs ckbZlSDlqvy vf/kdrj buesa
iztuu djrs ,lSDlqvy ] lSDlqvy nkSuks izdkj ls
,lSDlqvy fof/k esa dVs ;k vyx fd;s lSxeSaV~l lsa
iqujfuekZ.k dj ysrs 'ks"k vaxksa dk Lor% lgt izdkj
ls
lSDlqvy fof/k esa esfVax dk gksrk budk fo’ks"k izdkj
nkSuks lkFkh eqag viksft+V ,aM dh rjQ+ j[kdj feyrs
E;qdl dh ekuks vks<+ vks<+uh LieZ ,Dlpsat dj ysrs
vyx gks ,d vkSj E;qdl V~;wc nksuks viuh viuh jp ysrs
vius ,sXl ] nwts ls fy;s LiElZ nksuks Mky ftlesa
cuk mldk dksdwu mls ikuh esa nsrs NksM+ jke Hkjksls
vr% dksdwuksa esa gh gksrk Q+fVZykbt+s’ku xSehV~l ds feyus ls
ykjok ugha ] lh/ks csch dhV gh tue ysrs muesa fQj bl izdkj
bu dssapqvksa dh jhtujs’ku dyk ds dk;y gSa ekuo
lHkh
vk’p;Zpfdr oSKkfud tqVs gSa tkuus dks buds xqj
lHkh

fg:fMuh yhpst+ ;kuh tkasd Hkh fdlh ls de ugha


vki tkuks pgaV tka; rks [k+wu pwls cxSj NwVrh gh ugha
ij izkphu dky ls dke esa yh tkrha oS|ksa }kjk
vkSj vkt Hkh MkDVjksa }kjk blhfy;s
nks ldlZ] gSa cM+s e’kgwj buds
7
,d NksVk lk nkarHkjs eqag dk] dkVus pwlus okyk] vkxs
nwljk fMLd :ih cM+k lk ^ iSj *tek iq’k djusokyk] ihNs]
jksy fuHkkrs [k+klk nksuks gh pyus] fpiVus pwlus esa
,sls
gSa rks fjaxoeZ ;s Hkh] ij piVs ls ]ckdh nkSuksa Dyklst+ ls vyx brus
ds gksrs u rks lSIVk u lhVh u fxYl u gh iSjkiksfM;k buds
,d ugha ikap ikap tksM+s vk[kksa ds vkSj fny ds rks gksrs buds]
u jhtujs’ku ]u ikFkSZukstWuSfll] u gh ck;ksY;qfefulSal gksrk ij buesa
,lSDlqvy iztuu fof/k ;s viukrs gh ugha
feyu fcuk cPpk tuuk tkurs gh ugha
gj ,d tho esa gksrs
4&10 tksM+s VSLVht+ ds
,d tksM+k vksojht+ ds buds
ij Q+fVZykbt+s’ku gksrk gS buVjuy buesa
LieZiSdst bUtSDV djrs lkFkh ,sls esfVax ds nkSjku
ds vanj tkds LiElZ dj ysrs ,Xl ls feyu bl nkSjku
fQj nkSuks lkFkh cuk Lykbeh dksdwu DykbVe ls
,Xl mlesa dj VªkalQj py nsrs viuh viuh jkg ij
dksdwu esa gh gksrk ,Efcz;ks dk MsoSyieSaV iwjk
bl izdkj
ykjok buesa gksrk gh ugha
csch yhpst+ tuers dksdwu esa gh A
,UVhDykSfVax vkSj ,UVhisu ^lqUu* djus okys
,uSfLFkSfVd cukus esa l{ke gksus ds dkju ;s
vkt Hkh ekus tkrs egRoiw.kZ cM+s nqfu;kHkj esa
AA

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