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NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

GRADUATE SCHOOL
Cabanatuan City
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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOCAL ANTI-CRIMINALITY ACTION


PLAN (LACAP) IN THE PROVINCE OF PANGASINAN

A Research Paper

presented to

ARNEIL G. GABRIEL, Ll.B., Ph.D.

Professor

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the subject
POLICY SCIENCE
st
1 Semester SY 2017-2018

ROMAE R. DE ASIS, MPA, Ph.D.

Ph.D. Public Administration Student

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER Page

Title Page i

Table of Contents ii

List of Tables iv

List of Figures v

List of Appendices

1 INTRODUCTION 1

Background of the Study 1

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 8

Research Paradigm 14

Statement of the Problem 14

Research Hypothesis 15

Significance of the Study 15

Scope and Delimitation of the Study 16

Definition of Terms 16

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES 19

Foreign Literature 19

Foreign Studies 22

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Local Literature 27

Local Studies 31

3 RESEARCH DESIGN 48

Method of Research and Technique for Data Gathering 48

Sources of Data 49

Respondents of the Study 49

Data Gathering Instrument 49

Data Gathering Procedure 50

Statistical Treatment of Data 51

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF


4 53
DATA

5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 71

Summary 71

Conclusion 73

Recommendations 74

BIBLIOGRAPHY 76

81

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APPENDICES

A Letter of Request to Conduct Study 82

B SANDIGAN (PNP Anti-Criminality Master Plan)


94

C Survey Questionnaire
98

D Tally of Responses on Ranking of Anti-Criminality Activities


99

E Tally of Responses on Level of Implementation of LACAP

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

I Anti-Criminality Activities of the 48 LGUs in Pangasinan 54

II Level of Implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan 58

III Problems Encountered in the Implementation of the LACAP 49

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LIST OF FIGURE

Figure Page

1 Paradigm of the Study 14

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

“A couple can walk in the evening in their


neighborhood without fear of assault and robbery.”

“A family can go away for the weekend without fear


of returning to a house ransacked by burglars.”

“A woman can take a night job without fear of


being raped on her way to or from work.”

“Every citizen can live without fear of being


brutalized by unknown assailants.”

The abovementioned situations are what every Filipino wishes for. It is also what

every law enforcement agency aims for. These are possible only if the neighborhood, the

roads, parks, homes and commercial establishments are safe places for all persons at all

times. To make this scenario true may be wistful thinking. Many will say it is not

attainable. But at least, there must be concerted efforts among the citizens, the

government, and the law enforcement to reduce the crime rate, and to contain those social

conditions associated with crime and delinquency – poverty, unemployment, inferior

education, and corruption.

There is a need to improve the police image which has been tarnished by the

involvement of some of the policemen in crimes such as kidnapping, hold ups and bank

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robberies. Almost every day, we hear over the radio, or see television news about crimes

perpetrated by law enforcers. This is very sad for the country that is pushing for a newly

industrialized nation status by year 2040 based on government’s long range plan of

AMBISYON 2040. Crimes will drive investors away. No investors may mean no new

jobs for Filipinos.

The society today is faced with various social problems and concerns. One of

these problems is criminality, which affects all parts of the country and every aspect of

community life. The problem of criminality is aggravated due to the population growth,

unemployment and rapid urbanization. There is no single formula and theory that can

explain the vast range of criminal behavior. A criminal could be a shoplifter stealing

goods from a grocery store, a pleasant young man who suddenly and inexplicably

murders his family or a gun-for-hire who brutally assassinates a government official. In

addition, the crime problem weakening the traditional social control, moral standard the

alienation from family and social groups and the rising affluence enjoyed by some sectors

of society.

In the Philippines, kidnappings, bank heists, robbery and murder in the

countryside have remained the biggest threat for public safety and security among the

people. To ensure community safety of the people, the elected and appointed local

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government officials, Philippine National Police and enacted ordinances that served as

the tool or instrument in the protection of community.

In accordance with the 1987 Philippine Constitution, under Article XVI (General

Provisions), Section 6 provides: „The State shall establish and maintain one police force,

which shall be national in scope and civilian character, to be administered and controlled

by a national police commission. The authority of local executives over the police units

in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law.

Further, in the passage of Republic Act 7160, otherwise known as the Local

Government Code (LGC) of 1991 in Article 2, Section 28 stated that,” authorizes local

government executives to have operational control over police and policing in their

respective local jurisdictions.

Specifically, it defines the extensive powers that local elected executive officials,

such as provincial governors or city and municipal mayors, exercise over PNP officers

and personnel assigned to their jurisdictions. Chapter III, Section 51 of RA 6975

empowers provincial governors to select and appoint their police provincial directors,

oversee the implementation of their respective provincial public safety plans and preside

over their respective provincial peace and order councils. In other words, city and

municipal mayors are given even more powers over PNP personnel assigned to their

respective towns or cities. They include the power of operational International Journal of

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Research in Social Sciences and Humanities supervision and control over policing, which

means mayors of towns and cities could direct, superintend, oversee and inspect

Philippine National Police units or forces.

On the other hand, Under the Local Government Code of 1991, effective on

January 1, 1992 and which repealed P.D. 1508 the revised of Katarungang Pambarangay

lawfully reorganized to strengthen the peace and order under local government units. In

addition, the essence of the Katarungang Pambarangay Law is the amicable settlement of

conflicts wherein the disputing parties are encouraged to make mutual concessions to

obtain a peaceful resolution of the dispute without formal adjudication thereof.

It is a tool for declogging the courts and providing access to services at minimum

cost to both the government and litigants, with the objective of promoting the speedy

administration of justice. Lastly, the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM) was

established by the Philippine Congress through the enactment of the Police Act of 1966,

also known as Republic Act (RA) 4864.

Among its specific roles in relation to enforcing police accountability are the

following: To develop policies and set down a police manual of regulations for more

efficient organization, administration and operation of policing; to examine, audit and

establish standards for policing on a continuing basis; to approve or modify plans for

police education and training, logistics, communications, records and others; to monitor

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and investigate anomalies and irregularities in the police and to monitor the performance

of local chief executives as agents exercising authority over police within their localities

(National Police Commission 2008, pp. 1-2).

The Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP) prescribes the guidelines and

procedures relative to the conduct of holistic and comprehensive anti-crime approach to

be undertaken jointly by the different sectors of the society.

The same Action Plan intends to address all forms of criminality particularly

cattle rustling, illegal drugs, illegal logging and other crime against property that may

occur in the locality.

This guides the Chief of Police and the police personnel of his locality on what is

the crime focus of their station and what are the intended actions expected from them.

Without the LACAP, the Chief of Police will find it difficult to understand and be

familiar with the community he is assigned in. This is the reason why the presence of the

LACAP is one of the criteria for the selected of the Best Performing Local Government

Units through the Seal of Good Local Governance.

The Department of Interior and Local Government has initiated a program in

2014 on the Seal of Good Local Governance (SGLG) in an effort to further strengthen

accountability at the LGU level. This was an improved version of the Seal of Good

Housekeeping (SGH).

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The late and former DILG secretary Jesse Robredo in 2011 introduced the SGH

monitors and awards LGUs with good performance in internal housekeeping specifically

in the areas of local legislation, development planning, resource generation, and resource

allocation.

Expounding from SGH, the SGLG has 6 basic elements: 1) good financial

keeping, 2) disaster preparedness, 3) social protection, 4) business friendliness and

competitiveness, 5) environment management, and 6) peace and order.

https://www.rappler.com/move-ph/issues/budget-watch/48073-dilg-seal-good-local-

governance

It is under item number 6 on Peace and Order that the compliance to the Local

Anti-Criminality Plan (LACAP) was tagged as one of the requirements in this category.

In Region 1, the DILG in coordination with the Regional Development Council

through its Governance Sectoral Committee is tasked to assess the various local

government units in terms of their performance and transparency commitment.

Every year, the RDC, NEDA and DILG evaluate the different cities and

municipalities using the Seal of Good Local Governance and generally about 95% of the

municipalities and cities in Region 1 encounter a problem on their compliance of the

submission of the Approved LACAP.

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In the most recent data gathered by the researcher from the Police Regional Office

1 on the submission of the approved LACAP for the 2nd Quarter of CY 2017, the

Provinces of La Union, Ilocos Norte, and Ilocos Sur had some Chiefs of Police who have

submitted their approved LACAP. However, the province of Pangasinan, with 44

municipalities and 4 cities, has not submitted their approved LACAP for consolidation

and data information.

This problem has been raised to the researcher by the Chief of the Operations

Division of the Police Regional Office 1 (PRO1) located at Camp Oscar M Florendo in

San Fernando City, La Union where the PNP has reflected a zero compliance rate on the

Local Anti-Criminality Plan for the province of Pangasinan.

With the researcher sitting as the Private Sector Representative (Alternate) in the

Governance Sector of the Regional Development Council of Region 1 for the past 4 years

has observed that the PNP cannot forward accurate information to the RDC on the anti-

criminality plan of the different municipalities. According to the Chiefs of Police, it is

always very difficult for them to submit an approved LACAP because it has to go

through the Sangguniang Panglungsod or Sangguniang Bayan for review and approval. In

most cases, they submit a re-enacted LACAP even if the contents are not part of their

intended Anti-Criminality Plan for their area of jurisdiction.

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It is for this reason that she intended to assess the implementation of the Local

Anti-Criminality Plan (LACAP) focusing further on its preparation and approval to the

different LGUs in the Province of Pangasinan considering that being the biggest province

of the Ilocos Region; they have not submitted their quarterly reports on the LACAP.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

The theoretical/conceptual basis of this study is anchored on the concepts and

theories relating to criminal behavior, nature of crimes, crime solution efficiency, factors

that influence to the commission of crime, crime patterns, and problems relating to the

investigation of crime.

Concept of Crime

Professional criminologists usually align themselves with one of several schools

of thought or perspectives. Each of these perspectives maintains its own view of what

constitutes criminal behavior and what causes people to engage in criminality. A

criminologist’s choice of orientation or perspectives depends, in part, on his or her

definition of crime. The three most common concepts of crime used by criminologists are

consensus view, conflict and interactionist view. The consensus view is the belief that the

majority of citizens in a society share common values and agree on what behaviors

should be defined as criminal. The conflict view is the belief that criminal behavior is

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defined by those in a position of power to protect and advance their own self-interest. On

the other hand, the interactionist view is the belief that those with social power are able to

impose their values on society as a whole, and these values then define criminal behavior

(Siegel:2008)

Generally, a criminal act must be completed for a crime to exist. However, there

are some exceptions to this rule. When a person is unsuccessful in the commission of a

crime, that person can be charged with criminal attempt. In addition, once an agreement

is made between two or more people to commit a crime, they are guilty of conspiracy.

The level of “evilness” is the basis of typology of crimes. Mala in se, Latin for “evil in

itself”, refers to crimes that are intrinsically evil, such as murder. Although societies may

differ on the details of acts that constitute murder, all prohibit the behavior. This term is

in contrast with mala prohibita, Latin for “wrong because it is prohibited,” which refers

to activities that have been clawed not because they are obviously evil, but because they

violate certain standards governing behavior (Winfree & Abadinsky: 2003)

Co-extensive with the typology of crimes are the basic elements or ingredients for

crime to exist in order to determine the criminal liability depending on the criminal

propensity.

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According to Coronel as cited by Verceles (2003), there are three elements or

ingredients that must be present at the same time and place for the crime to happen.

These are motive, instrumentality, and opportunity.

Motive refers to the reason or cause why a person or group of person will

perpetrate a crime. Examples are dispute, economics gain, jealousy, revenge, insanity,

thrill, intoxication, drug addiction, and many others.

Instrumentality is the means or implement used in the commission of the crime. It

could be firearm, a bolo, a knife, an ice pick, poisonous or obnoxious substance, a crow

bar, a battery-operated hand drill for carnapping motor vehicle, etc. Both motive and

instrumentality belong to and harbored and wielded respectively by the criminal.

Opportunity consists of the acts of omission and/or commission by a person (the

victim), which enables the other person or group of persons (the criminal/s) to perpetrate

the crime. Illustrative examples include leaving one’s home unattended for a long period

of time, waiting alone in a well-known crime-prone alley, wearing expensive jewelries in

slum areas, readily admitting a stranger into one’s residence and the like. Opportunity is

synonymous with carelessness, acts of indiscretion and lack of crime prevention

consciousness on the part of the victim.

Whether a crime incident would happen or not, it will depend on the presence and

merging of motive, instrumentality and opportunity at the same time and the same place.

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The absence of any of the ingredients, out of the three, will mean that there shall be no

crime. The most that could happen is an accident arising out of reckless imprudence;

since there is no motive. A freak crime incident shall occur when all the three elements

are present and merged at the same time and the same place; but the victim is not the

intended one, due to mistaken identity.

Criminal behavior is an intentional behavior that violates the criminal law.

Criminal behavior, therefore, is beyond normal behavior since it is used to describe

products or actions that do not belong to the standard behavior of man.

The Department of Interior and Local Government Memorandum Circular

Number 2014-39 scales up the Seal of Good Housekeeping into the Seal of Good Local

Governance (SGLG). Good governance promotes transparency and accountability in the

use of public funds by delivering basic services that are responsive to people's needs. In

this context, the SGLG is recognition of good performance of provincial, city and

municipal governments, not only on financial housekeeping, but also on other areas that

directly benefit the people. It is a continuing challenge for local governments to perform

better, and ultimately, achieve a desirable condition where local governments: (a) Sustain

the practice of transparency and accountability in the use of public funds; (b) Prepare for

challenges posed by disasters; (c) Demonstrate sensitivity to the needs of vulnerable and

marginalized sectors of society; (d) Encourage investment and employment; (e) Protect

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constituents from threats to life and security; and (0 Safeguard the integrity of the

environment. file:///D:/DPA_romae/policy%20science/DILG-Memo_Circular-2014326-

7960dfc5e3.pdf

This study is further anchored on the premise that the community and government

agencies, individually and collectively, must work to bring about the necessary changes,

both inside and outside the criminal justice system. If the people are committed to

reducing crime, the rate will decrease.

Crime reduction is imperative. The costs and consequences of crime are

enormous. Fear grips the community because of the occurrence of violent crimes. The

crime situation in the country has risen into an alarming degree. The press, radio, social

media and television draws an ugly picture of the crime situation, forcing the government

and the community to look hard into the situation and focus their attention to finding

solutions to this problem. The law enforcement agencies, the local government units, and

the community should work together in order to reduce crime and increase public safety.

The police needs to strengthen their ties with the community. The criminal justice system

must be effective since its failure would exacerbate the situation. The community must

support the crime prevention efforts of the government as well as institute crime

prevention program.

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The criminal justice system has five pillars. These are the community, law

enforcement, prosecution, courts, and corrections. It is a unidirectional cycle, starting

with the community. A synergy or cooperative work between the community and law

enforcement agencies can help reduce crime. Prompt administration of justice will

discourage the criminal elements and an efficient justice system will restore the faith and

confidence of the community to the law enforcement agencies. The police-community

relations are a long range full scale effort to acquaint the police and the community with

each other’s problems and to stimulate action to solve these problems (Caldwell: 1997)

Crime prevention is not only the responsibility of law enforcers, but the shared

responsibility of the pillars of the criminal justice system, especially the community.

This study aims to assess the level of implementation of the Local Anti-

Criminality Action Plan (LACAP) in the different towns and cities in the Province of

Pangasinan including the problems encountered in its implementation.

The paradigm below presents the dependent and independent variables of this

study. The independent variable consists of the Local Anti-Criminality Plan of the 48

local government units of the Province of Pangasinan while the dependent variable

contains the anti-criminality activities, the level of implementation of the LACAP, and

the problems encountered in the implementation of the LACAP.

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INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

- Anti-Criminality Activities
Local Anti-Criminality of the 48 LGUs of Pangasinan
Action Plan of the 48 Local - Level of Implementation
Government Units of the of the LACAP
Province of Pangasinan - Problems encountered in the
Implementation of LACAP

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was to identify the activities that are covered by the

Local Anti-Criminality Plan of the 48 local government units in the province of

Pangasinan, determine the level of its implementation and the problems encountered by

the local PNP in its implementation.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the activities that are focused in the Local Anti-Criminality Action

Plan of the 48 localities of the Province of Pangasinan?

2. What is the level of implementation of the different activities of the Local

Anti-Criminality Action Plan in the Province of Pangasinan?

3. What are the problems encountered by the local PNP in the implementation of

the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan?

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4. What recommendations may be proposed to improve the level of

implementation and to address the problems encountered in the

implementation of the LACAP?

Research Hypothesis

This study is anchored on the hypothesis that the Local Anti-Criminality Action

Plan of the Province of Pangasinan in FULLY IMPLEMENTED.

Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be significant to the following stakeholders:

Philippine National Police (PNP). This study would be beneficial to the PNP

organization, in general, as its findings would clearly search for ways and means in

contributing, improving, and upgrading the PNP’s system in its war against criminality.

Pangasinan Police Office. The result of this study may provide additional

information and concept on the implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality Plan

particularly on the problems the local police is encountering in its implementation.

Researcher. The result of the study will give her better insights and sense of

fulfillment towards an effective Anti-Criminality Strategy and to assist the Regional

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Development Council in addressing the issue of the delayed collection of the LACAP

data for Region 1 particularly in the Province of Pangasinan.

Future Researchers. The result of this study would serve as a reference in the

conduct of similar studies particularly in the field of addressing street crimes.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The setting of the study covered the 44 towns and 4 cities of the Province of

Pangasinan. It only included the responses of the Chiefs of Police since they are the

persons in charge of preparing the Local Anti-Criminality Plan for their area of

responsibility. It did not include the barangay captains or the local government officials

since the researcher believes that they may be contributory to the implementation of

LACAP.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following terms are operationally defined

accordingly:

Community relations. This refers to the process of dealing with the community

for purposes of disseminating information about organizational goals and objectives,

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policies, rules and regulations for the public’s knowledge and appreciations, transparency

and trust.

Crime Prevention. This is a police function intended to deter the commission of

crime by denying would be criminal with opportunity, the instrument and the motivation

to commit such crime.

Crime. This refers to any act or omission punishable by law forbidding or

commanding it. In this study, focused on street crimes.

Foot patrol. This pertains to a type of patrol done by PNP personnel as part of

police visibility.

Index Crimes. This refers to criminal cases involving persons and property of

more serious in nature.

Instrumentality. In crime element, this includes all implements, tools or items

necessary in the commission of a crime.

Intent. The element of crime and is ‘the exercise of intelligent will, the mind

being fully aware of the nature and consequences of the crime committed.

Mobile patrol. This is another type of patrol activity being conducted by PNP

that includes mobile and motorcycle patrol.

Motive. This refers to why one committed the crime, the inducement, reason, or

willful desire and purpose behind the commission of an offense.

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Non-Index Crimes. This is referring to civil cases or less serious crimes which

are brought to the local police for investigation and solution.

Opportunity. This refers to a good position, chance, prospect, situation or

condition as for advancement or success in committing a crime.

Peace and Order. This refers to the state of security and after effect of non-

intrusion of negative or bad elements in the society.

Police – Barangay Ugnayan. This is a collaboration of police and community to

enhance and build relationships with the citizens of local neighborhood, and mobilizes

the public to help fight crime.

Police visibility. This is used in this study as generic term to all efforts and

activities of the police in the attempt of eliminating the commission of crimes.

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This portion of the research contains the researcher’s reading on the related

literatures and studies divided into foreign and local literatures and studies.

Foreign Literature

Hagan (2014) wrote in his book “Criminology and Crimes,” that the estimate

property crime such as robbery, burglary, and larceny cost American society nearly 13

billion dollars. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigators estimate that the

federal government is being ripped off by at least 50 billion dollars a year, primarily

through fraud.

Schafer (2013) explained that a convictional criminal with his altruistic moral

ideology, places less emphasis upon secrecy and even seeks publicity for his cause.

Dramatic publicity, moreover, is almost a necessity for the convictional criminal in order

for the public understands his actions; his crime may serve as an example to would be

followers and generate further convictional crimes. His punishment is not a deterrent and

may serve to interest others in the given ideal and to recruit other violators of law.

Klecak (2010) states that the public police agency’s organization and facilities

must be aligned so that they will successfully accomplish its overall objectives. This

requires a well-coordinated structure wherein there are provisions for the components to

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function in harmony. Unfortunately, many law enforcement agencies are limited in both

personnel and equipment resources, which hamper their ability to cope with the various

diversified techniques of criminal activities and modus operandi. These restrictions

results in a dependence on other government agencies’ resources to assist them in

furthering their police efforts.

According to Siegel (2013), recognition must be given to the fact that law

enforcement agencies do possess unique individual characteristics. These distinguishing

features are determined by departmental size, budget, geography and objective, to name

but a few. Criminal prevention policy setting and the formulation of plans to positively

pursue the chosen policy must be decided rationally.

Wolfgang as cited by Allan (2013) says that the process from original complaint

through apprehension and conviction of a suspect to release from prison is a long and

complicated task. The criminal justice system is commonly thought of as divided into

three (3) segments: a) police and similar law enforcement agencies; b) administration of

agencies’ prosecutors, defense, court; and c) Correctional agencies.

Zvekic as cited by Dasayon (2013)in his theory on Citizens’ Experience with

Crime Prevention states that crime prevention strategy should include the promotion of

active crime prevention policies; development of long-term plans; improve coordination

of crime prevention activities at the national, regional and local levels; promotion by law

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enforcement and criminal justice of the safety and security of person and property;

treatment of victims with respect and understanding of their needs; regular monitoring of

crime prevention programs, based on reliable information, analysis and public discussion

with all parties involved.

Furthermore, improved police-community relations, which may result from a

better knowledge of victimization experiences, will lead to an increased use of crime

prevention measures at the individual/household level, as well as within the framework of

crime prevention programs.

The UNAFEI Newsletter (February 2005) averred that responding to the demands

of the people and public opinion who seek safety and security, the government has to put

an emphasis on repressive approaches such as strengthening law enforcement and

punishment, which directly responds to the public’s beliefs and are effective in the short

term.

It is clear that these countermeasures are necessary and we can expect some

positive results from them; however, relying solely on such countermeasures is

insufficient to combat the crime associated with urbanization. Offenders will be back in

the community sooner or later and repressive approaches do not take into account

prevention of crime and reintegration of offenders into the community. It can be deduced

from the preceding review of foreign literatures that the phenomenon of an increase in

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crime due to urbanization has been brought about by many factors. Therefore it is

difficult for criminal justice agencies to combat such crimes alone. It is essential to

establish an "integrated approach" carried out by agencies and organizations concerned

and people in the community closely cooperating and collaborating.

Clarke as cited by Dasayon (2013) theory of crime prevention through

environmental design is based on one simple idea – that crime results partly from the

opportunities presented by physical environment. It is a general approach to reducing the

opportunities for any kind of crime, occurring in any kind of setting, including airline

hijackings, welfare frauds, obscene phone calls, pub violence and domestic violence, as

well as the conventional predatory offenses.

Foreign Studies

According to Gage (2014), a trial of 22 defendants took place in New York City,

alleging they ran a 1.7 billion dollars drug trafficking organization in the United States,

using pizza restaurant as fronts.

Clinard and Quinney (2013) in their thesis, state “the occupational crimes consist

of offenses committed by individuals for themselves in the course of their occupations

and of offenses of employees against their employers.” Upperworld crime refers to

lawbreaking acts committed by those who due to their position in the social structure,

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have obtained specialized kinds of occupational slots essential for the commission of

these offenses.

Gottfredson, et al (2010) in their studies claim that part of human life is

embracing crime evasion, safety, prevention, expenses on crime prevention, to include

insurance, expenses on crime victims, on victims’ expenses during court trials,

government expenses on criminal justice system. Fear of crime also negatively affects

the quality of life, with this everyone acts and plans on how to avoid or prevent crime or

to be victimized. Everyone do and provide within their capabilities in avoiding criminal

acts, studying others crime prevention plans. Crime is costing each country with huge

money, thus, crimes must be prevented.

Crime experts and law enforcement has long been aware on the complexities of

crime and the importance of crime prevention, and some experts has published important

works widely on the subject. Any plan which reduces or eliminates the level of

victimization or the risk of individual participation is defined as crime prevention. It

includes government and community-based programs to reduce the incidents of risk

factors correlated with criminal participation and the rate of victimization, as well as

efforts to change perceptions.

Gottfredson and other criminologists have been the forefront of analyzing what

works to prevent crime. Commissions, research bodies, councils analyzing their research

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on what lower rates of interpersonal crime, and they agree that government must go

beyond law enforcement and criminal justice to tackle risk factors that cause crime for it

is cost effective and results to greater social benefits than the standard ways of

responding to crime (Gubatan, 2011).

Sampson as cited by Dasayon (2013) says that the study on the effectiveness of

the police in preventing and solving crimes cannot be done through foot patrols of

policemen. The behavior or conduct of individual policemen is not the sole determining

factor in police community relations. Departmental procedures employing techniques

directed at promoting efficiency, reducing crime, or putting down riots have a bearing on

police community relations. The study found out that in the United States, in order to

fight crime in high crime areas, a department may employ a large number of officers in

saturation patrols or use trained dogs and handlers in these neighborhoods. To maximize

an efficient utilization of its manpower, a department will employ motorized instead of

foot patrols or one-man patrol cars rather than two-man cars. These practices, while

efficient and economical, have sometimes antagonized segments of the community, or at

least have minimized opportunities for friendly contacts with the public, and these are the

contacts that form the crux of good community relations. The study found out that police

forces are increasingly patrolling in cars rather than on foot because the latter was found

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to be far less efficient than radio police cars, which can cover larger areas and respond

more quickly.

White as cited by Vicente (2013), in his study of Situating Crime Prevention:

Models, Methods and Political Perspectives, he raised questions regarding the theoretical

underpinnings and political orientations of much of what is accepted as "crime

prevention". His focus was mainly has been to comment generally on the ways in which

adherence to certain ideological frameworks can be linked to both theoretical closure and

the adoption of exclusionary practices. Contrary to this, it has been argued that the

adoption of selected techniques, practices and methods does not make a particular

program inherently good (or bad), or a success (or failure), or that the choice and use of

these can somehow be separated from wider political issues.

The definition, orientation and strategic objectives of different crime prevention

models are inherently and intractably political. Acknowledgement of the existence of

competing perspectives (conservative, liberal and radical), and consequently diverse

forms of intervention (some of which are mutually exclusive, others that reinforce each

other), is important in sensitizing us to the politics of our own practice, and in exposing

the vested interests behind specific modes of crime prevention.

Bearing this in mind, it is also important to have a vision of what we do that goes

beyond that of "crime prevention" per se. That is, we need to continually assess the

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effects and implications of the different models and methods on the overall character of

social life, and on the well-being of specific groups and communities. Stopping crime is

always a possible project if only we had enough resources, tools and powers.

According to Skogan and Frydl (2006), while the available evidence supports the

assertion that hot spots policing is effective, there are important gaps in our knowledge

about it. Clearly, the enforcement-oriented strategies reviewed here work in preventing

crime. We do not know, however, which enforcement strategies are more effective in

preventing crime and under what circumstances certain strategies are more appropriate.

For instance, we do not know whether many of the observed crime-control gains were

generated by increased arrests, increased contacts with potential offenders, or simply

increased police presence in very small areas. This small body of evaluation research also

does not unravel the important question of whether enforcement-oriented programs result

in long-term crime reductions in hot spot areas. Comparison periods to detect potential

crime-prevention effects ranged from only 1 month to 1 year .This review also offers

little insight into the effectiveness of enforcement tactics relative to other broader-based

community problem-solving policing programs.

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Local Literature

One approach in crime prevention was based on the concept of the crime

prevention triangle: desire, ability and opportunity. According to Hallock (2001) as cited

by Gubatan (2011), taking away any of the three elements of the crime triangle, prevents

the occurrence of crime. He further suggested that opportunity is the easiest component to

control which can break the crime prevention triangle to win the battle against crime.

In line with its campaign to promote crime prevention, the CIDG “Crime

Prevention: Cooperative Preparedness” has provided a primer on how citizens could also

be part of the campaign. This includes how to avoid crime to happen; citizens

preparedness against crime in the community, at home or anywhere else. Such primer

could go a long way in getting the cooperation of the public in the campaign against

criminality in the area.

His Excellency Fidel V. Ramos, former President of the Philippines has outlined

his administration’s plans for peace and order and crime fighting. He said that the five-

year plan of the government has brought into it not just the recommendations of the top

officials of our criminal justice system, but the counsel add experience of those who are

in the frontlines in the war against crimes – the police officers out on the beat,

investigators, prosecutors, crusaders against violence, judges and jail wardens. President

Ramos said that the government has adopted a Master Plan of Action for Peace and Order

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containing two (2) vital components, namely: a vision on what the government is trying

to achieve, and the second is on how to get there. Including in the plan is a coherent

strategy that provides for a two-pronged effort: by reinforcing the five-pillars of the

criminal justice system, and by highlighting values through moral recovery (Gubatan,

2011).

For the increase demand for peace, order and security of the ever-growing

population in a rapidly changing and developing society, police force is not enough. To

address the problem, by virtue of the resolution no. 200-157 of the National Police

Commission (NAPOLCOM) approved a Community Oriented Policing System (COPS)

Manual to be carried out by the PNP nationwide. The COPS was adopted from the Koban

Police System of Japan which involves community in fight against crime.

Caparas (2004) as cited by Allan (2013) indicated that a common strategy among

the five pillars of the criminal justice system is the conduct of an Information Education

Communication (IEC) Campaign. A Presidential Directive was issued for the five pillars

of the criminal justice system to formulate and implement a comprehensive Criminal

Justice System Communication Plan (CJS Complan). The CJS Complan was initiated to

promote the CJS in order to enhance justice, public order and safety through an integrated

and sustained communication program. Primers, posters, brochures, pamphlets and other

materials containing information on the criminal justice system were prepared,

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reproduced and distributed to the public. CJS agencies also air a weekly one-hour radio

program “Bantay-Katarungan” (Justice Watch) which focuses on crime prevention and

the criminal justice system. It is aired every Friday from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon over

DZBB Radyong Bayan.

The 11th UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice held in 2005

reported that Miguel Coronel, Major General of the Police and Commissioner of the

National Police Commission in the Philippines, provides an account of the development

of the community-oriented policing system (COPS) established in the Philippines in

1994. It forms part of the holistic National Anti-Crime Strategy which is now included in

the National Crime Prevention Programme adopted in 2004. He emphasizes that the

COPS programme is 'people-powered', and uses the example of one of the first projects to

illustrate its strengths. Following the restoration of democracy in 1986, a pilot initiative

BAC-UP was developed in Bacolod City with decentralized community-based police

stations at the local level, and modeled on the Japanese 'Koban' system. The project

developed very strong police - community links at the local level which have continued

to grow and been sustained over a period of 18 years. The COPS system is built on

similar principles of high levels of integrity, trust, participation and civic-mindedness on

the part of public officials and citizens.

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The Handbook on the Crime Prevention Guidelines (2005): reported that the

Institute for Strategic and Development Studies (ISDS), Inc. is currently undertaking the

Second Phase of the Developing a Security Sector Reform Index (SSRI) in the

Philippines: Towards Conflict Prevention and Peace-Building, through the support of the

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Conflict Prevention and Peace-

Building (CPPB) Programme. For 2006, this project aims to pilot-test the draft SSRI and

to generate a baseline of the state of security sector governance in the country.

In 2005, the Office of the Presidential Adviser to Implement the Feliciano

Commission Recommendations (OPAIFCR) has conducted a project to develop an index

to assess security sector reform (SSR) for the Philippines. This was based on the explicit

commitment of the Philippine government to the institutionalization of an efficient,

effective, responsive, transparent, and accountable defense and security establishment.

Furthermore, the 2005 Philippine Human Development Report (p. 50) and Waging Peace

Conference held last December underscored the significance of instituting SSR in order

to find a just, peaceful, and lasting resolution to the country’s lingering internal conflicts.

This is notwithstanding the contribution of SSR in the country’s ongoing pursuit of

democratic consolidation and good governance. Together with project consultants from

ISDS, OPAIFCR was able to generate a set of empirically verifiable indicators from

different security sector institutions (core security forces, security management and

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oversight bodies, law and enforcement agencies, and societal groups). Composed of

various dimensions, the instrument covered legal enactments and constitutional

provisions; existence, powers, capacity, and performance of security sector institutions;

reform efforts and initiatives; and indicators related to peace building. The proposed

SSRI was also subjected to various validation meetings from the abovementioned SSR

actors. Twelve (12) consultative meetings were conducted primarily from different

military camps across the country to solicit comments and feedback for the improvement

of the SSRI.

Local Studies

The following are local studies (thesis, researches, special studies, expert

opinions) related to Police Integrated Patrol System (PIPS):

Vicente, et al (2013) conducted a community research entitled “Crime Prevention

Program in Baguio.” The study revealed that the barangays of Baguio City with Zero or

very low crime rate practice some of the best practices of crime prevention while the

barangays with high crime rate practice the traditional way of preventing crimes. Some

identified crime prevention strategies implemented in Baguio City includes foot

patrolling, mobile patrolling, neighborhood watch, close coordination with security

agency and their guards. The study also reveals that some best practices identified include

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monitoring the occupants of the transient houses, requiring business establishments to

strategically install Close Circuit Cameras (CCTV), and regular and intensive

coordination among barangay officials, police, and volunteer groups in fight against

criminality.

De La Rama, Raymundo, &Wanasen Jr (2010) in their study entitled “Police

strategies against street crimes in Bicol Region” reveals that the Regional Police in Bicol

should exert more effort by mobilizing the community, keeping the community informed

of the crime situation on the modus operandi of criminals, and for the local government

to allocate more funds for the police stations purposely for crime prevention programs.

Kiunisala, et al (2004) as cited by Gubatan (2011) stated in their study that the

effects of crime prevention campaign and leadership styles of the eight police precinct

chiefs of General Santos City Police Office on crime rate, crime solution efficiency and

community support and involvement in crime prevention and control in General Santos

City for 2000- 2002. The study used descriptive and inferential statistics. Both

commissioned and non-commissioned police officers as well as public officials were the

respondents of the study.

According to Dasayon (2013) in his study on “Police Integrated Patrol System in

Eastern Police District,” found out the following: 1) police visibility and intensifying the

anti-criminality and security operations are effective to prevent crimes, 2) there should be

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the increase of budget allocation, 3) attention must be given to force multipliers. This

study was prepared to enhance the PIPS of the Eastern Police District.

As Timpac (2011) stated in his thesis, crime prevention in any public or privately

based initiative or policy aimed at reducing or eliminating criminal behavior and violence

in the community.

Fernandez (2001) as cited by Gubatan (2011) focused on the major changes in the

PNP towards the achievement of its “Moral Recovery Program”. This could enhance the

image of the police to gain the confidence of the public. This study helped build the

image of police organization and it cascades to the personnel of the Baguio City Police

Office. Based on the result of this study, the PNP’s knowledge on community-oriented

policing system is the change in behavior and attitudes that envision the following: 1)

Improved police-community relations hinged on the notion that community should not

fear the police so that the PNP image will improve; 2) Since the community now trusts

the people, crime reporting will improve; 3) The community will then have a feeling of

safety and security because policing becomes everybody’s concern; and 4) When the

community and the police work in partnership, opportunities to commit criminal acts will

be reduced, hence, crime volume and crime rate will drastically go down, and a peaceful

and secured community will be achieved.

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Padua says that police facilities and equipment considerations should be made a

priority in the improvement of the services of the police. Equipment consideration in

establishing multi-agency anti-crime task forces is now a well-discussed area in the field

of police administration and policing and must always be given its due importance in the

modernization of the police as a prime crime fighter. He indicated that police equipment

is classified into two (2): individual equipment and organizational equipment. Individual

equipment is that equipment considered as issued to and used by individual police officer

while in the performance of his duties. The application of this definition varies with the

assignment or designation of an individual police officer. On the other hand,

organizational equipment is generally those that are not issued to an individual police

officer and could be used by any authorized or qualified member of the organization.

In the consideration and choice of equipment, various areas or aspects must be

considered. This includes suitability, reliability, acceptability, availability, authority,

training, operation, portability or mobility, cost effectiveness, interoperability or multi-

functionality, and linkages to larger systems.

According to Rafael (2009), it is more beneficial to prevent crimes than to react to

them after the act has been committed. He further stated that in the Philippines, crime

solution has received much more attention than crime prevention. He elucidates this in

his study of police community partnership as a crime prevention strategy to reduce

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criminality in the Province of Cagayan. The results of his study yielded the conclusions

that education, training and information campaign, outreach program participation,

strategic plans sensitive to local needs, organizational development and change and

budgetary requirements and support are highly effective in preventing and reducing crime

in the Province of Cagayan.

In the study of Protacio (2009), entitled “Calamba City Crime Prevention

Strategy” reveals that Calamba City Police Station made use of Police Integrated Patrol

System, Police Barangay Ugnayan, Day and Night Checkpoint, Utilization of Force

Multipliers and OPLAN Magdalena in their crime prevention campaign. The

recommendations were the following: 1) there is a need for Calamba City Police Station

to deploy additional personnel to cover all crime prone areas, 2) there is a need to sustain

adequate number of vehicles to be used in patrolling 54 barangays of Calamba, 3) that

PNP shall ensure maximum participation of the barangay and community in maintaining

peace and order, 4) provision of adequate number of vehicles to be used in order to

sustain the 24 hours checkpoints, 5) the need to establish a joint police and force

multiplier organized patrol deployment system in roaming the 54 barangays of Calamba

City, 6) enhance and improve efficient implementation of laws on prostitution to avoid

proliferation of vagrants in Calamba City, and 7) Calamba City Police Station should

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strengthen coordination with other concerned government agencies to fight the menace of

prostitution.

With the involvement of the community, crime prevention became everybody’s

business. To further strengthen the awareness and participation of the community on

crime prevention, a Presidential Proclamation No. 461 dated August 31, 1994 was

declared every first week of September every year as national crime prevention week.

Everybody is enjoined to be involved to implement the programs and activities on crime

prevention. During one celebration of the crime prevention week with a theme “Sa Crime

Prevention, May Magagawa ako” Benguet Governor Nestor Fongwan capitalized on the

importance of peace and love which starts in the family which eventually spread to the

community as instrument in winning the fight against crime. The roles of family and the

community are very important in crime prevention (Flora, 2013).

Bergonio (2010) in his study on the effectiveness of the Manila Police District

mobile patrol operations in the City of Manila determined the same in terms of Beat

Patrol System, sustaining night watch operations, crime deterrence and police barangay

ugnayan, the problems encountered in its implementation and the measures to address

these problems. Based on his analysis, he concluded that mobile patrol operations in the

City of Manila boils down to an observed lack or inadequate police presence or visibility

in the communities which is also related to the limited manpower and equipment of the

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mobile patrol unit. Moreover, he concluded that the inadequacy of police elements on the

ground is attributed to the shift in police philosophy and strategy from “precinct-based,

response-driven” deployment and operations to specialization, e.g. creation of anti-illegal

drugs, anti-organized crime, anti-illegal recruitment, anti-kidnapping, and other such

special units competing with territorial police formations for meager personnel and

material resources of the PNP. He also indicated in his study that while the role of said

specialized police units and other accomplishments are well-recognized, there should also

be a balancing of forces, possibly by proper percentage distribution, to enable local police

units to provide maximum police presence at precinct level and visibility on the beat.

Bernales (2006) made a study on police administration in Cabanatuan City. His

most significant findings were the following:

1. The station commander has full executive control over police administration.

There is adequate supervision at all administrative control points. Although these

are guidelines for the organization and supervision of the different branches and

division, these are not effectively followed. The amount of manpower and

equipment does not correlate with work units and type of work to be performed.

The police personnel had undergone a variety of police training. Police personnel

are assigned specific tasks based on their rank and position. There is lack of basic

equipment, vehicles and communication facilities.

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2. The chief of administration and chief of services are personally responsible for

managing activities related to personnel and materials. The chief of operations is

in control of the line divisions. Daily and monthly reports of activities are

reported to him.

3. The station commander and police personnel are selected on the basis of

qualification standard provided in the Integrated National Police Manual.

However, politics have influenced the appointment of the station commander.

Tenure and professional performance is not fully followed as new graduates of the

Philippine Military Academy with at least three years experience may be

appointed to chief position.

Most of the police personnel are graduates of B.S. Criminology. Salary

rates are low, but disability and death benefits are adequately provided to the

spouse or children.

4. There is no public reporting system. Not all policemen submit written report on

their daily operation. Only information taken from the police blotter seems to be

the only data collated and documented for record filing purposes. A standard

complaint system is enforced and is recorded in the police blotter. All fingerprints

and records are indexed and filed up to data. Countercheck with the NBI is also

made.

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5. The communication facilities available are telephones and two-way radios. The

number of two-way radio transreceivers is minimal. A home-based radio is

operational and has clear lines to all two-way radios in patrol jeeps in all towns in

Nueva Ecija.

The study of Bernales was a study of the organization and operation of a police

station. The present study dealt with the crime prevention program of a municipality, the

factors affecting the crime prevention program and the problems met in their

implementation.

Lapuz (2012) assessed the effectiveness of the provincial peace and order council

of Pampanga. He arrived at the following conclusions:

1. The Provincial Peace and Order Council was organized to address insurgency

and criminality through citizen’s participation in maintaining peace and order

in accordance with the Local Government Code.

2. The success of the Provincial Peace and Order Council depends on the

harmonious relationship and mutual support among the civilians and military

authorities.

3. The Provincial Peace and Order Council members perceived that the factors

that should be considered in the effective functioning of the Council are as

follows:

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a. Presence of full-time staff for the Council

b. Appropriate budget for the Council

c. Ability to accomplish objectives

d. Well-defined flow of authority

e. Proper implementation of the programs

4. The community perceived that the following factors should be considered in

the effective functioning of the Provincial Peace and Order Council (PPOC)

a. Presence of full-time staff

b. Budget allocation for the PPOC

c. Commitment of the PPOC members

d. A well defined flow of authority

The above factors affect the effectiveness of the PPOC to a large extent except for

the presence of a full-time staff for the Council which is perceived to contribute to a

limited extent.

5. The PPOC is moderately affected its administrative functions of receiving

complaints against government personnel and implementing and executing

provincial policies, plans and programs.

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6. The evaluation of rating of the community on the effectiveness of the PPOC is

lower compared to the rating of the PPOC members. The community is not

fully aware of the functions of the PPOC.

The study of Lapuz centered on the effectiveness of the Peace and Order Council

in performing the functions in implementing its plans and programs in order to curb

criminality and peace and order problems. The present study focused on the anti-

criminality action plan aimed at reducing criminality.

Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies

The related literatures and studies have something to do with the current study on

Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan or popularly called LACAP being implemented in

the Province of Pangasinan. Basically the literatures and studies talk all about crime

prevention. Some literatures written on books reveal that crime prevention needs to be

addressed by authorities to at least minimize societal effect. On the other hand, foreign

and local studies differ slightly as to the strategies in crime prevention. Most crime

prevention strategies being used by the Philippine National Police (PNP) today is/are

adopted from best practices from other countries.

Wolfgang’s theory focused on apprehension and conviction of offenders as one of

the crime prevention strategies in a given locality. While this study recognizes

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apprehension and conviction of offenders as one of the indispensable factors in crime

prevention, it also looked into other areas as well in order to create a holistic approach in

crime prevention.

The strategies enumerated by UgljesaZvekic in his theory on “Citizens’

Experience with Crime Prevention” and UNAFEI Newsletter’s feature on community

perceptions focused on the need to improve police-community relations which may result

from a better knowledge of victimization experiences and will lead to an increased use of

crime prevention measures starting at the individual/household level, as well as within

the framework of crime prevention programs. These literatures focused on the perception

of the community regarding crime prevention, which is only one of the facets of this

study which has similar situation in the Province of Pangasinan.

Clarke’s theory on crime prevention through environmental design is relevant in

this study as it employs the same principle set forth by this study, which is the effect of

environment for breeding criminality and how it affects crime prevention efforts of the

law enforcement agencies. However, it lacks other factors such as the role of the

community in crime prevention as espoused by this study.

Gottfredson, et al focused on the effect of crime in society in general, and

provided the analysis for preventing crime. Their study provided significant inputs on the

approach of this study, such as the role of the community and law enforcement agencies

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in crime prevention programs. However, it did not specifically identified concrete

programs such as integrated patrol system, barangay-ugnayan and checkpoints as salient

programs in crime prevention as the focus of this study.

White’s study is focused on the models, methods and political perspectives on

crime prevention. Moreover, it focused on the political issues affecting the

implementation of crime prevention. In every locality, like the Province of Pangasinan

covering its 44 towns and 4 cities, political intervention and issues are really that

observable and has something to do with crime prevention implementation.

Braga’s study focused on high impact areas where crime commonly occurs, and

this gave significant input on the premise of this study. This study, on the other hand, did

not only focus on the crime-prone areas in Pangasinan but on the overall crime situation

as well.

The study of Vicente, et al in Baguio City identified some crime prevention

programs being implemented by police and barangay officials but concentrated only on

police-community partnership. This study has a similarity of the current study being

conducted on LACAP.

The study of Skogan and Frydl’s, looked into the effects of crime prevention

strategies and the statistics generated from these strategies. This study also provided the

perception of the respondents on the overall effect of crime strategies. This is one of the

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aims of the current research being conducted on the LACAP of the 48 LGUs of

Pangasinan.

The CIDG’s primer on crime prevention campaign conducted a study on the

programs being implemented by the Philippine National Police on crime prevention as a

whole. This study further took additional steps on finding out how effective these

programs as perceived by the police personnel, local officials and community members.

The five-year master plan by Ramos on peace and order outlined the

government’s effort in crime prevention. This is also congruent and still being adopted by

the Philippine National Police in its crime prevention programs. As a forefront unit of the

PNP, this is similar to the contents of the master plan of most Police Office.

Caparas’ study focused on the government’s campaign thru communication

program. It indicated that tri-media campaign is an effective crime prevention strategy.

This study likewise includes tri-media campaign as a part of the components to be

evaluated. It also includes other efforts as part of the study.

Flora (2013) presented a similar situational description of a city as to crime

prevention strategies and its effect to the implementers and recipient of the program on

crime prevention. The City of San Fernando and Province of Pangasinan are similar as to

category-are highly urbanized cities.

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The 11th UN Congress report on crime prevention cited Bacolod City as pilot

initiative with decentralized community-based police stations which adopted the Japanese

“Koban” system and provided perspective on the study of Baguio City. In addition, this

study looked into the effectiveness in implementing its crime prevention strategy.

The Handbook on Crime Prevention Guidelines reported on the state of security

sector governance in the Philippines, which covers all aspects of crime prevention and

solution in the country. It fails to evaluate, however, the specific crime prevention

strategies and the localities which have best practices effort on crime prevention. This

study tried to fill the gap in determining what is effective in crime prevention in a given

locality.

The book of Vicente (2013) was used to describe some fundamentals of crime as

to the elements and anatomy of crime. This is basically accepted wherein if one element

is not present no crime to talk about. The elements are intent, opportunity and

instrumentality.

The study of Fernandez (2011) delved on the major changes in the PNP towards

the achievement of its “Moral Recovery Program”. This could enhance the image of the

police to gain the confidence of the public. This is very important as foundation of every

police station in all levels. Pangasina is not exempted to this, if police are spiritually

taught, they shall deliver what needs to be delivered to the community.

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Sir Robert Peel, considered a “father” of law enforcement, presented his

principles of policing which is still applicable today which is similar to the subject of this

study on crime prevention. His principle that the public must be willing to cooperate in

crime prevention is also the tenor of this study. However, his study need to further show

the specific type of community because each community is peculiar and has its own

culture.

Protacio’s study on crime prevention in Calamba City is almost similar to this

study, as it analyzed the variables related to crime prevention strategy such as integrated

police patrol, barangay ugnayan and day and night checkpoint. However, he added other

variables such as Utilization of Force Multipliers and OPLAN Magdalena which is not

being implemented in other cities.

Rafael’s and Bergonio’s studies likewise delved only on several facets of crime

prevention such as mobile patrol and police community participation. This study focused

on the overall crime strategy as it relates to the existing crime conditions of Pangasinan.

Based on the theories and proposals cited in the study, the researcher viewed and

decided to undertake the study of the implementation of LACAP, the problems

encountered along the way of implementation by the local police office of the 48

localities of Pangasinan.

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The citations above are good backgrounder to the researcher that can be used

during corroboration of findings of the study.

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Chapter 3

RESEARCH DESIGN

This chapter presents the research design, data gathering instruments and

procedures, sources of data, and statistical treatment of data that were used in the study.

Method of Research and Technique for Data Gathering

This study utilized the descriptive survey method. This method involved the

collection of data in order to answer the questions regarding activities related to LACAP,

its implementation, and determining the problems encountered in the implementation of

the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP) by the different police stations of the

44 towns and 4 cities of the Province of Pangasinan.

As mentioned by Calderon and Gonzales (2004), descriptive method of research

is a process of gathering, analyzing and tabulating data about the prevailing conditions,

practices, beliefs, processes, trends and cause and effect relationships and then making

adequate interpretation about such data. It also includes studies that seek to present facts

concerning the status of anything, group, acts, conditions and any other phenomenon.

Therefore, this method is absolutely appropriate.

According to Martinez, as cited by Flora (2013), the descriptive approach is used

mainly to describe contemporary events, and that the research questions and problems are

rooted in the past and may affect the future.

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The data gathered were compiled, indexed, collated, and reviewed for proper

presentation together with the appropriate analysis and interpretation.

Sources of Data

This study made use both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary

data came from the duly accomplished questionnaire of the respondents and documents

gathered by the researcher from the Regional Police Office 1, while the secondary data

came from books, periodicals and other sources used by the researcher to guide and

support her findings in the study.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study were the Chiefs of Police of the 44 towns and four

(4) cities of the Province of Pangasinan. They were selected as respondents because they

are the sole authority of preparing their respective LACAP, identifying the activities that

are covered by the Anti-Criminality Plan, and knowing the level of implementation plus

the problems they encountered in implementing the said program.

Data Gathering Instruments

The following tools were used in this study:

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Questionnaire-Checklist. This instrument was used in gathering the primary data

from the respondents. The first part of the questionnaire covered the ranking of the

focused anti-criminality activities of their respective localities, second part gathered the

data on the level of implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality Plan (LACAP), and the

third part elucidated data on the problems encountered in the implementation of the

LACAP.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher followed the ethical procedures in conducting research. The

researcher wrote a letter to the Provincial Director of the Pangasinan Police Provincial

Office for the distribution of the questionnaire to the Chiefs of Police of the 44 towns and

4 cities. Said letter was forwarded to the Chief of the Operations Division of the

Pangasinan PPO for dissemination to the different police stations together with the survey

questionnaire.

The researcher was informed by the C,Opns Branch that the questionnaires can be

retrieved within one week.

After retrieval, the researcher collated, tallied, and analyzed the data gathered in

preparation for the completion of the study.

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Statistical Treatment of Data

In analyzing and evaluating the data that were obtained from the survey, the

statistical data analytical tools were utilized that comprised of the following: 1) ranking;

2) percentage distribution method, and 3) weighted mean, and 4) reference to a verbal

interpretation scale, the five-point scale was used.

Percentage Distribution. This was used in analyzing the data pertaining to the

demographic profile of the respondents, in computing the sample size among others. The

formula to be used is as follows:

f
% = ----- x 100
N

Where:

% - Percentage of responses
f - number of responses falling under a given category
100 – Constant
N – Total number of responses for the given category

Weighted Mean. A measure of central tendency was used in determining the

advantages such as the mean. The formula for the computation of weighted mean is as

follows:

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∑ f (w)
X = --------------
N

Where:
X – Computed weighted mean
∑ - Summation
f – frequency or number of responses
w – weight point in a given scale/assigned points
N – Total population or total number of responses

Descriptive Evaluation Scale. A 4-point scale patterned after the Likert’s scale

was used as a tool in making a descriptive evaluation of the quantitative data obtained

from the survey results.

The scale used is presented below:

Value Rating Adjectival/Verbal Interpretation

4 (3.25 – 4.00) Fully Implemented

3 (2.50 – 3.24) Partially Implemented

2 (1.75 – 2.49) Barely Implemented

1 (1.00 – 1.74) Not Implemented

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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the results of the data gathered, the analysis of the computed

results and the interpretation of the data.

Anti-Criminality Activities
Of the Province of Pangasinan

Table I below shows the summary of the ranking of the Anti-Criminality Activities of

the 44 towns and four (4) cities of Pangasinan. The complete data per respondent is

presented in Appendix D on page 98.

It is revealed on the table above that among the 17 anti-criminality activities that

are incorporated in the local anti-criminality plan Police Beat Patrol Procedures

appeared to be the top focus of the Chiefs of Police (COPs) of the 48 police stations in

the province of Pangasinan. Police beat patrol procedures is the backbone of every police

organization in terms of keeping peace and order in their area of responsibility. This is

the activity that promotes police and community relations via police visibility. Without

the police beat patrol procedures being strengthened and made top priority by the police

stations, their police presence will not be felt and there will be potential chaos and

disorder in the area.

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Table I

ANTI-CRIMINALITY ACTIVITIES
OF THE 48 LGUs OF PANGASINAN

ANTI-CRIMINALITY ACTIVITIES TOTAL Rank


Police Beat Patrol Procedures 113 1
Anti-Illegal Drugs 160 2
Conduct of Arrest, Search & Seizure 203 3
Bantay Kalye 220 4
Anti-Terrorism 289 5
Anti-Illegal Gambling 290 6
Anti-Bank Robbery 305 7
Anti-Carnapping 333 8
Anti-Kidnapping 361 9
SIYASAT 387 10
PAGLALANSAG/PAG-AAYOS-HOPE 404 11
Anti-Illegal Logging 404 12
Anti-Hijacking/Highway Robbery 417 13
REACT 166 418 14
Anti-Illegal Fishing 429 15
NENA (Anti-Prostitution/Vagrancy) 447 16
Anti-Squatting 467 17

Second on the list of anti-criminality activities as focused by the COPs is the

Anti-Illegal Drugs. This could be attributed to the issuance of COMMAND

MEMORANDUM CIRCULAR NO. 16 – 2016 on the PNP ANTI-ILLEGAL DRUGS

CAMPAIGN PLAN - PROJECT: "DOUBLE BARREL" last July 1, 2016. This

Command Memorandum Circular sets forth the general guidelines, procedures and tasks

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of police offices/units/stations in the conduct of the Philippine National Police (PNP)

Anti-Illegal Drugs Campaign Plan - PROJECT: "DOUBLE BARREL" in support to the

Barangay Drug Clearing Strategy of the government and the neutralization of illegal drug

personalities nationwide. It has been a long time that the police was mum on the drug

problems of the country. Nobody wants to take action and police ignore signs of the

proliferating drug business in the Philippines. But with the Memo No. 16-2016, this has

become the priority program not only of the Philippine National Police but of the Duterte

Government as well.

Third on the focused area is the Conduct of Arrest, Search and Seizure where this

is also one of the core functions of the police. Rule 11 and Rule 12 of the Police

Operational Procedures clearly states that the function of Arrest, Search and Seizure can

only be performed and implemented by the police officer. Being law enforcers, it is their

sworn duty to ensure the compliance to this police activity.

http://www.philippinestuffs.com/philippines-police-operational-procedure/#rule11.

Suspected criminals cannot be put behind bars without being arrested by the police,

houses cannot be searched for suspected contrabands and illegal firearms and

ammunitions cannot be seized if the police will not be active in the performance of this

mandated function.

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Bantay Kalye activity is nearly the same as the patrol beat procedures. Beat

patrols can be performed in several ways. One of them is the foot patrol which is defined

by the Oxford Dictionary as “an expedition to keep watch over an area by regularly

walking around it, especially as conducted by soldiers or police”.

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/foot_patrol. Kalye is the Filipino term for

Street while Bantay is the Filipino term for Watch, hence Bantay Kalye is Street Watch

which implies the same context as foot patrol. This is an activity where there is a constant

visit or roving regularly done by police to ensure the maintenance of peace and order in

the concerned area.

Anti-Terrorism is up in the top five (5) list as focused activity of the local anti-

criminality plan of the police stations in Pangasinan. This could be attributed to the

propagation of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or ISIS around the world. Aside from

the existence of threat of terrorist attack from possible ISIS-related members, the terrain

of the Province of Pangasinan makes it potentially vulnerable to the New People’s Army

(NPA). The province is bounded by Nueva Ecija on the East, Zambales on the

Southwestern side where the mountainous terrain is a good cover for the NPA to hide and

plan for attack in the lowlands. In July 28, 2017, one (1) police commando died and

another was wounded when elite forces of the Philippine National Police (PNP) and

communist rebels clashed in San Nicolas town Pangasinan Friday. The clash erupted on

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the boundary of Barangays Sta. Maria and Malico as police were conducting patrols in

town following reports of rebel sightings in the area. Police and military elements are

"still conducting clearing and hot pursuit operation which caused nearby towns to be

placed on full alert after the encounter. http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/07/28/17/elite-

cops-npa-clash-in-pangasinan-town

The remaining anti-criminality activities on the list are arranged as they are

needed by the different police stations. For example, the anti-illegal fishing which

occupied 15th place is quite surprising since the province of Pangasinan has a long

coastline stretching from Bolinao to San Fabian. However, a majority of the towns and

cities and not located near a coastline which is the reason why this activity did not land in

the top five (5) nor even top (10). Further, it may not have been considered as a serious

anti-criminal activity since the effects will be on the environmental protection. Last on

the list was the Anti-Squatting which turned out to be least importance of the Chiefs of

Police. It can be attributed to the less occurrences of disturbance to peace and order when

illegal squatters or settlers are being handled by the police.

All the other anti-criminality activities are identified as salient or unique for the

municipalities or cities that identified them in their focused list. Anti-Illegal Logging is a

focused anti-criminality activity for localities that have forests such as Labrador and

Mangatarem, for that matter. Nena or the Anti-Prostitution/Vagrancy is not considered as

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critical and crucial by most of the Chiefs of Police as they consider this as a manageable

and is placed under the function of the Department of Social Welfare and Development

(DSWD).

Level of Implementation of the


Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan

Table II below presents the level of implementation of the local anti-criminality

action plan of the 48 localities of the Province of Pangasinan. The responses of the Chiefs

of Police are presented in Appendix E on page 99.

It is revealed on the above table that out of 17 anti-criminality activities, seven (7)

of them were rated by the respondents to be Fully Implemented. They are, as follows:

“Police Beat Patrol Procedures” (WM = 3.87); “Conduct of Arrest, Search and

Seizure” (WM = 3.74); “Anti-Illegal Drugs” (WM = 3.72); “Anti-Illegal Gambling”

(WM = 3.63); “Anti-Bank Robbery” (WM = 3.43); “Bantay Kalye” (WM = 3.35); and

“Anti-Terrorism” (WM = 3.30).

On the other hand, there were eight (8) indicators that were rated as Partially

Implemented by the respondents. They are, as follows: “Anti-Carnapping” (WM = 3.20);

“Anti-Hijacking/Highway Robbery” (WM = 3.09); “Anti-Illegal Logging” (WM = 2.89);

“PAGLALANSAG/PAG-AAYOS-HOPE” (WM = 2.83); “NENA (Anti-

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Prostitution/Vagrancy)” (WM = 2.74); “Anti-Kidnapping” (WM = 2.72); “SIYASAT”

(WM = 2.67); and “Anti-Illegal Fishing” (WM = 2.50).

Table II

LEVEL OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOCAL ANTI-


CRIMINALITY PLAN IN THE PROVINCE OF PANGASINAN

Weighted Descriptive
ANTI-CRIMINALITY ACTIVITIES
Mean Rating
Police Beat Patrol Procedures 3.87 Fully Implemented
Conduct of Arrest, Search & Seizure 3.74 Fully Implemented
Anti-Illegal Drugs 3.72 Fully Implemented
Anti-Illegal Gambling 3.63 Fully Implemented
Anti-Bank Robbery 3.43 Fully Implemented
Bantay Kalye 3.35 Fully Implemented
Anti-Terrorism 3.30 Fully Implemented
Anti-Carnapping 3.20 Partially Implemented
Anti-Hijacking/Highway Robbery 3.09 Partially Implemented
Anti-Illegal Logging 2.89 Partially Implemented
PAGLALANSAG/PAG-AAYOS-HOPE 2.83 Partially Implemented
NENA (Anti-Prostitution/Vagrancy) 2.74 Partially Implemented
Anti-Kidnapping 2.72 Partially Implemented
SIYASAT 2.67 Partially Implemented
Anti-Illegal Fishing 2.50 Partially Implemented
REACT 166 2.35 Barely Implemented
Anti-Squatting 2.17 Barely Implemented
OVER-ALL WEIGHTED MEAN 3.07 Partially Implemented
Legend:
Value Rating Adjectival/Verbal Interpretation
4 (3.25 – 4.00) Fully Implemented
3 (2.50 – 3.24) Partially Implemented
2 (1.75 – 2.49) Barely Implemented
1 (1.00 – 1.74) Not Implemented

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Further, two (2) anti-criminality activities were rated as Barely Implemented,

namely: “REACT 166” (WM = 2.35) and “Anti-Squatting” (WM = 2.17).

The results imply that those anti-criminality activities that are Fully Implemented

are considered to be priority focused area that the Chiefs of Police consider as very

significant contribution towards strengthening their Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan.

Those that were Barely Implemented were not considered as contributory to the

disturbance of peace and order in their area of responsibility. This means that even if

REACT 166 and Anti-Squatting will not be incorporated in their LACAP, it does not

affect the peace and order situation of their respective localities.

On the overall weighted mean, it yielded a value of 3.09 with a descriptive

equivalent of Partially Implemented.

Problems Encountered in the


Implementation of the LACAP

It is revealed in Table III below on the responses of the Chiefs of Police on the

different problems encountered in the implementation of the LACAP in Pangasinan.

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Table III

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION


OF THE LOCAL ANTI-CRIMINALITY ACTION PLAN IN PANGASINAN
N = 46
Indicator f %
Some crucial areas are not installed with CCTV 42 91.30
Lack of personnel to be deployed in identified hot spot area
31 67.39
24/7
Security survey is not a requirement for getting or renewing
23 50.00
permit
The Police Station has no regular media program to
19 41.30
dissemination crime prevention activities.
Some barangays have no outposts for police and/or barangay
18 39.13
officials.
Many streets/roads which are crime prone places are still with
18 39.13
no street lights installed.
Delayed approval of the proposed LACAP by the Sangguniang
17 36.96
Panlungsod or Sangguniang Bayan
Most arrested persons are minors, they are released to the
12 26.09
DSWD for proper disposition
Oplan Kap-kap is only focused to night clubs and bars, not
12 26.09
covering all business establishments and parks
Curfew is not implemented especially in highly urbanized cities 11 23.91
Some barangays have no and/or very minimal number of
10 21.74
barangay tanods.
Checkpoint/Spot Inspection is not conducted in all barangays. 10 21.74
Some ATMs are not installed with CCTVs and are located
10 21.74
away from streets/roads
Intervention of politicians and other government and private 10 21.74
employees is observed.
Lack of materials on crime prevention posters and flyers. 9 19.57
Lack of financial support from the Local Government Units 9 19.57
Conduct of patrolling of police and barangay officials is not
8 17.39
synchronized
There is no permanent solution of the police station on how to
8 17.39
deal with ambulant vendors.
Lack of trained personnel and resources for patrolling 8 17.39
Some barangays have no force multipliers/BPATS. 3 6.52
Information dissemination on crime prevention is done by
3 6.52
police is not on regular basis.
Not all schools and students are reached for crime prevention
2 4.35
dissemination

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It is revealed in Table III that topping the list of problems encountered in the

implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan ( LACAP) is the indicator on

“some crucial areas are not installed with CCTV” with 42 out of 46 responses from the

Chiefs of Police of Pangasinan. Only four (4) municipalities did not identify this to be a

problem. The said municipalities are the Towns of Anda, Laoac, Manaoag, and

Natividad. Among the four, only Manaoag is a 1st class municipality, Anda belongs to a

3rd class while both Laoac and Natividad are tagged as 4th class municipalities. This

implies that these four municipalities do not rely so much on the assistance of CCTVs in

their campaign to maintain peace and order in their localities. All the other 42 cities

visualized CCTV as crucial equipment to their monitoring of crime incidents thus leading

to a high turnout of response for this indicator as a problem in their implementation of

LACAP.

Second in the list is the indicator on “Lack of personnel to be deployed in

identified hot spot area 24/7” with 31 responses. It is not an unknown fact that the ideal

police to population ration is 1:500 which means that there should be 1 policeman for

every 500 residents in one locality. Nonetheless, the Philippine National Police is trying

its best to lower the ratio of its personnel with the population of the locality. In a news

clipping published online via philstar.com, the Philippine National Police (PNP) aims to

achieve a police-to-population ratio of 1:489 in the next five years. Supt. Juvenal

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Barbosa, assistant chief of the recruitment and selection division, said the current police

to population ratio is at 1:572 while the national standard is 1:500. Based on projections,

by year 2022, the ratio will be 1:489.

http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2017/06/22/1712484/pnp-eyeing-1489-police-

population-ratio-2022

Third on the list is the indicator on “Security survey is not a requirement for

getting or renewing permit” where 23 respondents considered this as a problem in their

implementation of their LACAP. This is applicable to business establishments that

regularly get their annual Business Permit from the Local Government Unit. One of the

standard requirements for securing a Permit to Operate a Business is Sanitary Permit and

Fire Inspection Permit but the Security Survey is not considered a mandate for the

Business Permit. The said Security Survey is one that requires business establishments to

have a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) installed in their establishments for security

reasons. But, this is not being practiced according to 23 police chiefs of the following

localities: Asingan, Bani, Binmaley, Bugallon, Burgos, Dasol, Infanta, Lingayen, Mabini,

Malasiqui, Mangaldan, Pozorrubio, Rosales, San Fabian, San Jacinto, San Nicolas, Santa

Barbara, Santa Maria, Sual, Umingan, Urbiztondo, Urdaneta City, and Villasis.

“The Police Station has no regular media program to dissemination crime

prevention activities” is the fourth indicator on the list of problems encountered in the

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implementation of LACAP as mentioned by 19 respondents. In spite of the OPLAN

SANTINIG of the Philippine National Police which requires all police stations to inform

the public about the police programs and activities relative to crime prevention, 19

respondents declared that their police stations has no regular media program. They only

rely on seasonal visits of news reporters when crime incidents have already taken place.

The police stations that declared that they have no regular media program to disseminate

crime prevention are the following: Alcala, Asingan, Basista, Bautista, Binalonan,

Bolinao, Burgos, Calasiao, Malasiqui, Manaoag, Mangatarem, Pozorrubio, San Jacinto,

San Manuel, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, Urbiztondo, Umingan, and Urdaneta City.

What is quite surprising is the claim of Urdaneta City Police Station that they have no

regular media program for information dissemination since in the study conducted by De

Asis (2015) on the Police Community Relations of the Province of Pangasinan, it was

reflected that the Speakers’ Bureau and the Information Desk was Fully Implemented in

the said city. The result of the present study on this indicator is quite different from what

appeared in the previous study two (2) years ago.

Two indicators on “Some barangays have no outposts for police and/or barangay

officials.” and “Many streets/roads which are crime prone places are still with no street

lights installed” both were mentioned by 18 respondents as problems encountered in their

implementation of their Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP). It is noted that

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both indicators are closely related with the absence of outputs and streetlights in some

barangays. It is sad to note that barangay or police outposts are not provided in 18

localities in Pangasinan. Said outposts are very crucial in terms of providing shelter to the

law enforcers in the barangay level. Similarly, streetlights are deterrent to criminal

activities because these lights assist in the victims to identify their attackers hence, if

street lights will be installed in crime prone places, then crime incidents will really be

reduced. The crime offender will think twice of committing any offense because the

barangay outpost and the street lights are assured to prevent any occurrence of criminal

activities.

“Delayed approval of the proposed LACAP by the Sangguniang Panlungsod or

Sangguniang Bayan” came in next on the list of problems encountered by the police in

the implementation of the LACAP according to 17 respondents. These 17 respondents are

Chiefs of Police of the following localities: Aguilar, Alcala, Anda, Bani, Basista,

Binalonan, Bugallon, Calasiao, Infanta, Lingayen, Malasiqui, Manaoag, Mangatarem,

San Fabian, San Jacinto, San Nicolas, and Tayug. These police stations have revealed this

as a reason for their implementation of the LACAP which contributes to the problem

raised by the Regional Development Council of NEDA on the inadequate data collection

report on the LACAP of the Province of Pangasinan. The setback is that if the Proposed

LACAP by the COPs is not approved on time by the Legislative Bodies, the Chief of

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Police is forced to implement the existing LACAP which may possibly already be

outdated in terms of focused activities.

Again, two (2) more indicators tied with 12 responses from the 46 chiefs of police

of Pangasinan, as follows: “Most arrested persons are minors, they are released to the

DSWD for proper disposition” and “Oplan Kap-kap is only focused to night clubs and

bars, not covering all business establishments and parks”. The problem arises in the

increasing incidents of crime involving minors where the police cannot file criminal

charges against them even if they have committed heinous crimes. Under Republic Act

No. 10630 or the ACT STRENGTHENING THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN

THE PHILIPPINES, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9344,

OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE “JUVENILE JUSTICE AND WELFARE ACT OF

2006” AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR passed in 2013, “SEC. 6 specifies

the Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility where A child fifteen (15) years of age or

under at the time of the commission of the offense shall be exempt from criminal

liability. However, the child shall be subjected to an intervention program pursuant to

Section 20 of this Act. Enforcers of this Act has been tasked to the Department of Social

Welfare and Development (DSWD) thus, crime statistics increase due to the crimes

boldly committed by minors. http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/10/03/republic-act-

no-10630/

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On the other hand, KAPKAP is a Filipino term for “FRISK”. Section 3 of the

Police Operational Procedures (POP) Manual of 2010 cites the grounds for Body

Frisk/Pat-Down Search. A police officer has the right to perform a pat-down search if the

individual has been legitimately stopped with reasonable suspicion and when the police

officer has reason to believe that the individual possesses weapon/s on his person and

poses a threat to the police officer’s or another person’s safety.

http://pro10.pnp.gov.ph/downloads/POP.pdf. In rural areas, night clubs are usually the

target of Oplan Kapkap because some customers are bringing deadly weapons inside

bars. Once, they get inside undetected by the security personnel of the club or bar, they

could cause trouble inside which can endangered the lives of other people. Nonetheless,

the 12 respondents believed that Oplan Kapkap should not be limited only to bars and

night clubs but can also be performed in public areas like movie houses and

supermarkets/malls.

“Curfew is not implemented especially in highly urbanized cities” was mentioned

to be a problem by 11 respondents belonging to the following localities: Bani, Bautista

Bugallon, Lingayen, Malasiqui, Mangatarem, Mapandan, San Jacinto, San Nicolas, Santa

Maria, and Urbiztondo. This is a significant revelation by the respondents because of the

fact that the local government units of these localities have not yet passed any Ordinance

that would impose Curfew especially to minors from 10 PM to 4 AM. This leads to

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longer patrol hours for the police since minors are not prohibited from roaming around

their locality at night and the police cannot apprehend them unless they are in the act of

committing a crime.

Four (4) indicators were tied with 10 responses each identified as problems

encountered by the police in the implementation of their LACAP. Such indicators are, as

follows: “Some barangays have no and/or very minimal number of barangay tanods”;

“Checkpoint/Spot Inspection is not conducted in all barangays”; “Some ATMs are not

installed with CCTVs and are located away from streets/roads”; and “Intervention of

politicians and other government and private employees is observed”. Barangay Tanods

are tagged as force multipliers for the police, but their absence or less number present in a

barangay will entail a problem for the police especially in terms of its crime prevention

activities. Barangay tanods are the watchdogs in the barangay level although only 10

police stations tagged this as a problem. Similarly, checkpoints and spot inspections are

not being performed in barangays which can be attributed to the inadequate barangay

tanods to assist the police in handling checkpoints.

Further, 10 police chiefs identified that there are Automated Teller Machines

(ATM) in their areas that are not equipped with CCTV camera which makes it difficult

for the police to monitor any unusual activities such as robbery hold-up. The localities

that identified the absence of CCTVs from ATM and have ATMs located away from the

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main roads are the towns of Alcala, Bani, Labrador, San Fabian, San Jacinto, San

Manuel, Santa Maria, Santo Tomas, Sison and Urdaneta City. Finally, politicians cannot

really be prevented from interfering with police matters. This was mentioned by the

respondents from the localities of Aguilar, Alcala, Binmaley, Bugallon, Calasiao,

Lingayen, Malasiqui San Fabian, Santo Tomas and Villasis where they signified of the

strong political intervention that happens when crimes are committed.

Two (2) indicators have nine (9) respondents mentioning these as problems in the

implementation of LACAP that they have encountered. These two are, “Lack of materials

on crime prevention posters and flyers” and “Lack of financial support from the Local

Government Units”. It can be noticed that these two indicators have a close link with each

other. The inadequate financial support from the LGU on the crime prevention activities

of the police leads to the inadequacy of crime prevention posters and flyers. This

contributes to the increase crime statistics in the identified localities which signified the

effects of these two indicators in the local anti-criminality action plan.

It is revealed on the table that three (3) indicators have yielded eight (8) responses

from the local chiefs of police under the following: “Conduct of patrolling of police and

barangay officials is not synchronized”; “There is no permanent solution of the police

station on how to deal with ambulant vendors”; and “Lack of trained personnel and

resources for patrolling”. Again, it is significant to note the interrelationship of these

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three (3) indicators with each other. The lack of trained personnel and resources in the

municipality leads to non-synchronized conduct of patrol in the barangays. And this also

contributes to the proliferation of ambulant vendors in the municipalities.

Bottom two (2) indicators were identified by the least number of respondents with

three (3) responses each. These indicators are, as follows: “Some barangays have no

force multipliers/BPATS” and “Information dissemination on crime prevention is done by

police is not on regular basis”. Again, this is quite surprising about the high level of

interlink between the two indicators. Information dissemination can be best achieved with

the help of BPATS or force multipliers. Because the police cannot penetrate the inner

part of the barangays, the BPATs and force multipliers can be an instrument of law

enforcement for the local police.

And lastly, there were two (2) responses who stated that the indicator on “Not all

schools and students are reached for crime prevention dissemination”. This reflects that

the chiefs of police do not consider this indicator as a big hindrance in the

implementation of their local anti-criminality action plan (LACAP) because schools and

students are always in tandem when it comes to crime prevention.

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Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of the

study.

This study aimed to identify the activities that are covered by the Local Anti-

Criminality Plan of the 48 local government units in the province of Pangasinan,

determine the level of its implementation and the problems encountered by the local PNP

in its implementation.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: (1) What are the

activities that are focused in the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan of the 48 localities of

the Province of Pangasinan?; (2) What is the level of implementation of the different

activities of the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan in the Province of Pangasinan?; (3)

What are the problems encountered by the local PNP in the implementation of the Local

Anti-Criminality Action Plan? And (4) what recommendations may be proposed to

improve the level of implementation and to address the problems encountered in the

implementation of the LACAP?

The respondents of the study were supposed to be the Chiefs of Police of the 44

towns and four (4) cities of the Province of Pangasinan, however, out of 48 expected

respondents only 46 questionnaires were retrieved by the researcher. The researcher

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sought permission from the Provincial Director of Pangasinan Police Provincial Office to

conduct the said study in his area of jurisdiction. The data that were obtained from the

survey were statistically treated using percentage distribution method, weighted mean,

and the four-point scale was used.

Findings

The following are the findings of the study:

1. On the activities focused by the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP)

of the localities in the Province of Pangasinan – the results reveal that the anti-

criminality activities were ranked in the following order by the respondents:

1st - Police Beat Patrol Procedures; 2nd - Anti-Illegal Drugs; 3rd - Conduct of

Arrest, Search & Seizure; 4th - Bantay Kalye; 5th - Anti-Terrorism; 6th - Anti-

Illegal Gambling; 7th - Anti-Bank Robbery; 8th - Anti-Carnapping; 9th - Anti-

Kidnapping; 10th – SIYASAT; 11th - PAGLALANSAG/PAG-AAYOS-

HOPE; 12th - Anti-Illegal Logging; 13th - Anti-Hijacking/Highway Robbery;

14th – REACT 166; 15th - Anti-Illegal Fishing; 16th - NENA (Anti-

Prostitution/Vagrancy); and last rank is Anti-Squatting.

2. On the level of implementation of the anti-criminality activities of the Local

Anti-Criminality Action Plan, the results showed that seven (7) anti-

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criminality activities were Fully Implemented by the respondents in the

Province of Pangasinan, namely: Police Beat Patrol Procedures; Conduct of

Arrest, Search & Seizure; Anti-Illegal Drugs; Anti-Illegal Gambling; Anti-

Bank Robbery; Bantay Kalye; and Anti-Terrorism. Eight (8) indicators had

Partially Implemented ratings while two (2) anti-criminality activities were

identified as Barely Implemented by the respondents.

3. On the problems encountered by the police relative to the implementation of

the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP), it is revealed that “some

crucial areas are not installed with CCTV” topped the list of problems

identified by the chiefs of police who were respondents of this study.

Conclusion

Based on the results of the findings, it can be concluded that the level of

implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP) in the Province of

Pangasinan is only Partially Implemented (WM = 3.09), hence the hypothesis is NOT

ACCEPTED.

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Recommendations

The following recommendations are hereby proposed in relation with the results

of the study:

1. The Local Government Units are encouraged to mandate the submission of

security survey as part of application requirements to operate a Business in their

respective localities.

2. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras are suggested to be strictly installed in

all of the localities of the Province of Pangasinan to achieve 100% crime

monitoring.

3. Crime prevention facilities like barangay/police outposts and street lights in crime

prone areas are requested to be allocated for budgetary requirements either from

the LGU or from the National Fund to assist the police in deterring crime

incidents.

4. The Chiefs of Police in all the localities of Pangasinan are encouraged to

strengthened relations with their Local Chief Executives particularly the

Sangguniang Bayan or Sangguniang Panglungsod to facilitate the approval of

their proposed LACAP for the benefit of their area of jurisdiction.

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5. Barangay officials and force multipliers are motivated to be properly trained in

terms of the performance of their duties and to be able to maximize the use of

barangay volunteers and BPATS to patrol the vicinity of the barangays.

6. The local police chiefs are suggested to conduct barangay pulong-pulong or

dialogue with the different barangay officials to inform them of their anti-

criminality plans.

7. There is a need to establish and facilitate a strict ordinance on curfew for minors

in order to avoid juvenile delinquents from proliferating in the localities. This has

to be suggested by the local chief of police to their legislative officers.

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Appendix A

LETTER OF REQUEST TO CONDUCT STUDY

October 02, 2017

PSSUPT ROLAND OLIVER LEE


Provincial Director
Pangasinan Police Provincial Office
Lingayen, Pangasinan

THRU: C, Provincial Operations Division

Sir:

The undersigned is currently undergoing a research study entitled “The Local


Anti-Criminality Action Plan (LACAP) in the Province of Pangasinan” as one of the
requirements in her subject Policy Science relative to her enrolment in the Doctor of
Philosophy major in Public Administration at the Nueva Ecija University of Science and
Technology in Cabanatuan City.

In this connection, the undersigned would like to request for permission and
endorsement from your good office for the administration of the survey questionnaire to
the Chiefs of Police of the 48 police stations of the Province of Pangasinan who are
respondents of the study. Rest assured that the data to be gathered will be used for
academic research purposes only.

Thank you and hoping for favorable response to this humble request.

Sincerely yours,

ROMAE R. DE ASIS, Ph.D.


Researcher

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Appendix B
SANDIGAN
(ANTI-CRIMINALITY MASTERPLAN)

I. INTRODUCTION
A. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This Plan shall serve as the Master Plan in which all plans and programs of the
PNP shall conform with and supplement. It shall prescribe the grand strategy to be
undertaken by PNP Offices and personnel on crime prevention, control and suppression,
in the total fight against all forces of criminality.

B. SITUATION
The campaign against crime is a continuing concern. It is a war that the police
cannot win alone, and can not in any real sense fight alone. Police cannot change the
“root drivers” of crime such as poverty, unemployment, poor housing, moral education,
freedom, civil liberties, ambitions, dysfunctional families and other ills of socio-
economic opportunities. Thus, all aspects of police work should be premised upon active
community consent, trust and participation.

In so doing, developing effective crime prevention, control and suppression


strategies has presented the PNP with a fundamental dilemma. On one hand, crime will
always be committed and, indeed, a continuing mandate. From this perspective, the
police is viewed solely as a professional crime buster and often criticized if public
expectations are not met. On the other hand, the community needs to believe that the
police is or can become effective crime buster.

Thus, the PNP has been compelled to rethink and redesign its entire approach to
this main task through clearer prioritization of targets with emphasis on prevention,
control and suppression of crime and more resources moved into proactive policing.

C. ASSUMPTION
The primary concern of the PNP for the next five years is curbing criminality.

D. MISSION
The PNP shall implement a responsive and holistic anti-crime strategy to
effectively prevent, control and suppress the occurrences of crimes to insure safety in our
communit

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E. OBJECTIVES
1. To reduce index crime rate
2. To improve response time
3. To improve crime solution efficiency
4. To increase conviction rate
5. To operationalize COPS through the Police Community Precincts, for the 24-hour
community security coverage.

II. DEFINITION OF TERMS (Please see appendix E)

III. EXECUTION
A. CPNP’S INTENT
“Let us intensify our campaign against crime. Let us create an atmosphere of
peace, in close collaboration with the community, local government units, NGOs and
international organizations, dedicating our resources and enhancing our capabilities and
skills to address national and transnational threats to peace and order”.

The efforts of the Police Regional Offices (PROs), Police Provincial Offices
(PPOs)/City Offices and Police Stations shall be to set-up and implement a localized
Anti-Crime Campaign Plan based on this plan. On the other hand, the National Support
Units shall create their efforts in accounting and neutralizing transnational and syndicated
crime groups, and support the PROs in their localized Anti-Crime Campaign.

B. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS
1. Strategic Concept
a. Improve the Police Security Service Package
1) Effective law enforcement and crime prevention and suppression system.
. Foremost among the means of effective law enforcement is the wise
utilization of all PNP available assets on the ground. One tested and tried
instrument is the Police Security Containment Ring System (PSCRS),
composed of the following five (5) major components, deployment of which
depends on their availability and the situation on the ground:
a) The Innermost Containment Ring, which is composed of barangay
tanods, CVOs, NGOs, radio groups, fire/disaster/calamity volunteer brigades
that provide localized and needed police services to the barangays.
b) The Inner Containment Ring, composed of the foot patrol elements are
in uniform for police visibility while the detective patrol component is in
“civilian” attire for police presence. Even if there are no uniformed police

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around the people will still think that a police eye is watching them because
they will see police detectives in civilian causing the arrest of crime
perpetrators.
c) The third component is the Middle Containment Ring, which is
composed of bicycle or motorcycle-mounted patrols at control points who shall
patrol the residential areas and make the transport loading and unloading areas
as their standby points. This will prevent mugging of commuters especially
during nighttime.
d) The Outer Containment Ring is composed of designated specialized
units like the mobile patrols, which shall be deployed at chokepoints. Their
task is to prevent the escape of fleeing criminal and react to call for police
assistance.
e) The fifth is the Outermost Containment Ring, where the special police
units (like the SWAT or anti-terrorist units) and the mobile groups shall serve
as security elements at areas designated as strong points, where they can
immediately react to call for armed support to beleaguered police personnel on
the ground.

2) Adoption by police offices/stations of the Crime and Information Management


System, which will systematize the recording, retrieval and analysis of crime
data. Another means of effective law enforcement is the adoption by police
offices/stations of Crime and Information Management System. In simple
terms, the Regional, Provincial and City, and Municipal Police Offices will
indicate in their local maps the place and time a crime incident happened. The
resulting inputs will constitute the basis for the deployment or redeployment of
police resources to maximize their use for anti crime efforts.

3) Deployment of dedicated Police Intelligence and Investigation Teams for


criminal gang/syndicates, terrorists, kidnappers, bank robbers, carnappers and
specific crime prone areas. The deployment of dedicated intelligence,
investigation and manhunt teams is another means of organizational
effectiveness. Teams for specific activities involving Internal Security/Terrorist
Groups, Kidnapping, Robbery, Hijacking and Carnapping are formed in all
police units in varying scale depending on the threat analysis and availability
of personnel. These teams shall conduct legal offensives against members of
syndicated crime groups to force them out of the locality or, better still, to
prevent them in the commission of crimes.

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4) Aggressive Anti-Illegal Drugs Campaign - Illegal Drug is the country’s’


number 1 enemy. A high percentage of our populace is affected by this menace
and majority of the heinous crimes committed is drug- related. It is for this
reason that we do not only put to jail drug pushers but also rehabilitate drug
users. The supply and demand reduction strategies should be coupled with a
heightened drug education campaign.

5) Strengthening of the Programs for Public Safety and Internal Security- The
government considers the crimes such as killings; kidnappings, extortion and
etc, committed by the insurgent groups as a criminal act not a political act. It is
for this reason that crimes committed by them should be investigated and
appropriate cases filed so that justice is afforded to the victims. People who
feel that they are not safe in their houses, streets and place of work are
predisposed to crime. The police therefore have to lend support.

6) Pursuing the objectives for Gender Awareness Development - This concept


will involve the strengthening of Gender and Development thrust of the PNP in
collaboration with government organizations, NGOs and women organizations
in the country, as great percentage of crimes committed nowadays, involve
women and children as victims.

b. Strengthen linkages with NGOs, local and international law enforcement


organizations, the AFP, and Presidential Task Force and Centers as venues for
interagency and international cooperation and support. These organizations and
agencies are venues for effective law enforcement coordination and support. The
maintenance of peace and order is a multi-disciplinary responsibility and the
active linkages with these agencies and offices will redound to the efforts to
eliminate transnational and national crimes in the country, to include the criminal
activities of internal security threat groups and terrorists. In addition, this linkage
would turn very relevant and beneficial during the conduct of special events, like,
the holding of honest, orderly and peaceful elections for both national and local
officials of the government.

c. Enhance the community participation thru the Community-Oriented Policing


System (COPS). Through COPS, there will be voluntary community support and
cooperation with law enforcement/crime prevention and control activities, thus
there will be enhanced police effectiveness and efficiency given the same police
resources.

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d. Operationalize the Integrated Area/Community Public Safety Plan (IA/CPSP)


In order to insure the success of linking up the contribution of the community, the
government and the police in guaranteeing the safety and security of the
communities, the existing Integrated Area/Community Public Safety Plan of
provincial and municipal government units shall complement this Anti-Crime
Strategy. Close coordination with respective Peace and Order Councils (POCs),
Law Enforcement Coordinating Committees (LECCs), Regional Development
Councils (RDCs), Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCCs), Drug Watch and
Streetwatch organizations, shall be maintained.

e. Promote the objectives of an active Criminal Justice System - Being in the


frontline in the operationalization of the Criminal Justice System, the police serve
as an effective catalyst in promoting the concepts of justice for crime victims and
of enhancing attainment of the objectives of the Anti-Crime Strategy.

f. Devise an Effective Feedback Mechanism - The continued feedback from all


recipients of public safety services received from the citizens through the Project
117 of the DILG, the “Ugnayans” conducted by the PNP and other government
agencies, and other sources of reports, complaints, needs, or rejoinders, shall be
the basis for improving the delivery of police services to the citizenry. This
feedback mechanism shall serve as the trigger to set off a series of adjustments
and if need be, a realignment of the foregoing strategies to attain the purpose of
maintaining a peaceful and prosperous community.

2. Operational Concept
The NHQ-PNP, through its directorial staff, shall supervise and support the Police
Regional Offices in implementing the strategic agenda and operational concept of this
anti-crime strategy. The PNP leadership, through the NALECC, the NDCC and the
NPOC, shall coordinate and cooperate with other national government agencies in the
realization of the mission of this anti-crime strategy.

The Police Regional Offices, through the police provincial/city offices and
municipal/city police stations, shall implement their localized anti-crime plans based on
this master plan. Their plans shall be focused towards the implementation of localized
activities to attain: (1) reduction of crime rate; (2) improvement of response time; (3)
improvement of local crime solution efficiency; (4) increase in conviction rate for cases
filed in court; and (5) the operationalization of community oriented policing system

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(COPS) thru the Police Community Precincts, for the 24-hour community security
coverage.

The national support units, through their specialized operating units and various
regional offices, shall concentrate their efforts towards supporting all the anti-crime
efforts of the PROs, except in the pursuit of specific anti-crime tasks assigned to them.

Schematic Diagram of the “SANDIGAN MASTER PLAN” refer to appendix

C.TASKS
In furtherance of the intent and purpose of this Plan the following shall also be
undertaken by offices/units concerned:
1. NHQ, PNP
a. DCO – Command Group supervisor, responsible in the successful
implementation of this Master Plan.
b. DPRM
1) Responsible in the conduct of moral recovery program for PNP
personnel in coordination with DHRDD.
2) Strictly implement COMPLAN PATNUBAY;
3) Monitor and supervise the moral and welfare program for the PNP
personnel.
4) Strengthen policies and guidelines for the proper selection of personnel
for designation to key positions, particularly at municipal station level; and
5) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

C. DI
1) Update and validate watch-lists on criminals and furnish the same to
tasked units;
2) Provide timely intelligence and counterintelligence information or
similar support, as needed, in the implementation of this Plan; and
3) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

d. DO
1) OPR for this Master Plan;
2) Supervise and monitor the progress of the activities of tasked units in
the implementation of this Plan;

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3) Supervise the implementation of the Strategic concepts on law


enforcement, prevention and suppression system, and Integrated Area/Community
Public Safety Plan.
4) Coordinate with the PAOCTF, PCTC and NDLEPCC for an effective
integration of anti-crime efforts with local and international offices and
organizations; and
5) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

e. DL
1) Provide equipment and logistical support to all tasked units; and
2) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

f. DC
1) Provide necessary fund support needed in the implementation of this
Plan; and
2) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

g. DIDM
1) Monitor the progress of cases being investigated until their final
disposition in court;
2) Conduct pre-charge investigation of personnel involved in violation of
the ICU guidance of the CPNP; and
3) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

h. DPCR
1) Disseminate various thrusts of the PNP in containing all forms of
criminal activities throughout the country;
2) Supervise the implementation of the Community Oriented Policing
System (COPS) in this Plan;
3) Come up with activities to catalyze the five (5) pillars of CJS to be an
effective system for anti-crime efforts;
4) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

i. DHRDD
1) Design training programs/seminars for all PNP personnel to enhance
their ability in the performance of their assigned duties relative to this Plan’s
operational concept;
2) Assist DPRM in the conduct of Moral Recovery Programs; and

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3) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

2. Police Regional Offices 1-13, ARMM, CAR and NCR


a. The main implementers of this Master Plan, thus you are directed to perform
activities but not limited to the following:
1) Pursue more meaningful interfacing with other government agencies
through the RLECC, RPOC and other regional coordinating bodies; prepare and
update and operational IA/CPSP of every province and municipality under your
jurisdiction;
2) Coordinate with various government agencies and NGOs concerned in
development programs and the government’s poverty-alleviation projects;
3) Operationalize the strategic concept and operational concept as
contained in this Plan;
4) Support government agencies, particularly the pillars of the Criminal
Justice System, and those concerned in the drive against lawless elements; and
5) Together with the Provincial Directors (PDs), constantly evaluate the
performance and continuously assess the fitness, qualifications, and service
reputation of local police chiefs. The Provincial Directors shall closely coordinate
these evaluations with the concerned local government executives.

b. Provide other support/assistance to other operating units tasked with law


enforcement functions.

3. National Support Units


a. CIDG
1) Support/assist all PNP units in the conduct of investigation and in the
filing and prosecution of criminal cases, to insure the conviction of suspects; and
2) Perform other tasks as requested/directed;
b. NARG
1). Launch sustained campaign against drug chain and syndicates and
other related offenses;
2). Provide other support/assistance to all PNP units pertaining to anti-
illegal drugs operations; and
3) Perform other tasks, as requested/ directed.

c. IG
1) Conduct intelligence and counter-intelligence operations in support of
this Plan; and

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2) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

d. TMG
1) Assist all PNP units in the conduct of investigation of crimes involving
motor vehicles; and
2) Perform other tasks as directed/requested.

e. SAF
1) Assist the PROs in specialized crime operations; and
2) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

f. PCRG
1) Promote crime prevention awareness by tapping the support of the
media and the community;
2) Formulate/distribute anti-crime slogans/ tips/posters/leaflets/pamphlets,
etc; and,
3) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

g. CLS
1) Provide forensics technical support to PROs; and
2) Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

4. All Other NSUs


a. Provide technical/administrative support to all PROs, NSUs and other PNP
attached agencies; and,
b. Perform other tasks as requested/directed.

D. COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS
1. Respect for human rights shall be paramount, and strict adherence with the
PNP Operational Procedures (Revised Rules of Engagement) shall always be emphasized
in all police operations.
2. All PNP units shall re-assess respective resources and capabilities. All
IMPLANs and SOPs, shall be updated to conform to this master plan.
3. Tasked units shall operate on the existing logistical and financial allocations.
NHQ-PNP shall provide additional logistical and financial support on a case-to-case
basis.

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4. Maximum coordination with national government agencies, local government


units, non-government organizations and all sectors of the community, for the success of
the anti-crime strategy, is authorized and highly encouraged.
5. In order to insure uniformity in adopting/implementing the COPS and IA/CPSP
concepts, all chiefs of police/police supervisors implementing them must always be
guided by the “Community-Oriented Policing System (COPS) Manual for the PNP”
issued thru NAPOLCOM Resolution Nr 2000-157 dated October 31, 2000 and IA/CPSP
guidelines and requirements.
6. This Master Plan shall supersede PNP LOI 10/93 SANDIGAN (PNP Anti-
Crime Strategy). However, all applicable issuances, MOUs/MOAs not in conflict with
this Master Plan are still in effect.
7. All RDs, PROs and Dirs, NSUs shall submit IMPLANs to this Plan and
periodic reports on its implementation.
8. This Master Plan shall take effect upon approval.

IV. APPENDICES
A. To improve the Police Security Service Package, the following standard
operating procedures and guidelines shall be implemented:
1. SOP #01 - POLICE BEAT PATROL PROCEDURES - This SOP prescribes
the basic procedures to be observed by all PNP Units and mobile patrol elements in the
conduct of visibility patrols.
2. SOP #02 - BANTAY KALYE - This SOP prescribes the deployment of 85% of
the PNP in the field to increase police visibility and intensify anti-crime campaign
nationwide.
3. SOP #03 – SIYASAT - This SOP prescribes the guidelines in the conduct of
inspections to ensure police visibility.
4. SOP #04 - REACT 166 - REACT 166 was launched in 1992 as the people’s
direct link to the police to receive public calls for assistance and complaints for prompt
action by police authorities. This SOP prescribes the procedures in the detail of Duty
Officers, Telephone Operators and Radio Operators for REACT 166; their term of duty
and responsibilities.
5. SOP #05 – LIGTAS (ANTI-KIDNAPPING) With the creation of the
Presidential Anti-Organized Crime Task Force (PAOCTF), the PNP is now in the support
role in the campaign against kidnapping in terms of personnel requirements. SOP #6 sets
forth the PNP’s guidelines in its fight against kidnapping activities.
6. SOP #06 - ANTI-CARNAPPING - This SOP prescribes the conduct of an all-
out and sustained Anti-Carnapping campaign to stop/minimize carnapping activities,
neutralize syndicated carnapping groups, identify/prosecute government personnel

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involved in carnapping activities, and to effectively address other criminal activities


related to carnapping.
7. SOP #07 - ANTI-TERRORISM - This prescribes the operational guidelines in
the conduct of operations against terrorists and other lawless elements involved in
terroristic activities.
8. SOP #08 – JOINT ANTI-BANK ROBBERY ACTION COMMITTEE -
(ANTI-BANK ROBBERY) This SOP provides overall planning, integration,
orchestration/coordination and monitoring of all efforts to ensure the successful
implementation.
9. SOP #09 - ANTI-HIJACKING/HIGHWAY ROBBERY - This SOP sets forth
the guidelines and concepts of operations to be observed in the conduct of anti-highway
robbery/hold-up/hijacking operations.
10. SOP #10 - PAGLALANSAG/PAGAAYOS-HOPE - This SOP sets forth the
concept of operations and tasks of all concerned units in the campaign against Partisan
Armed Groups and loose firearms.
11. SOP #11 – MANHUNT BRAVO (NEUTRALIZATION OF WANTED
PERSONS) - This SOP sets forth the objectives and concept of operations and tasks of all
concerned units in the neutralization of wanted persons.
12. SOP #12 - ANTI-ILLEGAL GAMBLING - This SOP sets forth the
operational thrusts to be undertaken by the PNP that will spearhead the fight against all
forms of illegal gambling nationwide.
13. SOP #13 - ANTI-SQUATTING - This SOP sets forth the concept of
operations in the campaign against professional squatters and squatting syndicates.
14. SOP #14 – JERICHO - This SOP prescribes the operational guidelines to be
undertaken by the NHQ, PNP in the establishment of a quick reaction group that can be
detailed with the office of the SILG (OSILG), with personnel and equipment
requirements of that reaction group supported by the PNP.
15. SOP #15 – NENA (ANTI-PROSTITUTION/VAGRANCY) - This SOP sets
forth the operational thrusts to be undertaken by the PNP that will spearhead the fight
against prostitution and vagrancy.
16. SOP #16 – ANTI-PORNOGRAPHY - This prescribes the guidelines to be
followed by tasked PNP Units/Offices in enforcing the ban on pornographic pictures,
videos and magazines.
17. SOP #17 - GUIDELINES IN THE CONDUCT OF ARREST, SEARCH,
AND SEIZURE - This SOP prescribes the procedure and manner of conducting an arrest,
raid, search and/or search of person, search of any premises and the seizure of properties
pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Rules of Court, as amended and updated
decision of the Supreme Court.

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18. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SANDIGAN MASTER PLAN


19. ANTI-ILLEGAL LOGGING (Please refer to SANGYAMAN Master Plan)
20. ANTI-ILLEGAL FISHING (Please refer to SANGYAMAN Master Plan)
21. ANTI-ILLEGAL DRUGS (Please refer to BANAT Master Plan)
B. To strengthen linkages with other government and NGOs, local and international law
enforcement organizations, the AFP, and Presidential Task Force and Centers as venues
for interagency and international cooperation and support, the following shall be
implemented.
1) RULES AND REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING EO 829 AS AMENDED
BY EOs 41 AND 41-A (LECC)
2) PNP IMPLEMENTING PLAN TO EO 61.
3) PNP IMPLEMENTING PLAN TO EO 62.

C. To enhance community participation thru the Community-Oriented Policing System


(COPS) and uniform implementation of COPS, the COMMUNITY-ORIENTED
POLICING SYSTEM (COPS) MANUAL shall be implemented.

D. To operationalize the Integrated Area/ Community Public Safety Plan (IA/CPSP),


IA/CPSP GUIDELINES shall be implemented.

E. Definition of Terms

V. REFERENCES
A. Republic Act 6975, as amended by Republic Act 8551
B. Pertinent NAPOLCOM Resolutions
C. NHQ-PNP LOI 10/93 SANDIGAN (PNP Anti-Crime Strategy)
D. The PNP Program Thrusts for CY 2001
E. “Pulis ng Bayan, Lingkod ng Mamamayan” by PDDG LEANDRO R MENDOZA
F. The Operational PPAs and PER.

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Appendix C

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent,

The undersigned is currently undergoing a Research Study entitled


“IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOCAL ANTI-CRIMINALITY ACTION PLAN
(LACAP) IN THE PROVINCE OF PANGASINAN” as part of her requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy major in Public Administration. Rest assured that your
responses shall be kept at utmost confidentiality.

Thank you.

ROMAE R. DE ASIS, MPA, Ph.D.


Researcher

Part I. Anti-Criminality Activities

Directions: Please rank from 1 to 17 by order of priority the different activities that are
the focus of the Anti-Criminality Plan in your locality. Rank only those
that are applicable to your city or municipality.

_______ POLICE BEAT PATROL PROCEDURES


_______ BANTAY KALYE
_______ SIYASAT
_______ REACT 166
_______ ANTI-KIDNAPPING
_______ ANTI-CARNAPPING
_______ ANTI-TERRORISM
_______ ANTI-BANK ROBBERY
_______ ANTI-HIJACKING/HIGHWAY ROBBERY

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_______ PAGLALANSAG/PAGAAYOS-HOPE
_______ ANTI-ILLEGAL GAMBLING
_______ ANTI-SQUATTING
_______ NENA (ANTI-PROSTITUTION/VAGRANCY)
_______ CONDUCT OF ARREST, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE
_______ ANTI-ILLEGAL LOGGING
_______ ANTI-ILLEGAL FISHING
_______ ANTI-ILLEGAL DRUGS

Part II. EXTENT OF IMPLEMENTATION


Directions: Please rate the extent of implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality
program in your own area using the legend below:

4 – Fully Implemented 2 – Barely Implemented

3 – Partially Implemented 1 – Not Implemented

A. POLICE BEAT PATROL PROCEDURES 4 3 2 1


B. BANTAY KALYE 4 3 2 1
C. SIYASAT 4 3 2 1
D. REACT 166 4 3 2 1
E. ANTI-KIDNAPPING 4 3 2 1
F. ANTI-CARNAPPING 4 3 2 1
G. ANTI-TERRORISM 4 3 2 1
H. ANTI-BANK ROBBERY 4 3 2 1
I. ANTI-HIJACKING/HIGHWAY ROBBERY 4 3 2 1
J. PAGLALANSAG/PAGAAYOS-HOPE 4 3 2 1
K. ANTI-ILLEGAL GAMBLING 4 3 2 1
L. ANTI-SQUATTING 4 3 2 1
M. NENA (ANTI-PROSTITUTION/VAGRANCY) 4 3 2 1
N. CONDUCT OF ARREST, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE 4 3 2 1

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O. ANTI-ILLEGAL LOGGING 4 3 2 1
P. ANTI-ILLEGAL FISHING 4 3 2 1
Q. ANTI-ILLEGAL DRUGS 4 3 2 1

Part III. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE


LACAP

Directions: Please check below the problems encountered by your police station in the
implementation of the Local Anti-Criminality Plan of your municipality or city. Check as
many as applicable.

_____ The Police Station has no regular media program to dissemination crime
prevention activities.

_____ Some barangays have no force multipliers/BPATS.

_____ Some barangays have no and/or very minimal number of barangay tanods.

_____ Some barangays have no outposts for police and/or barangay officials.

_____ Information dissemination on crime prevention is done by police is not on regular


basis.

_____ Lack of materials on crime prevention posters and flyers.

_____ Conduct of patrolling of police and barangay officials is not synchronized.

_____ Lack of personnel to be deployed in identified hot spot area 24/7

_____ Some crucial areas are not installed with CCTV

_____ Not all schools and students are reached for crime prevention dissemination

_____ Most arrested persons are minors, they are released to the DSWD for proper
disposition.

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_____ There is no permanent solution of the police station on how to deal with ambulant
vendors.

_____ Many streets/roads which are crime prone places are still with no street lights
installed.

_____ Curfew is not implemented especially in highly urbanized cities.

_____ Checkpoint/Spot Inspection is not conducted in all barangays.

_____ Oplan Kap-kap is only focused to night clubs and bars, not covering all business
establishments and parks

_____ Some ATMs are not installed with CCTVs and are located away from
streets/roads

_____ Security survey is not a requirement for getting or renewing permit

_____ Lack of trained personnel and resources for patrolling

_____ Intervention of politicians and other government and private employees is


observed.

_____ Lack of financial support from the Local Government Units

_____ Delayed approval of the proposed LACAP by the Sangguniang Panlungsod or


Sangguniang Bayan

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION

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